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Sample records for vulgare sorghum bicolor

  1. SORGHUM BICOLOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Levels of amino acids were determined in the grains of guinea corn, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The steeped sample was best in His, Arg, Thr, Ser, Pro, Gly, Ala, Met, Cys, Val, Phe and Tyr contents whereas germinated sample was best in Lys, Asp, Glu, Leu and Ile. The total amino acid contents were: ...

  2. (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Because transgenic sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is being developed for Africa, we investigated the potential for transgenes to spread to conspecific wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia, which is considered the centre of origin of cultivated sorghum. In the current study, the extent of outcrossing, and ...

  3. (Arachis hypogaea) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the cytotoxic response, germination, survival, morphological deviations as well as enzyme activities of Arachis hypogaea and Sorghum bicolor in crude oil contaminated soil. Crude oil spillage was simulated to achieve 1%, 2%, 3% (w/w) contamination levels in pot experiments. Treatments ...

  4. Iron content in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... hybrid (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and also to discern which water treatment sludge (WTS) were good for ruminant's health .... and methods for the sorghum hybrid (S. bicolor (L.) Moench) were already described in ..... sludge application on the growth of Altari radish (Raphanus sativus). J. Korean Soc.

  5. Induced Chromosome Doubling of Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum propinquum Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (2n=2x=20) and S. propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. (2n=2x=20) have a significantly higher degree of interfertility than S. bicolor and S. halepense (L.) Pers. (2n=4x=40), which occurs rarely and results in largely sterile triploids (2n=3x=30). Interspecific hybridization betwe...

  6. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the ...

  7. A Dynamic Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Dynamic Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) diversity Management in Situ and Livelihood Resilience in South and Central Tigray Region, Ethiopia. ... Diversity estimated based on evenness indices showed that Tanqua-Abergelle has the highest diversity (Shannon =0.86; Brillouin index = 0.86) followed by ...

  8. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  9. 7905 SORGHUM [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] SEED QUALITY AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... A set of laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the physiological quality of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench .... Before sowing the seeds in the fields, a sample was drawn from both seed lots and subjected to quality tests ...... sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) in the laboratory. In: Focus on Agricultural.

  10. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Seed Quality as Affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental design was a three factorial split-split block design in the rain fed Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench producing areas of Bomet County of Kenya. Treatments within the block were randomized. There were three factors which included variety at two levels (improved and local varieties); fertilizer application at two ...

  11. Transcriptome profiling of developmental leaf senescence in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Hu, Wei-Juan; Luo, Hong; Xia, Yan; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Li-Dong; Zhang, Li-Min; Luo, Jing-Chu; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2016-11-01

    This piece of the submission is being sent via mail. Leaf senescence is essential for the nutrient economy of crops and is executed by so-called senescence-associated genes (SAGs). Here we explored the monocot C4 model crop Sorghum bicolor for a holistic picture of SAG profiles by RNA-seq. Leaf samples were collected at four stages during developmental senescence, and in total, 3396 SAGs were identified, predominantly enriched in GO categories of metabolic processes and catalytic activities. These genes were enriched in 13 KEGG pathways, wherein flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were overrepresented. Seven regions on Chromosomes 1, 4, 5 and 7 contained SAG 'hotspots' of duplicated genes or members of cupin superfamily involved in manganese ion binding and nutrient reservoir activity. Forty-eight expression clusters were identified, and the candidate orthologues of the known important senescence transcription factors such as ORE1, EIN3 and WRKY53 showed "SAG" expression patterns, implicating their possible roles in regulating sorghum leaf senescence. Comparison of developmental senescence with salt- and dark- induced senescence allowed for the identification of 507 common SAGs, 1996 developmental specific SAGs as well as 176 potential markers for monitoring senescence in sorghum. Taken together, these data provide valuable resources for comparative genomics analyses of leaf senescence and potential targets for the manipulation of genetic improvement of Sorghum bicolor.

  12. Genetic diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The understanding of genetic diversity within local crop varieties constitutes an important step in the preservation of their genetic potential. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivated in the Northwest of Benin and to reveal certain fundamental ...

  13. Morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable nuclear male sterile mutant of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    All commercial sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) hybrids are produced using A1 cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines. However, this homogenous cytoplasm could predispose sorghum to devastating diseases. Furthermore, it is expensive to develop and maintain the CMS-based breeding system, because it...

  14. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33 with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT. The back-cross (BC1F1 progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used

  15. Intergeneric pollen tube growth in Poaceae utilizing the Iap allele in Sorghum bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of hybridization in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) has long served as a tool utilized by breeders to increase and exploit genetic variation within the species. Recent interspecific hybridization of S. bicolor has produced diversity not previously seen within Sorghum species. A sorghum access...

  16. Analysis of aluminium sensitivity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, K.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve genotypes of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) differing in Al sensitivity were grown in an acid soil (with additions of lime or MgSO 4 ) and in nutrient solutions (with or without Al at constant pH) for periods between 14 and 35 days.

  17. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... The extract did not show anti-inflammatory property. Key words: Sorghum bicolor, fractions, antinociception, anti-inflammation, acute toxicity. ... Pers. (Family: Gramineae; Poaceae) be- longing to the above classification are widely used ethno- medicinally for different ailments. It has been reported.

  18. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to find the best combination of different experimental conditions during pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production. The optimization of pre-treatment using different concentrations of dilute sulfuric acid, ...

  19. Introduction of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) into China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorghum is a plant, which has been intentionally introduced in China for foods needs. It is a plant of African origin, which is much cultivated in the northern hemisphere. For millions of people in the semiarid tropic temperature of Asia and Africa, sorghum is the most important staple food. Sorghum is becoming one of the ...

  20. The influence of time and severity of Striga infection on the Sorghum bicolor - Striga hermonthica association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Striga hermonthica , Sorghum bicolor , infection time, infection level, tolerance.This thesis presents the results of a study on the interaction between the parasitic weed Strigahermonthica (Del.) Benth. and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). The main objective of the study was

  1. Study of biological tolerance of aqueous extract of Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Sorghum bicolor est l'une des principales céréales utilisées dans la nutrition animale humaine en Afrique et en Inde. Ces feuilles sont utilisées pour soigner l'anémie dans ces régions. Ce travail visait à étudier la tolérance biologique des feuilles. Méthodologie et Résultats : Sur l'extrait aqueux des feuilles de la ...

  2. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  3. Accelerated aging in sorghum sacarino seeds Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Deuner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Saccharin sorghum is cultivated from seeds, requiring adequate production, harvesting and drying techniques to ensure the availability of quality seed and, therefore. The objective was to evaluate the initial quality by studying a more adequate methodology of the accelerated aging test for the evaluation of the physiological potential of sorghum seeds. The research was conducted in the Laboratory of Seed Analysis of the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Pelotas, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. A completely randomized experimental design with 4 replicates was used. Four lots of sweet sorghum seeds were used. First we assessed the quality of the seeds by the following tests: water content, germination, first count and emergency field. Following evaluation of initial quality, lots were submitted to the traditional aging test and use saturated saline, in periods of 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours at 41 °C. Exposure of seeds for 24 hours at 41 °C in accelerated aging with saturated NaCl and use for 48h at 41 °C in traditional accelerated aging are suitable to differentiate batches of sweet sorghum seeds.

  4. Iron content in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present experiment was carried out on a randomized block design with four treatments; Control, alum sludge compost, alum sludge + NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizers), alum sludge compost + NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizers). Sorghum hybrid was harvested, and iron content of it was ...

  5. A Dynamic Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in diversity over temporal scale of ten years found in this study revealed that the level of genetic ... sorghum is dynamic and considered as de facto conservation in situ (Bellon, 1996). In situ (on-farm) ... populations are rare because the question posed by genetic erosion arose after these populations had been ...

  6. A Dynamic Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum is an important crop for the south and central parts of Tigray Region of ... crops for which Ethiopia has been credited as being a Vavilovian center of origin ..... Yemane et al (MEJS). Volume 1 (2):67-94, 2009. Table 2. Seed replacement schedule. Rate of replacement %. Reasons of replacement. No. Every year.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN THE OBTAINING OF ETHANOL FROM Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Replacing the use of gasoline with ethanol in vehicles reduces by 90% CO2 emissions, this justifies the interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy. Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet special emphasis is being given to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol for its productivity and resistance. The sorghum is grown in Rio Grande do Sul with a production of about 70,000 tons / year. Embrapa has a program to develop cultivars of sorghum from the time the Pro-Alcohol and currently 25 new varieties of sorghum are being evaluated. Several factors are relevant in the optimization of production such as increased productivity and reduced costs in the production of ethanol. This study aimed to survey recent data that will assess production parameters of ethanol from sorghum. Factors such as reducing the risk of bacterial contamination, the means conducive to fermentation processes or grain sorghum stalk through the use of pretreatment of the sample, have been of great importance because it is basically turning cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Superior genotypes of sweet sorghum for ethanol production are of utmost importance, as well as better ways to convert sugars into ethanol. Lignin, toxic against microorganisms, prevents the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. The conversion of lignocellulosic ethanol compounds based on the hydrolysis of cellulose producing simple sugars and fermenting those sugars into ethanol through microbiology.

  8. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Genotypes in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Owuor Oyier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p=0.05 differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1 due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1 and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1 due to its high brix (16.21.

  9. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  10. Comportamento bioquímico de plantas de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mara

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... The aim of this research was to characterize the biochemical behavior of sorghum plants under saline stress using multivariate statistical analysis methods for efficient management of Sorghum bicolor. [Moench.]). The experimental design was completely randomized design composed of three saline.

  11. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  12. In Vitro Screening for Drought Tolerance in Different Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Tsago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the complex environmental factors affecting growth and yield of sorghum in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Sixteen elite sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench genotypes were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought tolerance at callus induction and plant regeneration stage for drought tolerance. The non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG of molecular weight 6000 was used as osmoticum to simulate water stress. The factorial experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design which comprised of a combination of two factors (genotypes and five PEG stress level; 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/v treatments. Data were recorded for callus induction efficiency, callus fresh weight, embryogenic callus percentage and plant regeneration percentage. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, treatments and their interactions for the evaluated plant traits suggesting a great amount of variability for drought tolerance in sorghum. The correlation analysis also revealed strong and significant association between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent as well as between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent. By taking into consideration all the measured traits, Mann Whitney rank sum test revealed that 76T1#23 and Teshale followed by Meko, Gambella-1107 and Melkam showed better drought stress tolerance. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance while Chelenko, Hormat and Raya appear to be drought sensitive.

  13. Molecular mapping of QTLs conferring stay-green in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Subudhi, P K; Crasta, O R; Rosenow, D T; Mullet, J E; Nguyen, H T

    2000-06-01

    Drought resistance is of enormous importance in crop production. The identification of genetic factors involved in plant response to drought stress provides a strong foundation for improving drought tolerance. Stay-green is a drought resistance trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) that gives plants resistance to premature senescence under severe soil moisture stress during the post-flowering stage. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control the stay-green and chlorophyll content in sorghum. By using a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map, developed from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we identified four stay-green QTLs, located on three linkage groups. The QTLs (Stg1 and Stg2) are on linkage group A, with the other two, Stg3 and Stg4, on linkage groups D and J, respectively. Two stay-green QTLs, Stg1 and Stg2, explaining 13-20% and 20-30% of the phenotypic variability, respectively, were consistently identified in all trials at different locations in two years. Three QTLs for chlorophyll content (Chl1, Chl2, and Chl3), explaining 25-30% of the phenotypic variability were also identified under post-flowering drought stress. All coincided with the three stay-green QTL regions (Stg1, Stg2, and Stg3) accounting for 46% of the phenotypic variation. The Stg1 and Stg2 regions also contain the genes for key photosynthetic enzymes, heat shock proteins, and an abscisic acid (ABA) responsive gene. Such spatial arrangement shows that linkage group A is important for drought- and heat-stress tolerance and yield production in sorghum. High-resolution mapping and cloning of the consistent stay-green QTLs may help to develop drought-resistant hybrids and to understand the mechanism of drought-induced senescence in plants.

  14. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  15. Effect of Transplanting on Yield and Growth of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, GO.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effects of transplanting on growth and grain yield of three varieties of Sorghum bicolor, 'Ilorin local', SK 5912, and SSV10. Seedlings from each variety transplanted at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP were compared with directly seeded plants used as control. Results show that at 8 WAP with seedlings transplanted at 2 WAP were taller than the other transplants, but shorter than directly seeded plants. Transplanting caused delay in flowering, but at this stage, height of transplants was comparable to directly seeded plants in SK 5912 and SSV10, while in 'Ilorin local' the transplants were significantly shorter at P< 0.05. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield was comparable among transplants but lower than those of directly seeded plants. However, grain yield of seedlings that were transplanted at 2 WAP was statistically comparable with directly seeded plants at P< 0.05.

  16. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine mycorrhizal symbiosis on the Nacl salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor (aspydfyd cultivar), an experiment with two factors was done in Damghan Islamic Azad University laboratory (Iran) in 2007. The first factor with two levels (mycorihizal and non-mycorihizal) and second factor with six levels Nacl ...

  17. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eRiyazaddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1’s and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. Genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/ susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilised in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to sca (σ2s, dominance variance (σ2d, and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to gca (σ2g and additive variance (σ2a for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf

  18. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  19. QTL mapping of forage yield and forage yield component traits in Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y L; Wang, L H; Li, J Q; Zhan, Q W; Zhang, Q; Li, J F; Fan, F F

    2015-04-22

    The sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense) is an important forage crop. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms related to forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits in this forage crop. In this study, a linkage map was constructed with 124 assigned SSR markers using an F2 mapping population derived from the crossing of sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits using inclusive composite interval mapping. Five fresh weight QTLs were identified and contributed >50% of the total phenotypic variance. Of these QTLs, all showed additive and dominant effects, but most exhibited mainly dominant effects. These results will provide useful information for improvements in sorghum-sudangrass hybrid breeding.

  20. Registration of seed sterile, perennial Sorghum spp. [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. halepense (L.) Pers.] hybrid 'PSH09TX15'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel, Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrid (PSH) [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. halepense (L.) Pers.] ('PSH09TX15'; PI ______) was identified that possessed complete seed sterility, only rare occurrences (< 0.1%) of flowering, and significantly higher mean leaf number per tiller than S. halepense. I...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorg...hum_bicolor_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorg...hum+bicolor&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  2. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... sis), a commercial herbal preparation manufactured by. Health Forever Products Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria and recom- ... Plant preparation and extraction. The dry mature leaves of S. bicolor were ... The drugs and chemicals used in these studies included Aspirin. (Sigma, USA), glacial acetic acid (Searle, Essex, ...

  3. Characterization and Regulation of Aquaporin Genes of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] in Response to Waterlogging Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Kadam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging is a significant environmental constraint to crop production, and a better understanding of plant responses is critical for the improvement of crop tolerance to waterlogged soils. Aquaporins (AQPs are a class of channel-forming proteins that play an important role in water transport in plants. This study aimed to examine the regulation of AQP genes under waterlogging stress and to characterize the genetic variability of AQP genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. Transcriptional profiling of AQP genes in response to waterlogging stress in nodal root tips and nodal root basal regions of two tolerant and two sensitive sorghum genotypes at 18 and 96 h after waterlogging stress imposition revealed significant gene-specific pattern with regard to genotype, root tissue sample, and time point. For some tissue sample and time point combinations, PIP2-6, PIP2-7, TIP2-2, TIP4-4, and TIP5-1 expression was differentially regulated in tolerant compared to sensitive genotypes. The differential response of these AQP genes suggests that they may play a tissue specific role in mitigating waterlogging stress. Genetic analysis of sorghum revealed that AQP genes were clustered into the same four subfamilies as in maize (Zea mays and rice (Oryza sativa and that residues determining the AQP channel specificity were largely conserved across species. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data from 50 sorghum accessions were used to build an AQP gene-based phylogeny of the haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of sorghum AQP genes placed the tolerant and sensitive genotypes used for the expression study in distinct groups. Expression analyses suggested that selected AQPs may play a pivotal role in sorghum tolerance to water logging stress. Further experimentation is needed to verify their role and to leverage phylogenetic analyses and AQP expression data to improve waterlogging tolerance in sorghum.

  4. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  5. Genetic variability of tissue cultured Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    To evaluate their performance for seedling traits at seedling stage (under hydroponics), plant water relations under water stress and ultimately grain yield, and to estimate the genetic variability of the regenerates, the parent plants of local sorghum cultivars in Kenya using simple sequence repeats. (SSR) markers were ...

  6. Genetic variability of tissue cultured Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate their performance for seedling traits at seedling stage (under hydroponics), plant water relations under water stress and ultimately grain yield, and to estimate the genetic variability of the regenerates, the parent plants of local sorghum cultivars in Kenya using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were ...

  7. Developing new markers and QTL mapping for greenbug resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbug is a major damaging insect to sorghum production in the United States. Among various virulent greenbug biotypes, biotype I is the most predominant and severe for sorghum. To combat with the damaging pest, greenbug resistant sources were obtained from screening sorghum germplasm collection...

  8. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Potential New Targets for Improving Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Massel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and mobilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines. This comprehensive analysis reveals an overall reduction in diversity as a result of domestication and a total of 128 genes displaying signatures of purifying selection, thereby revealing possible gene targets to improve NUE in sorghum and cereals alike. A number of key genes appear to have been involved in selective sweeps, reducing their sequence diversity. The ammonium transporter (AMT genes generally had low allelic diversity, whereas a substantial number of nitrate/peptide transporter 1 (NRT1/PTR genes had higher nucleotide diversity in domesticated germplasm. Interestingly, members of the distinct race Guinea margaritiferum contained a number of unique alleles, and along with the wild sorghum species, represent a rich resource of new variation for plant improvement of NUE in sorghum.

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Potential New Targets for Improving Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massel, Karen; Campbell, Bradley C; Mace, Emma S; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tao, Yongfu; Worland, Belinda G; Jordan, David R; Botella, Jose R; Godwin, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and utilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines. This comprehensive analysis reveals an overall reduction in diversity as a result of domestication and a total of 128 genes displaying signatures of purifying selection, thereby revealing possible gene targets to improve NUE in sorghum and cereals alike. A number of key genes appear to have been involved in selective sweeps, reducing their sequence diversity. The ammonium transporter (AMT) genes generally had low allelic diversity, whereas a substantial number of nitrate/peptide transporter 1 (NRT1/PTR) genes had higher nucleotide diversity in domesticated germplasm. Interestingly, members of the distinct race Guinea margaritiferum contained a number of unique alleles, and along with the wild sorghum species, represent a rich resource of new variation for plant improvement of NUE in sorghum.

  10. Anatomical and hydraulic properties of sorghum roots exposed to water deficit. [Sorghum bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, R.T.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The effects of a severe water stress in the upper 0-0.15 m rooting zone on development of the exodermis, endodermis and xylem and on radial (Lp) and axial (Ls) hydraulic conductances were studied for Sorghum bicolor. Lp and Lx were based on water flow rates obtained by applying a negative hydrostatic pressure to the proximal xylem ends of excised roots placed in aerated nutrient solution. The same roots were stained with fluorescent berberine and acid phloroglucinol to describe the development of the exodermal and endodermal cell walls from formation of the Casparian band (State I), to deposition of suberin lamellae (State II), and lignification (State III). Lp of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 80% lower in stressed roots than in unstressed controls. At 0.01 and 0.07 m from the root apex, stressed roots were in State III while control roots were in States I and II, respectively. SEM-image analysis for stressed roots indicated that in the exodermis a greater proportion of the cross sectional area was occupied by lignified walls than in the endodermis. Cellufluor, an apoplastic tracer, was blocked at the lignified exodermis even at 0.01 m from the apex in stressed roots. Uranin, a symplastic tracer, was taken up only in the apical region in stressed roots but farther from the apex in the controls. Lx of 7.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 90% lower in stressed roots compared with the controls. Cellufluor test and image analysis showed that although the protoxylem and early metaxylem were conductive in both treatments, stress caused more than a 50% reduction in the diameter of the xylem elements. Results suggest that lignification of the exodermis and endodermis to a large extent decreased apoplastic and symplastic flows and hence Lp in stressed roots. The low Lx in stressed roots was due to a decrease in the diameters of the conductive xylem elements.

  11. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] leaf sheath dye protects against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to determine the protective effect of dietary inclusion of sorghum leaf sheath dye on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups I and II were fed a basal diet, while groups III and IV were fed diets containing 0.5% and 1% sorghum leaf sheath dye, respectively, for 20 days before cisplatin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and the experiment was terminated at 3 days after cisplatin injection. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant capacity. Cisplatin caused a significant (Psorghum leaf sheath dye. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of sorghum leaf sheath dye caused a marked reduction in the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase after cisplatin administration. However, the ability of the dye to prevent significant cisplatin-induced alteration of both plasma and liver antioxidant indices suggests an antioxidant mechanism of action. Hence, this protective effect of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath dye against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats reflects its potential and beneficial role in the prevention of liver damage associated with cisplatin administration.

  13. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Felderhoff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.

  14. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): Nutrients, bioactive compounds, and potential impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-01-22

    Sorghum is the fifth most produced cereal in the world and is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds for the human diet. We summarize the recent findings concerning the nutrients and bioactive compounds of sorghum and its potential impact on human health, analyzing the limitations and positive points of the studies and proposing directions for future research. Sorghum is basically composed of starch, which is more slowly digested than that of other cereals, has low digestibility proteins and unsaturated lipids, and is a source of some minerals and vitamins. Furthermore, most sorghum varieties are rich in phenolic compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. The results obtained in vitro and in animals have shown that phenolics compounds and fat soluble compounds (polycosanols) isolated from sorghum benefit the gut microbiota and parameters related to obesity, oxidative stress, inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cancer, and hypertension. The effects of whole sorghum and its fractions on human health need to be evaluated. In conclusion, sorghum is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, tannins, and polycosanols, which beneficially modulate, in vitro and in animals, parameters related to noncommunicable diseases. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing on protein and starch digestibility of sorghum as well as on the profile and bioavailability of its bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. Furthermore, the benefits resulting from the interaction of bioactive compounds in sorghum and human microbiota should be studied.

  15. Rapid nitrogen transfer in the Sorghum bicolor-Glomus mosseae arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Sally; Boller, Thomas; Lehmann, Moritz F; Wiemken, Andres; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    We have recently identified two genes coding for ammonium transporters (AMT) in Sorghum bicolor that were induced in roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. To improve our understanding of the dynamics of ammonium transport in this symbiosis, we studied the transfer of soil-ammonium-derived (15)N to S. bicolor plants via the Glomus mosseae fungal mycelium in compartmented microcosms. The (15)NH (4+)-containing hyphal compartment was inaccessible to the roots in the plant compartment. (15)N label concentrations significantly increased in plant roots and leaves already 48 h after exposure of the AM fungus to the (15)NH (4+) substrate, attesting an efficient symbiotic N transfer between the symbiotic partners and further highlighting that AM symbiosis represents an important component of plant nitrogen nutrition.

  16. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  17. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  18. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy-Related Traits in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) under Danish Agro-Climatic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    a single plant food, feed and fuel. Sweet sorghum has gained interest in Europe to replace maize, for biogas and bioenergy productions, but this versatile crop is sensitive to chilling temperatures and little breeding efforts have been done toward its cold acclimation. The state-of-art of using......Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), a C4 African originated grass, ranks 5th most important crop worldwide, feeding over 500 million people in tropical regions as it withstands a wide panel of biotic and abiotic stresses. The small and simple diploid genome of sorghum was elected as the third...... plant for sequencing in 2009 promoting it as a C4 model plant. Among the very diverse genetic resources available for sorghum, sweet sorghum plants; amassing large quantities of juice-rich and sugar-rich stem, grain and vegetative biomass; have been enlightened as bioenergy crop as it can produced from...

  19. Contribution of sucrose transporters to phloem unloading within Sorghum bicolor stem internodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Ricky J; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W; Grof, Christopher P L

    2017-05-04

    Sucrose produced in source leaves is loaded into collection phloem, transported to sinks and unloaded for utilization or storage. In the context of long distance transport, sucrose transporters (SUTs) can function to load sucrose into collection phloem, retrieve leaked sucrose during long distance transport, and load sucrose into sink cells. SUTs have also been proposed to efflux sucrose under conditions of low proton motive force and low extracellular sucrose. The involvement of sucrose transporters in phloem unloading in a representative monocot stem, Sorghum bicolor, was evaluated during different stages of internode development. Transcript levels and functional properties of selected key transporters were measured, with both cellular and subcellular localization determined.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK KANDUNGAN KIMIA DAN DAYA CERNA TEMPE SORGUM COKLAT (Sorghum bicolor [Characteristics of Chemical Content and Digestibility of Brown Sorghum Tempeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Sofia Murtini*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor is rarely used for food product because its protein has lower digestibility compared to other cereals. One factor affecting lower sorghum protein digestibility is anti nutritional effect from tannin and phytic acid. Some processing methods of sorghum have successfully increased protein digestibility, one of them is tempeh fermentation. The aims of this research were to degrade anti nutritional compounds and to increase in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain using tempeh fermentation. This research was performed in two steps; preparation of sorghum grain and production of sorghum tempeh. Proximate contents, anti nutritional compounds, and in vitro protein digestibility were tested. The test was applied to each of sorghum tempeh samples every 12 hour until 72 hours of total incubation time. The result of study showed that fermentation process decreased anti nutritional factors such as tannin and phytic acid, and increased in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain. The reduction of anti nutritions and increase of in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain were time-dependent in the fermentation process. The highest in vitro protein digestibility (79.13% was observed from 72 hour-fermented sorghum.

  1. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  2. Use of hybridization (F1 in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In plants with bisexual flowers, the development of hybrids and F1 seed production is only possible by using cytoplasmatic male sterility. The discovery of such sterility and the maintainers has made it possible to utilize the phenomenon of heterosis to improve yields and yield components in forage sorghum. It has been shown that the best way to develop forage sorghum hybrids is to cross grain sorghum as the female parent and Sudan grass as the male. The objective of this study was to develop a forage sorghum hybrid for the production of green matter to be used either fresh or for silage. The sorghum hybrid developed in these efforts (Siloking is intended for multiple cutting, as the basal nodes produce buds and regrowth takes place. The performance of the new hybrid with respect to yield and quality was compared to that of the forage sorghum cultivar NS Džin. In a two-year study conducted under different growing conditions in four locations, Siloking produced an average green matter yield of 86.29 t ha-1 (two cuts, a dry matter yield of 25.34 t ha-1, and a crude protein content of 11.85 %. Siloking outperformed NS Džin in terms of yield and quality. .

  3. Effects of Urin Cow Dosage on Growth and Production of Sorgum Plant (Sorghum Bicolor L) on Peat Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami Lestari, Sri; Andrian, Andi

    2017-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)), is a potential cultivated plant, especially in marginal and dry areas, sorghum has an important role as a source of carbohydrates, sorghum is expected as an alternative choice for peatland cultivation, with the use of peatlands is also expected Raising awareness of the environment by cultivating more environmentally friendly plants. The aim of this research is to know the influence and get the best dosage of cow urine on growth and production of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) plant on peat soil. The experiment was conducted experimentally by using Completely Randomized Design (RAL), with one factor, namely: Cow urine administration, given in 5 treatments and 4 replications, resulting in 20 trials. Each experimental unit consists of 4 plants and 2 plants to be sampled. The factors studied were A0 = dose of cow urine 0 cc / 1, A1 = dose of cow urine 25 cc / 1, A2 = dose of cow urine 50 cc / 1, A3 = dose of cow urine 75 cc / 1, A4 = dose Cow urine 100 cc / 1. Conclusion Giving of cow urine has significant effect on growth and production of sorghum plant which is seen on the parameters of plant height, leaf length, leaf width. While wet weight 100 seeds and dry weight of 100 seeds of sorghum plants have no significant effect. The best dose is given by A4 treatment with the best dose of 100 cc / 1.

  4. Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gr. Delchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

  5. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy-Related Traits in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) under Danish Agro-Climatic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    a single plant food, feed and fuel. Sweet sorghum has gained interest in Europe to replace maize, for biogas and bioenergy productions, but this versatile crop is sensitive to chilling temperatures and little breeding efforts have been done toward its cold acclimation. The state-of-art of using...... quantitative genetic to study cold tolerance has only focused on improving chilling tolerance at early-developmental stages. In this PhD study we intended to understand the effect of chilling temperatures and long photoperiod on bioenergy-related traits on sorghum adult plants grown under field conditions......Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), a C4 African originated grass, ranks 5th most important crop worldwide, feeding over 500 million people in tropical regions as it withstands a wide panel of biotic and abiotic stresses. The small and simple diploid genome of sorghum was elected as the third...

  6. Biolistic mediated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) transformation via mannose and bialaphos based selection systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available bialaphos resistance, and manA gene, for phosphomannose isomerase, both under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter and nopaline synthase terminator were used to transform immature zygotic embryos (IZE) of sorghum via particle bombardment using a particle...

  7. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amongst the varieties, Seredo and Agany contained high tannins while Beer and Dhet contained less tannins. Iron and zinc content in sorghum showed higher values for 29th June sowing date both in Bor and Arek. The study showed that Beer and Dhet varieties have good quality grains that can be used to improve human ...

  8. Effect of Fungicide Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D. Fromme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the upper Texas Gulf Coast and in central Louisiana during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of fungicides on grain sorghum growth and development when disease pressure was low or nonexistent. Azoxystrobin and flutriafol at 1.0 L/ha and pyraclostrobin at 0.78 L/ha were applied to the plants of two grain sorghum hybrids (DKS 54-00, DKS 53-67 at 25% bloom and compared with the nontreated check for leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and plant lodging during the growing season as well as grain mold, test weight, yield, and nitrogen and protein content of the harvested grain. The application of a fungicide had no effect on any of the variables tested with grain sorghum hybrid responses noted. DKS 53-67 produced higher yield, greater test weight, higher percent protein, and N than DKS 54-00. Results of this study indicate that the application of a fungicide when little or no disease is present does not promote overall plant health or increase yield.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of Sorghum bicolor responding to combined heat and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephanie M; Lim, Fei-Ling; Finkler, Aliza; Fromm, Hillel; Slabas, Antoni R; Knight, Marc R

    2014-06-10

    Abiotic stresses which include drought and heat are amongst the main limiting factors for plant growth and crop productivity. In the field, these stress types are rarely presented individually and plants are often subjected to a combination of stress types. Sorghum bicolor is a cereal crop which is grown in arid and semi-arid regions and is particularly well adapted to the hot and dry conditions in which it originates and is now grown as a crop. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying combined stress tolerance in this important crop, we have used microarrays to investigate the transcriptional response of Sorghum subjected to heat and drought stresses imposed both individually and in combination. Microarrays consisting of 28585 gene probes identified gene expression changes equating to ~4% and 18% of genes on the chip following drought and heat stresses respectively. In response to combined stress ~20% of probes were differentially expressed. Whilst many of these transcript changes were in common with those changed in response to heat or drought alone, the levels of 2043 specific transcripts (representing 7% of all gene probes) were found to only be changed following the combined stress treatment. Ontological analysis of these 'unique' transcripts identified a potential role for specific transcription factors including MYB78 and ATAF1, chaperones including unique heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metabolic pathways including polyamine biosynthesis in the Sorghum combined stress response. These results show evidence for both cross-talk and specificity in the Sorghum response to combined heat and drought stress. It is clear that some aspects of the combined stress response are unique compared to those of individual stresses. A functional characterization of the genes and pathways identified here could lead to new targets for the enhancement of plant stress tolerance, which will be particularly important in the face of climate change and the increasing

  10. Challenges of detecting directional selection after a bottleneck: lessons from Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Martha T; Casa, Alexandra M; Sun, Hong; Murray, Seth C; Paterson, Andrew H; Aquadro, Charles F; Kresovich, Stephen

    2006-06-01

    Multilocus surveys of sequence variation can be used to identify targets of directional selection, which are expected to have reduced levels of variation. Following a population bottleneck, the signal of directional selection may be hard to detect because many loci may have low variation by chance and the frequency spectrum of variation may be perturbed in ways that resemble the effects of selection. Cultivated Sorghum bicolor contains a subset of the genetic diversity found in its wild ancestor(s) due to the combined effects of a domestication bottleneck and human selection on traits associated with agriculture. As a framework for distinguishing between the effects of demography and selection, we sequenced 204 loci in a diverse panel of 17 cultivated S. bicolor accessions. Genomewide patterns of diversity depart strongly from equilibrium expectations with regard to the variance of the number of segregating sites, the site frequency spectrum, and haplotype configuration. Furthermore, gene genealogies of most loci with an excess of low frequency variants and/or an excess of segregating sites do not show the characteristic signatures of directional and diversifying selection, respectively. A simple bottleneck model provides an improved but inadequate fit to the data, suggesting the action of other population-level factors, such as population structure and migration. Despite a known history of recent selection, we find little evidence for directional selection, likely due to low statistical power and lack of an appropriate null model.

  11. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

  12. The Effect of Soil Fertilizers on Yield and Growth Traits of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution and ecological damage, so application of biological fertilizers and selection the effective and compatible species in an special area, could be beneficial for sustainability of agroecosystems there. Nowadays, attention to the interrelation of plant-organism tended to interrelations between plant-organism-organism. Such nutritional relations, have ecological importance and important application in agriculture. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of chemical, organic and bio fertilizers on sorghum performance. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments include three kinds of biofertilizers and their integrations and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as follow: 1- mycorhhiza arbuscular (G.mosseae + vermicompost 2- mycorhhiza+ Nitroxine® (included bacteria Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhiza arbuscular 6-control. Mycorhhiza and chemical fertilizer were mixed with soil at the depth of 30 cm before planting. Seeds were inoculated with bio fertilizers and dried at shadow. First irrigation applied immediately after planting. In order to improve seedling emergence second irrigation was performed after 4 days and other irrigation was applied at regular intervals of 10 days. Studied traits were: height and percentage of root colonization, specific root length, seed yield, number of seeds in panicle, thousands seeds weight. To determine the specific root length (root length in a certain volume of soil at the end of the growing season, plants in each plot were sampled. Then the length of root of each sample was determined. Results and Discussion The results showed that although the treatments did not affect the height of stem significantly

  13. Propriedades funcionais da semente do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in natura e germinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. F. Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de sementes germinadas na elaboração de produtos alimentícios com boa qualidade nutricional é uma possibilidade e o sorgo pode se apresentar como alternativa ao consumo dos cereais convencionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi de observar as alterações nos parâmetros físico-químicos da semente de sorgo antes e após o processo de germinação, assim como avaliar as propriedades funcionais indicando suas possíveis utilizações como ingrediente alimentar. As sementes germinadas apresentaram um aumento no teor proteico, passando de 4,32 para 7,20%, além da diminuição no teor de amido e consequente aumento no teor de açúcares redutores. A partir das propriedades funcionais avaliadas, a semente de sorgo germinada apresentou uma boa capacidade de absorção de óleo, podendo ser utilizado como ingrediente para auxiliar na textura e suculência de produtos. A germinação garantiu boa capacidade de formação de espuma e sua estabilidade, podendo ser utilizado como ingrediente em produtos alimentícios de fermentação, como bolos e biscoitos, além de bom agente de formação de gel podendo ser útil em sistemas alimentícios como pudim e lanches, que requerem espessamento e gelificação.Properties of sorghum seed Functional (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in natura and germinatedAbstract: The use of germinated seeds in the preparation of food products with good nutritional quality is a possibility and sorghum can be presented as an alternative to the consumption of conventional cereals. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in physical and chemical parameters of sorghum seed before and after the germination process, and assess the functional properties indicating their possible use as a food ingredient. Germinated seeds showed an increase in protein content, from 4.32 to 7.20% in addition to the decrease in the starch content and the consequent increase in reducing sugars. From the functional properties

  14. Alleviation of Boron Stress through Plant Derived Smoke Extracts in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500 were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

  15. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  16. Preparation of Hulu-mur flavored carbonated beverage based on Feterita sorghum (Sorghum bicolor malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. A. Baidab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this study, sorghum Feterita malt extract was used to prepare carbonated beverages flavored with traditional Hulu-mur spices extract.  The beverages produced were assessed for their physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional qualities. Malting (3–5 days of the Feterita grains showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in proximate composition from that of unmalted grains. Protein and sugars increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 with increased the malting time (days, while there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05 reduction in oil and starch  content  during malting progress. The kilning temperature of 150°C for 20 minutes was found to produce the most acceptable Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue in terms of flavor and taste. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were observed in physicochemical and nutritional qualities between the Hulu-mur analogue carbonated beverage and commercial non-alcoholic beverage. The Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue was rich in Na, K, Ca, and Fe (26.45, 21.84, 24.00, and 0.57 mg /100 g, respectively compared to levels of the same minerals in the non-alcoholic beverage (22.31, 8.19, 22.00 and 0.15 mg/100 g, respectively. The Hulu-mur analogue also had a higher calorific value (35.85 kcal /100 mL compared to the non-alcoholic beverage (32.96 kcal/100 mL.

  17. Map-Based Cloning of Sbbmc, a Major Locus Controlling the Profuse Wax Trait of Sorghum: a Case Study in Unlocking the Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Sorghum bicolor via Integrated Physiological and Genomic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as key...

  18. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (psaline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects and limited the self-healing ability of sweet sorghum seedlings. In all, in order to grow sweet sorghum in the saline-alkaline soils of the Yellow River Delta, the salt concentration and pH value of the soil must be taken into consideration, and seeding density should be increased and supported by appropriate irrigation measures to reduce saline-alkaline stress so as to ensure the survival and growth of sweet sorghum seedlings.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of multiple Dof genes of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhra; Arya, Gulab C; Malviya, Neha; Bisht, Naveen C; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins represent a family of plant specific transcription factors associated with diverse biological processes, such as seed maturation and germination, phytohormone and light mediated regulation, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, a total of 21 Dof genes from Sorghum bicolor were cloned, sequenced and in silico characterized for homology search, revealing their identity to Dof like proteins. The expression profiling of SbDof genes using quantitative RT-PCR in different tissue types and also under drought and salt stresses was attempted. The SbDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth condition. Two of the SbDof genes namely SbDof8 and SbDof12 showed comparatively high level of transcript abundance in all the tissue types tested; whereas some of the SbDof genes showed a distinct tissue specific expression pattern. Further a total of 13 SbDof genes showed differential expression when subjected to either of the abiotic stress i.e. drought or salinity. Three of the SbDof genes namely SbDof12, SbDof19 and SbDof24 were found to be up-regulated in response to drought and salt stress. Comparative analysis of SbDof genes expression revealed existence of a complex transcriptional and functional diversity across plant growth and developmental stages.

  20. Influence de la rotation culturale, de la fertilisation et du labour sur les populations de nématodes phytoparasites du sorgho (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of crop rotation, fertilization and tillage on populations of plant parasitic nematodes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. The soil nematodes of three long-term trials (1960, 1980 and 1990 representing the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench under different agricultural practices (rotation, tillage and fertilization in the Center West of Burkina Faso, have been explored in the wake of the harvest during the agricultural season 2007/2008. The objective was to identify these nematodes and to study the influence of agricultural practices on this nematofauna. Nematodes were extracted by the method of Seinhorst elutriator. Plant-parasitic nematodes identified are Pratylenchus brachyurus, Tylenchorhynchus martini, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Scutellonema Caveness, Criconemoides curvatum, Telotylenchus indicus and Xiphinema sp. The first three species represent approximately 98% of individuals surveyed. On the first site, the treatments involving mineral fertilizer and recycling of sorghum straw were favorable for the control of nematodes instead of treatments involving manure. As for rotations, monoculture of sorghum was more infested by nematodes than the rotations sorghum – cowpea and sorghum – cotton. On the second site, the nitrogen has increased of infestation by the two major nematodes in comparison to treatments without nitrogen, with the exception of treatment with anaerobic compost incorporation. On the third site, deep plowing has been unfavorable to the main nematode sorghum compared to shallow tillage. The nematofauna in fallow was more diversified than in cultivated sites and P. brachyurus, the main nematode related to sorghum has fallen sharply in fallow.

  1. Gene flow from Sorghum bicolor to its weedy relatives and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer user

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... There is need to understand the genetic structure of wild sorghums that grow alongside cultivated traditional sorghum ... indicate that human activities have had more influence on the distribution and diversity of wild sorghums than the .... from crop sorghum physical map genomic clones on five linkage.

  2. Genetic Divergence in Northern Benin Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench Landraces as Revealed by Agromorphological Traits and Selection of Candidate Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Dossou-Aminon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72–10.57 tons/ha, panicle weight (15–215.95 g, days to 50% flowering (57–200 days, and plant height (153.27–636.5 cm were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r=0.901, P=0.000 and 100 seed weight (r=0.247, P=0.000. UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering, high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha, and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm. The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin.

  3. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor contains its co-expressed vacuolar MATE transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor additionally contains a gene, SbMATE2, encoding a transporter of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, which is co-expressed with the biosynthetic genes. The predicted localisation of SbMATE2 to the vacuolar membrane was demonstrated...... experimentally by transient expression of a SbMATE2-YFP fusion protein and confocal microscopy. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrate that SbMATE2 is able to transport dhurrin. In addition, SbMATE2 was able to transport non-endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, but not the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-O...

  4. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE APLICAÇÕES TECNOLÓGICAS PARA SORGO (SORGHUM BICOLOR L. MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Helena DEGÁSPARI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench é utilizado para consumo humano em diversas partes do mundo. No entanto, no Brasil, ele é visto apenas como um produto destinado à ração animal. Isto ocorre em razão da falta de tecnologias adequadas que incentivem a produção em escala industrial e/ou artesanal. Este trabalho demonstra que é possível o desenvolvimento de um produto expandido, obtido a partir de grãos integrais de sorgo, que resulta em um produto final com boas características sensoriais. Os testes foram realizados em um equipamento rudimentar de expansão com aquecimento direto em chama. Este equipamento rudimentar pode ser facilmente construído pelo agricultor, permitindo a ele fabricar este produto na sua própria propriedade rural, aumentando com isso sua renda familiar. O equipamento opera com pressão interna de 200 lbf/pol², gerando em um produto com baixa umidade alta taxa de expansão (1.500% e sem sabores ou odores desagradáveis. A redução da densidade aparente, associada à perda de umidade, confere ao produto uma textura crocante, que é uma característica sensorial muito apreciada em diversos produtos alimentícios. Uma formulação protótipo foi elaborada com este produto expandido, resultando em um produto final com boa aceitabilidade .

  5. Genome analysis methods: Sorghum bicolor [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor Finished 2n=20 760 Mb 2009 Sanger (Clone-based) 10,717,203 reads 7...30 Mb 8.5x Arachne2 v.20060705 3,304 12,873 BLAST, GenomeScan 34,496 (Sbi1.4) JGI; http://www.phytozome.net/sorghum Sbi1 Sbi1.4 10.1038/nature07723 19189423 ...

  6. Transcriptomic analysis comparing stay-green and senescent Sorghum bicolor lines identifies a role for proline biosynthesis in the stay-green trait

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Stephanie M.; Cummins, Ian; Lim, Fei Ling; Slabas, Antoni R; Knight, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal crop grown on the arid and semi-arid regions of >98 different countries. These regions are such that this crop is often subjected to low water conditions, which can compromise yields. Stay-green sorghum plants are able to retain green leaf area for longer under drought conditions and as such have higher yields than their senescent counterparts. However, the molecular and physiological basis of this drought tolerance is yet to be fully understood. Here, a...

  7. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Sarath, Gautam; Palmer, Nathan A; Baird, Lisa; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Dien, Bruce S; Boateng, Akwasi A; Ge, Zhengxiang; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Twigg, Paul; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. The global regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism may include MYB transcription factors, whose expression levels have been correlated with changes in secondary cell wall composition and the levels of several other aromatic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. While transcription factors correlated with downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified in several grass species, few transcription factors linked to activation of this pathway have been identified in C4 grasses, some of which are being developed as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks. In this study we investigated the role of SbMyb60 in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which is a drought-tolerant, high-yielding biomass crop. Ectopic expression of this transcription factor in sorghum was associated with higher expression levels of genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and led to higher abundances of syringyl lignin, significant compositional changes to the lignin polymer and increased lignin concentration in biomass. Moreover, transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing SbMyb60 also displayed ectopic lignification in leaf midribs and elevated concentrations of soluble phenolic compounds in biomass. Results indicate that overexpression of SbMyb60 is associated with activation of monolignol biosynthesis in sorghum. SbMyb60 represents a target for modification of plant cell wall composition, with the potential to improve biomass for renewable uses. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impact of metagenomic DNA extraction procedures on the identifiable endophytic bacterial diversity in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maropola, Mapula Kgomotso Annah; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Trindade, Marla

    2015-05-01

    Culture-independent studies rely on the quantity and quality of the extracted environmental metagenomic DNA (mDNA). To fully access the plant tissue microbiome, the extracted plant mDNA should allow optimal PCR applications and the genetic content must be representative of the total microbial diversity. In this study, we evaluated the endophytic bacterial diversity retrieved using different mDNA extraction procedures. Metagenomic DNA from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stem and root tissues were extracted using two classical DNA extraction protocols (CTAB- and SDS-based) and five commercial kits. The mDNA yields and quality as well as the reproducibility were compared. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to assess the impact on endophytic bacterial community structures observed. Generally, the classical protocols obtained high mDNA yields from sorghum tissues; however, they were less reproducible than the commercial kits. Commercial kits retrieved higher quality mDNA, but with lower endophytic bacterial diversities compared to classical protocols. The SDS-based protocol enabled access to the highest sorghum endophytic diversities. Therefore, "SDS-extracted" sorghum root and stem microbiome diversities were analysed via 454 pyrosequencing, and this revealed that the two tissues harbour significantly different endophytic communities. Nevertheless, both communities are dominated by agriculturally important genera such as Microbacterium, Agrobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; which have previously been shown to play a role in plant growth promotion. This study shows that DNA extraction protocols introduce biases in culture-independent studies of environmental microbial communities by influencing the mDNA quality, which impacts the microbial diversity analyses and evaluation. Using the broad-spectrum SDS-based DNA extraction protocol allows the recovery of the most

  9. Influence of seed and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect in Sorghum vulgare and Crotalaria juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, A; Rangaswami, G

    1978-01-01

    The influence of seed and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect of Sorghum vulgare and Crotalaria juncea was examined. While the quantitative occurrence of certain morphological and physiological groups of bacteria on the seeds and rhizospheres of the two plant species differed, there were similarities in the occurrence of certain physiological and nutritional groups of bacteria on the seed as well as on the rhizosphere. The occurrence of some genera of fungi on the seeds and in the rhizosphere indicated the influence of both seeds and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect. Increase in root exudations of amino acids and sugars correlated with a concomitant increase in microbial activity in the rhizosphere on the 15th day of growth in both plant species but there was a delayed effect of the exuded chemicals on the rhizosphere microflora after 30 d of plant growth.

  10. Gene flow from Sorghum bicolor to its weedy relatives and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer user

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... There is need to understand the genetic structure of wild sorghums that grow alongside cultivated traditional sorghum varieties in order to assess the potential effect of crop genes in wild populations. In this study, 175 wild sorghum samples were collected from 13 agroecological zones (AEZs) from three.

  11. Agro-biodiversity in Subsistence Farming Systems of South Somalia –Collection and Agronomic Assessment of Somali Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzelli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of Siyad Barre' regime, Somalia lost any form of agricultural research with negative consequences on food availability and seed sector stability. A fi rst step to restore food security can be represented by enhancing local genetic resources. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is a very important crop in rainfed areas of Somalia serving as primary source of food and forage. Eight morphological and productive characteristics were chosen to assess the phenotypic variability of 7 accessions from South Somalia. Univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (discriminant and cluster analysis methods were used to assess the productive variation within the accession and to group the 7 accessions into clusters based on quantitative characters. The results showed that there is a wide morpho-agronomical diversity among accessions, especially regarding specifi c features suitable for different purpose, such as grain and/or forage production. Moreover the landraces were able to grow and produce under harsh environmental conditions. The gathered information can be used to promote the conservation and future improvement of local sorghum landraces, thus aiding in the stabilisation of a secure and sustainable food resource for farmers of southern Somalia.

  12. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suganya Devi; M. Saravana Kumar; S. Mohan Das

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavon...

  13. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, P Suganya; Kumar, M Saravana; Das, S Mohan

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g) and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g) were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran.

  14. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suganya Devi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g and acetone (1 mg/g. Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran.

  15. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, P. Suganya; Kumar, M. Saravana; Das, S. Mohan

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g) and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g) were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran. PMID:22400119

  16. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Genotypes with Contrasting Polyphenol Compositions Differentially Modulate Inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davina H. Rhodes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to characterize and compare anti-inflammatory effects of twenty sorghum accessions with contrasting grain polyphenol concentrations but similar genetic backgrounds (based on a genomewide estimate of relatedness. Cell viability, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 were measured in RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with increasing doses (0, 15, 30, and 60 μg/mL of sorghum ethanol extracts and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Extract dose had a significant effect on TNF-α and IL-6, with a trend of cytokines decreasing between 0 μg/mL and 15 μg/mL of sorghum extract. Genotype also had a significant effect on the cytokines, with extracts from four accessions significantly decreasing TNF-α and/or IL-6. Cells treated with 3-deoxyanthocyanidin-containing accessions had less cytokine production than non-3-deoxyanthocyanidin accessions, whereas cells treated with proanthocyanidin-containing accessions had more cytokine production than cells treated with nonproanthocyanidin accessions. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the Tannin1 allele on TNF-α and IL-6. Our results demonstrate that sorghum genotypes differentially modulate induction of inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and that specialty grain has the potential to be tailored by controlling traits at the nucleotide level. This study adds to our knowledge of sorghum health effects and contributes to efforts aimed at developing health-promoting sorghum grain.

  17. Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekbib Firew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

  18. Phytoremediation of strontium contaminated soil by Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and soil microbial community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-03-01

    Phytoremediation of strontium contaminated soil by Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench was investigated, and the soil microbial community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) were examined. The growth and the stable strontium ( 88 Sr) accumulations of the energy crop S. bicolor grown on the Sr-spiked soil at the level of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg soil were characterized through pot soil system after the entire growth period (140 days). Correspondingly, the available content of strontium in soil extracted by Mehlich III extraction solution reached 42.0, 71.9, 151.8, and 242.2 mg/kg, respectively. The Sr-polluted soil microbial community was assessed by a Biolog Eco-plate method. The results showed that the spiked Sr significantly increased the height and the stem biomass weight of the plant. Sr contents in roots, stems, and leaves of the sorghum increased linearly (R 2  > 0.95) with the elevation of the Sr-spiked level in soil. The average Sr concentration in roots, stems, and leaves reached 68.9, 61.3, and 132.6 mg/kg dry weight (DW) under Sr-spiked 400 mg/kg soil, respectively. Sr content in tissues decreased in the order of leaves > roots > stems. The bioconcentration factor (BCF; Sr contents in shoots to soil) values of S. bicolor in soil system was lower than 1 (0.21∼0.39) whether based on the spiked Sr level or on the available Sr level in soil. The transfer factor (TF; Sr contents in shoots to roots) values of S. bicolor in soil system usually is higher than 1 or near to 1 (0.92∼1.29). TF values increased while BCF values decreased as the soil Sr increased. The Biolog Eco-plate assay showed that Sr at the spiked level of 400 mg/kg soil enhanced the soil microbial diversity and activity.

  19. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  20. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench: A new approach in ethnobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekbib Firew

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple crops for the world's poorest and most food insecure people. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for thousands of years and hence the heritage of the crop is expected to be rich. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage has not been done before. Methods In order to assess the bioecocultural heritage of sorghum by folksongs various research methods were employed. These included focus group discussions with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 120 farmers, and key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents. Relevant secondary data was also collected from the museum curators and historians. Results The crop is intimately associated with the life of the farmers. The association of sorghum with the farmers from seed selection to utilization is presented using folksongs. These include both tune and textual (ballad stories or poems types. Folksongs described how farmers maintain a number of varieties on-farm for many biological, socio-economic, ecological, ethnological and cultural reasons. Farmers describe sorghum as follows: Leaf number is less than twenty; Panicle hold a thousand seeds; a clever farmer takes hold of it. In addition, they described the various farmers' varieties ethnobotanically by songs. The relative importance of sorghum vis-à-vis others crops is similarly explained in folksong terms. Conclusion The qualitative description of farmers' characterisation of the crop systems based on folksongs is a new system of appraising farmers' bioecocultural heritage. Hence, researchers, in addition to formal and quantitative descriptions, should use the folksong system for enhanced characterisation and utilization of bioecocultural heritages. In general, the salient characteristics of the folksongs used in describing the bioecocultural heritages are their oral traditions

  1. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in batch and fed batch systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmood, Sajid; Gulfraz, M.; Rana, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to find the best combination of different experimental conditions during pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production. The optimization of pre-treatment using different...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red (TM) and it was observed that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ( SSF) with both batch and fed batch resulted in better ethanol yield as compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation ( SHF). Detoxification of furan during SHF facilitated reduction...... in fermentation time from 96 to 48 h. 98.5% theoretical yield was achieved in SHF with detoxification experiment attaining an ethanol concentration and yield of 23.01 gL(-1) and 0.115 gg(-1) DM respectively. During the SSF batch and fed batch fermentation, the maximum yields of ethanol per gram of dry matter were...

  2. Assessing the Effect of Organic Compounds, Biofertilizers and Chemical Fertilizers on Morphological Properties,yield and Yield Components of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Saeidnejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, using the source of organic fertilizers and biofertilizers in sustainable crop production is growing. In order to evaluate the effect of organic compounds, biofertilizers and chemical fertilizer on morphological properties, yield and yield components of forage Sorghum (sorghum bicolor a field experiment was conducted in the Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2008.The treatments were seed inoculation with the combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, Compost (15 t/ha, Vermicompost (10 t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and compost (10t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense and Vermicompost (7t/ha, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense combination, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and compost (15t/ha, chemical fertilizer (80 kg/h urea fertilizer and 50 kg/h super phosphate fertilizer and control. Harvesting was performed in 2 cuts in flowering stage. Plant height, number of tiller per plant and SPAD reading was significantly affected by the treatments. Stem diameter was not affected by any treatments. There was a significant difference among all treatments in terms of fresh and dry forage yield. There were no significant differences among all treatments in terms of stem and leaf dry matter. In general, result of this experiment indicated that organic amendments and biofertilizers could be acceptable alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  3. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Yu

    2011-12-31

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop

  4. Potensi penggunaan beberapa varietas sorgum manis (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench sebagai tanaman pakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustikoweni Purnomohadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum is a versatile crop that can be used as grain crop, sugar alcohol production and even as forage crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of sweet sorghum either as grain crop or forage crop. The experiment used four varieties of sweet sorghum: Rio, Cawley, Keller and Wray, which were planted in polybag with six replication using Completely Randomized Design. The result of the research showed that Keller and Wray had longer vegetative growth, and good quality of chemical composition for forage than Rio and Cawley.

  5. Identification and profiling of salinity stress-responsive proteins in Sorghum bicolor seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngara, Rudo; Ndimba, Roya; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    sorghum variety, MN1618, were planted and grown on solid MS growth medium with or without 100mM NaCl. Heat shock protein expression immunoblotting assays demonstrated that this salt treatment induced stress within natural physiological parameters for our experimental material. 2D PAGE in combination...... with MS/MS proteomics techniques were used to separate, visualise and identify salinity stress responsive proteins in young sorghum leaves. Out of 281 Coomassie stainable spots, 118 showed statistically significant responses (p...

  6. Evaluation of toxicity profile of leaf base extract of Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of mature dry leaf base of S. bicolor to ... The test routes were both intraperitoneal and oral. The administration of the extract in both rats and mice was done in phases. The first phase involved the administration of widely differing ..... Ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

  7. Growth and physiological response of two biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench genotypes bred for different environments, to contrasting levels of soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Barbanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of plant mechanisms in response to drought is a strong premise to achieving high yields while saving unnecessary water. This is especially true in the case of biomass crops for non-food uses (energy, fibre and forage, grown with limited water supply. In this frame, we investigated growth and physiological response of two genotypes of biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench to contrasting levels of soil moisture in a pot experiment carried out in a greenhouse. Two water regimes (high and low water, corresponding to 70% and 30% field capacity were applied to JS-2002 and Trudan-8 sorghum genotypes, respectively bred for dry sub-tropical and mild temperate conditions. Two harvests were carried out at 73 and 105 days after seeding. Physiological traits (transpiration, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were assessed in four dates during growth. Leaf water potential, its components and relative water content were determined at the two harvests. Low watering curbed plant height and aboveground biomass to a similar extent (ca. 70% in both genotypes. JS-2002 exhibited a higher proportion of belowground to aboveground biomass, i.e., a morphology better suited to withstand drought. Despite this, JS-2002 was more affected by low water in terms of physiology: during the growing season, the average ratio in transpiration, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance between droughty and well watered plants was, respectively, 0.82, 0.80 and 0.79 in JS-2002; 1.05, 1.08 and 1.03 in Trudan-8. Hence Trudan-8 evidenced a ca. 20% advantage in the three traits. In addition, Trudan-8 could better exploit abundant moisture (70% field capacity, increasing aboveground biomass and water use efficiency. In both genotypes, drought led to very low levels of leaf water potential and relative water content, still supporting photosynthesis. Hence, both morphological and physiological characteristics of sorghum were involved in plant adaptation to

  8. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor contains its co-expressed vacuolar MATE transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Behrooz Darbani; Mohammed Saddik Motawia; Carl Erik Olsen; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H.; Birger Lindberg Møller; Fred Rook

    2016-01-01

    Genomic gene clusters for the biosynthesis of chemical defence compounds are increasingly identified in plant genomes. We previously reported the independent evolution of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in three plant lineages. Here we report that the gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor additionally contains a gene, SbMATE2, encoding a transporter of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, which is co-expresse...

  9. Steers performance fed diets with Alexander grass silage (Urochloa plantaginea x sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flânia Mônego Argenta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the parameters related to feedlot beef steers fed with Alexander grass silage or sorghum silage as roughage source. Twelve animals with initial average of weight and age of 245 kg and 20 months, respectively, belonging to Nellore (N, Charolais (C, 21/32 N 11/32 C, 21/32 C 11/32 N; 43/64 N 21/64 C and 43/64 C 21/64 N genetic groups were used. The ration was composed by a roughage:concentrate relation of 50:50 (dry matter basis, offered at ease. The dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber daily intake didn’t differ between roughage sources, being the medium values of 10.18; 1.28; 0.20; 4.96 and 2.51 kg/day, respectively. However, the ether extract intake by metabolic size and by corporal weight percentage were higher for the one that consumed sorghum silage, obtaining values of 2.74 and 2.36 g/metabolic size and 0.06 and 0.05 kg/100 kg of live weight. The same behavior was observed for digestible energy intake, presenting values of 364.87 and 302.83 g/metabolic size and 8.10 and 7.02 kg/100 kg of live weight. The daily average gain, final corporal score and feed conversion weren’t influenced by roughage type, being the values of 1.31 kg; 4.05 points and 7.78 kg of DM/kg of weight gain, respectively. The Alexander grass silage is a feasible alternative as its substitution in relation to sorghum silage.

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Application on Growth and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Olugbemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in two locations, Ilorin (8° 29′ N; 4° 35′ E; about 310 m asl and Ejiba (8° 17′ N; 5° 39′ E; about 246 m asl, at the Southern Guinea Savannah agroecological zone of Nigeria to assess the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ethanol yield of four sweet sorghum varieties (NTJ-2, 64 DTN, SW Makarfi 2006, and SW Dansadau 2007. Five N fertilizer levels (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg ha−1 were used in a 4 × 5 factorial experiment, laid out in split-plots arrangement. The application of nitrogen fertilizer was shown to enhance the growth of sweet sorghum as observed in the plant height, LAI, CGR, and other growth indices. Nitrogen fertilizer application also enhanced the ethanol yield of the crop, as variations in growth parameters and ethanol yield were observed among the four varieties studied. The variety SW Dansadau 2007 was observed as the most promising in terms of growth and ethanol yield, and the application of 120 kg N ha−1 resulted in the best ethanol yield at the study area.

  11. Gene flow from Sorghum bicolor to its weedy relatives and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer user

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... Melting peaks analysis ranged between 83.29 to 88°C on locus SB1764 and between 86.01 to 80.88°C on .... were collected labelled and kept on ice and transported to the laboratory ..... Melting curve analysis for S. bicolor templates amplified with primers targeting locus SB1764, showing peak at 88°C (a).

  12. Auxin-related gene families in abiotic stress response in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, SuiKang; Bai, YouHuang; Shen, ChenJia; Wu, YunRong; Zhang, SaiNa; Jiang, DeAn; Guilfoyle, Tom J; Chen, Ming; Qi, YanHua

    2010-11-01

    Sorghum, a C4 model plant, has been studied to develop an understanding of the molecular mechanism of resistance to stress. The auxin-response genes, auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA), auxin-response factor (ARF), Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3), small auxin-up RNAs, and lateral organ boundaries (LBD), are involved in growth/development and stress/defense responses in Arabidopsis and rice, but they have not been studied in sorghum. In the present paper, the chromosome distribution, gene duplication, promoters, intron/exon, and phylogenic relationships of Aux/IAA, ARF, GH3, and LBD genes in sorghum are presented. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis demonstrated these genes are differently expressed in leaf/root of sorghum and indicated the expression profile of these gene families under IAA, brassinosteroid (BR), salt, and drought treatments. The SbGH3 and SbLBD genes, expressed in low level under natural condition, were highly induced by salt and drought stress consistent with their products being involved in both abiotic stresses. Three genes, SbIAA1, SbGH3-13, and SbLBD32, were highly induced under all the four treatments, IAA, BR, salt, and drought. The analysis provided new evidence for role of auxin in stress response, implied there are cross talk between auxin, BR and abiotic stress signaling pathways.

  13. Ethanol production from sorghum grains [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench]: evaluation of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the hydrolysate fermentability

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    C. A. Barcelos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from sorghum grains was investigated in the present work. Initially, starch enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated using commercial α-amylase and glucoamylase, considering particle size, solid:liquid ratio and enzyme load as variables. The hydrolysate, in the best conditions (73 U of α-amylase/g grain and 1150 U glucoamylase/g grain, contained glucose at a concentration of approximately 250 g/L, which was fermented to produce ethanol in a bioreactor in batch mode. Using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum ethanol concentration produced was roughly 106 g.L-1 in 24 h of fermentation, resulting in a volumetric productivity of 4.4 g.L-1.h-1 and a product yield based on the substrate consumed (0.499 g.g-1 close to the theoretical.

  14. Functional annotation of the transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid

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    Kumari Sunita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher plants exhibit remarkable phenotypic plasticity allowing them to adapt to an extensive range of environmental conditions. Sorghum is a cereal crop that exhibits exceptional tolerance to adverse conditions, in particular, water-limiting environments. This study utilized next generation sequencing (NGS technology to examine the transcriptome of sorghum plants challenged with osmotic stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA in order to elucidate genes and gene networks that contribute to sorghum's tolerance to water-limiting environments with a long-term aim of developing strategies to improve plant productivity under drought. Results RNA-Seq results revealed transcriptional activity of 28,335 unique genes from sorghum root and shoot tissues subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG-induced osmotic stress or exogenous ABA. Differential gene expression analyses in response to osmotic stress and ABA revealed a strong interplay among various metabolic pathways including abscisic acid and 13-lipoxygenase, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and plant defense pathways. Transcription factor analysis indicated that groups of genes may be co-regulated by similar regulatory sequences to which the expressed transcription factors bind. We successfully exploited the data presented here in conjunction with published transcriptome analyses for rice, maize, and Arabidopsis to discover more than 50 differentially expressed, drought-responsive gene orthologs for which no function had been previously ascribed. Conclusions The present study provides an initial assemblage of sorghum genes and gene networks regulated by osmotic stress and hormonal treatment. We are providing an RNA-Seq data set and an initial collection of transcription factors, which offer a preliminary look into the cascade of global gene expression patterns that arise in a drought tolerant crop subjected to abiotic stress. These resources will allow scientists to query gene

  15. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

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    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  16. PENENTUAN DOSIS OPTIMUM PEMUPUKAN N, P, DAN K PADA SORGUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR [L.] MOENCH

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    Ratna Suminar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of sorghum processing industries is essential in expanding sorghum market as wells as it’s an economic value. Fertilizer is needed in planting. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium availabilities are the most limiting factors for maximum growth and yield. Sorghum (Numbu Variety was planted to evaluate the maximum and optimum rates of N, P, and K fertilizers. The research was conducted in Cikarawang field, Darmaga, Bogor from MarchJuly 2015 with multi-nutrient response method. Each experiment evaluated different rates of N, P, and K fertilizer with randomized complete block design and three replications. The fertilizer rates were 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of recommendation rate (100% N = 120 kg N ha-1, 100% P = 36 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 100% K = 90 kg K2O ha-1. The result showed relative yields of sorghum increased quadratically based on y = -0,0015x2 + 0,4011x + 67,571 for N, y = -0,0012x2 + 0,2917x + 78,457 for P2O5, and y = -0,001x2 + 0,2777x + 74,457 for K2O. The maximum rate for each nutrient was 160,4-43,7-124,9 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1. Fertilizer recommendation based on P threshold (no P was 36,7-0,0-13,7 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, K threshold (no K was 22,0-0,0-0,0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, and no fertilizer needed on N threshold. The optimum rate fertilizer based on the yield vs. cost rule, therefore, the most economical recommendation would be 160,4-43,7-124,9 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1.

  17. Metabolites produced during different growth conditions of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    OpenAIRE

    Barmina, Giovanni Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum plant synthesizes the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin (β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-hydroxymandelonitrile), from the amino acid L-tyrosine. The biosynthesis of dhurrin involves two multifunctional cytochromes P-450s (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a UDP-glucose glycosyltransferase (UGT85B1). The plant use this secondary metabolite to defence itself against herbivores and pest. In this project the synthesis of dhurrin has been analysed during different steps of plant growth: seeds in their differe...

  18. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA TEPUNG BIJI SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L. TERFERMENTASI BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT Lactobacilllus acidophilus-Physicochemical Characteristic of Fermented Sorghumflour (Sorghum bicolor L by Lactic Acid Bacteria Lactobacilllus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Kurniadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum flour utilization as food material has limited factors such as tannin content as the anti-nutrient. Various food fermentation using lactic acid bacteria was used to increase nutrient value and to reduce anti-nutrient. The objectives of this research were to improve nutrient characteristic of sorghum flour that was obtained by fermentation process optimization with variation of starter concentration and fermentation time. The research was designed using a factorial completely randomized design with period fermentation as first factor (0, 24, 36 and 48 hours and concentration of starter L. acidophilus (2, 4, and 6% v/b as second factor, 3 replicates for each treatments. Data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA (P<0.05 and followed by Duncan multiple range tests as post hoc. The result showed that 48 hours fermentation period and 6% of L. acidophilus starter concentration as the best result for sorghum flour fermented. This sorghum fermented has physicochemical characteristic i.e. 1.365% of soluble protein, 1.278% of reducing sugars, 0.062% of tannin, 39.833 cP viscosity and 22.93 degree of whiteness. Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, sorghum flour, physicochemical characteristics   ABSTRAK Pemanfaatan tepung sorghum sebagai bahan pangan memiliki keterbatasan salah satunya karena kandungan tanin sebagai anti-nutrisi. Beberapa proses fermentasi bahan pangan menggunakan bakteri asam laktat (BAL telah diketahui dapat meningkatkan kandungan nutrisi dan mengurangi kandungan anti-nutrisi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memperbaiki karakteristik nutrisi tepung sorghum melalui optimasi proses fermentasi dengan variasi konsentrasi starter BAL dan lama fermentasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan lama fermentasi (0, 24, 36 dan 48 jam sebagai faktor pertama dan konsentrasi starter Lactobacillus acidophilus (2, 4 dan 6% v/b sebagai faktor kedua, menggunakan 3 ulangan. Parameter yang

  19. Protein quality in cereals and pulses. 2. Influence of polyethyleneglycol on the nutritional availability of methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgar Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J E; Hewitt, D

    1979-09-01

    1. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG 4000) was examined for its influence on relative nutritional value (RNV) and available methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley, as measured microbiologically with Streptococcus zymogenes. The results were assessed in relation to the content of tannins in the test samples. 2. In grain of hybrid sorghum the RNV averaged 87 (range 79--92) for six low-tannin varieties and 41 (30--53) for eleven high-tannin varieties. The corresponding available methionine values averaged 17.0 (15.7--18.9) and 8.9 (6.7--11.0) g/kg protein. Addition of PEG 4000 to the test samples increased the average RNV of the high-tannin varieties from 41 to 78, and the average available methionine content from 8.9 to 16.2 g/kg protein. 3. With seed of ten coloured flowered varieties of field beans, treatment with PEG gave a small but consistent increase in the available methionine content, which resulted from the inactivation of tannins in the testa. 4. In twenty-three samples of barley grain, treatment with PEG had no effect on the values obtained for available methionine. 5. Treatment of high-tannin sorghum grain with ammonia has been reported to inactivate the tannins and increase the nutritional value for rats and chicks. This finding was confirmed. The present study showed that ammonia and PEG 4000 were equally effective in enhancing the nutritional quality as measured in the microbiological tests.

  20. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor contains its co-expressed vacuolar MATE transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbani, Behrooz; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Rook, Fred

    2016-11-14

    Genomic gene clusters for the biosynthesis of chemical defence compounds are increasingly identified in plant genomes. We previously reported the independent evolution of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in three plant lineages. Here we report that the gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor additionally contains a gene, SbMATE2, encoding a transporter of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, which is co-expressed with the biosynthetic genes. The predicted localisation of SbMATE2 to the vacuolar membrane was demonstrated experimentally by transient expression of a SbMATE2-YFP fusion protein and confocal microscopy. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrate that SbMATE2 is able to transport dhurrin. In addition, SbMATE2 was able to transport non-endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, but not the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-O-glucoside or the glucosinolate indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate. The genomic co-localisation of a transporter gene with the biosynthetic genes producing the transported compound is discussed in relation to the role self-toxicity of chemical defence compounds may play in the formation of gene clusters.

  1. SOILS, FERTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER Halotolerant/alkalophilic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt Gomont that promote early growth in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gómez G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis associated bacteria (APAB identified through molecuar biology like Bacillus okhensis, Indibacter alkaliphilus and Halomonas sp., are also producing 3-indol acetic acid (IAA, these bacteria was used in early plant growth promotion tests over Sorghum bicolor, these bioassay was considered indirect evidence to suggest that APAB also may have stimulatory effects over A. platensis growth naturally. I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis enhanced early germination of S. bicolor seads, with better results than that achieved by Azospirillum brasilense, bacterium used like reference as a common plant growth promoting rizobacteria. The three APAB enhanced significative differences (P≤0.05 over morphoagronomic parameters, I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis exhibith better resoults in elongation stimulation and root and foliage dry weight. Above evidence suggest this bacteria like plant growth promoting and it recomended testing with A. platensis axenic cultures and its associated bactteri for understanding true interaction between them.

  2. Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor: VI. The ma(3) Allele Results in Abnormal Phytochrome Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, K L; Pratt, L H; Morgan, P W

    1991-10-01

    Physiological processes controlled by phytochrome were examined in three near-isogenic genotypes of Sorghum bicolor, differing at the allele of the third maturity gene locus. Seedlings of 58M (ma(3) (R)ma(3) (R)) did not show phytochrome control of anthocyanin synthesis. In contrast, seedlings of 90M (ma(3)ma(3)) and 100M (Ma(3)Ma(3)) demonstrated reduced anthocyanin synthesis after treatment with far red and reversal of the far red effect by red. De-etiolation of 48-hour-old 90M and 100M dark-grown seedlings occurred with 48 hours of continuous red. Dark-grown 58M seedlings did not de-etiolate with continuous red treatment. Treatment of seedlings with gibberellic acid or tetcyclacis, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, did not alter anthocyanin synthesis. Levels of chlorophyll and anthocyanin were lower in light-grown 58M seedlings than in 90M and 100M. Etiolated seedlings of all three genotypes have similar amounts of photoreversible phytochrome. Crude protein extracts from etiolated seedlings were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Phytochrome was visualized with Pea-25, a monoclonal antibody directed to phytochrome from etiolated peas. The samples from all three genotypes contained approximately equivalent amounts of a prominent, immunostaining band at 126 kD. However, the sample from 58M did not show a fainter, secondary band at 123 kD that was present in 90M and 100M. The identity and importance of this secondary band at 123 kD is unknown. We propose that 58M is a phytochrome-related mutant that contains normal amounts of photoreversible phytochrome and normal phytochrome protein when grown in the dark.

  3. Heterotic trait locus (HTL mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

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    Imri Ben-Israel

    Full Text Available Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1 in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  4. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  5. Dhurrin metabolism in the developing grain of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench investigated by metabolite profiling and novel clustering analyses of time-resolved transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche; Stuart, Peter; Pičmanová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The important cereal crop Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench biosynthesize and accumulate the defensive compound dhurrin during development. Previous work has suggested multiple roles for the compound including a function as nitrogen storage/buffer. Crucial for this function is the endogenous...... analyses with the metabolite profiling, potential gene candidates of glutathione S-transferases, nitrilases and glycosyl transferases involved in these pathways were identified. The absence of dhurrin in the mature grain was replaced by a high content of proanthocyanidins. Cluster- and phylogenetic...... in these transformations and show that dhurrin in additionto its insect deterrent properties may serve as a storage form of reduced nitrogen. In the course of sorghum grainmaturation, proanthocyanidins replace dhurrin as a defense compound. The lack of cyanogenesis in the developingsorghum grain renders this a unique...

  6. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis comparing stay-green and senescent Sorghum bicolor lines identifies a role for proline biosynthesis in the stay-green trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephanie M; Cummins, Ian; Lim, Fei Ling; Slabas, Antoni R; Knight, Marc R

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal crop grown on the arid and semi-arid regions of >98 different countries. These regions are such that this crop is often subjected to low water conditions, which can compromise yields. Stay-green sorghum plants are able to retain green leaf area for longer under drought conditions and as such have higher yields than their senescent counterparts. However, the molecular and physiological basis of this drought tolerance is yet to be fully understood. Here, a transcriptomic approach was used to compare gene expression between stay-green (B35) and senescent (R16) sorghum varieties. Ontological analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts identified an enrichment of genes involved with the 'response to osmotic stress' Gene Ontology (GO) category. In particular, delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase 2 (P5CS2) was highly expressed in the stay-green line compared with the senescent line, and this high expression was correlated with higher proline levels. Comparisons of the differentially expressed genes with those that lie in known stay-green qualitative trait loci (QTLs) revealed that P5CS2 lies within the Stg1 QTL. Polymorphisms in known cis-elements were identified in the putative promoter region of P5CS2 and these could be responsible for the differences in the expression of this gene. This study provides greater insight into the stay-green trait in sorghum. This will be greatly beneficial not only to improve our understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms in sorghum, but also to facilitate the improvement of future sorghum cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by waste motor oil in 55000 and 65000 and phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor inoculated with Burkholderia cepacia and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In soil spill a high concentration of waste motor oil (WMO it´s causing lost soil fertility, which is solved by remediation, but is expensive and polluting, an ecological alternative is bioremediation (BR by biostimulation follow by phytoremediation (PY with Sorghum bicolor using Burkholderia cepacia and Penicillium chrysogenum, promoting growth plant microorganisms (PGPM at concentration value below to the maximum according to NOM-138 SEMARNAT/SS-2003 de 4400 ppm/Kg soil. The objectives of this research were a bioremediation of soil contaminated by high WMO concentrations by biostimulation with mineral solution and Vicia sativa as green manure (GM, and subsequent b phytoremediation by S. bicolor with B. cepacia and P. chrysogenum to reduce remaining WMO at concentration below to maximum according to NOM-138 SEMARNAT/SS-2003. The results showed that biostimulation with mineral solution and V. sativa reduced WMO from 55000 to 33400 ppm, and from 65000 to 24300 ppm. Follow by PY by S. bicolor with B. cepacia and P. chrysogenum decreased WMO from 33400 ppm to 210 ppm, and from 24300 ppm to 360 ppm, compared to soil as negative control in which WMO did not change by natural attenuation. This suggests that to integrate BR and PY is an ecological option instead to apply chemical technique expensive and causing environmental pollution.

  9. Effects of untreated and treated wastewater at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels on seed germination and development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Imen; Chaabane, Zayneb; Missaoui, Amara; Bouket, Ali Chenari; Luptakova, Lenka; Elleuch, Amine; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-03-15

    Wastewater reuse in agriculture may help mitigate water scarcity. This may be reached if high quality treatments removing harmful pollutants are applied. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of untreated (UTW) and treated wastewater (TW) on germination and seedlings development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). UTW presented high turbidity (130 NTU), chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, 719mgL-1, BOD5, 291mgL-1) and metal concentrations. These levels caused mortality (18% for fescue), decreased germination speed in seeds (37.5% for alfalfa) and reductions of root and stem length in seedlings (80% and 22% respectively for alfalfa). Adverse effects on seeds germination were reflected at the biochemical level by increased H2O2 levels (6 times for sorghum after 5days) and by increased Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (more than 600 times for sorghum roots) during seedlings development. When TW was used, these parameters were close to control seeds ones. They were also dependent on plant species and developmental stage. Therefore, for efficient reclaimed wastewater reuse in irrigation, suitable crops, displaying wide tolerance to toxic contents during germination and later seedling development stages have to be selected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potencialidades do sorgo sacarino [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] para a produção sustentável de bioetanol no Alentejo The potential of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] for sustainable bioethanol production in Alentejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.V. Lourenço

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fazem-se algumas considerações sobre a importância dos biocombustíveis (biodiesel e bioetanol, num futuro próximo, e acerca das potencialidades do sorgo sacarino para a produção de bioetanol. Apresentam-se resultados de um ensaio de quatro dotações de rega (1500, 2500, 3500 e 4500 m³/ha aplicadas a uma variedade de sorgo sacarino. Avaliou-se a concentração em sólidos solúveis (ºBrix nos caules verdes e a altura das plantas ao longo do ciclo. Determinou-se a produção de matéria verde em caules e de matéria seca em caules, folhas e inflorescências. Estimou-se também a produção de açúcar e bioetanol por hectare. Os dados revelaram que a dotação de rega mais aconselhável foi a de 4500 m³/ha pois conduziu aos melhores resultados em todos os parâmetros, excepto no que se refere ao Brix que foi semelhante à da dotação de 3500 m ³/ha (17 e 16%, respectivamente. Com aquela dotação de rega, se os resultados se confirmarem, será de esperar que, no Alentejo, as produções de bioetanol, da referida cultura, sejam superiores a 5000 l/ha.The importance of biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol in the next future, and the potential of sweet sorghum for bioethanol production are discussed. Results of a trial with four irrigation treatments (1500, 2500, 3500 e 4500 m³/ha applied, to one variety of sweet sorghum, are presented. The soluble solids content (ºBrix of the fresh stalks and plant height were monitored along the life cycle of the crop. The yield of fresh stalks and the dry matter yield of stalks, leaves and inflorescences were determined. Sugar and bioethanol yields were also estimated. The results showed that the 4500 m³/ha irrigation treatment conducted to the best results in all variables, except for the Brix values that were similar to the 3500 m³/ha treatment (17 and 16%, respectively. With that irrigation treatment, and if the results are confirmed in the future, it will be expected that bioethanol yields from

  11. FORMACIÓN DE EMBRIONES SOMÁTICOS A PARTIR DE SEMILLAS INMADURAS EN Sorghum bicolor VARIEDAD CIAP 132-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayelín RODRÍGUEZ URQUIZA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen varios protocolos de regeneración de plantas vía embriogénesis somática de Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, sin embargo los porcentajes de formación de callos con estructuras embriogénicas y regeneración de plantas son bajos. Es por ello que esta investigación tuvo como objetivo generar embriones somáticos en sorgo rojo variedad CIAP 132-R. Se ensayaron diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D para la formación de callos, así como tres concentraciones de ácido ascórbico para eliminar la exudación de compuestos fenólicos por el explante. También para la formación de los embriones somáticos a partir de los callos se evaluaron diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D y 6-BAP. El mayor porcentaje de formación de callos (57,5 % se alcanzó con 18,1 μM de 2,4-D. Con la adición al medio de cultivo de 50,0 mg.l-1 de ácido ascórbico fue posible eliminar los compuestos fenólicos en el explante y en el medio de cultivo, además permitió incrementar el porcentaje de formación de callos con estructuras embriogénicas hasta un 95 %. El número mayor de embriones somáticos por callo se alcanzó en el medio de cultivo con concentraciones de 4,52 μM de 2,4- D, combinada con 2,22 μM de 6-BAP. Por primera vez, se logró la formación eficiente de embriones somáticos a partir de los callos obtenidos de semillas inmaduras germinadas como explante inicial en la variedad CIAP 132-R.

  12. Genetic structure and relationships within and between cultivated and wild sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Kenya as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutegi, E; Sagnard, F; Semagn, K; Deu, M; Muraya, M; Kanyenji, B; de Villiers, S; Kiambi, D; Herselman, L; Labuschagne, M

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the extent and partitioning of diversity within and among crop landraces and their wild/weedy relatives constitutes the first step in conserving and unlocking their genetic potential. This study aimed to characterize the genetic structure and relationships within and between cultivated and wild sorghum at country scale in Kenya, and to elucidate some of the underlying evolutionary mechanisms. We analyzed at total of 439 individuals comprising 329 cultivated and 110 wild sorghums using 24 microsatellite markers. We observed a total of 295 alleles across all loci and individuals, with 257 different alleles being detected in the cultivated sorghum gene pool and 238 alleles in the wild sorghum gene pool. We found that the wild sorghum gene pool harbored significantly more genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, a reflection that domestication of sorghum was accompanied by a genetic bottleneck. Overall, our study found close genetic proximity between cultivated sorghum and its wild progenitor, with the extent of crop-wild divergence varying among cultivation regions. The observed genetic proximity may have arisen primarily due to historical and/or contemporary gene flow between the two congeners, with differences in farmers' practices explaining inter-regional gene flow differences. This suggests that deployment of transgenic sorghum in Kenya may lead to escape of transgenes into wild-weedy sorghum relatives. In both cultivated and wild sorghum, genetic diversity was found to be structured more along geographical level than agro-climatic level. This indicated that gene flow and genetic drift contributed to shaping the contemporary genetic structure in the two congeners. Spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed a strong spatial genetic structure in both cultivated and wild sorghums at the country scale, which could be explained by medium- to long-distance seed movement.

  13. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS Contents of Porridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Lemlioglu-Austin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA. The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  14. Sorghum bicolor, L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    relative proximity of the accessions within a given geography also provides a clue. Accordingly, the tip branches of C2-1 sub-cluster primarily consisted of accessions AS50 to AS60 along with AS92 and 93 and the next main branch carried AS61-AS67 with few other accessions (AS85&88, AS92&93, PW48&49, AS54, 68,.

  15. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manual de nutrição mineral de plantas. São Paulo: Editora Ceres, 443 p. Ogliari PJ, Pacheco JA (2011). Análise estatística usando o Statistica®. 6.0. 1º Ed. Florianópolis. 133 p. Oliveira Neto CF (2010). Crescimento, alterações ecofisiológicas e bioquímicas em plantas jovens de jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L) submetidos ...

  16. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lillian

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... the intra-plant competition for nutrients, water and sunlight. Seed rates depend on the method of ... Some farmers did not access credit since they were unwilling to offer security for it or lacked security. It was noted that .... Nutrient stress during plant development (especially at seed filling) has been reported ...

  17. Effects of the genotype and environment interaction on sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor -{L.}- Moench grown in the lowland tropics of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Humberto Bernal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar production in sweet sorghums is affected by the environment. Therefore, in this study on the effects of the genotype x environment interaction on sugar accumulation, plant traits associated with the sugar content in the stem were evaluated in ten sorghum genotypes grown in six contrasting environments. The results indicated that the stem dry weight, juice sugar concentration (°Brix, stem sugar content and juice volume were controlled by the genetic constitution of the genotype, with a large environmental contribution to their expression. The results allowed for the identification of the sweet sorghum genotypes that have a high potential for the biofuel agroindustry due to their high sugar contents in the environmental conditions of Palmira, Espinal, Cerete and Codazzi. Humid tropical environments such as Gaitan and Villavicencio were less favorable for the competitive production of sweet sorghums for bioethanol due to their low levels of solar radiation and soil fertility.

  18. Halotolerant/alkalophilic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt Gomont that promote early growth in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez G. Liliana Cecilia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Arthrospira platensis associated bacteria (APAB identified through molecuar biology like Bacillus okhensis, Indibacter alkaliphilus and Halomonas sp., are also producing 3-indol acetic acid (IAA, these bacteria was used in early plant growth promotion tests over Sorghum bicolor, these bioassay was considered indirect evidence to suggest that APAB also may have stimulatory effects over A. platensis growth naturally. I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis enhanced early germination of S. bicolor seads, with better results than that achieved by Azospirillum brasilense, bacterium used like reference as a common plant growth promoting rizobacteria. The three APAB enhanced significative differences (P≤0.05 over morphoagronomic parameters, I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis exhibit better resoults in elongation stimulation and root and foliage dry weight. Above evidence suggest this bacteria like plant growth promoting and it recomended testing with A. platensis axenic cultures and its associated bactteri for understanding true interaction between them.

  19. Nutritive value of diferents silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cultivares - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique dos Santos Gomes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition values of silages from different sorghum cultivars are evaluated. Five 26-kg castrated crossbred lambs, housed in pens equipped with feces and urine collectors for the study of their metabolism, were employed in a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. Treatments consisted of silage from five different sorghum cultivars: IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 (grain sorghum, IPA 2502 (dual purpose sorghum, IPA FS-25 and IPA 467 (forage sorghum. Protein level was corrected to 12% by adding a mixture of urea: ammonium sulfate (9:1. Treatments IPA 1011, IPA 2564 and IPA 2502 provided high intake of dry matter, total carbohydrate and total digestible nutrients, and low intake of neutral detergent fiber. Cultivars IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 provided high apparent crude protein digestibility coefficient, whereas cultivars IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 had high total digestible nutrient levels. All cultivars provided positive nitrogen. Owing to nutrient intake and digestibility values, grain sorghum silages evidenced high potential in ruminant nutrition.

  20. New method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor roots by fluorescence microscopy revealed silicate concentration-dependent phytolith formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Milan; Martinka, Michal; Cigáň, Marek; Ravaszová, Frederika; Lux, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Silica phytoliths are microscopic structures of amorphous hydrated silica (SiO2 · nH2O) formed by specialized plant cells. Besides their biological roles, physical, chemical, and structural properties of biogenic silica offer a wide spectrum of applications in many fields of industry and technology. Therefore, processes involved in their formation recently become a very interesting topic to study. However, optical transparency and microscopic sizes of silica phytoliths do not allow their visualization and localization by classical light microscopy methods. Their observation thus requires phytolith isolation, technically difficult or lengthy sample preparation procedures, or a work with toxic chemicals. In this paper we are proposing a novel method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor root endodermal cells by fluorescence microscopy using alkali mounting solution (pH 12). This method offers an easy and quick preparation of the samples and high contrast imaging. Based on our results we can assume that the proposed fluorescent method for silica phytolith investigation allows observation of multiple samples in relatively short time period and thus might be applicable also for high-throughput screenings. Using this method we found out that after a 3-day cultivation of sorghum plants the minimal needed concentration of sodium silicate, limiting the formation of silica phytoliths in the root endodermis, was 25 µmol dm(-3). The positive correlation of sodium silicate concentration in the substrate with the phytolith diameter was also observed.

  1. Controle químico da "ERGOT" (Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle & de Milliano ou doença-açucarada e das principais doenças foliares do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Chemical control of "ERGOT"(Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle & de Milliano or sugary disease and the main foliar diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicésio Filadelfo Janssen de Almeida Pinto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico da "ergot" (Claviceps africana foi realizado em campo de produção de sementes do híbrido de sorgo granífero BR 304 (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench., utilizando-se os fungicidas (g i.a./ha: captan (1250,0, fenarimol (80,0, trifenil hidróxido de estanho (166,7, prochloraz (450,0, chlorothalonil (1500,0, iprodione (750,0, azoxystrobin (150,0, thiabendazole (360,0, procimidone (750,0, ziram (1500,0 e tebuconazole (200,0. Parcelas sem aplicação de fungicida constituíram a testemunha. As pulverizações foram realizadas com pulverizador costal manual, com o jato dirigido para as panículas. O intervalo das aplicações dos fungicidas foi de 4 dias, a partir da antese. Aos 7 dias após o término das pulverizações, a porcentagem de panículas doentes variou 5,4 para o fungicida tebuconazole e 100,0% para a maioria dos demais tratamentos. Para a porcentagem de flores doentes por panícula, os valores variaram de 0,3% a 65,0% para o fungicida tebuconazole e testemunha, respectivamente. Não ocorreu diferença significativa entre as porcentagens de flores doentes por panículas nos tratamentos tebuconazole (0,3%, chlorothalonil (2,5% e prochloraz (3,0%, sendo esses os mais eficientes no controle da ergot. Adicionalmente, o fungicida mais eficiente no controle da antracnose foliar (Colletotrichum graminicola foi o prochloraz, ao passo que para a ferrugem (Puccinia purpurea e a cercosporiose (Cercospora fusimaculans, o maior controle foi obtido com o fungicida tebuconazole. Não houve aumento da germinação das sementes em nenhum dos tratamentos; entretanto, o aumento do peso de mil sementes foi significativo para os tratamentos com os fungicidas prochloraz, chlorotalonil e tebuconazole.The efficiency of fungicides in the control of sugar disease of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. was evaluated in a seed production field of the sorghum hybrid BR 304. The following fungicides and doses (g a.i./ha were evaluated : captan (1250

  2. The antiproliferative activity of 3-deoxyanthocyanins extracted from red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bran through P(53)-dependent and Bcl-2 gene expression in breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganyadevi, P; Saravanakumar, K M; Mohandas, S

    2013-03-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti proliferative activity of 3-deoxyanthocyanin extracted from red sorghum bran on human breast cancer cell line MCF 7. The confirmatory tests were carried out in vitro through the expression studies of p(53) and (bcl) 2 genes in MCF 7 cells. The 3-deoxyanthocyanins were isolated from red sorghum bran and cytotoxic studies were performed in MCF 7 cell line by MTT assay. The mRNA expression levels of p(53) and (bcl) 2 genes were performed using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in MCF 7 cells. On cytotoxic studies, the present data indicates sorghum anthocyanins, which showed 84.09% of inhibition in the proliferation of MCF 7 cells, and the CTC(50) value was 300 μg/ml. The sorghum 3-deoxyanthocyanins induced apoptosis in MCF 7 was mediated by stimulation of the p(53) gene and down regulation of the (bcl) 2 gene. The significance of our work was the anthocyanin isolated from red sorghum bran inhibits the proliferation of human breast cancer cell line. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid are involved in silicon-induced drought resistance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Wang, Wenhua; Cao, Dan; Deng, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-07-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates drought stress has been widely reported, but the mechanism it underlying remains unclear. Here, morphologic and physiological changes were investigated in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings treated with silicon and exposed to PEG-simulated drought stress for seven days. Drought stress dramatically decreased growth parameters (biomass, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic rate), while silicon application reduced the drought-induced decreases in those parameters. Leaf relative water content and transpiration rate were maintained at high levels compared to those in seedlings without silicon. The soluble sugar contents were increased, but the proline contents and the osmotic potential were decreased, showing that osmotic adjustment did not contribute to the silicon induced-drought resistance. Furthermore, levels of both free and conjugated polyamines (PAs) levels, including putrescine, spermidine and spermine, were all found to be increased by silicon under drought stress both in leaf and root. Meanwhile, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, was markedly decreased by supplemental silicon. Several key PA synthesis genes were upregulated by silicon under drought stress. These results suggest that silicon improves sorghum drought resistance by mediating the balance of PAs and ethylene levels. In leaf, the increased PAs and decreased ACC help to retard leaf senescence. In root, the balance between PAs and ACC participates in the modulation of root plasticity, increases the root/shoot ratio, and contributes to an increase in water uptake. These results suggest that silicon increases drought resistance through regulating several important physiological processes in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple and economical assay systems for evaluation of phosphinothricin resistant transgenics of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. (L.) Moench., and pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshavardhan, D; Santha, B; Rani, T S; Ulaganathan, K; Madhulety, T Y; Laxminarayana, C; Seetharama, N

    2003-02-01

    Five simple and rapid methods for evaluation of sorghum and pearl millet transgenics resistant to herbicide phosphinothricin (used as selectable marker) were studied. For rapid in vitro selection, three assays (establishment of sensitivity curves for embryogenic calli, determination of lethal doses for seed germination, and a rapid screening of cut young leaves based on the colour change of the medium) were established. For rapid screening of transgenic progeny, effects of in vivo Basta leaf spray and dip tests were studied at three different morphological stages. For all the above assays, LD50, and LD100 values were higher for pearl millet than sorghum. However, in both the crops, genotype effect was not significant. The assays standardized in the study were found to be effective for rapid, economical and mass-scale identification and characterization of transgenic plants of sorghum and pearl millet.

  5. Mode of coaction between blue/UV light and light absorbed by phytochrome in light-mediated anthocyanin formation in the milo (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) seedling

    OpenAIRE

    Oelmüller, Ralf; Mohr, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Anthocyanin formation in milo (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) seedlings (coleoptile, mesocotyl, taproot) occurs only in white light and blue/UV light (BL/UV), while red light (RL) and far-RL are totally ineffective. However, after a BL/UV pretreatment, the participation of phytochrome can be demonstrated. With a short-wavelength light source [peak emission in longwave UV (UV-A)], the mode of coaction between BL/UV and light absorbed by phytochrome (RL) was studied with the following principal results...

  6. Regulatory Mechanisms in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in First Internodes of Sorghum vulgare: Effect of Presumed Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, H A

    1966-06-01

    There was a 6 to 24-hour lag in the production of anthocyanins in the light after excision of 4-day-old etiolated internodes of Sorghum vulgare variety Wheatland milo. In internodes infiltrated with water, apigeninidin was formed first at 12 to 24 hours and continued to be produced slowly. Luteolinidin was formed slightly later, but its formation rapidly exceeded that of apigeninidin. Cyanidin was the last type to be produced, but equaled the amounts of luteolinidin by 4 days. In noninfiltrated internodes, the production of cyanidin was greatly accelerated, beginning at about 6 hours.Data from experiments with inhibitors that presumably affect protein synthesis at different loci indicated that protein synthesis was necessary for maximum production of all 3 anthocyanins, but that different steps were rate limiting. Light independent synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin was inhibited by chloramphenicol and l-ethionine but not by actinomycin D and 8-azaguanine. However, the synthesis of these 2 anthocyanins was not inhibited by puromycin, but was sometimes stimulated. The light-induced synthesis of cyanidin was inhibited by actinomycin, azaguanine, chloramphenicol and ethionine. Actinomycin no longer was inhibitory if added after incubation for 6 hours in air. All inhibitors were capable of inhibiting to various degrees either the incorporation of (14)C-uracil into RNA or (14)C-leucine into protein. The inhibitor data suggest that the light insensitive synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin may be controlled by enzyme synthesis at the level of ribosomes via stable mRNA, while the light-induced production of cyanidin is dependent initially on the production of mRNA. The latter hypothesis is similar to that recently proposed by Lange and Mohr for a cyanidin produced in Sinapis seedlings.

  7. Diversity of nifH gene pools in the rhizosphere of two cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) treated with contrasting levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.R.R.; Vos, de M.; Carneiro, N.P.; Marriel, I.E.; Paiva, E.; Seldin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed in the rhizospheres of two cultivars of sorghum (IS 5322-C and IPA 1011) sown in Cerrado soil amended with two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (12 and 120 kg ha(-1)). The nifH gene was amplified directly from DNA extracted from the rhizospheres,

  8. Contribution and Interactions of Hydroxycinnamic Acids Found in Bran and Wholegrain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench: Effects on the Antioxidant Capacity and Inhibition of Human Erythrocyte Hemolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Julieta Salazar-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants is known as oxidative stress, and it promotes cellular aging and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases. The bioactive compounds present in food play an important role in preventing oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the contributions and interactions of the hydroxycinnamic acids found in the bran and whole grain of sorghum and to evaluate their effects on the antioxidant capacity and inhibition of the hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Results showed that the caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid found in sorghum contributed to the scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals in various proportions. Ferulic acid, which was present in bound form in the bran and wholegrain sorghum, significantly inhibited the AAPH radical-induced oxidation of the erythrocyte membranes by 78.0 and 4.3%, respectively. Combinations of two, three, or four hydroxycinnamic acids may interact in an antagonistic or synergistic manner, thereby altering each other’s bioactivities. The various interactions between the different sorghum bioactives can have a significant impact on their potential bioactivities. These results can be useful in the design of functional foods that aim to deliver bioactives to mitigate cellular aging or noncommunicable diseases.

  9. The OCL3 promoter from Sorghum bicolor directs gene expression to abscission and nutrient-transfer zones at the bases of floral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique J; Clemente, Tom E; Ge, Zhengxiang; Carman, John G

    2014-09-01

    During seed fill in cereals, nutrients are symplasmically unloaded to vascular parenchyma in ovules, but thereafter nutrient transport is less certain. In Zea mays, two mechanisms of nutrient passage through the chalaza and nucellus have been hypothesized, apoplasmic and symplasmic. In a recent study, nutrients first passed non-selectively to the chalazal apoplasm and were then selectively absorbed by the nucellus before being released to the endosperm apoplasm. This study reports that the promoter of OUTER CELL LAYER3 (PSbOCL3) from Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) directs gene expression to chalazal cells where the apoplasmic barrier is thought to form. The aims were to elucidate PSbOCL3 expression patterns in sorghum and relate them to processes of nutrient pathway development in kernels and to recognized functions of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) IV transcription factor family to which the promoter belongs. PSbOCL3 was cloned and transformed into sorghum as a promoter-GUS (β-glucuronidase) construct. Plant tissues from control and transformed plants were then stained for GUS, and kernels were cleared and characterized using differential interference contrast microscopy. A symplasmic disconnect between the chalaza and nucellus during seed fill is inferred by the combination of two phenomena: differentiation of a distinct nucellar epidermis adjacent to the chalaza, and lysis of GUS-stained chalazal cells immediately proximal to the nucellar epidermis. Compression of the GUS-stained chalazal cells during kernel maturation produced the kernel abscission zone (closing layer). The results suggest that the HD-Zip IV transcription factor SbOCL3 regulates kernel nutrition and abscission. The latter is consistent with evidence that members of this transcription factor group regulate silique abscission and dehiscence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, the findings suggest that processes of floral organ abscission are conserved among angiosperms and may in some

  10. RUMINAL AND INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF MAIZE (Zea mays AND SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L. MOENCH USING DIFFERENT DIGESTIBILITY TECHNIQUES (IN VIVO, IN VITRO AND IN SACCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises A Gonzalez Garcia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the digestibility of the food is basic to establish its nutritive value and bioavailability of the nutrients. Numerous laboratory tests have been used to estimate the ruminal and intestinal digestion of the food such as in vitro (Gas and Daisy production and in sacco, to be compared with the in vivo method. Sorghum presented the highest (P 0.05 were found between grains. With regard to the digestibility methods, the DMD was lower (P 0.01 for the in sacco and in vitro methods (Daisy. The production of VFA's was similar for both cereals. In situ and in vitro techniques (DaisyII® allow the determination of digestibility quick and easy compared to conventional methods. Sorghum grinding improves its nutritional value by increasing its digestibility, which represents an alternative to maize for feeding calves for fattening.

  11. Use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate the effects of microwave irradiation on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and wheat (Triticum sp. nutritive values and fermentation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Parnian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of microwave irradiation (900 W for 3, 5 and 7 min on the nutritive value of sorghum and wheat grains were evaluated by in vitro gas production technique. Gas volume was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and kinetics of gas production were estimated using model: GP = A exp {– exp [1 + (be/A (LAG – t]}. Cumulative gas production at 24 h was used for estimation of metabolizable energy, net energy for lactation, short chain fatty acids, digestible organic matter and microbial protein. For sorghum grain, microwave irradiation increased cumulative gas production for most times of incubation linearly. Microwave treatments for 5 and 7 min increased the A fraction linearly in both cereal grain, whereas the maximum rate of gas production (b decreased linearly only in wheat grain. Microwave treatments for 3, 5 and 7 min increased (P<0.05 metabolizable energy, net energy for lactation and short chain fatty acids content of sorghum grain, but not of wheat grain. It was concluded that microwave irradiation changed the gas production parameters resulting changed ruminal fermentation characteristics that can be considered in ration formulation.

  12. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Antony P; Palmer, William M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Furbank, Robert T; Grof, Christopher Pl

    2013-12-23

    A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 μg.mgDW-1.h-1. This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall digestibility simultaneously allowing a

  14. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-01-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. PMID:24879770

  15. Avanços tecnológicos na obtenção de Etanol a partir de Sorgo Sacarino: Sorghum Bicolor (l. Moench

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    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A substituição da utilização de gasolina por etanol em veículos reduz em até 90% a emissão de CO2, isto justifica o interesse nautilização de bioetanol como energia renovável. Além da cana-de-açúcar, mandioca, milho e beterraba especial destaque vemsendo dado ao sorgo sacarino (Sorgo bicolor L. Moench para produção de etanol pela sua produtividade e resistência. O sorgo écultivado no Rio Grande do Sul com uma produção de cerca de 70.000 t/ano. A Embrapa possui um programa de desenvolvimentode cultivares de sorgo sacarino desde a época do Pró-Álcool e atualmente novas variedades estão sendo avaliadas. Diversos fatorestêm relevância na otimização da produção como, aumento da produtividade e redução de custos na produção do etanol. Estetrabalho objetivou o levantamento de dados recentes que possibilitem avaliar parâmetros produtivos de etanol a partir de sorgo.Fatores como a diminuição dos riscos de contaminação bacteriana, meios propícios aos processos fermentativos do grão ou talo desorgo através da utilização do pré tratamento da amostra, têm sido de grande importância, pois trata-se de transformar biomassabasicamente celulósica em açúcares fermentáveis. Genótipos superiores de sorgo sacarino para produção de etanol são de sumaimportância, assim como processos mais adequados à conversão de açúcares em etanol. A lignina, tóxica frente aosmicrorganismos, impede a conversão da lignocelulose em etanol. A conversão de compostos lignocelulósicos a etanol baseia-seem: hidrólise da celulose produzindo açúcares simples e fermentação destes açúcares a etanol por via microbiológica.Abstract Replacing the use of gasoline by ethanol invehicles reduces by 90% the emission of CO2 which justifiesthe interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy.Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet therehave been given emphasis to sweet sorghum (Sorghumbicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol

  16. Biorremediation of soil polluted by 75000 ppm of waste motor oil applying biostimulation and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare and Bacillus cereus or Burkholderia cepacia

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    Balderas-León Iván

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste motor oil (WMO pollutes soil and causing lost soil fertility. An alternative to solve this problem its bioremediation (BR by double and following biostimulation (BS with mineral solution (MS and a legume as green manure (GM then using phytoremediation (PR with growth promoting vegetal bacteria (GPVB like Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia to minimize remaining WMO. The aims of this research were: a bioremediation of polluted soil by 75000 ppm of WMO by biostimulation and then b Its phytoremediation for remaining WMO by Sorghum vulgare inoculated with B. cereus and B. cepacia. Soil polluted by high concentration WMO was biostimulated with MS, and then Phaseolus vulgaris treated by GPVB was incorporated as GM, finally to apply PR to eliminate WMO with S. vulgare with GPVB. Results indicate that soil bioremediated by biostimulation with MS, WMO decreased at 32500 ppm/30 days, and then with GM, WMO was reduced at 10100 ppm after/90 days. Finally, to apply phytoremediation using S. vulgare and GPVB at flowering, WMO was reduced from 2500 ppm to 800 ppm. For recovering soil impacted by high concentration WMO to apply both techniques double and following BS and PR are the best option than each technique separately.

  17. Xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench na alimentação de vacas leiteiras Replacement of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench with a columnar cactus (Pilosocereus gounellei (A. Weber ex K. Schum. Byl ex Rowl. on diets of lactating dairy cows

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    José Geraldo Medeiros da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho de vacas da raça Pardo-suíça em lactação e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas contendo níveis de 0; 12,5; 25; 37,5 e 50% de xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench foram avaliados utilizando-se cinco vacas com peso vivo (PV médio de 520 kg e produção média diária de 15 kg de leite. O delineamento experimental foi em quadrado latino (5x5 e constou de cinco animais, cinco períodos e cinco níveis de inclusão de xiquexique na dieta. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias ( dez destinados à adaptação dos animais às dietas e sete para coleta. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, em kg/dia, % e em unidade de tamanho metabólico (g/kg0,75, de matéria orgânica (MO, de proteína bruta (PB e de carboidratos totais (CHT, em kg/dia, não foram influenciados pela inclusão de xiquexique na dieta, apresentando valores médios de 15,21; 2,83; 136,10; 13,64; 1,64 e 11,48 kg respectivamente. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, extrato etéreo (EE e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, em kg/dia, diminuíram, enquanto o de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, em kg/dia, elevou linearmente com a inclusão de xiquexique na dieta. A inclusão de xiquexique na dieta não influenciou as digestibilidades de matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, extrato etéreo (DAEE, fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN e dos carboidratos totais (DACHT. Não houve efeito da inclusão de xiquexique na dieta sobre a produção (média de 14,80 kg/dia e na composição química do leite e a eficiência alimentar (kg de leite produzido/kg de MS consumida.Five lactating Brown-Swiss cows averaging 520 kg of body weight (BW and 15 kg of milk yield were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square to study the effects of replacing sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench with a columnar cactus known as xiquexique (Pilosocereus

  18. Impact of Brewery Waste Sludge on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench Productivity and Soil Fertility in Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Nano Alemu Daba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on farmers' field in sofi district of Harari Regional State during 2013/2014 main cropping season, eastern Ethiopia, to investigate the impact of brewery sludge on sorghum production and soil fertility. The treatments comprised seven levels of brewery sludges (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0 t ha-1 and NP inorganic fertilizer at recommended rate, arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. Application of brewery sludge at 15 t ha-1 significantly increased the yield and biomass yield of sorghum by 79 and 85% over control and by 57 and 67% over NP application, respectively. There was no effect of brewery sludge application on heavy metals concentrations in soil after crop harvest, compared to international standard tolerable level. Co and Se levels were high in the control as well as in the soils treated with brewery sludge indicating the already high concentration of these heavy metals in the soils of the area. Plots, which received higher brewery sludge application, resulted in decreased or less percentage of grain nitrogen content showing the independence of grain protein content on lower brewery sludge level. The nitrogen uptake by sorghum grain, straw and the total was maximum (52.68, 44.25 and 79.03 kg ha-1, respectively with the application of brewery waste sludge at 10 and 15 t ha-1 which were significantly higher than the other brewery sludge and NP mineral fertilizer applications.

  19. Formación de embriones somáticos a partir de semillas inmaduras en Sorghum bicolor variedad CIAP 132-R

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    Mayelín Rodríguez Urquiza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Existen varios protocolos de regeneración de plantas vía embriogénesis somática de Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, sin embargo los porcentajes de formación de callos con estructuras embriogénicas y regeneración de plantas son bajos. Es por ello que esta investigación tuvo como objetivo generar embriones somáticos en sorgo rojo variedad  CIAP 132-R. Se ensayaron diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D para la formación de callos, así como tres concentraciones de ácido ascórbico para eliminar la exudación de compuestos fenólicos por el explante. También para la formación de los embriones somáticos a partir de los callos se evaluaron diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D y 6-BAP. El mayor porcentaje de formación de callos (57.5 % se alcanzó con 18.1 µM de 2,4-D. Con la adición al medio de cultivo de 50.0 mg.l-1 de ácido ascórbico fue posible eliminar los compuestos fenólicos en el explante y en el medio de cultivo, además permitió incrementar el porcentaje de formación de callos con estructuras embriogénicas hasta un 95 %. El número mayor de embriones somáticos por callo se alcanzó en el medio de cultivo con concentraciones de 4,52 µM de 2,4-D, combinada con 2,22 µM de 6-BAP. Por primera vez, se logró la formación eficiente de embriones somáticos a partir de los callos obtenidos de semillas inmaduras  germinadas como explante inicial en la variedad CIAP 132-R.ABSTRACTSeveral protocols of plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench have been development, however the percentage of calluses with embryogenic structures and plant regeneration are low. Therefore this study aimed to generate somatic embryos in red sorghum variety CIAP 132-R. Different concentrations of 2,4-D for callus formation, and three concentrations of ascorbic acid to remove phenolics exudation were assayed by explant. For the formation of embryos different concentrations of 2,4-D and 6-BAP were evaluated. The highest

  20. Biological aspects of Eriopis connexa (Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed on different insect pests of maize (Zea mays L. and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench.

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    RB Silva

    Full Text Available Eriopis connexa (Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae occurs in several countries of South America and its mass rearing is important for biological control programmes. This work evaluated biological aspects of E. connexa larva fed on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae frozen for one day, fresh eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, S. frugiperda newly-hatched caterpillars, nymphs of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Duration of larva, pupa and larva to adult stages differed among prey offered, whereas the prepupa stage was similar. Larva, pupa, prepupa and larva to adult viabilities were equal or major of 87.5% in all prey, except for larva fed on newly-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda. Eriopis connexa has good adaptation to different prey corroborating its polyphagous feeding habit, which evidences the potential of this natural enemy for controlling corn and sorghum pests.

  1. Phytoextraction of toxic trace elements by Sorghum bicolor inoculated with Streptomyces pactum (Act12) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Guo, Di; Mahar, Amanullah; Wang, Ping; Ma, Fang; Shen, Feng; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-05-01

    The increasing industrial, mining and agricultural activities have intensified the release of potential toxic trace elements (PTEs), which are of great concern to human health and environment. The alarming increase in PTEs concentration, stress the need for biotechnological remediation approaches. In order to assist phytoextraction of PTEs, different combinations of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) with biochar were applied to mining and industrial polluted soils of Shaanxi and Hunan Provinces of China, respectively. Act12 affected soil physico-chemical properties in both soils. Bioavailable Zn and Pb increased due to microbial activities, while Cd decreased by adsorption on biochar surface. Phytoextraction of Zn and Pb occurred in TG and CZ soil, while Cd uptake decreased in iron rich CZ soil by conflicting effect of siderophores. Cd in sorghum shoot was below detection level, but uptake increased in the roots due to minimum available fraction in TG soil. Biochar reduced the shoot and root uptake of Cd. Sorghum shoot, root dry weight and chlorophyll significantly increased after Act12 and biochar application. β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities were significantly enhanced by Act12. Antioxidant enzymatic activities (POD, PAL and PPO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were decreased after the application of Act12 and biochar by reduced PTEs stress. Act12 and biochar can be used for different crops to enumerate the transfer rate of PTEs into the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em Substituição à Silagem de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench na Alimentação de Vacas Leiteiras Replacement of Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for Sorghum Silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the Dairy Cows Feeding

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    Walmir Lima Wanderley

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Foram utilizadas oito vacas distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4x4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo 14 destinados à adaptação dos animais às rações e sete para coleta. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, em kg/dia, % de PV e em relação ao peso metabólico (g/kg0,75, e matéria orgânica e carboidratos totais, expressos em kg/dia, não foram influenciados pela adição de palma na ração, apresentando valores médios de 20,18; 3,41; 167,80; 18,86; e 14,85, respectivamente. O consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos, em kg/dia, aumentou, e os de fibra em detergente neutro, em kg/dia e % de PV, fibra em detergente ácido; proteína bruta e extrato etéreo, expressos em kg/dia, diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão de palma na ração. O consumo de sódio não foi influenciado pela adição de palma na ração, com valor médio de 29,45g/dia. Os consumos de potássio e magnésio aumentaram e o de fósforo diminuiu linearmente com a adição de palma na ração. Não houve efeito da inclusão de palma sobre a produção de leite com e sem correção para 3,5% de gordura, cujos valores médios foram de 25,01 e 26,97kg/dia, respectivamente. O teor de gordura do leite foi influenciado de forma quadrática, sendo o teor máximo estimado em 4,08%, com 20,51% de palma na ração. A conversão alimentar aumentou linearmente com a inclusão de palma.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0, 12, 24 and 36% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Eight cows were assigned to a two 4x4 latin

  3. Selección de cultivares forrajeros de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor y mijo (Pennisetum americanum por índices de eficiencia de producción y calidad

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    Jaime Ru\\u00EDz Vega

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar cultivares de sorgo y mijo forrajeros con alta eficienciade producción de materia seca y calidad para condiciones deriego restringido, situación cada vez mas frecuente debido alabatimiento de los niveles freáticos en el período primavera-verano, se sembraron el 23 de marzo de 1998 en Santa CruzXoxocotlán, Oaxaca, México, seis variedades comerciales desorgo forrajero (Sorghum bicolor y una de mijo perla (Pennisetum americanum, además de seis líneas de mijo perla provenientes del International Crop Research Institute for the Semiarid Tropics (ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. Apartir de losdatos de producción de materia seca, se generaron dos índices,uno llamado de productividad modificado (IPM y otro de productividad (IP, para facilitar la selección de materiales. ElIPM superó al IPen su capacidad para discriminar los materiales por mayor eficiencia de producción de forraje de calidad.En promedio, los genotipos de sorgo fueron más eficientes para producir materia seca, especialmente Sweet Sioux y Domor,este último caracterizado por mostrar poca variación entre cortes. Sin embargo, los mijos NELC C4 y ICMH 423, podríanser utilizados por campesinos que dispongan de menos agua ytengan urgencia de forraje, dada su alta eficiencia de producción de materia seca de buena calidad en el primer corte.

  4. Medicinal herbs Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC., Casuarina equisetifolia L. and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench protect human cells from MPP+ damage via inducing FBXO7 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung-Mei; Chen, I-Cheng; Chen, Ying-Lin; Lin, Te-Hsien; Chen, Wan-Ling; Chao, Chih-Ying; Wu, Yih-Ru; Lu, Yeah-Ting; Lee, Cheng-Yu; Chien, Hong-Chi; Chen, Ting-Shou; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2016-11-15

    The F-box protein 7 (FBXO7) mutations have been identified in families with early-onset parkinsonism and pyramidal tract signs, and designated as PARK15. In addition, FBXO7 mutations were found in typical and young onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Evidence has also shown that FBXO7 plays an important role in the development of dopaminergic neurons and increased stability and overexpression of FBXO7 may be beneficial to PD. We screened extracts of medicinal herbs to enhance FBXO7 expression for neuroprotection in MPP+-treated cells. Promoter reporter assay in HEK-293 cells was used to examine the cis/trans elements controlling FBXO7 expression and to screen extracts of medicinal herbs enhancing FBXO7 expression. MTT assay was performed to assess cell viability of MPP+-treated HEK-293/SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, proteasome activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and FBXO7/TRAF2/GATA2 protein expression were evaluated. We demonstrated that -202--57 region of the FBXO7 promoter is likely to contain sequences that are bound by positive trans protein factors to activate FBXO7 expression and GATA2 is the main trans protein factor enhancing FBXO7 expression. Extracts of medicinal herbs Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC. (Umbelliferae), Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarinaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Gramineae) improved cell viability of both MPP+-treated HEK-293 and SH-SY5Y cells, rescued proteasome activity in MPP+-treated HEK-293 cells, and restored mitochondrial membrane potential in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These protection effects of herbal extracts are acting through enhancing FBXO7 and decreasing TRAF2 expression, which is probably mediated by GATA2 induction. Collectively, our study provides new targets, FBXO7 and its regulator GATA2, for the development of potential treatments of PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of Sorghum bicolor L. to Residual Phosphate on Two Contrasting Soils Previously Planted to Cowpea or Maize

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    Tola Omolayo Olasunkanmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper fertilizer nutrient management through adequate utilization of the residual value coupled with healthy crop rotation contributes significantly to sustainable crop production. This study was conducted to evaluate the direct and residual effects of two rock phosphate (RP materials on two contrasting soils previously planted with either the cereal crop or the leguminous crop. The effectiveness of the RP materials as substitute for the conventional P fertilizers was evaluated using single superphosphate as reference at the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiments were 2 × 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design. The test crops in the first cropping performed better on the slightly acidic loamy sand than on the strongly acidic sandy clay loam. Performance of each crop was improved by P supply in the first and second cropping. Single superphosphate proved to be more efficient than the RPs in the first cropping but not as effective as MRP in the second cropping. In the second cropping, sorghum performed better on the soil previously cropped to cowpea while Morocco RP had the highest residual effect among the P-fertilizer sources. It is evident that rock phosphates are better substitutes to the conventional phosphorus fertilizers due to their long term residual effect in soils. The positive effects of healthy rotation of crops as well as the negative effects of low soil pH are also quite obvious.

  6. Choline metabolism in glycinebetaine accumulating and non-accumulating near-isogenic lines of Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Gregory J; Mickelbart, Michael V; Rhodes, David

    2010-03-01

    Glycinebetaine (GB) is a compatible solute that is accumulated by some plant species, especially under conditions leading to tissue osmotic stress. Genetic modification for accumulation of GB in an attempt to produce more stress tolerant plants has been a focus for several groups in recent years. However, attempts to increase tissue GB concentrations have been unsuccessful, with many transgenic lines accumulating far lower concentrations than naturally-occurring GB accumulators. A better understanding of the metabolic regulation of GB synthesis is necessary for successful molecular breeding and biotechnology. We utilized previously developed near-isogenic lines for GB accumulation to characterize the biochemical basis for GB deficiency in maize and sorghum. Salinity resulted in increased accumulation of choline in both accumulating and non-accumulating lines. When grown in the presence of NaCl, GB-non-accumulating lines had increased concentrations of choline and phosphocholine, but not GB. Decreased GB synthesis can be explained from the increased concentrations of phosphocholine in planta and the strong inhibition of N-phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase by phosphocholine observed in vitro. The lack of GB accumulation in GB-/- homozygous NILs was not due to the lack of the putative choline monooxygenase (the enzyme responsible for choline oxidation to betaine aldehyde) gene or protein that we describe. The previously identified bet1 locus does not appear to be choline monooxygenase. However, the lack of GB synthesis does affect the synthesis and turnover of choline moieties in GB non-accumulating lines, which may lead to alterations in overall 1-carbon metabolism in plants. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of fluoride effects on germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max and Sorghum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Lupo, Maela; Dri, Nicolas; Lombarte, Mercedes; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Fluorosis is a disease caused by over-exposure to fluoride (F). Argentina's rural lands have higher fluorine content than urban lands. Evidence confirms that plants grown in fluoridated areas could have higher F content. We compared F uptake and growth of crops grown in different F concentrations. The effect of 0-8 ppm F concentrations on maize, soybeans and sorghum germination and growth was compared. After 6 days seeding, the germination was determined, the roots and aerial parts lengths were measured, and vigor index was calculated. F content was measured in each part of the plants. Controls with equal concentrations of NaCl were carried out. Significant decrease in roots and aerial parts lengths, and in vigor index of maize and soybeans plants was observed with F concentrations greater than 2 ppm. This was not observed in sorghum seedlings. Also, the amount of F in all crops augmented as F increases, being higher in roots and ungerminated seeds. Sorghum was the crop with the highest F content. Fluoride decreased the germination and growth of maize and soybeans and therefore could influence on their production. Conversely, sorghum seems to be resistant to the action of F. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Rétablissement de la capacité de production de sorgho (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench d'un vertisol dégradé dans la région de l'Extrême Nord du Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvondo-Awono, JP.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench production capacity in degraded vertisols in the Far North Region of Cameroon. In Northern Cameroon, degraded soils represent 10 to 20% of arable land. Recovering the production capacity of these degraded soils is one of the main challenges faced by agriculture in the region. The objective of the present study, conducted from 2007 to 2009, was to examine the possibility of growing sorghum on degraded and bare vertisols. A combination of the following techniques was used in a randomized complete block design: two land preparation techniques (plowing or mounding, two levels of cow dung dust (6 or 12 t·ha-1 and three rates of urea application (0, 50 or 100 kg·ha-1. The soil was sampled at a depth of up to 25 cm and was analyzed for its properties following standard analytical procedures. Critical levels established for tropical soils were used to declare sufficiency or deficiency of soil nutrients within the samples. Sorghum straw and grain yields were obtained and analyzed. Soil characteristics were found to be similar to those of other degraded vertisols found in the Far North Region of Cameroon. The hard top soil layer was found to be unfavorable to the establishment of sorghum. On the other hand, levels of organic carbon (0.85% and the sum of cations (4.91 meq·100 g-1 of soil were found to be favorable. The ratio of cations was found to be unfavorable to Ca. Available phosphorus (5.35 mg·kg-1 of soil and total N (0.04 g·kg-1 were very low. Following the application of treatments, 2.4 to 3.5 t·ha-1 of sorghum straw were produced and 1.3 to 2.8 t·ha-1 of grain were harvested during the experimental period. Soil plowing and mounding successfully disturbed the hard top soil layer. Soil mounding resulted into in a 16% increase in straw production in comparison with soil plowing alone. The application of 12 t·ha-1 of cow dung dust produced an additional grain yield of 17% in 2008 and of 39% in

  10. Características fisicoquímicas de nueve híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) y su relación con el contenido de almidón y digestión ruminal

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Villarreal-Silva; Francisco Castrejón Pineda; Alejandro Plascencia; Lourdes Carolina Pujol; Alfredo Estrada-Angulo; Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón; Jesús Manuel Cortez Sánchez; Manuel Cuca-García; Luis Corona

    2015-01-01

    Nueve híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) se analizaron para determinar la relación de suscaracterísticas físicas [materia seca (MS), peso de mil granos (PMG), tamaño de partícula (TP), densidad relativa(DR), superficie de área (SA), partículas por gramo (PPG), endospermo duro (END-DU), endospermo blando (ENDBL)];y químicas [nitrógeno total (NT), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), contenidode almidón (ALM), almidón soluble (AlmS), almidón insoluble (AlmNS)....

  11. Sugarcane aphid spatial distribution in grain sorghum fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is an important summer grain crop in the United States. In 2014, the U.S. produced 432 million bushels of sorghum valued at $1.67 billion on more than 6 million acres. The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), was discovered in damaging numbers in grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor ...

  12. Spatial arrangement, population density and legume species effect of yield of forage sorghum-legume intercropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a stress tolerant forage crop grown extensively in the Southern High Plains. However, sorghum forage quality is lower than that of corn. Intercropping sorghum with legumes can improve quality and productivity of forage. However, tall statured sorghum limits the resources...

  13. inheritance of resistance to turcicum leaf blight in sorghum abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Key Words: Exserohilum turcicum, Sorghum bicolor, transgressive segregation, Uganda. RÉSUMÉ. Le sorgho (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) a une importance socio-économique mondiale et est un modèle d'espèce botanique pour beaucoup d'herbes tropicales avec des génômes complexes. La culture est fréquemment ...

  14. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

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    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants� growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  15. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  16. Atividade residual de (imazethapyr+imazapic para sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor semeado em rotação com o arroz irrigado Field persistence of (imazethapyr+imazapic to grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor planted in rotation after irrigated rice

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    J.J.O Pinto

    2009-12-01

    áveis ao sorgo cultivado em safra subsequente ao arroz.The objective of this research was to evaluate the field persistence of the herbicide Only (imazethapyr+imazapic, to grain sorghum, planted in rotation after one, two or three years of Clearfield® (CL rice. The field study was carried out at Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Clearfield rice was established as the main crop, Italian ryegrass as a succession crop and grain sorghum, as a rotation crop after CL rice. Except for the first rice crop, all the other cultures were planted as no-till rice. Ryegrass plants were burned down in every experiment using glyphosate (760 g a.e. ha-1. The experimental design was a factorial with treatments arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replications, where factor A was the number of CL rice seasons and B was the herbicide rate. The rice cultivar was IRGA 422 CL, and the herbicide treatments were Only (imazethapyr+imazapic at 0; (75+25; (112.5+37.5 and (150+50 g ha-1. Adjuvant Dash was added to the herbicide at 0.5% v/v. The experiments were labeled as A1, A2 or A3, respectively, for one, two or three years of CL rice. Grain sorghum, cv. BR 304, was planted as a bioindicator of herbicide residue. The following parameters were evaluated: plant population, plant height; above ground biomass, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. As for grain sorghum plant height and 1000-seed weight, an interaction was observed between the different environments (years of CL rice and herbicide rate (imazethapyr+imazapic. For the other parameters, only effect for herbicide rat was detected. The results suggested that all grain sorghum parameters were affected by the herbicides (imazethapyr+ imazapic in the soil. Grain sorghum injury increased with herbicide rate. In conclusion, grain sorghum, planted in rotation with rice is affected by the residue of the herbicide Only (imazethapyr+imazapic applied to Clearfield® rice.

  17. Consumo e Digestibilidade Aparente das Silagens de Milho (Zea mays L., Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench e Girassol (Helianthus annuus L. Intake and Apparent Digestibility of Corn (Zea mays L., Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o consumo médio diário (CMD e o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos nutrientes das silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol, em ovinos, e avaliar o balanço de nitrogênio. Foram utilizados nove ovinos machos, castrados, em um delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 (três tratamentos e três períodos, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas. O CMD de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e proteína bruta (PB das silagens de milho e girassol não diferiram entre si. O CMD de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e extrato etéreo (EE foram maiores para as silagens de milho e girassol, respectivamente. Os CDA da MS e EE foram maiores para a silagem de girassol e menores para a silagem de sorgo. Os CDA da FDN e PB foram similares para todas as silagens.The experiment was carried out with the objective of determining the daily average intake (DAI and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages nutrients. The nitrogen balance was also evaluated. Nine castrated, male sheeps, kept in metabolism cages, in a 3 x 3 (three treatments and three periods, latin square design, were used. DAI of dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP of corn silage of sunflower silage did not differ. DAI of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and ether extract (EE were higher in corn and sunflower silages, respectively. ADC of DM and EE were higher in sunflower silage than in sorghum silage. ADC of NDF and CP were similar for all silages.

  18. Palha de soja (Glycine max como substituto parcial da silagem de sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor ( L. Moench na alimentação de terneiros de corte confinados Soybean straw (Glycine max as a partial substitute of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the feeding of confined calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a utilização da palha de soja como substituto parcial da silagem de sorgo forrageiro na fração volumosa da dieta de terneiros confinados, sendo testados os seguintes tratamentos: T0 constituído por 100% de silagem de sorgo; T33 constituído por 66,67% de silagem de sorgo, mais 33,33% de feno de palha de soja; T66 constituído por 33,33% de silagem de sorgo, mais 66,67% de feno de palha de soja. As dietas foram fornecidas durante 77 dias para terneiros cruzas Charolês-Nelore com peso e idade média inicial de 165,6kg e 11 meses, respectivamente. A dieta alimentar foi isonitrogenada com 14% de proteína bruta (PB na matéria seca (MS, sendo 20% suprida na forma de uréia. A relação volumoso:concentrado com base na MS, foi de 70:30. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão sendo obtidas as seguintes equações de regressão: para ganho de peso médio diário em kg (GMD = 1,166273 - 0,00186 PI (peso inicial - 0,00351 NS (nível de substituição; consumo médio diário de MS em kg/100 kg peso vivo/dia (CMSPPV = 2,284983 + 0,002679 PI - 0,002303 NS; consumo médio diário de energia digestível Mcal/100kg peso vivo/dia (CEDPPV = 5,709589 + 0,010964 PI - 0,018736 NS; conversão alimentar (CA = - 4,426857 + 0,064579 PI + 0,023165 NS. Verificou-se que a cada aumento de 1% na substituição da silagem de sorgo por feno de palha de soja, ocorreu um decréscimo de 3,51g no GMD e 2,3g no CMSPPV, enquanto que a conversão alimentar piorou em 0,023 unidades. O aumento na proporção de palha de soja na dieta em substituição à silagem de sorgo resultou em um decréscimo linear no desempenho dos animais. No entanto, mesmo no maior nível de substituição, o ganho de peso médio diário foi satisfatório.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the use of soybean straw as partial substitute for sorghum silage in the roughage fraction of the diet of confined calves, being tested the following

  19. Root-shoot growth interactions of sorghmn ( Sorghwn Bicolor L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual pregerminated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seeds cultivar ICSV-I12 were grown for 8 days in a growth room in seven replicate cylinders per treatment. Treatments were: (a) impeded root and impeded shoot (II), (b) impeded root and unimpeded shoot (lU), (c) unimpeded root and impeded shoot (UI), and ...

  20. Pengaruh Inokulasi Mikoriza Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Beberapa Varietas Tanaman Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) pada Gawangan Tanaman Karet TBM I

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to study effect of some dosage mycorrhrizae inoculation for growth and production of some sorghum varieties under the immatured plants 1 of rubber land. This research was conducted at Sungei Putih Research Center, Galang district, Nort Sumatera Province from October 2014 – January 2015, using group random design with varieties (numbu and kawali) and Mycorrhizae inoculation (0 gram, 10 gram, 20 gram and 30 gram) with repeated three times. Parameters observed were pl...

  1. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

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    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  2. Evaluation of the use of organic acids in the conservation of sorghum grains (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench during storage/ Avaliação do uso de ácidos orgânicos na conservação de grãos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench durante o armazenamento

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    Marcelo Zafalon Peter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the use of organic acids in storage of sorghum grains, as an efficient alternative for small and medium producers, that lack structures for artificial drying and technical storage. The grains were stored in bulk in wood boxes, for six months, consisting of five treatments: I dried grains (13.15% of moisture, without incorporation of acids; II humid grains (21,54% of moisture without incorporation of acids; II-A; II-P and II-M, the latter three, with incorporation of acetic acid, propionic and the mixture of both, in the proportion of 1:1, respectively, in the dosis of 2 kg of acid per 100 kg of grains. Evaluation of grains was made at 1, 60, 120 and 180 days of storage, analysing humidity, carboydrate, crude protein, ether extract, ash, volumetric weight and incidence of insects. For the storage of 180 days, under the same environment conditions, it is concluded that: 1 the incorporation of acids at the moment of storage of humid sorghum grains allows superior preservative effects when compared to dry grains; 2 the mixture of acids, showed superior quantitative and qualitative preservative effects of the grains, followed by propionic acid, and acetic, respectively; 3 the storage of humid grains, without addition of acids, does not allow adequate grain conservation, not even for a period lesser than 60 days.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a utilização de ácidos orgânicos no armazenamento de grãos de sorgo, como alternativa eficiente para pequenos e médios produtores, que não dispõem de estruturas de secagem artificial e armazenamento tecnificado. Os grãos foram armazenados a granel, em caixas de madeira, por seis meses, consistindo de cinco tratamentos: I grãos secos (13,15% de umidade, sem incorporação de ácidos; II grãos úmidos (21,54% de umidade, sem incorporação de ácidos; II-A; II-P e II-M, sendo os três últimos grãos úmidos (21,54% de umidade, com incorporação de

  3. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente das frações fibrosas de silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench por ovinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i3.5716 Intake and apparent digestibility of fibrous fractions of forage sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor [L.] moench in sheep - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i3.5716

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    Benjamim de Souza Nahum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho visou avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis (0, 15, 30 e 45% de concentrado, em substituição à silagem de sorgo, no consumo voluntário e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, analisados pelo SAS. Observaram-se consumos de MS (g dia-1 e % peso vivo de 591,79 e 2,6; 709,60 e 3,0; 781,56 e 3,3; 798,03 e 3,36; de MO de 553,60; 664,47; 735,86 e 755,10 g dia-1. Os consumos de FDN, em g dia-1, foram de 413,20; 377,62; 365,30 e 345,40; de FDA de 242,38; 220,05; 204,91 e 190,18. Observaram-se CDMS de 48,32; 61,96; 68,12 e 69,77% e CDMO de 50,03; 62,22; 69,12 e 70,50%; CDFDN de 56,68; 46,94; 39,53 e 31,94; CDFDA de 47,02; 42,62; 34,84 e 31,14%; níveis de tanino condensado de 1,08; 0,96; 0,75 e 0,65%; em 0, 15, 30 e 45%, respectivamente. A utilização de 30-45% de concentrado na silagem de sorgo proporciona maior disponibilidade de matéria seca na forragem e elevação do valor nutritivo da ração, capaz de promover aumento da produtividade animal.This research aimed to evaluate the effect of four concentrate levels (0%, 15%, 30% and 45%, in replacement of forage sorghum silage, on voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and four repetitions. The data was analyzed using SAS software. The following results were obtained with 0, 15, 30 and 45% of concentrate, respectively: Observed DM intake levels (g day-1 and % of live weight were 591.79 and 2.6, 709.60 and 3.0, 781.56 and 3.3, and 798.03 and 3.36. For organic matter (OM, the intake levels were 553.60, 664.47, 735.86, and 755.10 g day-1. NDF intake levels (g day-1 were 413.20, 377.62, 365.30, and 345.40; for ADF, they were 242.38, 220.05, 204.91, and 190.18 g day-1. The study

  4. Real-Time Determination of Photosynthesis, Transpiration, Water-Use Efficiency and Gene Expression of Two Sorghum bicolor (Moench Genotypes Subjected to Dry-Down

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    Alessandra Fracasso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and productivity are strongly affected by limited water availability in drought prone environments. The current climate change scenario, characterized by long periods without precipitations followed by short but intense rainfall, forces plants to implement different strategies to cope with drought stress. Understanding how plants use water during periods of limited water availability is of primary importance to identify and select the best adapted genotypes to a certain environment. Two sorghum genotypes IS22330 and IS20351, previously characterized as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes, were subjected to progressive drought stress through a dry-down experiment. A whole-canopy multi-chamber system was used to determine the in vivo water use efficiency (WUE. This system records whole-canopy net photosynthetic and transpiration rate of 12 chambers five times per hour allowing the calculation of whole-canopy instantaneous WUE daily trends. Daily net photosynthesis and transpiration rates were coupled with gene expression dynamics of five drought related genes. Under drought stress, the tolerant genotype increased expression level for all the genes analyzed, whilst the opposite trend was highlighted by the drought sensitive genotype. Correlation between gene expression dynamics and gas exchange measurements allowed to identify three genes as valuable candidate to assess drought tolerance in sorghum.

  5. Mode of coaction between blue/UV light and light absorbed by phytochrome in light-mediated anthocyanin formation in the milo (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmüller, R; Mohr, H

    1985-09-01

    Anthocyanin formation in milo (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) seedlings (coleoptile, mesocotyl, taproot) occurs only in white light and blue/UV light (BL/UV), while red light (RL) and far-RL are totally ineffective. However, after a BL/UV pretreatment, the participation of phytochrome can be demonstrated. With a short-wavelength light source [peak emission in longwave UV (UV-A)], the mode of coaction between BL/UV and light absorbed by phytochrome (RL) was studied with the following principal results. (i) As soon as the seedling becomes competent to respond to UV-A (with regard to anthocyanin formation), the involvement of phytochrome can be detected. (ii) A 5-min pulse of UV-A has a strong effect on the anthocyanin synthesis in the milo mesocotyl. This effect is fully reversible if a long-wavelength far-RL pulse (RG9 light) is given immediately after the UV-A light pulse. (iii) When seedlings treated with 5 min of UV-A and 5 min of RG9 light are kept in darkness for 3 hr and then transferred to RL, anthocyanin appears. (iv) In continuous UV-A treatment, anthocyanin accumulation starts after a lag phase of 3.5 hr (25 degrees C). A RL pretreatment prior to the onset of UV-A treatment strongly increases anthocyanin accumulation in UV-A, though the lag phase is not affected. Moreover, a RL pretreatment does not affect the time course for escape from reversibility in UV-A. It is concluded from these data that BL/UV cannot mediate induction of anthocyanin synthesis in the absence of P(fr), the active form of phytochrome that absorbs maximally in the far-red. Rather, the action of BL/UV must be considered to establish responsiveness of the anthocyanin-producing mechanism to P(fr). P(fr) operates in this system via two different channels. As the effector of the terminal response, it sets in motion the signal-response chain that eventually leads to the appearance of anthocyanin. This is a slow process with a lag phase of the order of 3.5 hr. The second function of P(fr) is to

  6. Effect of Tillage and Fertilizer Practices on Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) production is mainly constrained by soil water and nutrient deficits in northern Ethiopia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of tillage and fertilizer practices on productivity of two sorghum varieties in Abergelle area, northern Ethiopia. The experimental design was ...

  7. Tolerance to Aluminium toxicity in Tanzanian sorghum genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major abiotic constraint on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) production on acid soils in East Africa. Aluminium in acidic soil inhibits water and mineral uptake from and consequently, reduces plant vigour and yield. A study was done to determine genetic diversity of Tanzania's sorghum ...

  8. sorghum head bug infestation and mould infection on the grain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-01

    Aug 1, 2017 ... Biotechnology 26:64 -69. Das, I.K. and Govardhan, C. 2015. Minimization of floret infection by fungi causing grain mold in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) through use of fungicides. Indian. Phytopathology 68 (1): 67-72. Forbes, G.A., Bandyopadhyay, R. and Garcia,. G. 1992. A review of sorghum grain mould, ...

  9. Chapter 15- Improving water management in sorghum cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is a drought tolerant crop that has been grown across the American Great Plains since the early 20th century, primarily as a feed crop. Physiologically, grain sorghum is well adapted to the semi-arid U.S. Great Plains because it can withstand periods of wa...

  10. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are...

  11. Potentials and Prospects of Sorghum Allelopathy in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promising allelopathic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] opens a fruitful area of research to exploit this phenomenon in weed control and regulation of nutrient cycle. The data suggests that sorghum allelopathy can be exploited in different cropping practices such as cover crop,...

  12. Mapping and characterisation of the sorghum cell suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we reported the first secretomic study of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a naturally drought tolerant cereal crop. In this study, we used a gel-based proteomic approach in combination with mass spectrometry to separate and identify proteins secreted into the culture medium of sorghum cell suspensions, a first step ...

  13. Efecto de la inoculación con rizobios procedentes de Alberta, Canadá, en sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, en condiciones de campo Effect of the inoculation with rhizobia from Alberta, Canada, in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J Bécquer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento de campo con el objetivo de medir el efecto de cepas de rizobio en las variables agronómicas del sorgo, en las condiciones ambientales de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Se utilizaron 10 cepas de Sinorhizobium meliloti, procedentes de ecosistemas ganaderos de Alberta, Canadá; así como cuatro cepas de referencia pertenecientes a diferentes géneros y especies de rizobio, que procedían de la colección de Agriculture and AgriFood Canada. La confección de los inóculos y la inoculación de las semillas se realizaron por métodos estándar. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con 16 tratamientos y cuatro réplicas. Se evaluó el peso seco aéreo, la longitud del tallo y la longitud de la panoja; además, se calculó el incremento del peso seco aéreo en los tratamientos inoculados con relación al control absoluto. Los resultados demostraron la capacidad de las cepas estudiadas de influir en las variables agronómicas, ya que los tratamientos seleccionados igualaron sus valores a los del control fertilizado y presentaron un incremento de más del 100% del peso seco aéreo, comparado con el control absoluto.A field trial was conducted with the objective of measuring the effect of rhizobium strains on the agronomic variables of sorghum under the environmental conditions of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. Ten Sinorhizobium meliloti strains, from livestock production ecosystems of Alberta, Canada, were used; as well as four reference strains belonging to different rhizobium genera and strains, which were from the collection of Agriculture and AgriFood Canada. The inoculi confection and seed inoculation were made by standard methods. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and four replications. The dry aerial weight, stem length and ear length were evaluated; in addition, the increase of aerial dry weight was calculated in the inoculated treatments as compared to the absolute control. The results

  14. Photoperiodiciteit bij Sorghum vulgare Pers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulemans, N.C.

    1959-01-01

    Great millet of 35 varieties from several tropical and subtropical countries were tested for response to photoperiod. Some were analysed and measured extensively with photoperiods ranging from 5 to 24 h in a 24-h day. The development of the growing point was observed in relation to duration of

  15. Características agronômicas e composição química de oito híbridos de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of eight sorghum hybrids [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio dos Santos Pedreira

    2003-10-01

    sugeriu o agrupamento dos híbridos de maior PMS e menores porcentagens de panícula e NDT e híbridos de menor PMS, porém com maiores porcentagens de panícula e NDT.This research was developed to evaluate the agronomic characteristics, chemical composition of the whole plants and their fractions of eight sorghum hybrids, to identify the adapted plants to dry environmental conditions and appropriated to silage production. The experiment was conducted according to a randomized block design, with eight treatments and three replications, to study the commercial hybrids AG-2005, BR-700 and MASSA-03, and the non commercial hybrids 498111, 65E3, 698005, 698007 and 699005. There were no significant differences among hybrids in relation to the plant height, dry matter production and leaf proportion, it was observed highest stem content (43.3% in the 498111 hybrid and lowest in the MASSA-03 (29.9%. The 65E3 showed highest panicle contents (43.2%, however the lowest value was observed in the 498111 hybrid (28.9%. The contents of dry matter, ashes, hemicellulose, neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen and total digestible nutrients of the whole plant were similar among hybrids. It was observed different values of crude protein ( 6.5 to 8.8%, neutral detergent fiber (57.0 to 70.3%, acid detergent fiber (29.8 to 36.2%, cellulose (25.3 to 31.2% and lignin (3.6 to 5.5% of the hybrids. The content of soluble carbohydrates of hybrid 699005 (14.5% was higher than the 698007 (9.6%. The hybrids showed differences on chemical composition of the leaf, stem, and panicle fractions. The dry matter and soluble carbohydrates contents of all hybrids were appropriate to the ensilage process. The average dry matter yield of all hybrids was 6.2 t/ha. This value was high considering the low rainfall during the experimental period. The Cluster analyses suggest a group of the sorghum hybrids with higher dry matter production (DMP, lower panicle percentage, and TDN

  16. Evaluation of the multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a cost effective crop in semiarid regions, is an underestimated supplement to corn in starch based ethanol production. Twenty three multi-seeded (msd) mutant sorghums and one wild type sorghum BTx623 were evaluated for ethanol production and effect of che...

  17. Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the most important crops in the semiarid regions of the world. One of the important biotic constraints to sorghum production in India is the shoot fly which attacks sorghum at the seedling stage. Identification of the genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ...

  18. Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the most important crops in the semiarid regions of the world. One of the important biotic constraints to sorghum production in India is the shoot fly which attacks sorghum at the seedling stage. Identification of the genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci ...

  19. Análise de vinte genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, de portes médio e alto, pertencentes ao ensaio nacional Analysis of twenty genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench of medium and high status from the national assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Marcelo Cenachi Pesce

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os vinte genótipos de sorgo estudados foram cultivados e ensilados aos 104 dias de idade, em estádio de grão pastoso, em silos de laboratório de "PVC", com 10 cm de diâmetro e 40 cm de comprimento. Os silos foram abertos aos 150 dias após a ensilagem. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado. No material estudado (verde e ensilado, foram determinados os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose, celulose, lignina, cinzas totais, matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e carboidratos solúveis em álcool, que apresentaram valores médios de 61,8; 34,2; 27,5; 29,5; 4,6; 3,8; 25,7; 7,7; e 8,5% no material original e de 55,9; 32,6; 23,3; 28,5; 3,9; 4,0; 27,5; 8,6; e 0,8% nas silagens, respectivamente. Os valores de hemicelulose e celulose diminuíram com a ensilagem, indicando que tais frações forneceram carboidratos adicionais para a fermentação. Os teores de carboidratos solúveis do material original foram altos para todos os genótipos, sendo intensamente consumidos no silo, garantindo bom padrão de fermentação. Nas silagens, os valores de pH foram, em média, 3,5 e os teores de nitrogênio amoniacal, inferiores a 8%, em todos os genótipos. As silagens estudadas apresentaram-se iguais para todas as características pesquisadas.The twenty studied genotypes of sorghum were cultivated and ensiled at 104 days of age, at dough grain phase, using "PVC" lab silos, presenting 10 cm diameter and 40 cm length. The silos were opened at 150 days after ensiling. A completely randomized experimental design was used. In the studied material (fresh and ensiled the values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, total ash, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and alcool soluble carbohydrates were determined. The mean values were of 61.8, 34.2, 27.5, 29.5, 4.6, 3.8, 25.7, 7.7 and 8.5% in the fresh matter and of 55.9, 32.6, 23.3, 28.5, 3.9, 4

  20. Acne vulgar Acne vulgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorivaldo Minelli

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents a study on vulgar or juvenile acne with general considerations about the disease and analyzes the main ethiopathogenie and clinical aspects of it. Finally he considers its treatment. No presente trabalho, apresenta-se um estudo da acne vulgar ou juvenil, tecendo-se considerações gerais sobre essa doença e analisando-se os principais aspectos etiopatogênicos e clínicos da mesma. Aborda-se, finalmente, de modo sucinto, aspectos terapêuticos da moléstia.

  1. Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamics investigation on adsorption of divalent copper using agro-waste biomaterials, Musa acuminata, Casuarina equisetifolia L. and Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokkapati Ramya Prasanthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., Casuarinas fruit powder (CFP, sorghum stem powder (SSP and banana stem powder (BSP were used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic copper(II from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Different factors effecting adsorption capacity were analyzed and the efficiency order was BSP>SSP>CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/D-R/Temkin adsorption isotherm and different models (pseudo-first and second order, Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich, chemisorption primarily involved in the case of CFP and SSP, whereas, simultaneous occurrence of chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of BSP. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have promising role towards removal of Cu(II from industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection.

  2. Evaluación de prácticas culturales en la calidad y productividad de semillas de sorgo hibrido Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz F. Jaime E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar una forma para controlar los hongos Fusarium sp. y Curvularia sp. en la semilla del sorgo Funk 's HW 1758. Se determinó que con altas densidades de siembra y dosis altas de fertilizante se obtienen mejores resultados en producción de semilla, pero los mejores porcentajes de germinación se encontraron con bajas densidades de siembra y baja fertilización. En la aplicación de fungicidas en plantas Carbendazim controló Fusarium sp. y propiconazol Curvularia sp. Aplicaciones de fungicidas (Propiconazol, Carbendazim, Triadimefon y Benomyl más un protectante Mancozeb en parcelas, mostró que Carbendazim más Mancozeb y Propiconazol más Mancozeb presentaron los más altos porcentajes de germinación y los mejores rendimientos. La aplicación de mezclas de fungicidas (Propiconazol más Carbendazim, Propiconazol más Carbendazim más Mancozeb y Carbendazim más Mancozeb en lotes de multiplicación no mostraron resultados positivos.It was made a study to determinate one way to control Fusarium sp. and Curvularia sp. fungus, in sorghum Funk 's HW 1758 seed. It was determinated that with high densities of sowing and high doses of fertilizer is gotten the best results on yield of seed, but the best germination percentages were found with low densities of sowing and low fertilization. Application of fungicides on plants Carbendazim controlled Fusarium sp. and Propiconazol controlled Curvularia sp. Applications of fungicides (Propiconazol, Carbendazim, Triadimefon and Benomyl plus Mancozeb protecting on plots showed that Carbendazim plus Mancozeb and Propiconazol plus Mancozeb showe d the highest porcentage of germination and the best yields. Application of fungicides mixtures in lots of multiplication (Propiconazol plus Carbendazim, Propiconazol plus Carbendazim plus Mancozeb and Carbendazim plus Mancozeb did not show positive results.

  3. CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench SOB TRÊS DOSES DE NITROGÊNIO AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF SORGHUM CULTIVARS AT THREE LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Queiroz Santos Mello

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características agronômicas de quatro cultivares de sorgo forrageiros, submetidas a três doses de nitrogênio, em solo classificado como Latossolo vermelho distrófico argiloso. Utilizou-se o delineamento blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3. As cultivares foram os híbridos CMSXS 762, BRS 610, BR 700 e a variedade BR 506, com três doses de nitrogênio: 50 kg.ha-1, 75 kg.ha-1 e 100 kg.ha-1. A produção de matéria natural, com média geral de 59,31 t.ha-1, diferiu entre as cultivares (teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, porém, não diferiu em função das doses de nitrogênio. A produção de massa seca, com média de 15,17 t.ha-1, não diferiu entre as cultivares, nem entre as doses de N. Já os teores de matéria seca e as porcentagens de panícula e de colmo na matéria natural diferiram tanto entre as cultivares como em função das doses. A altura das plantas, com média geral de 2,39 m, e o teor de matéria seca do colmo diferiram somente entre as cultivares. As cultivares BR 700 e CMSXS 762 apresentaram uma melhor relação entre panícula/colmo/folha e uma maior porcentagem de panícula. E, à medida que se aumentou a dose de nitrogênio, verificou-se maior participação de panícula, com redução na percentagem de colmo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sorgo; adubação nitrogenada; avaliação agronômica.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate characteristics of four forage sorghum cultivars at three levels of nitrogen fertilizer in an Oxisoil. A randomized complete block design in a 4x3 factorial scheme (CMSXS 762, BRS 610, BR 700 and BR 506 hybrid cultivars combined with 50 kg.ha-1, 75 kg.ha-1 and 100 kg.ha-1 nitrogen levels. A Tukey

  4. NEAR-ISOGENIC SORGHUM LINES TO LEAF DISEASES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analyzed, there was no correlation with resistance or susceptibility. It is proposed that tannins, pigments, and pigment precursors are not responsible for disease resistance in these genotypes. Key Words: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, leaf diseases, Puccinia sorghi, resistance, Sorghum bicolor, tannins. RESUME.

  5. Características fisicoquímicas de nueve híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench y su relación con el contenido de almidón y digestión ruminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Villarreal-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nueve híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench se analizaron para determinar la relación de suscaracterísticas físicas [materia seca (MS, peso de mil granos (PMG, tamaño de partícula (TP, densidad relativa(DR, superficie de área (SA, partículas por gramo (PPG, endospermo duro (END-DU, endospermo blando (ENDBL];y químicas [nitrógeno total (NT, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, fibra detergente neutro (FDN, contenidode almidón (ALM, almidón soluble (AlmS, almidón insoluble (AlmNS. La digestión ruminal esperada (DRUMse estimó con las fracciones de AlmS y AlmNS in vitro. El promedio de PMG, TP, DR, SA, PPG y END-DU fuede 24.61 g, 3.17 mm, 1.30 g/cm3, 17.44 cm2/g, 30.33 y 46.68 %, respectivamente El promedio (% de MS, PC,FDN, FDA, ALM, AlmS y AlmNS fue de 92.47, 8.19, 19.17 y 8.30, 69.58, 6.00 y 47.74 respectivamente. Laconcentración de taninos fue baja (0.05 entre las variables físicas o químicas con el contenido total de almidón en el grano;sin embargo las variables densidad relativa y superficie de área, permiten incrementar el poder de predicciónde la digestibilidad ruminal del almidón (DRUM,%= 74.058 - 0.108END-DU + 0.027SA – 5.887DR, R2= 0.77,P<0.05. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, las variedades estudiadas son de dureza intermedia, libres detaninos y con un potencial de digestibilidad ruminal del almidón del 66 %.

  6. Produtividade do Sorgo granífero cv. sacarino e qualidade de produtos formulados isoladamente ou combinados ao caldo de cana-de-açúcar Yield of Sorghum bicolor cv. sacarino and quality of products formulated isolated or combined with sugar cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiara Camelo de Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento produtivo do Sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor L variedade IPA- 467, mediante condições de irrigação e adubação, bem como, a caracterização físico-química da farinha de diferentes tipos de grãos e de rapadura obtida a partir de combinações de caldo de sorgo (CS x caldo de cana (CC. O experimento resultou em uma produção de biomassa, sementes, colmo, caldo, melaço fino e melaço grosso, respectivamente, de: 64t/ha; 3,5t/ha; 46t/ha; 700L/t de colmo; 140L/t de colmo e 90L/t de colmo. A farinha obtida a partir de grãos de sorgo apresenta teor de açúcares totais inferior aos da farinha de trigo. As rapaduras em que o caldo de sorgo foi adicionado nas proporções de 10 e 20%, em associação com o caldo-de-cana, obtiveram maior nível de aceitação, quando comparada à rapadura obtida a partir de 100% de caldo de cana-de-açúcar. A aceitação de rapaduras formuladas a partir 30% de caldo sorgo e 70% de caldo de cana não diferiu de rapaduras obtidas de 100% de caldo de cana.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of Sorghum bicolor var. IPA-467, under irrigation and fertilizer conditions and the physical-chemical characterization of grain flours and 'rapadura' obtained from combinations of sorghum stem juice (SJ x sugar cane juice (CJ. The experiment resulted im biomass production, seeds, stem, juice, thick sugarcane syrup, respectively of 64t/ha; 3,5t/ha, 46t/ha, 700L/t of stem, 140L/t of stem and 90L/t of stem. The total sugars of sorghum grain flour were lower than results reported for wheat flour. 'Rapaduras' in which sorghum juice was used at 10 and 20, in combination of sugar cane juice, had higher acceptance scores, as compared with 'rapadura' obtaned from 100% sugar cane juice. The acceptance of 'rapaduras' formulated from 30% SJ x 70% CJ did not differ from those obtained from 100% CJ.

  7. Effects of Sorghum Malting on Colour, Major Classes of Phenolics and Individual Anthocyanins

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khoddami; Mohammad Mohammadrezaei; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grain contains many health-promoting phytochemicals, including a broad range of phenolic compounds. Malting of cereal grains is known to increase the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients. However, the detailed effects of malting on sorghum grain anthocyanins, a major class of phenolics that influence the taste and colour of sorghum-based foods, requires further investigation. Eight commercial sorghum hybrids harvested from three regions in eastern Australia w...

  8. Biological and water-use efficiencies of sorghum-groundnut intercrop

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to compare water-use efficiency of sole crops and intercrops, 2 experiments were conducted in 2 consecutive years with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on a loamy, Grossarenic Paleudult. In a randomized block, split-plot design, sorghum (SS), groundnut (GG), ...

  9. Problems, control, and opportunity of starch in the large scale processing of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) crops are members of the grass (Poaceae) family, and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars. The extracted juice from both of these crops contains insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. ...

  10. Tolerance of sweet sorghum to Meloidogyne incognita and crop effect on nematode population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a sugar-producing crop that can be used for biofuel and plastics production, and the crop could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet sorghum yield and sugar content has not been reported. Beca...

  11. The environment strongly affects estimates of heterosis in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has potential as a biofuel feedstock but hybrid cultivars are needed to support an industry based on this crop. The purpose of this study was to compare five inbred sweet sorghum lines and 15 hybrids derived from them, and to determine the extent of envir...

  12. A survey of on-farm seed production practices of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the important cereal crops utilized worldwide for human food, animal feed and to a lesser extent as a raw material in commercial food industries. The crop is a strategic commodity for food security, particularly in harsh environments. In Kenya, sorghum is an important crop ...

  13. An economic analysis of sweet sorghum cultivation for ethanol production in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Ren, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a promising non-food energy crop. The objective of this study was to determine the economic costs and input sensitivity of sweet sorghum compared to cotton, maize, and sunflower, at two saline-alkali sites in Shandong (Wudi County) and Inner Mongolia

  14. Performance of elite grain sorghum varieties in the West Nile Agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the fifth most important cereal in the world and third most important cereal crop in Uganda. In the West Nile region of Uganda, it is the most important cereal crop. Ten pre-released sorghum varieties, acquired from the National Semi-. Arid Resources Research Institute, were ...

  15. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid. (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave.

  16. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  17. Assessment of yield stability in sorghum | Adugna | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)) is the third major cereal crop in Ethiopia in terms of area and production next to tef (Eragrostis tef) and maize (Zea mays). It is the major crop in drought stressed lowland areas that cover 66% of the total arable land in the country. Yield stability is one of the setbacks facing plant ...

  18. (SNP) mining of Sorghum bicolor genome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... SNPs are important tools in studying complex genetic traits and genome evolution. SNP mining ... In the present study, online SNP and allele detection tool HaploSNPer. (based on QualitySNP pipeline) ... some was provided to the computer program as input for cutting the large sequence into small parts.

  19. (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) SEEDS PLANTED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... ICARDA, Aleppo, 1986:55-72. 17. International Rules for Seed Testing (ISTA), Basserdorf, Switzerland, 2004. 18. Nicols MA and A Heydecker Proceedings of the International Seed Testing. Association, 1968; 33: 531-540. 19. The Constitution of Kenya “The Seeds and Plant Varieties Act, Chapter 326.

  20. Parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta das silagens de seis genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, com e sem tanino no grão, avaliados pela técnica in situ Potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, with or without tannin on grain, evaluated by in situ technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio Ribeiro Molina

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para testar o efeito da presença de tanino no grão sobre os parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca e da proteína bruta de seis genótipos de sorgo para silagem, foi conduzido um experimento utilizando a técnica da degradabilidade in situ. Quatro novilhos canulados no rúmen, alimentados individualmente, duas vezes ao dia ad libitum com feno de Tifton 85, foram utilizados para a incubação de silagens de sorgo no estádio de grão leitoso, pertencentes a seis genótipos: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601e AG 2006 (sem tanino no grão; BR 700 e BR 701 (com tanino. Foram incubadas 5 g de amostra nos tempos de incubação: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. O tempo zero (t0 foi utilizado para cálculo da fração solúvel. A presença do tanino reduziu a extensão de degradação da matéria seca e da proteína bruta nas silagens de sorgo BR 700 e BR 701. As degradabilidades potenciais destes nutrientes foram influenciada pelo tanino. Não foi observado efeito depressivo do tanino sobre as taxas de degradação para nenhum nutriente, em nenhuma silagem testada.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of tannin on grain over potential degradability parameters of the dry matter and crude protein of six sorghum silage genotypes by in situ technique. It was used four crossbred steers, canulated in rumen, fed ad libitum twice at day with a diet comprised by Cynodon dactylon hay. Six sorghum silage genotypes, harvested at milk stage, were incubated in the rumen: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601, and AG 2006 (without tannin on grain; BR 700, and BR 701 (with tannin on grain. Five grams of samples were incubated at times: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The time zero (t0 was used to calculate the soluble fraction. Tannin decrease the extent of degradation of dry matter and crude protein of BR 700 and BR 701 sorghum silages. The potential degradabilities of these nutrients were reduced by tannin presence on grain. There was not effect of tannin

  1. Transgenic sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) developed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In planta and ex planta C. sublineolum infection assays were carried out using one-week old seedlings to determine tolerance to anthracnose. Seedlings from a transgenic line, KOSA-1, were found to be significantly more tolerant to anthracnose than the parent wild type, KAT 412. The transgenic line was further compared ...

  2. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sion and inheritance of the transgene. These results indicate the feasibility of the method to generate transgenics with pCAM- ... deficit. Osmoprotectants include amino acids, quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulphonium ... bacteria, yeast, invertebrates and resurrection plants (Delorge et al. 2014). Trehalose, which is ...

  3. Parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial dos componentes da parede celular das silagens de seis genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, na presença ou ausência de tanino no grão, avaliados pela técnica "in situ" Potential degradability parameters of the cell wall compounds of six sorghum silage genotypes (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, with or without tannin on grain, evaluated by "in situ" technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio Rribeiro Molina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Para testar o efeito da presença de tanino no grão sobre os parâmetros de degradabilidade potencial dos componentes da parede celular de seis genótipos de sorgo para silagem, conduziu-se este experimento utilizando a técnica da degradabilidade "in situ". Quatro novilhos mestiços, canulados no rúmen, foram utilizados. Os novilhos foram alimentados "ad libitum" duas vezes ao dia, individualmente, com feno de Tifton 85. Foram incubadas silagens de sorgo no estádio de grão leitoso, pertencentes a seis genótipos: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601e AG 2006 (sem tanino no grão; BR 700 e BR 701 (com tanino. Foram incubadas 5 g de amostra dentro de bolsas de náilon suspensas no rúmen, nos tempos: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. O tempo zero (t0 foi utilizado para cálculo da fração solúvel. A presença do tanino reduziu a extensão de degradação da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA nas silagens de sorgo BR 700 e BR 701. A degradabilidade potencial da FDN e da FDA foi reduzida pela presença do tanino. Não foi observado efeito depressivo do tanino sobre as taxas de degradação para nenhum nutriente, em nenhuma silagem testada.The aim of these experiment was to evaluate the effect of tannin on grain over potential degradability parameters of the cell wall compounds of six sorghum silage genotypes by "in situ" technique. Four crossbred steers, canulated in rumen, were used. The steers were fed "ad libitum" twice at day with a diet comprised by Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon hay. Six sorghum silage genotypes, harvested at milk stage, were incubated in the rumen: BR 303, BR 304, BR 601, and AG 2006 (without tannin on grain; BR 700, and BR 701 (with tannin on grain. Five grams of samples were incubated into nylon bags, and suspended in the rumen by times: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The time zero (t0 was used to calculate the soluble fraction. Tannin decrease the extent of degradation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF

  4. Sorghum Germplasm Profiling to Assist Breeding and Gene Identification for Biofortification of Grain Mineral and Protein Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is the world’s fifth most important grain crop, and is a widely consumed staple in subtropical semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Biofortification of sorghum by increasing mineral micronutrient (especially iron and zinc) and protein concentration is of widespread intere...

  5. Estimativa da degradabilidade ruminal de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench utilizando a técnica in situ - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1150 Estimation of ruminal degradability of four genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench using in situ technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1150

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa de Oliveira Simões Saliba

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS, da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do material original de quatro genótipos de sorgo (ATF53*9929036; ATF54*9929036; CMSXS217*9929012 e VOLUMAX. Foram utilizadas 4 vacas Holandesas providas de fistula ruminal alimentadas com silagem de sorgo “ad libitun” e dois quilos de concentrado. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições (animais, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas. Os genótipos constituíram as parcelas e os tempos de digestão as sub-parcelas. O genótipo VOLUMAX foi o que apresentou a maior degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS (56,22; 53,35 e 50,90% em relação aos demais em todas as taxas de passagem (2, 5 e 8%/h respectivamente e os genótipos ATF53*992903 e ATF54*9929036 obtiveram a maior DE da FDN (32,17 e 33,47%, respectivamente e FDA (34,81 e 35,50%, respectivamente para uma taxa de passagem de 2%/hThis experiment was carried out to evaluate “in situ” degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of four sorghum genotypes (ATF53*9929036; ATF54*9929036; 217*9929012 and VOLUMAX. Four Holstein cows with ruminal fistula were fed on sorghum silage “ad libitum”, and 2.0 kg of concentrate. The animals were alloted in a randomized block design, with four replicates, in a split plot arrangement. The genotypes were considered the parcels and the incubation time the sub-parcels. The higher effective dry matter degradability were found in VOLUMAX genotype, (56.22; 53.35 and 50.90% for all passage rates, (2; 5 and 8%/h, respectively. The genotypes ATF53*992903 and ATF54*9929036 showed higher NDF effective degradability, 32.17 and 33.47% respectively, and ADF effective degradability, 34.81 and 35.50%, at 2%/h passage rate

  6. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Lyngkjaer, Michael Foged

    2016-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces five leucine-derived hydroxynitrile glucosides (HNGs), of which only epiheterodendrin is a cyanogenic glucoside. The four non-cyanogenic HNGs are the β-HNG epidermin and the γ-HNGs osmaronin, dihydroosmaronin and sutherlandin. By analyzing 247 spring barley lines including landraces and old and modern cultivars, we demonstrated that the HNG level varies notably between lines whereas the overall ratio between the compounds is constant. Based on sequence similarity to the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genes involved in dhurrin biosynthesis, we identified a gene cluster on barley chromosome 1 putatively harboring genes that encode enzymes in HNG biosynthesis. Candidate genes were functionally characterized by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Five multifunctional P450s, including two CYP79 family enzymes and three CYP71 family enzymes, and a single UDP-glucosyltransferase were found to catalyze the reactions required for biosynthesis of all five barley HNGs. Two of the CYP71 enzymes needed to be co-expressed for the last hydroxylation step in sutherlandin synthesis to proceed. This observation, together with the constant ratio between the different HNGs, suggested that HNG synthesis in barley is organized within a single multi-enzyme complex. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Metabolic consequences of knocking out UGT85B1, the gene encoding the glucosyltransferase required for synthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstedt, Cecilia K; O'Donnell, Natalie H; Bjarnholt, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Many important food crops produce cyanogenic glucosides as natural defense compounds to protect against herbivory or pathogen attack. It has also been suggested that these nitrogen-based secondary metabolites act as storage reserves of nitrogen. In sorghum, three key genes, CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and UGT......-expressed endogenous UDP-glucosyltransferases able to replace it. The tcd2 mutant suffers from self-intoxication because sorghum does not have a feedback mechanism to inhibit the initial steps of dhurrin biosynthesis when the glucosyltransferase activity required to complete the synthesis of dhurrin is lacking. The LC...

  8. Aspectos agronômicos de híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench no desempenho e economicidade de novilhos confinados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3613 Agronomics aspects of hybrids of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench in the performance and economics of feedlot steers - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3613

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características qualitativas e quantitativas dos diferentes híbridos de sorgo AG 2005E, AG 60298 e BR 101 quanto à produção da planta e de suas silagens no desempenho e economicidade do confinamento de novilhos. A altura da planta, produção de matéria verde (MV e matéria seca (MS ha-1 do BR 101 superior (p > 0,05 aos híbridos AG2005E e AG60298. O AG 2005E apresentou maior (p = 0,0452 porcentagem de MS no grão que os demais híbridos. A porcentagem de MV da folha foi superior (p = 0,0135 para o BR 101 e inferior no AG 60298. Na avaliação da panícula, houve diferença significativa na porcentagem de MS (p = 0,0332 e MV (p = 0,0332 em favor AG 2005E. Não houve diferença para a porcentagem de MV do grão, MS e MV do colmo e MS da folha entre os diferentes híbridos. Para as avaliações de desempenho animal, foram utilizados 36 novilhos com idade média de 20 meses, peso inicial de 241,49 ± 50,77 kg confinados por 63 dias e abatidos com peso vivo final médio de 379,48 ± 53,98 kg. Os animais alimentados com silagem de sorgo BR 101 e AG 2005E apresentaram maiores consumos de MS (CMS e CMS por unidade de peso metabólico. Os híbridos AG 2005E e AG 60298 apresentaram melhores conversões alimentares e o BR 101 apresentou menor custo de produção.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sorghum hybrids AG2005E, AG60298 and BR101 as for the production of the plant and its silages in the performance and economics of steers in feedlot. The height of the plant, production of green matter and dry matter (DM ha-1 of BR101 was higher (p > 0.05 in relation to AG2005E and AG 60298. As for the percentage of DM in the grain, AG 2005E was greater (p = .0452 that the others. The percentage of green matter in the leaf showed differences (p = .0135, with the BR101 hybrid as the greatest and AG60298 the least. In the evaluation of the panicle, there was a difference in

  9. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  10. Digestibilidade e absorção aparentes em vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench Apparent digestibility and absorption od holstein cows fed diets with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica mill in replacement of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciene Karla Bezerra de Andrade

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira em substituição à silagem de sorgo, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da proteína bruta (DAPB, do extrato etéreo (DAEE, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA, dos carboidratos totais (DACHT e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DACNF, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e os coeficientes de absorção aparente de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, potássio (K e sódio (Na. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, com peso médio de 590 kg e produção média de leite de 27 kg/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos simultâneos (4x4, sendo quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro níveis de inclusão de palma na ração. A inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrito por função quadrática. Foi possível estimar por intermédio desta função um teor máximo de NDT de 77,43% para utilização de 16,51% de palma na dieta. O aumento nos teores de CNF e a redução da FDN das rações foram responsáveis pelo comportamento quadrático na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. As absorções aparentes de Ca, P e Na foram influenciadas quadraticamente com o aumento dos níveis de palma na ração, enquanto o K aumentou linearmente. A relação Ca:P que proporcionou a melhor absorção desses elementos minerais foi de 1,9:1.It was evaluated the effect of four levels forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage, in diets of lactating Holstein cows, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF and acid (ADADF, total carbohydrates (ADTCH and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC, content of total digestible nutrients (TDN and apparent absorption of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P

  11. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 2015. This work is written by US Government employees

  12. Whole-Genome Analysis of Candidate genes Associated with Seed Size and Weight in Sorghum bicolor Reveals Signatures of Artificial Selection and Insights into Parallel Domestication in Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yongfu; Mace, Emma S; Tai, Shuaishuai; Cruickshank, Alan; Campbell, Bradley C; Zhao, Xianrong; Van Oosterom, Erik J; Godwin, Ian D; Botella, Jose R; Jordan, David R

    2017-01-01

    Seed size and seed weight are major quality attributes and important determinants of yield that have been strongly selected for during crop domestication. Limited information is available about the genetic control and genes associated with seed size and weight in sorghum. This study identified sorghum orthologs of genes with proven effects on seed size and weight in other plant species and searched for evidence of selection during domestication by utilizing resequencing data from a diversity panel. In total, 114 seed size candidate genes were identified in sorghum, 63 of which exhibited signals of purifying selection during domestication. A significant number of these genes also had domestication signatures in maize and rice, consistent with the parallel domestication of seed size in cereals. Seed size candidate genes that exhibited differentially high expression levels in seed were also found more likely to be under selection during domestication, supporting the hypothesis that modification to seed size during domestication preferentially targeted genes for intrinsic seed size rather than genes associated with physiological factors involved in the carbohydrate supply and transport. Our results provide improved understanding of the complex genetic control of seed size and weight and the impact of domestication on these genes.

  13. Effects of sowing dates on grain yield and yield attributes of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of a suitable sowing date has often been identified as the main constraint to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) cv. ICSV111 (Kapaala) production in Ghana. Field experiments were, therefore, used on-station at the Manga Agricultural Research Station to evaluate the effects of five sowing dates on yield and yield ...

  14. Cover crop and nitrogen fertilization influence soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop and N fertilization may maintain soil C and N levels under sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) biomass harvested for bioenergy production. The effect of cover crops (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth], rye [Secaele cereale L.], hairy vetch/rye mixture, and the control [no cover crop...

  15. Genetic mapping of Sbbmc, a major locus controlling the profuse wax trait of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as one...

  16. Sowing rules for estimating rainfed yield potential of sorghum and maize in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Quattara, K.; Supit, I.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the dependence on local expert knowledge, which is important for large-scale crop modelling studies, we analyzed sowing dates and rules for maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) at three locations in Burkina Faso with strongly decreasing rainfall amounts from south to

  17. Screening of sorghum lines for resistance against sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) has emerged as the most significant threat to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) production in the United States. Since 2013, discovery of aphid resistant germplasm has been a priority all stakeholders involved. We screened twenty three differen...

  18. Extraction methods and food uses of a natural red colorant from dye sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akogou, Folachodé Ug; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; Besten, den Heidy Mw; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The interest in stable natural colorants for food applications continues to grow. A red pigment extracted from the leaf sheaths of a sorghum variety (Sorghum bicolor) with a high content of apigeninidin is widely used as a biocolorant in processed foods in West Africa. This study

  19. Simulating the probability of grain sorghum maturity before the first frost in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expanding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production northward from southeastern Colorado is thought to be limited by shorter growing seasons due to lower temperatures and earlier frost dates. This study used a simulation model for predicting crop phenology (PhenologyMMS) to predict the ...

  20. Extraction methods and food uses of a natural red colorant from dye sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akogou, Folachodé Ug; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; Besten, den Heidy Mw; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The interest in stable natural colorants for food applications continues to grow. A red pigment extracted from the leaf sheaths of a sorghum variety (Sorghum bicolor) with a high content of apigeninidin is widely used as a biocolorant in processed foods in West Africa. This study

  1. Conversion of sorghum stover into animal feed with white-rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of crop residues with some species of white-rot fungi can enhance the nutritive value. After the fungal treatment of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) stover with two white-rot fungi in a solid state fermentation, the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of the resultant substrate was determined. The results show a ...

  2. Sequenced sorghum mutant library- an efficient platform for discovery of causal gene mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) efficiently generates high-density mutations in genomes. We applied whole-genome sequencing to 256 phenotyped mutant lines of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to 16x coverage. Comparisons with the reference sequence revealed >1.8 million canonical EMS-induced G/C to A...

  3. assessment of yield stability in sorghum abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Yield stability is one of the setbacks facing plant breeders in developing ... effect of genotype by environment (GxE) on the yield stability of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using fifteen genotypes in ... Ainsi ces 4 génotypes a plus stable adaptation sont recommandes pour la culture de sorgho dans les région sèches et a basse.

  4. Prospection et Collecte des accessions de sorgho sucré –Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2016 ... Mots clés : Sorghos sucrés, collecte, érosion génétique, conservation de la diversité, Tchad. SUMMARY. Objective: The study aims to identify growing areas of sweet sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Sudan region of Chad, to know the technical routes of farmers collect different accessions and ...

  5. Chemical analysis of fermentable sugars and secondary products in 23 sweet sorghum cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, is a heat- and drought-tolerant crop that has a promise to supplement corn (Zea mays L.) for biofuel production from fermentable sugars (for sweet varieties) and lignocellulosic biomass. Quantitative relationships are lacking to predict the accumulation of prim...

  6. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  7. Efeito alelopático de folhas de bamburral [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] sobre a germinação de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum vulgare Pers., rabanete (Raphanus sativus L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Allelopathic effects of leaves of "bamburral" [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] on the germination of seeds of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers. , radish (Raphanus sativus L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi à verificação do efeito alelopático de Hyptis. suaveolens na germinação de sorgo, alface e rabanete, bem como, a comprovação da existência de compostos com potencial alelopático. Sementes de sorgo, alface e rabanete foram semeadas em substrato constituído de areia, terra e adubo orgânico contendo folhas de H. suaveolens. As análises da germinação foram feitas considerando a protrusão da radícula para o término do evento germinativo. Foi calculado o IVG (índice de velocidade de germinação e %G (porcentagem de germinação. Os resultados mostraram que sorgo e a alface foram mais susceptíveis ao potencial alelopático de H. suaveolens, sendo que para o rabanete foi observado um efeito benéfico. Entre os tratamentos, o substrato esterilizado e não esterilizado mostraram diferenças entre si. A análise cromatográfica do óleo essencial presente nas folhas de H. suaveolens revelou a presença de compostos com potencial alelopático. Portanto, H. suaveolens, pode apresentar efeito alelopático positivo no IVG de sementes de rabanete e a presença de microorganismos pode ser necessária para que esse efeito alelopático aconteça.The aim of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of H. suaveolens on the germination of sorghum, lettuce and radish, as well as to prove the existence of compounds with allelopathic potential. Seeds of sorghum, lettuce and radish were sown in substrate consisting of sand, soil and organic fertilizer containing leaves of H. suaveolens. The germination tests were performed considering the protrusion of the radicle for the conclusion of the germinative event. GSI (germination speed index and G% (percentage of germination were calculated. The results showed that sorghum and lettuce were more susceptible to the allelopathic potential of H. suaveolens, while for radishes a beneficial effect was observed. Between treatments, the sterilized and unsterilized

  8. Variation in Biomass Composition Components among Forage, Biomass, Sorghum-Sudangrass, and Sweet Sorghum Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefaniak, T. R.; Dahlberg, J. A.; Bean, B. W.; Dighe, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Rooney, W. L.

    2012-07-01

    Alternative biomass sources must be developed if the United States is to meet the goal in the U.S. Energy Security Act of 2007 to derive 30% of its petroleum from renewable sources, and several different biomass crops are currently in development. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one such crop that will be an important feedstock source for biofuel production. As composition influences productivity, there exists a need to understand the range in composition observed within the crop. The goal of this research was to assess the range in dietary fiber composition observed within different types of biomass sorghums. A total of 152 sorghum samples were divided into the four end-use types of sorghum: biomass, forage, sorghum-sudangrass, and sweet. These samples were analyzed chemically using dietary fiber analysis performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using published protocols. Significant variation among the groups was detected for glucan and ash. Positive and highly significant correlations were detected between structural carbohydrates in the biomass and sweet sorghums while many of these correlations were negative or not significant in the forage and sorghum-sudangrass types. In addition, a wide range of variation was present within each group indicating that there is potential to manipulate the composition of the crop.

  9. Particle Size Distribution in Milled Sorghum Grains of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] coded V3, V6 and V8 was determined by sieve analysis. The moisture content of the grains ranged between 9.83 and 10.60%, wet weight basis. The milling was carried out on whole grains using a laboratory pin mill ...

  10. development of hardy sorghum cultivars for the arid and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from young embryogenic explants of three sorghum bicolor cultivars (Mtama I, EI Gardam and Seredo) selected .... selected as optimum concentration to which calli were subjected for selection of salinity tolerant from non-tolerant ones. After selection of the optimum NaCl ..... Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 15:113-.

  11. Evaluation of nutritional properties of tissue cultured sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is particularly useful in the characterization of individual cultivars, and in determining duplications in germplasm collections and for selecting parents. The Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench tissue culture (TC) regenerants (Seredo, Mtama 1 and El Gardam) were developed at the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and ...

  12. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Davina H; Hoffmann, Leo; Rooney, William L; Herald, Thomas J; Bean, Scott; Boyles, Richard; Brenton, Zachary W; Kresovich, Stephen

    2017-01-05

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations. In this study, we quantified protein, fat, and starch in a global sorghum diversity panel using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Protein content ranged from 8.1 to 18.8%, fat content ranged from 1.0 to 4.3%, and starch content ranged from 61.7 to 71.1%. Durra and bicolor-durra sorghum from Ethiopia and India had the highest protein and fat and the lowest starch content, while kafir sorghum from USA, India, and South Africa had the lowest protein and the highest starch content. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sorghum protein, fat, and starch. Previously published RNAseq data was used to identify candidate genes within a GWAS QTL region. A putative alpha-amylase 3 gene, which has previously been shown to be associated with grain composition traits, was identified as a strong candidate for protein and fat variation. We identified promising sources of genetic material for manipulation of grain composition traits, and several loci and candidate genes that may control sorghum grain composition. This survey of grain composition in sorghum germplasm and identification of protein, fat, and starch QTL contributes to our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation in sorghum grain nutritional traits.

  13. Ethylene control of anthocyanin synthesis in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craker, L E; Standley, L A; Starbuck, M J

    1971-09-01

    Light-induced anthocyanin synthesis in Sorghum vulgare L. seedlings was both promoted and inhibited by ethylene treatment. The rate of anthocyanin formation in sorghum tissue was dependent upon the time of ethylene treatment in relation to light exposure and the stage of the anthocyanin synthesis process. Those plants receiving ethylene treatment during the early lag phase of anthocyanin synthesis had higher anthocyanin content at 24 hours than control plants receiving no ethylene treatment. Plants receiving ethylene treatment after the lag phase had lower anthocyanin content at 24 hours than control plants receiving no ethylene treatment.

  14. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum cultivars from Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Laane, N.C.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was

  15. Sorghum-sudangrass responses to nitrogen and tillage following polyphenol-containing legumes, alfalfa, reed canarygrass, and kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collective effects of protein-binding polyphenols (PBP), preceding forage type, tillage, and fertilizer N on soil NO3-N production, N uptake, and dry matter yield (DMY) of N-demanding crops such as sorghum-sudangrass [SS, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. sudanese Piper] are poorly understood. Th...

  16. Flag leaf photosynthesis and stomatal function of grain sorghum as influenced by changing photosynthetic photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on physiological parameters of A, gs, Em, Ci, and IWUE in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is limited. Flag leaves from three plants of two hybrids, grown using added N fertilizer rates of 0.0, 112, and 224 kg ha-1 near Elizabeth, MS were field sampled for these parameters at growth s...

  17. Efeito do Estádio Vegetativo do Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, (L. Moench sobre a Composição Química da Silagem, Consumo, Produção e Teor de Gordura do Leite para Vacas em lactação, em Comparação à Silagem de Milho (Zea mays (L. Effect of the Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, (L. Moench Growth Stage on the Silage Chemical Composition, Intake, Milk Production and Fat on Dairy Cattle, Compared with Corn Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argélia Maria Araújo Dias

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do estádio de maturação do sorgo sobre a composição química da silagem, o consumo, a produção e o teor de gordura do leite em vacas holandesas, em comparação à silagem de milho. O experimento foi realizado na estação experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, localizada em São Bento do Una-PE. Foram utilizadas nove vacas holandesas puras, em fase de lactação, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos. Os quadrados foram formados de acordo com a produção de leite e a ordem de lactação e constavam de três vacas e três períodos. Cada período teve duração de 28 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram de: SM - silagem de milho; SSE - silagem de sorgo fase de emborrachamento; SSL - silagem de sorgo grão leitoso. Foram ainda fornecidos 25 Kg de palma forrageira animal/dia e concentrado comercial de acordo com a produção de leite. A silagem de milho propiciou aos animais maior consumo médio de matéria seca da silagem e da dieta total. Não houve efeito significativo do estádio vegetativo do sorgo sobre o consumo de silagem. As produções de leite total e corrigida para 4% de gordura foram maiores nos animais que consumiram silagem de milho em relação aos que receberam silagem de sorgo no estádio de grão leitoso, todavia os que ingeriram silagem de sorgo na fase de emborrachamento não diferiram dos demais. Quanto ao teor de gordura do leite, não houve diferença significativa entre as silagens analisadas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of the sorghum growth stage on the silage chemical composition, intake milk production and fat compared with corn silage to dairy cows. The experiment was carried out at the "São Bento do Una" research Stattion, from IPA, located in "São Bento do Una", Pernambuco, Brazil. Nine holstein lactating cows were distributed in three Latin squares design. The squares were formed according to milk yield

  18. Sorghum as an alternative of cultivation to maize; Sorghumhirse als Anbaualternative zum Mais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, Kerstin; Theiss, Markus; Poetzschke, Karen [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (LfULG), Dresden (Germany)] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Due to their high dry matter yield potential Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum bicolor x sudanense are well fitted as feedstock for biogas production. Similar to maize, both species show a high efficiency in their use of water (C4-plants). However, Sorghum has a higher drought tolerance in comparison with maize but is more sensitive to low temperatures. Hence a cultivation of Sorghum is recommendable especially in dry and relatively warm regions, including recultivated areas and even on loess soil, provided that the required temperatures are given. Due to the fact that Sorghum is not affected by the corn root worm, it also could gain relevance in regions were the cultivation of maize is restricted. Furthermore, Sorghum is usable as a catch crop as well as a main crop because of its variable sowing time. Catch crop cultivation, however, yields a significantly lower amount of dry matter and -quality which is a result of its shorter vegetation period. Owing to its higher crude fiber concentration Sorghum achieves a lower theoretically attainable specific methane yield (Weissbach) than maize. Thus only on rare occasions Sorghum does achieve methane yields per hectare that are comparable to maize. Eventually, the competitiveness of Sorghum greatly depends on provision of enhanced cultivars achieved through genetic improvement. (orig.)

  19. Use of inexpensive vegetable oils to ensure the long-term stability of sweet sorghum syrups for the manufacture of bioproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), include the long-term storage of 65 Brix syrups for year-round supply, efficient transport, and acceptable end-product yields. Sweet sorghu...

  20. Drought-induced changes in nitrogen partitioning between cyanide and nitrate in leaves and stems in sorghum grown at elevated CO2 are age dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] is the world’s fifth most important crop, grown for forage, grain, and as a biofuel. Fast growing and drought tolerant, it is considered a climate-change-ready crop. Two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at Maricopa, Arizona, USA showed that, like othe...

  1. Sweet sorghum performance under irrigated conditions in northwest China : Biomass and its partitioning in inbred and hybrid cultivars at two nitrogen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, F.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Han, L.P.; Liu, Z.X.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of cultivar choice and nitrogen supply on biomass yield and dry matter partitioning of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were studied under irrigated conditions in the arid temperate climate of north-west China. Two hybrid cultivars, Zaoshu-1 (ZS 1) and Chuntian-2 (CT 2), and two

  2. Fine mapping and chromosome walking towards the Ror1 locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Collins, Nicholas C; Ahmadinejad, Nahal; Ma, Lu; Houben, Andreas; Bednarek, Pawel; Benjdia, Mariam; Freialdenhoven, Andreas; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Reinhardt, Richard; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Panstruga, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    The Ror1 gene was fine-mapped to the pericentric region of barley chromosome 1HL. Recessively inherited loss-of-function alleles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene confer durable broad-spectrum disease resistance against the obligate biotrophic fungal powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Previous genetic analyses revealed two barley genes, Ror1 and Ror2, that are Required for mlo-specified resistance and basal defence. While Ror2 was cloned and shown to encode a t-SNARE protein (syntaxin), the molecular nature or Ror1 remained elusive. Ror1 was previously mapped to the centromeric region of the long arm of barley chromosome 1H. Here, we narrowed the barley Ror1 interval to 0.18 cM and initiated a chromosome walk using barley yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, next-generation DNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two non-overlapping YAC contigs containing Ror1 flanking genes were identified. Despite a high degree of synteny observed between barley and the sequenced genomes of the grasses rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon and Sorghum bicolor across the wider chromosomal area, the genes in the YAC contigs showed extensive interspecific rearrangements in orientation and order. Consequently, the position of a Ror1 homolog in these species could not be precisely predicted, nor was a barley gene co-segregating with Ror1 identified. These factors have prevented the molecular identification of the Ror1 gene for the time being.

  3. Enhanced plant regeneration in grain and sweet sorghum by asparagine, proline and cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A M; Sree, K P; Kishor, P B

    1995-01-01

    Cefotaxime ( 50 and 100 mg/1 ), a cephalosporin antibiotic and the amino acids asparagine and proline (200 mg/l) enhanced the production of embryogenic callus, increased the frequency of plant regeneration, and delayed the loss of regeneration potential in immature embryo-derived callus cultures ofSorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Although these compounds did not promote callus induction or growth of callus, they influenced plant regeneration considerably in 10 low responding genotypes of grain and high anthocyanin containing sweet sorghums.

  4. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fernanda Schons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum, phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 10(7 spores/mL; A Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition.

  5. Effects of Sorghum Malting on Colour, Major Classes of Phenolics and Individual Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khoddami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor grain contains many health-promoting phytochemicals, including a broad range of phenolic compounds. Malting of cereal grains is known to increase the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients. However, the detailed effects of malting on sorghum grain anthocyanins, a major class of phenolics that influence the taste and colour of sorghum-based foods, requires further investigation. Eight commercial sorghum hybrids harvested from three regions in eastern Australia were malted and analysed for colour, tannin content, total phenolic content (TPC, flavan-4-ols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and 3-deoxyanthocyanins. Grains of all the sorghums were found to be tannin-free. Malting decreased the TPC of all samples. For TPC, the grand means among all the sorghum cultivars for raw and malted grain were 2.77 and 2.48 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g, respectively. For flavan-4-ols, the grand means for raw and malted sorghum grains were 2.98 and 2.23 abs/mL/g, respectively. Remarkably, total anthocyanin levels more than doubled upon malting whereas total flavonoid levels decreased by 12%. The average abundance of 3-deoxyanthocyanins in raw sorghum grains increased for about 8-fold upon malting. Our results will be valuable for sorghum breeders in the selection of lines for specific end uses and for food scientists developing sorghum-based products.

  6. Effects of Sorghum Malting on Colour, Major Classes of Phenolics and Individual Anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Ali; Mohammadrezaei, Mohammad; Roberts, Thomas H

    2017-10-12

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grain contains many health-promoting phytochemicals, including a broad range of phenolic compounds. Malting of cereal grains is known to increase the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients. However, the detailed effects of malting on sorghum grain anthocyanins, a major class of phenolics that influence the taste and colour of sorghum-based foods, requires further investigation. Eight commercial sorghum hybrids harvested from three regions in eastern Australia were malted and analysed for colour, tannin content, total phenolic content (TPC), flavan-4-ols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and 3-deoxyanthocyanins. Grains of all the sorghums were found to be tannin-free. Malting decreased the TPC of all samples. For TPC, the grand means among all the sorghum cultivars for raw and malted grain were 2.77 and 2.48 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively. For flavan-4-ols, the grand means for raw and malted sorghum grains were 2.98 and 2.23 abs/mL/g, respectively. Remarkably, total anthocyanin levels more than doubled upon malting whereas total flavonoid levels decreased by 12%. The average abundance of 3-deoxyanthocyanins in raw sorghum grains increased for about 8-fold upon malting. Our results will be valuable for sorghum breeders in the selection of lines for specific end uses and for food scientists developing sorghum-based products.

  7. Sweet Sorghum crop. Effect of the Compost Application; Cultivo de Sorgo Dulce. Efecto de la Aplicacion de Compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, M.J.; Solano, M.L.; Carrasco, J.; Ciria, P.

    1998-12-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs.

  8. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the family Poaceae. This includes, but is not limited to, grain sorghum (including hybrid sorghum seeds, inbred sorghum line seed, and sorghum cultivar seed), sorghum forage, sorghum hay, sorghum...

  9. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... 84. Jain NC (1986). Schalm's Veterinary Haematology, 4th edition, Lea and. Febiger, Philadelphia, U.S.A.. Kundu AKS, Das SM (1986). Production of amylase in liquid culture by a strain of Aspergillus oryzae Appl. Microbiol., 19: 598-603. Linko YY, Saarinen P, Linko M (1975). Starch conversion by soluble.

  10. ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) after exposure to water stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2×4 factorial arrangement with seven replicates, two hydric conditions (irrigated and water deficit) and four silicon applications (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 μM). The multivariate analysis showed that when there is no shortage of water and regardless of the silicon dose, ...

  11. Occurrence of diploid and polyploid microspores in Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies on control plants showed the 10 bivalents in majority of pollen mother cells at diakinesis and first metaphase. In eight treated plants, occurrence of cytomixis and chromosome migration were observed. Analysis of 230 pollen mother cells at first metaphase stage showed 73.91% haploid (n=10), 10.43% diploid (n=20) ...

  12. Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... parts in the treatment of gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhoea, fluxes and stomach ache. Therefore .... (LD50) in rats, assessment based on 24 h post treatment showed a median lethal dose (LD50) ≥ 2,000 ..... The Medicinal Plants of the World, Computer index with more than 85,000 enteries, vol. 3.

  13. Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macerated with 70% v/v methanol. The aqueous methanolic extract was further fractionated into non-polar, medium polar and very polar components using hexane, ethylacetate and water (aqueous), respectively. The gastrointestinal effects of these ...

  14. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... (liquid fuel). Lignocellulosic materials are composed of sugars polymerised to cellulose and hemicellulose that can be liberated by hydrolysis, and ..... Several treatment techno- logies include concentrated acid (Badger, 2002), dilute acid, alkaline, steam explosion, wet oxidation and liquid hot water. Among ...

  15. L\\'association sorgho ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) et arachide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arachide est à prédominance aléatoire. ... et 1,15, indiquant qu\\'il faudrait 25% de surface en plus en monoculture pour obtenir les mêmes rendements qu\\'en association et un avantage en densités de culture de 15% par rapport à la culture pure.

  16. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia de silagens de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench por ovinos Voluntary intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of silages of four sorghum genotype in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.R. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia e o balanço de nitrogênio de silagens dos sorgos BR601, BR700, BR701 e AG2002 em ovinos. O consumo de matéria seca e de energia bruta não diferiu entre os híbridos. Quanto à digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da energia bruta e ao consumo de matéria seca digestível e de energia digestível, observaram-se maiores valores para o BR601. O maior consumo de proteína bruta foi observado no BR700 e o menor no AG2002. A maior digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta ocorreu para o BR601 e a menor para o BR701. O consumo de proteína digestível foi maior para os híbridos BR601 e BR700. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram balanço de nitrogênio positivo e não diferiram entre si.The nitrogen balance, the consumption and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the energy of the silages of four genotypes of sorghum were evaluated. The consumption of dry matter and crude energy did not differ among the hibrids. The largest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude energy and the consumption of digestible dry matter and energy, were observed for BR601 genotype. The largest consumption of crude protein, was observed for BR700 and the smalest for AG2002 genotypes (P<0.05. The largest apparent digestibility of protein was observed for BR601 and the smalest one for BR701 (P<0.05 genotype. The consumption of digestible protein was larger for BR601 and BR700. All treatments showed positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among them.

  17. bicolor) VARIETIES GROWN IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences: Vol. 2 No. 2 July 2002. Makokha. INTRODUCTION. Digestibility of sorghum protein is of ¡mínense interest, particularly to communities in Kenya and elsewhere who depend on sorghum as their staple food. In such situations, the cereal is often also the main source of.

  18. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  19. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    project is acknowledged 1) Vermerris W, Saballos A (2012) Genetic enhancement of sorghum for biomass utilization. In Paterson, A. (Ed.) Genetics and Genomics of the Saccharinae, Springer, New York, NY. pp. 391-428. 2) Felderhoff T, Murray SC, Klein PE, Sharma A, Hamblin MT, Kresovich S, Vermerris W, Rooney, WL (2012) QTLs for energy-related traits in a sweet x grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] mapping population. Crop Science 52: 2040-2049. 3) Sattler SE, Palmer NA, Saballos A, Greene AM, Xin Z, Sarath G, Vermerris W, Pedersen JF (2012) Identification and characterization of four missense mutations in Brown midrib12 (Bmr12), the caffeic acid O-methyltranferase (COMT) of sorghum. BioEnergy Research (in press) DOI 10.1007/s12155-012-9197-z 4) Saballos A, Sattler S, Sanchez E, Foster TP, Xin Z, Kang CH, Pedersen J, Vermerris W (2012). Brown midrib2 encodes the major 4-coumarate:CoA ligase involved in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The Plant Journal 70: 818-830. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.04933. 5) Vermerris, W (2011) Survey of genomics approaches to improve bioenergy traits in maize, sorghum and sugarcane. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 53: 105-119 6) Saballos A, Ejeta G, Sanchez E, Kang CH, Vermerris W (2009) A genome-wide analysis of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase family in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] identifies SbCAD2 as the Brown midrib6 gene. Genetics 181: 783-795. 7) Saballos A, Vermerris W, Rivera L, Ejeta G (2008) Allelic association, chemical characterization and saccharification properties of brown midrib mutants of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). BioEnergy Research 2: 193-204 8) Felderhoff TJ. (2012) QTLs for energy related traits in a sweet x grain RIL sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] population. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Publications in preparation (tentative titles) 9) Felderhoff T, Murray SC, Klein PE, Sharma A, Hamblin MT, Kresovich S, Vermerris W, Rooney, WL (2013) QTLs for

  20. Determining Critical Soil pH for Grain Sorghum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Butchee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. has become a popular rotation crop in the Great Plains. The transition from conventional tillage to no-tillage production systems has led to an increase in the need for crop rotations. Some of the soils of the Great Plains are acidic, and there is concern that grain sorghum production may be limited when grown on acidic soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil pH for grain sorghum production. Potassium chloride-exchangeable aluminum was also analyzed to determine grain sorghum’s sensitivity to soil aluminum (Al concentration. The relationship between relative yield and soil pH was investigated at Lahoma, Perkins, and Haskell, Oklahoma, USA with soil pH treatments ranging from 4.0–7.0. Soil pH was altered using aluminum sulfate or hydrated lime. Soil acidity reduced grain sorghum yield, resulting in a 10% reduction in yield at soil pH 5.42. Potassium chloride-exchangeable aluminum levels above 18 mg kg−1 resulted in yield reductions of 10% or greater. Liming should be considered to increase soil pH if it is below these critical levels where grain sorghum will be produced.

  1. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  2. A Nonsense Mutation in a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene is Responsible for the Sorghum Brown Midrib-6 Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib 6 (bmr-6) affects phenylpropanoid metabolism resulting in reduced lignin concentrations and altered lignin composition in Sorghum bicolor. Recently, bmr-6 plants were shown to have very limited cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195), the enzyme that catalyzes the c...

  3. Targeted expression of SbMATE in the root distal transition zone is responsible for sorghum aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for crop production on acid soils that comprise significant portions of the world’s lands. Al resistance in the cereal crop, Sorghum bicolor, is mainly achieved by Al-activated root apical citrate exudation, which is mediated by the plasma ...

  4. Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity by select sorghum brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralley, Eve; Greenspan, Phillip; Hargrove, James L; Hartle, Diane K

    2008-06-01

    Hyaluronidase hydrolyzes glycosaminoglycans, including hyaluronan, in the extracellular matrix during tissue remodeling. Hyaluronidase activity increases in chronic inflammatory conditions, e.g., inflammatory joint disease. In this study, we tested the ability of ethanolic extracts (1:9 [wt/vol] of 50% ethanol) of bran from six cultivated varieties of Sorghum bicolor to inhibit hyaluronidase activity in vitro in comparison to extracts of wheat and rice bran. Each extract inhibited hyaluronidase activity with this order of potency: Sumac > Shanqui Red > Black > Mycogen > Fontanelle > White sorghum. Extracts of wheat and rice bran had weak inhibitory activities relative to the high phenolic sorghum brans. Hyaluronidase inhibition correlated positively with total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power values for each bran extract. Inhibition was not only due to condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) because the Black sorghum cultivar lacks condensed tannins but has abundant anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since hyaluronidase activity is important in conditions such as osteoarthritis and skin aging, these sorghum varieties deserve consideration for functional foods and beverages, and for nutraceutical and cosmeceutical ingredients.

  5. Genetic diversity of sorghum accessions resistant to greenbugs as assessed with AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Q; Huang, Yinghua; Tauer, C G; Porter, David R

    2006-02-01

    Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, is the fifth most important cereal crop grown worldwide and the fourth in the United States. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is a major insect pest of sorghum with several biotypes reported to date. Greenbug biotype I is currently the most prevalent and most virulent on sorghum plants. Breeding for resistance is an effective way to control greenbug damage. A successful breeding program relies in part upon a clear understanding of breeding materials. However, the genetic diversity and relatedness among the greenbug biotype I resistant accessions collected from different geographic origins have not been well characterized, although a rich germplasm collection is available. In this study, 26 sorghum accessions from 12 countries were evaluated for both resistance to greenbug biotype I and genetic diversity using fluorescence-labeled amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Twenty-six AFLP primer combinations produced 819 polymorphic fragments indicating a relatively high level of polymorphism among the accessions. Genetic similarity coefficients among the sorghum accessions ranged from 0.69 to 0.90. Cluster analysis indicated that there were two major groups based on polymorphic bands. This study has led to the identification of new genetic sources of sorghum with substantial genetic variation and distinct groupings of resistant accessions that have the potential for use in the development of durable greenbug resistant sorghum.

  6. Effect of sorghum-sudangrass and velvetbean cover crops on plant-parasitic nematodes associated with potato production in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W T; Weingartner, D P; Dickson, D W; McSorley, R

    2001-12-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus.

  7. Efficacy of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf, Lippia multiflora Moldenke and hot water in the control of seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina and their effects on Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seed germination and plants development in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Schémaeza BONZI1; Irénée SOMDA; Paco SEREME; Adam, Toudou

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus and Lippia multiflora) and varying durations of hot water at 50°C on seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina on five varieties of sorghum were evaluated using morphological traits. The varieties were ICSV 1001, Sariaso 03, ICSV 1049, Kapelga and the local variety, 1341So07. The results indicate that hot water treatment and essential oil of C. citratus significantly reduced the infection level of P. sorghina compared to untreated seeds, seeds trea...

  8. Prospection et collecte des accessions de sorgho sucré – Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: L'étude a pour objectif d'identifier les aires de culture de sorgho sucré, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, de la zone soudanienne du Tchad, de connaitre les itinéraires techniques des paysans, de collecter les différentes accessions et de préserver leurs ressources en vue d'une amélioration génétique. Méthodologie ...

  9. Global transcriptome analysis reveals distinct expression among duplicated genes during sorghum-interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is a rich source of natural phytochemicals. We performed massive parallel sequencing of mRNA to identify differentially expressed genes after sorghum BTx623 had been infected with Bipolaris sorghicola, a necrotrophic fungus causing a sorghum disease called target leaf spot. Result Seventy-six-base-pair reads from mRNAs of mock- or pathogen-infected leaves were sequenced. Unannotated transcripts were predicted on the basis of the piling-up of mapped short reads. Differentially expressed genes were identified statistically; particular genes in tandemly duplicated putative paralogs were highly upregulated. Pathogen infection activated the glyoxylate shunt in the TCA cycle; this changes the role of the TCA cycle from energy production to synthesis of cell components. The secondary metabolic pathways of phytoalexin synthesis and of sulfur-dependent detoxification were activated by upregulation of the genes encoding amino acid metabolizing enzymes located at the branch point between primary and secondary metabolism. Coordinated gene expression could guide the metabolic pathway for accumulation of the sorghum-specific phytochemicals 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and dhurrin. Key enzymes for synthesizing these sorghum-specific phytochemicals were not found in the corresponding region of the rice genome. Conclusion Pathogen infection dramatically changed the expression of particular paralogs that putatively encode enzymes involved in the sorghum-specific metabolic network.

  10. Seed treatment with an aqueous extract of Agave sisalana improves seed health and seedling growth of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Marianne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Mbega, Ernest R.

    2015-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sisal agave, A. sisalana, was prepared from dried stem tissue by boiling in water. The sisal extract (SE) displayed a broad inhibition of the seed-borne mycoflora when applied to farmer-saved seeds of Sorghum bicolor. Species of Fusarium (belonging to the Gibberella...

  11. Pengujian Parameter Biji Sorghum dan Pengaruh Analisa Total Asam Laktat dan pH pada Tepung Sorghum Terfermentasi Menggunakan Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces Cereviceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelinda Angelina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L Moench, adalah sereal paling penting kelima setelah beras, jagung, barley dan gandum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan substitusi biji sorghum terhadap tepung terigu bisa mencapai 50-75%, walaupun nilai protein pembentuk glutennya tidak dapat menyamai tepung terigu. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh waktu fermentasi terhadap penurunan total asam laktat, nilai pH, dan jumlah total khamir (baker’s yeast tanpa menggunakan nutrient kimia tambahan . Analisa komposisi biji sorghum yang diinvestigasi dalam keadaan wet basis dari laboratorium menghasilkan kadar air, lemak, serat, protein, karbohidrat, dan abu masing-masing sebesar 12.85%, 3.10%, 0.56%, 5.87%, 75.82%, dan 1.79%. Untuk nilai energi total dengan metode bomb kalori didapatkan 4375.94 kcal/kg. Pengujian biji sorghum menghasilkan C-organik sebesar 12,47%. Berdasarkan analisa didapatkan hasil optimal dalam membuat tepung sorghum terfermentasi pada proses fermentasi 60 jam dengan jumlah yeast yang dihasilkan 1,7 x 105 sel/ml dengan kondisi yield % asam laktat 0,214%.

  12. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  13. Population Dynamics of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Cover Crops of Corn and Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1993-09-01

    Buildup of plant-parasitic nematode populations on corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were compared in 1991 and 1992. Final population densities (Pf) of Meloidogyne incognita were lower following sorghum than after soybean in both seasons, and Pf after sorghum was lower than Pf after corn in 1992. In both seasons, Pf differed among the sorghum cultivars used. No differences in Pf on corn, sorghum, and soybean were observed for Criconemella spp. (a mixture of C. sphaerocephala and C. ornata) or Paratrichodorus minor in either season. Pf levels of Pratylenchus spp. (a mixture of P. brachyurus and P. scribneri) were greatest after corn in 1992, but no differences with crop treatments were observed in 1991. When data from field tests conducted with corn and sorghum during the past four seasons were pooled, negative linear relationships between ln(Pf/Pi) and ln(Pi) were observed for Criconemella spp. and P. minor on each crop, and for M. incognita on corn (Pi = initial population density). Although ln(Pf/Pi) and ln(Pi) were not related for M. incognita with pooled sorghum data, separate relationships were derived for various sorghum cultivars. Regression equations from pooled data were used to obtain estimates of equilibrium density and maximum reproductive rate, and these estimates were used to construct models expressing nematode Pf across a range of initial densities. Many of these models were robust, encompassing a range of sites, season, crop cultivars, and planting dates. Quadratic models derived from pooled field data provided an alternative method for expressing Pf as a function of Pi.

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of sweet sorghum accessions for bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Michele Jorge; Pastina, Maria Marta; de Souza, Vander Fillipe; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Carneiro, Pedro Crescêncio Souza; Noda, Roberto Willians; Carneiro, José Eustáquio de Souza; Damasceno, Cynthia Maria Borges; Parrella, Rafael Augusto da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines. The objectives of this study were: to perform phenotypic and molecular characterization of 100 sweet sorghum accessions from the germplasm bank of the Embrapa Maize and Sorghum breeding program; to examine the relationship between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices; and to infer about the population structure in the sweet sorghum accessions. Morphological and agro-industrial traits related to sugar and biomass production were used for phenotypic characterization, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for molecular diversity analysis. Both phenotypic and molecular characterizations revealed the existence of considerable genetic diversity among the 100 sweet sorghum accessions. The correlation between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices was low (0.35), which is in agreement with the inconsistencies observed between the clusters formed by the phenotypic and the molecular diversity analyses. Furthermore, the clusters obtained by the molecular diversity analysis were more consistent with the genealogy and the historic background of the sweet sorghum accessions than the clusters obtained through the phenotypic diversity analysis. The low correlation observed between the molecular and the phenotypic diversity matrices highlights the

  15. Extraction methods and food uses of a natural red colorant from dye sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akogou, Folachodé Ug; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; den Besten, Heidy Mw; Linnemann, Anita R

    2018-01-01

    The interest in stable natural colorants for food applications continues to grow. A red pigment extracted from the leaf sheaths of a sorghum variety (Sorghum bicolor) with a high content of apigeninidin is widely used as a biocolorant in processed foods in West Africa. This study compared the colour and anthocyanin composition from traditional extraction methods to determine options for improvement and use of the red biocolorant from dye sorghum in the food sector. Sorghum biocolorant was commonly applied in fermented and heated foods. Traditional extraction methods predominantly differed in two aspects, namely the use of an alkaline rock salt (locally known as kanwu) and the temperature of the extraction water. Cool extraction using the alkaline ingredient was more efficient than hot alkaline and hot aqueous extractions in extracting anthocyanins. The apigeninidin content was three times higher in the cool and hot alkaline extracts than in the aqueous extract. Cool and hot alkaline extractions at pH 8-9 were the most efficient methods for extracting apigeninidin from dye sorghum leaf sheaths. Broader use of the sorghum biocolorant in foods requires further research on its effects on nutrient bioavailability and antioxidant activity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Harvest strategy and N fertilizer effects on bioenergy sorghum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shahandeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench has the potential to be a very important cellulosic feedstock if it can be produced without degrading soil quality. Two important factors for achieving that goal are N management and the amount of residue (i.e. carbon returned to the soil. This study evaluated two N rates (0 or 280 kg ha-1 yr-1 and three levels of residue return (0, 25%, or 50% on Weswood silty clay loam near College Station, TX USA. Biomass sorghum was grown continuously from 2009 through 2014. Maximum dry biomass yield (23 Mg ha-1 was produced with added N and 25% residue return in a year with above average precipitation. Overall, N fertilization increased biomass yield by 43 to 104%, while residue return enhanced yield from < 1 to 23% during the six-year study. Averaged for the six years, biomass production for the 0, 25%, and 50% residue return treatments was 16, 20, and 18 Mg ha-1, respectively. Returning 25% of the crop residue significantly increased K uptake in both the 1st and 6th years. Sorghum fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FNUE with residue return by 2014 was significantly increased compared to 2009 values. Non-limiting N fertilization and 25% residue return significantly increased NO3-N, P, K, and soil organic C (SOC concentrations in surface (0 to 5 cm samples and soil total N (TN and K concentrations within the 60 to 90 cm layer. This study confirms that N fertilization will be required to achieve high biomass sorghum yield and suggests that developing a harvest strategy to return 25% of the crop residue will be sufficient to maintain soil quality.

  17. Characteristics of different types of biochar and effects on the toxicity of heavy metals to germinating sorghum seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Rodriguez Valseca, I. M.; Petrová, Šárka; Song, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 182, NOV (2017), s. 157-165 ISSN 0375-6742 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons * sorption behavior * soil * copper * lead * contaminants * remediation * amendments * mobility * compost * Biochar * Copper * Lead * Cadmium * Seed germination * Sorghum bicolor * PAHs * Sorption Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  18. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    lines including landraces and old and modern cultivars, we demonstrated that the HNG level varies notably between lines whereas the overall ratio between the compounds is constant. Based on sequence similarity to the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genes involved in dhurrin biosynthesis, we identified a gene...... cluster on barley chromosome 1 putatively harboring genes that encode enzymes in HNG biosynthesis. Candidate genes were functionally characterized by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Five multifunctional P450s, including two CYP79 family enzymes and three CYP71 family enzymes, and a single...... the different HNGs, suggested that HNG synthesis in barley is organized within a single multi-enzyme complex....

  19. Ensilage performance of sorghum hybrids varying in extractable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Dirk; Moore, Kenneth J. [Iowa State University, Ames (United States); Pedersen, Jeffrey F.; Mitchell, Robert B. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). USDA-ARS, Department of Agronomy; Grant, Richard J. [William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, NY (United States); Redfearn, Daren D. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Sciences

    2007-07-15

    Renewable feedstock resources require novel storage technologies to optimize industrial use. Solid state fermentation of biomass feedstock may provide organic chemicals and fibers while reducing the risk of current dry-storage procedures. Here, we compare the chemical composition and fermentation of six sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) following 1, 7, and 21 days of storage. Ensilage of 7 days resulted in a pH of 3.8 and declined further to 3.75 at day 21. Lactate increased during ensilage from 2.0 to 3.9 g 100 g{sup -1}. Acetic acid increased between 1 and 7 days of ensiling but did not change until the end of the ensiling period. Total organic acids averaged 2.5 g 100 g{sup -1} after day 1 and increased to 4.2 and 4.7 g '100 g{sup -1} after days 7 and 21, respectively. Neutral detergent fiber ranged from 38 to 50 g 100 g{sup -1} among hybrids and total non-structural carbohydrates varied from 18 to 32 g 100 g{sup -1}. Hemicellulose and cellulose ranged from 13 to 19 g 100 g{sup -1} and 20 and 28 g 100 g{sup -1}, respectively. Genotypic variation in sorghum may offer designing dual-purpose hybrids for production of biomass and economically valuable byproducts. (author)

  20. Overexpression of a glutamine synthetase gene affects growth and development in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, Jazmina; Rathore, Keerti S

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is a primary macronutrient in plants, and nitrogen fertilizers play a critical role in crop production and yield. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene on nitrogen metabolism, and plant growth and development in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench). GS catalyzes the ATP dependent reaction between ammonia and glutamate to produce glutamine. A 1,071 bp long coding sequence of a sorghum cytosolic GS gene (Gln1) under the control of the maize ubiquitin (Ubq) promoter was introduced into sorghum immature embryos by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Progeny of the transformants exhibited higher accumulation of the Gln1 transcripts and up to 2.2-fold higher GS activity compared to the non-transgenic controls. When grown under optimal nitrogen conditions, these Gln1 transgenic lines showed greater tillering and up to 2.1-fold increase in shoot vegetative biomass. Interestingly, even under greenhouse conditions, we observed a seasonal component to both these parameters and the grain yield. Our results, showing that the growth and development of sorghum Gln1 transformants are also affected by N availability and other environmental factors, suggest complexity of the relationship between GS activity and plant growth and development. A better understanding of other control points and the ability to manipulate these will be needed to utilize the transgenic technology to improve nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants.

  1. Granivorous birds and sorghum crop in the province of Villa Clara,Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Miguel Saucedo Castillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the damages granivorous birds cause to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba, research based on the determination of the major endemic, migratory birds and their relationship with the distribution were made space of historical meteorological variables in the province in the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions. Population to sorghum producers grouped in different forms surveys were conducted, which yielded a large database, such as the determination of the main grain-eating birds percentage damage incurred, varieties, grain color, growth stage and other indicators. Nine main species affecting sorghum grain-eating birds in our province were recorded; Passer domesticus, Lonchura malacca, Lonchura punctulata, Dives atroviolaceus, Passerina cyanea, Zonotrichia leucophrys, Columbina passerine, Zenaida macroura y Zenaida asiatica. The spatial distribution of meteorological variables and their relation to the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions of the province was determined, based on record four preferential habitat areas. The results allowed us to provide companies and different forms of production in Villa Clara, the possibility of a varietal structure planting of sorghum on the basis of different preferential areas granivorous birds, together with the morphological and physiological characteristics of different genotypes introduced in agricultural production of the province and nationally.

  2. aqueous solutions by caladium bicolor (wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomaterial is cellulosic and therefore biodegradable and environment friendly. Kinetics describes the ... The study of kinetics in wastewater treatment is significant as it provides available insights ... metals in aqueous effluent using Caladium bicolor (wild cocoyam) biomass. Secondly, to present a modeling equation to ...

  3. aqueous solutions by caladium bicolor (wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maximum sorption was found to be 75.11 mg/g and 25.30 mg/g for Pb2+ and Cdº ... be used to predict the rate of pollutant removal from aqueous solutions in the ... The adsorbent used in the present study is C. bicolor (wild cocoyam) biomass.

  4. Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Quantitative and Qualitative Forage Yield of Maize, Pearl Millet and Sorghum in Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh Khalesro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to compare three summer forage grasses including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor cv. Speedfeed, corn (Zea mayz S.C. 704 and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum cv. Nutrifeed for green chop forage production in double cropping system, a field experiment was conducted at research field of Tarbiat Modares University on 2006 growing season. Treatments were arranged in a split- plot design based on randomized complete blocks with four replications. In this research three forage crops as main factor and nitrogen rates (100, 200 and 300 kg N. ha-1 from the urea source as the sub- plot were studied. Results showed the positive response of crops to nitrogen increment, in such a manner that millet with 300 kg N ha-1 produced 85.8 t ha-1 fresh forage (%20.3 more than sorghum and %30.9 more than corn. Regarding to the sustainable agriculture objects, millet and sorghum with 200 kg N ha-1could be suggested. Forage yield advantages of millet and sorghum to corn was %10 and %12 respectively. They produce 72.4 and 73.5 t ha-1 fresh forage under this treatment. Finally regarding to general advantages of sorghum and millet to corn, especially in unsuitable condition like as drought and poor soil fertility, it seems that changing the corn with sorghum or pearl millet could be an appropriate option. Also decision making for recommending one of sorghum and millet need to more information like qualitative attributes in details and determining animal feeding indices (voluntary intake using in vivo methods. Keywords: Sorghum, Pearl millet, Corn, Nitrogen, Forage, Organic matter, Crud protein

  5. A near infrared spectroscopic assay for stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers in sweet sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leiming; Li, Meng; Huang, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zou, Weihua; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Haichun; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, 123 sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) accessions and 50 mutants were examined with diverse stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers, indicating the potential near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assay for those three important parameters. Using the calibration and validation sets and modified squares method, nine calibration optimal equations were generated with high determination coefficient on the calibration (R(2)) (0.81-0.99), cross-validation (R(2)cv) (0.77-0.98), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD) (2.07-7.45), which were at first time applied by single spectra for simultaneous assay of stalk soluble sugars, bagasse hydrolyzed sugars, and three major wall polymers in bioenergy sweet sorghum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietor Donald M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81% recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis and primarily through a path that includes an

  7. Siderophore production by mycorrhizal sorghum roots under micronutrient deficient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aliasgharzad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It has widely been accepted that mycorrhizal symbiosis improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum (GE or G.intraradices (GI, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength (C0, C0.5 and C1, respectively of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn was applied to the pots during 85 days of growth period. Chrome azurol-S assay was used for determination of siderophores in root leachates on 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS. Siderophore production per unit volume of root was higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Both GE and GI were efficient fungi in this respect. Siderophore production was significantly induced at C0 level of the micronutrients. Amount of siderophores produced on 45 and 85 DAS was more than 65 DAS. Mycorrhizal root colonization by GE or GI was not significantly affected by micronutrient levels.

  8. Selection indices to identify drought-tolerant grain sorghum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, C B; Ticona-Benavente, C A; Tardin, F D; Cardoso, M J; Bastos, E A; Nogueira, D W; Portugal, A F; Santos, C V; Schaffert, R E

    2014-11-27

    Twenty-five cultivars of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were examined under both drought stress and normal conditions in 4 experiments. In each condition, genotypes were evaluated in a factorial experiment using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index, mean productivity (MP), geometric MP, harmonic mean, stress susceptibility index, tolerance index, yield index, and yield stability index were estimated for each genotype based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp). The results indicated that there were positive and significant correlations among Yp and Ys with geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, indicating that these factors are better predictors of Yp and Ys than tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, yield stability index, and yield index. Based on adjusted means at Yp and Ys, indices geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and biplot analysis, the most tolerant cultivars were '9929020', '9929034', and 'N 95B'.

  9. Seed shattering in a wild sorghum is conferred by a locus unrelated to domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haibao; Cuevas, Hugo E; Das, Sayan; Sezen, Uzay U; Zhou, Chengbo; Guo, Hui; Goff, Valorie H; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas E; Paterson, Andrew H

    2013-09-24

    Suppression of seed shattering was a key step during crop domestication that we have previously suggested to be convergent among independent cereal lineages. Positional, association, expression, and mutant complementation data all implicate a WRKY transcription factor, SpWRKY, in conferring shattering to a wild sorghum relative, Sorghum propinquum. We hypothesize that SpWRKY functions in a manner analogous to Medicago and Arabidopsis homologs that regulate cell wall biosynthesis genes, with low expression toward the end of floral development derepressing downstream cell wall biosynthesis genes to allow deposition of lignin that initiates the abscission zone in the seed-pedicel junction. The recent discovery of a YABBY locus that confers shattering within Sorghum bicolor and other cereals validated our prior hypothesis that some parallel domestication may have been convergent. Ironically, however, the shattering allele of SpWRKY appears to be recently evolved in S. propinquum and illustrates a case in which the genetic control of a trait in a wild relative fails to extrapolate even to closely related crops. Remarkably, the SpWRKY and YABBY loci lie only 300 kb apart and may have appeared to be a single genetic locus in some sorghum populations.

  10. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky J Milne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks. It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2 whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210, unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4 and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence could contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a functional role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences.

  11. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Ricky J; Byrt, Caitlin S; Patrick, John W; Grof, Christopher P L

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks). It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4, and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence may contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences.

  12. Population structure in sorghum accessions from West Africa differing in race and maturity class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Sankalp U; Stich, Benjamin; Rattunde, H Frederick W; Weltzien, Eva; Haussmann, Bettina I G; Hash, C Thomas; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Parzies, Heiko K

    2011-04-01

    Accounting for population structure to minimize spurious associations in association analyses is of crucial importance. With sorghum genomic sequence information being available, there is a growing interest in performing such association studies for a number of important agronomic traits using a candidate gene approach. The aims of our study were to conduct a systematic survey of molecular genetic diversity and analyze the population structure in cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] accessions from West Africa. Our analysis included 219 West African cultivated sorghum accessions with differing maturity intended for a marker-trait association study. A total of 27 SSRs were used, which resulted in detection of 513 alleles. Genetic diversity estimates for the accessions were found to be high. The accessions were divided into two subgroups using a model-based approach. Our findings partly agree with previous studies in that the guinea race accessions could be distinguished clearly from other accessions included in the analysis. Race and geographical origin of the accessions may be responsible for the structure we observed in our material. The extent of linkage disequilibrium for all combinations of SSRs was in agreement with expectations based on the mating system.

  13. Ultraviolet action spectrum for anthocyanin formation in broom sorghum first internodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuhashi, H; Hashimoto, T; Shimizu, S

    1982-09-01

    An action spectrum for anthocyanin formation in dark-grown broom sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench, cv Acme Broomcorn and cv Sekishokuzairai Fukuyama Broomcorn) seedlings was determined over the wavelength range from 260 to 735 nanometers. The action peaks were at 290, 650, 385, and 480 nanometers in descending order of height. The action of the 290-nanometer peak was not affected by subsequently given far red light, whereas those of the other three action peaks were nullified completely. The nullification of the 385-nanometer peak action by far red light was reversible. When an irradiation at these action peaks was followed by a phytochrome-saturating fluence of red light irradiation, the action of the 290-nanometer peak remained, whereas that of the 385-nanometer peak as well as those of the 650- and 480-nanometer peaks was masked by the action of the second irradiation. These findings suggested that the 290- and 385-nanometer action peaks involved different photoreceptors, the latter being phytochrome. The blue light-absorbing photoreceptor as reported to be a prerequisite for phytochrome action in milo sorghum was not found to exist in the broom sorghums.The action spectrum deprived of the involvement of phytochrome was determined in the ultraviolet region by irradiating with far red light following monochromatic ultraviolet light. The spectrum had a single intense peak at 290 nanometers and no action at all at wavelengths longer than 350 nanometers.

  14. 3D Sorghum Reconstructions from Depth Images Identify QTL Regulating Shoot Architecture1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height, leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27528244

  15. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-stress and memory-enhancing properties of F. vulgare extract in experimental rats. Methods: F. vulgare plant extract was obtained using Soxhlet extraction technique. The extract, at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally with an orogastric tube. Urinary levels of ...

  16. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Prażak

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp.), its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour,...

  17. Genotype x environment interactions for yield components of broomcorn [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the ecological stability of yield components (weight of undressed and trashed panicle and seed weight per panicle in fourteen varieties of broomcorn. Our current varieties was compared with our old, Hungarian and American varieties. Investigations were carried out under field conditions in a micro trial set up in a randomized block design providing five replications in seven ecologically different years. Stability parameters were computed using the model of Eberhart and Russell (1966. The results of this investigation showed that the genotypes differed in stability parameters for the characters studied. Variety Sava show good stability in all growing conditions. Variety Neoplanta plus was adapted to favorable and variety Reform to unfavorable conditions. Varieties with best performances in regard to yield components did not also show best stability. .

  18. Sorghum bicolor; Cinnamomum zeylanicum; Ocimum gratissimum; Alternative control; Germination and seed pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Duarte Cardoso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of seeds of B. brizantha has increased, however, the physiological quality of seeds available to the producer is still a limiting factor for a good performance culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by chemical scarification, different periods of aging and priming on physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha cv. MG-5 Victory. The seeds were subjected to chemical scarification – H2SO4 (presence and absence, artificial aging periods (zero, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours at 41 ° C and priming using the 0,2 KNO3 % (presence and absence for two hours at 25 º C, creating a completely randomized design in factorial 2x8x2, with four repetitions. The seeds were evaluated by testing germination and vigor. Chemical scarification is an effective method for breaking dormancy, but decreases the physiological seed. Overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha occurs with the use of artificial aging for non-scarified and scarified seeds. Priming generally has no effect on the physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha, however, it provides less loss of cellular constituents.

  19. Gene flow from Sorghum bicolor to its weedy relatives and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer user

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... methods for quantification of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in a field study. Transgenic Res. 15:219-228. Ririe KM, Rasmussen RP, Wittwer CT (1997). Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction. Anal. Biochem. 245:154-60.

  20. Produção de aguardente utilizando o Sorgo Sacarino (Sorghum Bicolor (L. Moench).

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rosimeire Alves

    2013-01-01

    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas. Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas, Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós Graduação, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. Neste trabalho foi executado a avaliação agroindustrial do sorgo sacarino como matéria-prima para produção de aguardente. Para isto, foram conduzidos nas safras 2009/2010 e 2010/2011 os mesmos ensaios envolvendo a avaliação de duas variedades (BR 505 e BRS 506) de sorgo sacarino colhidas em três períodos de maturação (11...

  1. Metabolism of the Cyanogenic Glucoside Dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche

    involved in catalyzing the formation of dhurrin amide and acid, but none of these where ideal candidates. To investigate the possible release of the aldoxime intermediate from the dhurrin biosynthesis as a fungal defense compound, an experimental setup was designed using the scent from the orchid Angraecum...

  2. Productivité de la culture du sorgho (Sorghum bicolor) dans un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2014 ... Conclusion et application : la présence de l'espèce A. senegal dans les champs de cultures a créé un environnement agro-écologique favorable à la production du sorgho. Les résultats obtenus présentent un intérêt pratique car l'association A. senegal-cultures pourrait être une alternative aux intrants ...

  3. Drought tolerance strategies highlighted by two Sorghum bicolor races in a dry-down experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Trindade, Luisa; Amaducci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects more and more frequently plant growth and productivity due to the current climate change scenario. Unravelling the physiological mechanism underlying the response of plants to water stress and discover traits related to drought

  4. Calidad de semilla de genotipos isocitoplasmicos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pecina, Víctor; Navarro, Enrique; Williams, Héctor; Rodríguez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    La producción de híbridos de sorgo depende en la actualidad del uso de un solo sistema de esterilidad génico-citoplásmica (Milo-Kafir, Citoplasma A1). Por diversificar el número de fuentes, se han encontrado nuevos tipos como el denominado Citoplasma A2, el cual fue introducido para su estudio al Campo Experimental de Río Bravo, Tamaulipas, México (INIFAP-CIRNE), donde se formaron los diferentes genotipos isocitoplásmicos y se produjo la semilla utilizada en el presente trabajo, el cual tiene...

  5. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... Mycorrhiza symbiosis appears between most of the vascular plants (more than. 80%) and a group of soil fungi belong to three branches of Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycotina. (Harley and Smith, 1983). The result of this symbiosis is the fungi help in the absorption and transfer of nutrition to.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  7. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World’s Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Proietti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered.

  8. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World’s Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Ilaria; Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes) to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn) due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered. PMID:27417755

  9. Adaptability and Stability Study of Selected Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Ethanol Production under Different Environments Using AMMI Analysis and GGE Biplots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justice Kipkorir Rono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol. Cane, juice, and ethanol yield was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI and genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE biplot. The combined analysis of variance of cane and juice yield of sorghum genotypes showed that sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly (P<0.05 affected by environments (E, genotypes (G and genotype by environment interaction (GEI. GGE biplot showed high yielding genotypes EUSS10, ACFC003/12, SS14, and EUSS11 for cane yield; EUSS10, EUSS11, and SS14 for juice yield; and EUSS10, SS04, SS14, and ACFC003/12 for ethanol yield. Genotype SS14 showed high general adaptability for cane, juice, and ethanol yield.

  10. Biological and biochemical evaluation of wild marjoram subspecies Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare subs. hirtum

    OpenAIRE

    Dambrauskienė, Edita; Viškelis, Pranas; Rubinskienė, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of botanical and biochemical characters of wild marjoram subspecies Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare subs. hirtum were carried out the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. It is observed that subspecies of wild marjoram Origanum vulgare L. native in Lithuania by aroma and especially large amount of essential oils. According to the data of investigations the productivity of wild marjoram subspecies (grass yield) was similar in various growth stages. It was established t...

  11. Sorghum germplasm from West and Central Africa maintained in the ICRISAT genebank: Status, gaps, and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Deo Upadhyaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genebank at ICRISAT maintains 8020 accessions of sorghum from 16 West and Central African countries. Geographical gaps and diversity were assessed in the collection. Using the passport data of 3991 accessions for which georeferenced data were available, a total of 386 districts (gaps located in 11 West and Central African countries were identified as geographical gaps. Burkina Faso with 140 and Nigeria with 118 districts were identified as countries with major geographical gaps. The collection of 43 accessions of wild species represented only three species belonging to Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii and ssp. verticilliflorum, S. hevisonii, and S. macrochaeta, highlighting the need for collection missions aimed exclusively at enriching the collection of wild relatives. Accessions having characterization data (7630 were used to assess diversity. The first three principal components contributed to >60% of variation. Maximum diversity was observed in the collection from Nigeria for both qualitative and quantitative traits. Mean values indicated significant differences between basic and intermediate races for the traits studied. Among the races, accessions of guinea-caudatum for qualitative traits and those of caudatum for quantitative traits were highly diverse. The low intensity of the sorghum collection and the many geographical gaps in the collection underline the importance of launching collection missions to fill the gaps, particularly in regions of predominantly guinea sorghums. Genotyping of possible duplicate accessions is needed to identify duplicates in the collection. It is suggested that all passport information including georeferenced data of collection sites should be collected when samples are collected in gaps. Keywords: Collection, Diversity, Gaps, Germplasm, Landraces, Sorghum

  12. Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Level Responses to Cadmium Stress in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Oh, Myeong-Won; Lee, Moon-Soon; Chung, Keun-Yook; Xin, Zhanguo; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potential associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 μM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants. PMID:26919231

  13. Using brown midrib 6 dwarf forage sorghum silage and fall-grown oat silage in lactating dairy cow rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2017-07-01

    Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly

  14. Establishment of Vespa bicolor in Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, I-Hsin; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Chao, Jung-Tai; Yeh, Wen-Chi; Lee, Wei-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of a hornet, Vespa bicolor F., in Taiwan was confirmed based on successful field collection of adults of both sexes and two subterranean colonies. Information on nesting habitat, nest measurement, and colony composition of this species are provided in this article. V. bicolor is the ninth hornet species ever recorded from Taiwan. Possible pathway for the introduction of this alien species is also discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. SbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kai; Jacquet, Nicolas; Sinha, Anagh; Benites, Veronica T; Baidoo, Edward E K; Richel, Aurore; Sattler, Scott E; Northen, Trent R; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Loqué, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maize that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units.

  16. Expression of the Maize Dof1 Transcription Factor in Wheat and Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A.; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Changa, Taity; Dweikat, Ismail; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom E.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and development. Improving the ability of plants to acquire and assimilate nitrogen more efficiently is a key agronomic parameter that will augment sustainability in agriculture. A transcription factor approach was pursued to address improvement of nitrogen use efficiency in two major commodity crops. To this end, the Zea mays Dof1 (ZmDof1) transcription factor was expressed in both wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) either constitutively, UBI4 promoter from sugarcane, or in a tissue specific fashion via the maize rbcS1 promoter. The primary transcription activation target of ZmDof1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), is observed in transgenic wheat events. Expression ZmDof1 under control of the rbcs1 promoter translates to increase in biomass and yield components in wheat. However, constitutive expression of ZmDof1 led to the down-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis and the functional apparatus of chloroplasts, and an outcome that negatively impacts photosynthesis, height, and biomass in wheat. Similar patterns were also observed in sorghum transgenic events harboring the constitutive expression cassette of ZmDof1. These results indicate that transcription factor strategies to boost agronomic phenotypic outcomes in crops need to consider expression patterns of the genetic elements to be introduced. PMID:28424717

  17. Evaluation of silicon, calcium and magnesium in liquid fertilizers on sorghum growth in the greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Araya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of liquid fertilizers with Si, Ca or Mg on the growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor was evaluated in an Ultisol under greenhouse conditions. Four liquid fertilizers (two potassium silicates, calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide were applied into the soil in liquids at doses of 2 and 4 ml.pot-1, plus a control, in a randomized unrestricted design with 9 treatments and 4 replicates. Growth variables, assessed 45 days after sowing, were dry weight of root and aerial parts. Analysis of soil and plant at the end of the test was performed. The application of Ca and Mg significantly increased growth and nutrient uptake of sorghum. Liquid calcium carbonate promoted the highest values of dry biomass and absorption of N, P, Ca, S, Cu, Zn, Mn and B. Si sources had no significant effects on biomass, except for K silicate with Ca and Mg at the dose of 4 ml.pot-1, which also produced a significant increase in K absorption. Calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide significantly increased soil pH and decreased exchangeable acidity and Al, and also increased Ca or Mg content in the soil.

  18. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for °Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  19. Optimization pretreatment condition of sweet sorghum bagasse for production of second generation bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiyani, Yanni; Waluyo, Joko; Triwahyuni, Eka; Burhani, Dian; Muryanto, Primandaru, Prasetyo; Riandy, Andika Putra; Sumardi, Novia

    2017-01-01

    The bagasse residue of Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) consist of cellulose 39.48%; hemicellulose 16.56% and lignin 24.77% that can be converted to ethanol. Pretreatment is of great importance to ethanol yield. In this study, pretreatment process was conducted in a 5-liter reactor using NaOH 10% at various temperature 110, 130, 150°C and reaction time 10, 20, 30 minutes and optimizing severity parameter (log R0 between 1.3 - 2.9). The statistical analysis using two way anova showed that third variations of temperature give different effects significant on lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content at 95% the confidence level. The optimum pretreatment of bagasse sorghum were obtained with Log R0 value between 2.4-2.9. High severity value in pretreatment condition reduce lignin almost 84-86%, maximum reducing lignin content was 86% obtained at temperature 150°C for 20 minutes reaction time and cellulose increased almost two times the initial content.

  20. Sorghum allelopathy – from ecosystem to molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference have also been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse loca...

  1. Overcompensation or limitation to photosynthesis and root hydraulic conductance altered by rehydration in seedlings of sorghum and maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the prospect of irregular extremes of high and low rainfall due to climate change, the mechanisms underlying plant responses to periods of drought and re-watering need to be understood. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and maize (Zea mays L. were grown in pots of loess soil at three soil moisture levels to examine the effects of different levels of drought over 10 days and plant responses to re-watering (5 days of rehydration. Photosynthesis-related traits recovered rapidly both in sorghum and maize on re-watering, suggesting that photosynthetic function was not severely damaged after a short drought period, although the values of these traits were dramatically reduced during drought per se. However, the two species differed in the extent to which they recovered from severe stress. In sorghum, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs, and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm returned to control levels after re-watering. However, in maize, these parameters exceeded control levels after re-watering. Both overcompensation and pre-drought limitation were observed. Over a range of growth conditions, close relationships between Gs and root hydraulic conductance (Kr were observed in pooled data sets. Pn, Kr, and their related characteristics were compared among species and treatments. Our results showed that the recovery of Kr is similar between sorghum and maize, at least after a short time of re-watering, although the two species differ in drought-tolerance capacity. Our results also suggest that sorghum can endure moderate drought by adjusting certain traits, but is still as vulnerable as maize under severe drought stress.

  2. Overexpression of sweet sorghum cryptochrome 1a confers hypersensitivity to blue light, abscisic acid and salinity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Meng, Lingyang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yunyun; Yang, Zhenming; Yang, Deguang; Bian, Mingdi

    2017-11-02

    This work provides the bioinformatics, expression pattern and functional analyses of cryptochrome 1a from sweet sorghum (SbCRY1a), together with an exploration of the signaling mechanism mediated by SbCRY1a. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is considered to be an ideal candidate for biofuel production due to its high efficiency of photosynthesis and the ability to maintain yield under harsh environmental conditions. Blue light receptor cryptochromes regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we reported the function and signal mechanism of sweet sorghum cryptochrome 1a (SbCRY1a) to explore its potential for genetic improvement of sweet sorghum varieties. SbCRY1a transcripts experienced almost 24 h diurnal cycling; however, its protein abundance showed no oscillation. Overexpression of SbCRY1a in Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of cry1 mutant in a blue light-specific manner and regulated HY5 accumulation under blue light. SbCRY1a protein was present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. The photoexcited SbCRY1a interacted directly with a putative RING E3 ubiquitin ligase constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1) from sweet sorghum (SbCOP1) instead of SbSPA1 to suppress SbCOP1-SbHY5 interaction responding to blue light. These observations indicate that the function and signaling mechanism of cryptochromes are basically conservative between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Moreover, SbCRY1a-overexpressed transgenic Arabidopsis showed oversensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity. The ABA-responsive gene ABI5 was up-regulated evidently in SbCRY1a transgenic lines, suggesting that SbCRY1a might regulate ABA signaling through the HY5-ABI5 regulon.

  3. Sorghum production under future climate in the Southwestern USA: model projections of yield, greenhouse gas emissions and soil C fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Ghimire, R.; Hartman, M. D.; Marsalis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large tracts of semi-arid land in the Southwestern USA are relatively less important for food production than the US Corn Belt, and represent a promising area for expansion of biofuel/bioproduct crops. However, high temperatures, low available water and high solar radiation in the SW represent a challenge to suitable feedstock development, and future climate change scenarios predict that portions of the SW will experience increased temperature and temporal shifts in precipitation distribution. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a valuable forage crop with promise as a biofuel feedstock, given its high biomass under semi-arid conditions, relatively lower N fertilizer requirements compared to corn, and salinity tolerance. To evaluate the environmental impact of expanded sorghum cultivation under future climate in the SW USA, we used the DayCent model in concert with a suite of downscaled future weather projections to predict biogeochemical consequences (greenhouse gas flux and impacts on soil carbon) of sorghum cultivation in New Mexico. The model showed good correspondence with yield data from field trials including both dryland and irrigated sorghum (measured vs. modeled; r2 = 0.75). Simulation experiments tested the effect of dryland production versus irrigation, low N versus high N inputs and delayed fertilizer application. Nitrogen application timing and irrigation impacted yield and N2O emissions less than N rate and climate. Across N and irrigation treatments, future climate simulations resulted in 6% increased yield and 20% lower N2O emissions compared to current climate. Soil C pools declined under future climate. The greatest declines in soil C were from low N input sorghum simulations, regardless of irrigation (>20% declines in SOM in both cases), and requires further evaluation to determine if changing future climate is driving these declines, or if they are a function of prolonged sorghum-fallow rotations in the model. The relatively small gain in yield for

  4. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol−1) or elevated (800 µmol mol−1) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. PMID:26336093

  5. Spatial variability of sorghum forage yield and physical attributes of an Planosol = Variabilidade espacial da produtividade de sorgo e atributos físicos em um Planossolo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Montanari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is increasing in the Midwest region of Brazil with the aim of expanding the production of silage to be used in animal feed, with good adaptability to climatic conditions of the arid and semi-arid brazilian. The productive capacity of sorghum is influenced by soil physical properties (RP, UG, UV e DS, with these values appropriate to the development of the root system positively affect the productivity. In order to study the spatial and linear correlations between the yield of sorghum for forage and soil physical properties, an experiment was conducted in the Miranda city, MS, in an Planosol. The data were obtained by analysis of samples of plant (MVF and soil (RP, UG, UV e DS collected at random, having been demarcated using a GPS receiver 51 points in the cultivation area with irregular spacing. The attributes studied (plant and soil, and have spatial correlation, the variability between medium and high and well-defined spatial patterns, with a range between 130.0 and 352.0 m. The RP and UG were good indicators of soil physical quality, as for the productivity of green biomass forage sorghum. =

  6. Sorghum for human food--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglani, C

    1998-01-01

    A brief review of literature on sorghum for human foods and on the relationship among some kernel characteristics and food quality is presented. The chief foods prepared with sorghum, such as tortilla, porridge, couscous and baked goods are described. Tortillas, prepared with 75% of whole sorghum and 25% of yellow maize, are better than those prepared with whole sorghum alone. A porridge formulation with a 30:40:30 mix of sorghum, maize and cassava respectively, has been shown to be the most acceptable combination. The cooked porridge Aceda has lower protein digestibility and higher biological value than the uncooked porridge Aceda. Sorghum is not considered breadmaking flour but the addition of 30% sorghum flour to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate produces a bread, evaluated as good to excellent.

  7. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or ...

  8. Plant growth-promotion by Streptomyces spp. in sorghum ( Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gene expression profiles revealed up-regulation of β-1,3-glucanase, indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore genes. Based on the present findings, the seven selected Streptomyces strains could be employed to enhance plant growth and yield in sorghum. Keywords: Gene expression, plant growth-promotion, scanning ...

  9. An assessment of the physiological quality of sorghum ( Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to good quality seeds by farmers. It was assumed in this study that use of low quality seed was among the factors that could be significantly affecting the low production of sorghum in the district. This study focused on the physiological quality of seed which refers to the germination capacity, viability, characteristics related to ...

  10. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  11. In vivo and in vitro inhibition of Spodoptera littoralis gut-serine protease by protease inhibitors isolated from maize and sorghum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha Abd

    2014-11-01

    Seeds of cereals (Gramineae) are a rich source of serine proteinase inhibitors of most of the several inhibitor families. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities was detected in the seed flour extracts of three varieties of maize (Zea maize) and six varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The maize variety, Hi Teck 2031 and the sorghum variety, Giza 10 were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potentials compared to other tested varieties for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Maize and sorghum purified proteins showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to molecular mass of 20.0 and 15.2 kDa for maize and sorghum PIs respectively. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60 °C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12 pH. The kinetic analysis revealed non-competitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation and mean pupal weight of S.littoralis where maize PI was more effective than sorghum PI. It may be concluded that maize and sorghum protease inhibitor gene(s) could be potential targets for future studies in developing insect resistant transgenic plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering] [and others

    2012-02-15

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and Cd (50 mg kg{sup -1}) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. (orig.)

  13. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops.

  14. Digital genotyping of sorghum – a diverse plant species with a large repeat-rich genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid acquisition of accurate genotyping information is essential for all genetic marker-based studies. For species with relatively small genomes, complete genome resequencing is a feasible approach for genotyping; however, for species with large and highly repetitive genomes, the acquisition of whole genome sequences for the purpose of genotyping is still relatively inefficient and too expensive to be carried out on a high-throughput basis. Sorghum bicolor is a C4 grass with a sequenced genome size of ~730 Mb, of which ~80% is highly repetitive. We have developed a restriction enzyme targeted genome resequencing method for genetic analysis, termed Digital Genotyping (DG), to be applied to sorghum and other grass species with large repeat-rich genomes. Results DG templates are generated using one of three methylation sensitive restriction enzymes that recognize a nested set of 4, 6 or 8 bp GC-rich sequences, enabling varying depth of analysis and integration of results among assays. Variation in sequencing efficiency among DG markers was correlated with template GC-content and length. The expected DG allele sequence was obtained 97.3% of the time with a ratio of expected to alternative allele sequence acquisition of >20:1. A genetic map aligned to the sorghum genome sequence with an average resolution of 1.47 cM was constructed using 1,772 DG markers from 137 recombinant inbred lines. The DG map enhanced the detection of QTL for variation in plant height and precisely aligned QTL such as Dw3 to underlying genes/alleles. Higher-resolution NgoMIV-based DG haplotypes were used to trace the origin of DNA on SBI-06, spanning Ma1 and Dw2 from progenitors to BTx623 and IS3620C. DG marker analysis identified the correct location of two miss-assembled regions and located seven super contigs in the sorghum reference genome sequence. Conclusion DG technology provides a cost-effective approach to rapidly generate accurate genotyping data in sorghum. Currently

  15. Evaluation of four sorghum varieties in the utilization of sorghum flour tortillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free flour tortillas were made with five different sorghum flours to evaluate flour quality. Four sorghum varieties were used along with a commercial sorghum flour. The four varieties were: Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907(NE#20), and 5040C. The tortilla wei...

  16. Environmental adaptibility of tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental adaptability of the plants can be assumed from essential oil contents. Essential oils are agents, which communicate with the plant environment. Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) was selected for laboratory research since it belongs to urban flora and vegetation where the imperative to adapt is high. Sample ...

  17. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Estella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically unreduced (2n embryo sacs (ES form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction.

  18. ISSR-based analysis of genetic diversity among sorghum landraces growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basahi, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis was used to determine the genetic diversity among 15 genotypes of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. A total of 92 alleles were amplified, with an average of 13 ISSR alleles per primer. Cluster analysis divided the 15 genotypes into two main groups. Group A consisted of five genotypes with white grains from Jazan and Abha with a similarity coefficient range of 0.527 to 0.818. Group B was comprised of 10 genotypes; two genotypes from Al-Qassim were clearly delimited from the remaining eight samples with a coefficient range from 0.709 to 0.490. The eight genotypes were divided into two clusters; one was comprised of landraces with dark grains from Abha in Saudi Arabia and Ab in Yemen, with a similarity coefficient range between 0.563 and 0.781, and the other cluster was differentiated into three white-colored-grain genotypes and one colored-grain genotype; all samples from North Yemen had a similarity coefficient range from 0.454 to 0.800. The current results encourage further collection and authentication of sorghum landraces in the gene banks of Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Stay-green alleles individually enhance grain yield in sorghum under drought by modifying canopy development and water uptake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Andrew K; van Oosterom, Erik J; Mullet, John E; George-Jaeggli, Barbara; Jordan, David R; Klein, Patricia E; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-08-01

    Stay-green is an integrated drought adaptation trait characterized by a distinct green leaf phenotype during grain filling under terminal drought. We used sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a repository of drought adaptation mechanisms, to elucidate the physiological and genetic mechanisms underpinning stay-green. Near-isogenic sorghum lines (cv RTx7000) were characterized in a series of field and managed-environment trials (seven experiments and 14 environments) to determine the influence of four individual stay-green (Stg1-4) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on canopy development, water use and grain yield under post-anthesis drought. The Stg QTL decreased tillering and the size of upper leaves, which reduced canopy size at anthesis. This reduction in transpirational leaf area conserved soil water before anthesis for use during grain filling. Increased water uptake during grain filling of Stg near-isogenic lines (NILs) relative to RTx7000 resulted in higher post-anthesis biomass production, grain number and yield. Importantly, there was no consistent yield penalty associated with the Stg QTL in the irrigated control. These results establish a link between the role of the Stg QTL in modifying canopy development and the subsequent impact on crop water use patterns and grain yield under terminal drought. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Fermentation characteristics of different purpose sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum stands out among other plants recommended for ensiling due to its forage composition, its resistance to drought, and its planting range. New cultivars of grain and sweet sorghum that can be used for silage production are available, but there is little information regarding their ensiling characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics at the ensiling of different purpose sorghum cultivars, at two crop periods. The trial was carried out at the Plant Production Department of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, Rondônia, Brazil, and chemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experimental design used was a randomized block, in split-plot design, with four replicates. The plot treatments consisted of six sorghum cultivars grown for different purposes (grain sorghum: BRS 308 and BRS 310; forage sorghum: BR 655 and BRS 610; sweet sorghum: BRS 506 and CMSXS 647. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping seasons (first crop and second crop. The grain sorghum cultivar BRS 310 was the only one that had suitable dry matter content for ensiling; however, it was also the only one that did not show ideal water soluble carbohydrate content for ensiling. Nevertheless, all treatments presented pH below than 4.2 and ammonia nitrogen lower than 12% of total N, which indicates that the fermentation inside the silo had proceeded well. For sweet sorghum cultivars, higher ethanol and butyric acid content were observed for the first crop than for the second crop. All evaluated sorghum cultivars can be used for silage production, but the use of sweet sorghum is recommended at the second crop.

  1. Sorghum allelopathy--from ecosystem to molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Leslie A; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim S; Baerson, Scott R

    2013-02-01

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference also have been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse locations and with various sorghum plant parts. Phytotoxicity has been reported when sorghum was incorporated into the soil as a green manure, when residues remained on the soil surface in reduced tillage settings, or when sorghum was cultivated as a crop in managed fields. Allelochemicals present in sorghum tissues have varied with plant part, age, and cultivar evaluated. A diverse group of sorghum allelochemicals, including numerous phenolics, a cyanogenic glycoside (dhurrin), and a hydrophobic p-benzoquinone (sorgoleone) have been isolated and identified in recent years from sorghum shoots, roots, and root exudates, as our capacity to analyze and identify complex secondary products in trace quantities in the plant and in the soil rhizosphere has improved. These allelochemicals, particularly sorgoleone, have been widely investigated in terms of their mode(s) of action, specific activity and selectivity, release into the rhizosphere, and uptake and translocation into sensitive indicator species. Both genetics and environment have been shown to influence sorgoleone production and expression of genes involved in sorgoleone biosynthesis. In the soil rhizosphere, sorgoleone is released continuously by living root hairs where it accumulates in significant concentrations around its roots. Further experimentation designed to study the regulation of sorgoleone production by living sorghum root hairs may result in increased capacity to utilize sorghum cover crops more effectively for suppression of germinating weed seedlings, in a manner similar to that of soil-applied preemergent herbicides like trifluralin.

  2. Silicon promotes cytokinin biosynthesis and delays senescence in Arabidopsis and Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Oshry; Steiner, Evyatar; Kouřil, Štěpán; Tarkowski, Petr; Aharoni, Asaph; Elbaum, Rivka

    2017-07-01

    Silicate minerals are dominant soil components. Thus, plant roots are constantly exposed to silicic acid. High silicon intake, enabled by root silicon transporters, correlates with increased tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the underlying protection mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that silicon interacts with the plant hormones, and specifically, that silicic acid intake increases cytokinin biosynthesis. The reaction of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Arabidopsis plants, modified to absorb high versus low amounts of silicon, to dark-induced senescence was monitored, by quantifying expression levels of genes along the senescence pathway and measuring tissue cytokinin levels. In both species, detached leaves with high silicon content senesced more slowly than leaves that were not exposed to silicic acid. Expression levels of genes along the senescence pathway suggested increased cytokinin biosynthesis with silicon exposure. Mass spectrometry measurements of cytokinin suggested a positive correlation between silicon exposure and active cytokinin concentrations. Our results indicate a similar reaction to silicon treatment in distantly related plants, proposing a general function of silicon as a stress reliever, acting via increased cytokinin biosynthesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Determining water use of sorghum from two-source energy balance and radiometric temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sánchez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of ±0.14 mm h−1 and ±1.0 mm d−1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Total accumulated crop water use during the campaign was underestimated by 5%. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.

  4. Reduction of Light-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation in Inoculated Sorghum Mesocotyls1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sze-Chung Clive; Nicholson, Ralph L.

    1998-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) accumulates the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-dimalonyl glucoside in etiolated mesocotyls in response to light. Inoculation with the nonpathogenic fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus drastically reduced the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanin by repressing the transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase. In contrast to these repression effects, fungal inoculation resulted in the synthesis of the four known 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins and a corresponding activation of genes encoding the key branch-point enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. In addition, a gene encoding the pathogenesis-related protein PR-10 was strongly induced in response to inoculation. The accumulation of phytoalexins leveled off by 48 h after inoculation and was accompanied by a more rapid increase in the rate of anthocyanin accumulation. The results suggest that the plant represses less essential metabolic activities such as anthocyanin synthesis as a means of compensating for the immediate biochemical and physiological needs for the defense response. PMID:9501130

  5. A gene in the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family confers aluminum tolerance in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Liu, Jiping; Guimarães, Claudia T; Lana, Ubiraci G P; Alves, Vera M C; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schaffert, Robert E; Hoekenga, Owen A; Piñeros, Miguel A; Shaff, Jon E; Klein, Patricia E; Carneiro, Newton P; Coelho, Cintia M; Trick, Harold N; Kochian, Leon V

    2007-09-01

    Crop yields are significantly reduced by aluminum toxicity on highly acidic soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable land. Candidate aluminum tolerance proteins include organic acid efflux transporters, with the organic acids forming non-toxic complexes with rhizosphere aluminum. In this study, we used positional cloning to identify the gene encoding a member of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, an aluminum-activated citrate transporter, as responsible for the major sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) aluminum tolerance locus, Alt(SB). Polymorphisms in regulatory regions of Alt(SB) are likely to contribute to large allelic effects, acting to increase Alt(SB) expression in the root apex of tolerant genotypes. Furthermore, aluminum-inducible Alt(SB) expression is associated with induction of aluminum tolerance via enhanced root citrate exudation. These findings will allow us to identify superior Alt(SB) haplotypes that can be incorporated via molecular breeding and biotechnology into acid soil breeding programs, thus helping to increase crop yields in developing countries where acidic soils predominate.

  6. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in first internodes of sorghum: lignin and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, H A

    1967-03-01

    Lignin biosynthesis in excised tissues of Sorghum vulgare variety Wheatland milo incubated in air with and without prior infiltration with H(2)O was presumably limited by H(2)O(2) production and was dependent upon an endogenous substrate, probably starch. In solution culture without shaking, this conversion of endogenous material was partially blocked at some step prior to p-hydroxycinnamic acid. The synthesis was light independent and continued protein synthesis was not required. The accumulation of lignin products was paralleled by an increase in dhurrin, alkaline sensitive esters of p-hydroxycinnamic, ferulic and sinapic acids, and flavin coenzymes, especially flavin-adenine dinucleotide. There was no detectable evidence of competition for substrates with other phenols such as anthocyanins or with the growth of adventitious roots. There was evidence, however, of mechanisms limiting lignification in the first internode in the intact seedling. Comparisons are made with lignin production in comparable tissues of Phleum.

  7. Inheritance and Identification of a Major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) that Confers Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and a Novel QTL for Plant Height in Sweet Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Shultz, Karen R; Davis, Richard F; Knoll, Joseph E; Anderson, William; Wang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are a pest on many economically important row crop and vegetable species and management relies on chemicals, plant resistance, and cultural practices such as crop rotation. Little is known about the inheritance of resistance to M. incognita or the genomic regions associated with resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In this study, an F2 population (n = 130) was developed between the resistant sweet sorghum cultivar 'Honey Drip' and the susceptible sweet cultivar 'Collier'. Each F2 plant was phenotyped for stalk weight, height, juice Brix, root weight, total eggs, and eggs per gram of root. Strong correlations were observed between eggs per gram of root and total eggs, height and stalk weight, and between two measurements of Brix. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to generate single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The G-Model, single marker analysis, interval mapping, and composite interval mapping were used to identify a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 3 for total eggs and eggs per gram of root. Furthermore, a new QTL for plant height was also discovered on chromosome 3. Simple sequence repeat markers were developed in the total eggs and eggs per gram of root QTL region and the markers flanking the resistance gene are 4.7 and 2.4 cM away. These markers can be utilized to move the southern root-knot nematode resistance gene from Honey Drip to any sorghum line.

  8. Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P  0.05), CR-III (P > 0.05), and CR-IV (P  0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P > 0.05), 133.46 (P < 0.01), and 198.87 % (P < 0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs.

  9. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  10. PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SORGHUM CULTIVARS 285

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    poultry feeds in Nigeria, Msc Dissertation,. Bayero University,Kano.Pp 12-35. Anonymous (2006a). Rabi sorghum research report presented in Research Review committee. Meeting, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth,. Rahuri p1-182. Anonymous (2006b).Reports on trials nurseries kharif,rabi and forage sorghum presented.

  11. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  12. Sorghum biotechnology for food and health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mehlo, L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available in the arid and semi-arid tropics. The end-product is referred to as African Biofortified Sorghum (ABS). Taking cognisance of the limitations of classic breeding in the area of nutrition in fortifying sorghum with these essential amino acids, vitamins...

  13. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Prażak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp., its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour, syrup, sugar, ethanol, vegetable oil, starch, wax, paints, and animal fodder (the grain and entire plant. Sorghum straw is used to produce fibres, paper, and building materials. Sorghum has high energy value and can be an excellent source of renewable energy. It is easy to cultivate, with low soil and nutrient requirements. Due to its content of allelopathic compounds, it inhibits weed growth and has a phytosanitary effect. It is also resistant to disease and pests. It is a short-day plant, and in Polish climate conditions, it does not form sufficiently mature seeds, but produces a very high yield of green matter that can be used for fodder. Cultivation of sorghum during periodic water shortages may be an alternative solution for obtaining fodder when maize cultivation is unreliable.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure among sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Ethiopian region harbors a unique set of sorghum germplasm adapted to conditions not conventional to sorghums grown in other parts of the world. Accessions from the region possess unique resistance to multiple leaf and grain diseases. This study is aimed at exploring the extent of genetic variation and ...

  15. Identification of a major quantitative trait locus conditioning resistance to greenbug biotype E in sorghum PI 550610 using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Q; Huang, Yinghua; Porter, David R; Tauer, C G; Hollaway, Lindsey

    2007-10-01

    Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), represents the most important pest insect of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, in the Great Plains of the United States. Biotype E is the most widespread and dominant type not only in sorghum and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., fields, but also on many noncultivated grass species. This study was designed to determine sorghum accession PI 550610 resistance to greenbug biotype E, to map the resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by using an established simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map and to identify SSR markers closely linked to the major resistance QTLs. In greenhouse screening tests, seedlings of PI 550610 showed strong resistance to the greenbug at a level similar to resistant accession PI550607. For QTL mapping, one F2 population containing 277 progeny and one population containing 233 F2:3 families derived from Westland A line x PI 550610 were used to genotype 132 polymorphic SSR markers and to phenotype seedling resistance to greenbug feeding. Phenotypic evaluation of sorghum seedling damage at 7, 12, 17, and 21 d postinfestation in the F2:3 families revealed that resistance variation was normally distributed. Single marker analysis indicated 16 SSRs spread over five chromosomes were significant for greenbug resistance. Composite interval and multiple interval mapping procedures indicated that a major QTL resided in the interval of 6.8 cM between SSR markers Xtxp358 and Xtxp289 on SBI-09. The results will be valuable in the development of new greenbug biotype E resistant sorghum cultivars and for the further characterization of major genes by map-based cloning.

  16. Observations on nematodes from the Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor McClelland in India, including a revalidation of Heliconema ahiri Karve, 1941 (Physalopteridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Sheeba, S.; Kumar, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2013), s. 496-503 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Heliconema * Procamallanus * Spirocamallanus * freshwater eel * Anguilla bicolor bicolor * Kerala * India Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2013

  17. Antioxidant potential of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts was determined. Areal plant parts (leaves and flowers were dried, grinded and extracted with five different solvents: methanol, ethanol, acetone, water and isopropanol. Total phenols and total flavonoids were determined and four in vitro antioxidant assays were applied. The best extraction medium (considering only phenols and flavonoids was methanol and 62.7 mg galic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight were found (for leaves extract. Comparing amounts of phenolic compounds found in the extracts and its antioxidant potential with other herbal teas and extracts, it may be concluded that T. vulgare is a plant species destitute with phenolic compounds. Obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds, present in the plant tissues, are carriers of antioxidant properties.

  18. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum silage treated with inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M E; Foster, J L; McCuistion, K C; Redmon, L A; Jessup, R W

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have the potential to improve the value of sorghum feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of 4 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage varieties: Dairy Master BMR (DBMR; brown midrib; Richardson Seed, Vega, TX), PS 747 (PS; photoperiod sensitive; Pogue Seed, Kenedy, TX), Silo 700D (S700D; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed), and MMR 381/73 (MMR; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed) pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase, XC; 50:50 mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus; Dyadic, Juniper, FL) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum); Cargill Animal Nutrition, Indianapolis, IN; PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS and the least for MMR. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC-treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC- and PRO-treated silage. When silage was treated with XC, concentrations of NDF concentrations decreased, on average, 4.81% across all cultivars and ADF concentrations decreased, on average, 3.23% in all cultivars except MMR. Inoculant PRO reduced the NDF concentration of DBMR by 6.47%. The ADF concentrations of DBMR and PS treated with PRO were decreased by 3.25%. Treating sorghum silage with XC or PRO reduced the NDF and ADF fractions, which increased cell wall degradability. In vitro true digestibility was greatest for PRO-treated DBMR, whereas acid detergent lignin was least for PRO-treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO; however, aerobic stability of XC-treated MMR was 63 h greater than that of the control. Acetate concentrations were greatest for XC-treated MMR, which explains the 63-h improvement in aerobic stability due to the inhibition of fungi. However, inoculant PRO did not improve yeast and mold counts or aerobic stability of sorghum

  19. Comparative Life Histories of Greenbugs and Sugarcane Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Coinfesting Susceptible and Resistant Sorghums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Perumal, Ramaswamy; Michaud, J P

    2016-02-01

    Host-plant resistance has been a fundamental component of aphid management in cereal crops. Over decades, various sources of resistance to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were bred into cultivars of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to counter recurring virulent greenbug biotypes. The recent invasion of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), raised questions about plant-mediated interactions between the two aphids and the possibility of using greenbug antibiosis against sugarcane aphid. The present work was undertaken to characterize the impact of PI 550610 resistance to 'biotype I' greenbug, expressed in seed parental line KS 116B, on aphid life histories and to observe plant-mediated interactions between aphid species in its presence and absence. At 23°C, sugarcane aphid nymphs matured 1.5 d faster than greenbug nymphs on susceptible hybrid P8500, but at similar rates on the resistant line, which delayed maturity by 1-1.5 d in both species and increased juvenile mortality by three- to fourfold. Sugarcane aphid reproductive rate was double that of greenbug on susceptible sorghum (4.45 vs. 2.30 nymphs per female per day), but not significantly different on the resistant one (3.09 vs. 2.27). Thus, PI 550610 expresses antibiosis, not tolerance, to these aphids. Coinfestation of P8500 had a positive effect on greenbug intrinsic rate of increase (rm), which changed to negative on KS 116B, whereas the rm of sugarcane aphid was unaffected by coinfestation with greenbug on either cultivar. The results indicate that KS 116B will be useful for producing sugarcane aphid-resistant hybrids, and that PI 550610 antibiosis changes the sugarcane aphid-greenbug interspecific relationship from commensalism to amensalism. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery by high-throughput sequencing in sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Frank F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eight diverse sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench accessions were subjected to short-read genome sequencing to characterize the distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Two strategies were used for DNA library preparation. Missing SNP genotype data were imputed by local haplotype comparison. The effect of library type and genomic diversity on SNP discovery and imputation are evaluated. Results Alignment of eight genome equivalents (6 Gb to the public reference genome revealed 283,000 SNPs at ≥82% confirmation probability. Sequencing from libraries constructed to limit sequencing to start at defined restriction sites led to genotyping 10-fold more SNPs in all 8 accessions, and correctly imputing 11% more missing data, than from semirandom libraries. The SNP yield advantage of the reduced-representation method was less than expected, since up to one fifth of reads started at noncanonical restriction sites and up to one third of restriction sites predicted in silico to yield unique alignments were not sampled at near-saturation. For imputation accuracy, the availability of a genomically similar accession in the germplasm panel was more important than panel size or sequencing coverage. Conclusions A sequence quantity of 3 million 50-base reads per accession using a BsrFI library would conservatively provide satisfactory genotyping of 96,000 sorghum SNPs. For most reliable SNP-genotype imputation in shallowly sequenced genomes, germplasm panels should consist of pairs or groups of genomically similar entries. These results may help in designing strategies for economical genotyping-by-sequencing of large numbers of plant accessions.

  1. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization analysis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) with biotin-labeled rice genomic DNA to the chromosomes of Zea mays, Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor, Setaria italic and Secale cereale were conducted to analyze genomic homology between rice and other grass (Gramineae) speices. At 75% stringency, the rice ...

  2. Relationships between the development of adventitious roots and the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in first internodes of sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, H A

    1968-03-01

    The initiation and subsequent growth of adventitious roots in excised first internodes of Sorghum vulgare var. Wheatland milo were studied to determine the effect of these processes on anthocyanin biosyntheses. Segmentation of the internodes inhibited both adventitious root growth and accumulation of cyanidin equally in all segments; these results can be interpreted as a common requirement for bidirectional longitudinal transport. The presence of the coleoptile, especially in the absence of the base of the internode, inhibited the growth of the roots, but increased the number of root initials. High intensities of white and blue light which induced cyanidin synthesis slightly decreased adventitious root growth. Anaerobic conditions produced by solution infiltration strongly inhibited the growth of adventitious roots and greatly increased the accumulation of apigeninidin and luteolinidin. Addition of indoleacetic acid, kinetin and cofactors such as pyridoxine produced effects on the initiation and subsequent growth of these roots similar to those effects reported in the literature. But unlike root formation in hypocotyls, the initiation of adventitious roots in Sorghum internodes was not always directly correlated with the accumulation of anthocyanins, and the subsequent growth of these roots was frequently inversely correlated with some of the anthocyanin biosyntheses. The possible nature of these correlations is discussed. Comparisons are made with related Sorghum lines and mutants.

  3. Phyllomedusa bicolor skin secretion and the Kambô ritual

    OpenAIRE

    Brave, Paul S den; Bruins, Eugéne; Bronkhorst, Maarten W G A

    2014-01-01

    The ritual of Kambô or Sapo is a type of voluntary envenomation. During this purification ritual a shaman healer, from various South American countries, deliberately burns the right shoulder with a glowing stick from a fireplace. Excretions of Phyllomedusa bicolor (or Giant Leaf Frog, Kambô or Sapo) are then applied to these fresh wounds. This ritual is used as a means of purification of the body, supposedly brings luck to hunters, increases stamina and enhances physical and sexual strength. ...

  4. Properties of 3-deoxyanthocyanins from sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awika, Joseph M; Rooney, Lloyd W; Waniska, Ralph D

    2004-07-14

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants with functional properties. Anthocyanins from black, brown (containing tannins), and red sorghums were characterized by spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques. The antioxidant activity and pH stability of the anthocyanins were also determined. Sorghum brans had 3-4 times higher anthocyanin contents than the whole grains. Black sorghum had the highest anthocyanin content (average = 10.1 mg/g in bran). The brown and red sorghum brans had anthocyanin contents of 2.8-4.3 mg/g. Only 3-deoxyanthocyanidins were detected in sorghum. These compounds are more stable to pH-induced color change than the common anthocyanidins and their glycosides. Additionally, crude sorghum anthocyanin extracts were more stable than the pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. The antioxidant properties of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins were similar to those of the anthocyanins. Pigmented sorghum bran has high levels of unique 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, which are stable to change in pH and have a good potential as natural food pigments.

  5. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects on soybean and sorghum gas exchange in conventional and no-tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, S A; Runion, G B; Rogers, H H; Arriaga, F J

    2010-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration has led to concerns about potential effects on production agriculture. In the fall of 1997, a study was initiated to compare the response of two crop management systems (conventional tillage and no-tillage) to elevated CO(2). The study used a split-plot design replicated three times with two management systems as main plots and two atmospheric CO(2) levels (ambient and twice ambient) as split plots using open-top chambers on a Decatur silt loam soil (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Paleudults). The conventional system was a grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with winter fallow and spring tillage practices. In the no-tillage system, sorghum and soybean were rotated, and three cover crops were used [crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Over multiple growing seasons, the effect of management and CO(2) concentration on leaf-level gas exchange during row crop (soybean in 1999, 2001, and 2003; sorghum in 2000, 2002, and 2004) reproductive growth were evaluated. Treatment effects were fairly consistent across years. In general, higher photosynthetic rates were observed under CO(2) enrichment (more so with soybean) regardless of residue management practice. Elevated CO(2) led to decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, which resulted in increased water use efficiency. The effects of management system on gas exchange measurements were infrequently significant, as were interactions of CO(2) and management. These results suggest that better soil moisture conservation and high rates of photosynthesis can occur in both tillage systems in CO(2)-enriched environments during reproductive growth.

  7. Effects of extracts from Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chung Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. This study investigates the effects of G. bicolor extracts with different polarities of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW G. bicolor alcohol extract, 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor water extract, and 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor ether extract on Fe bioavailability using the hemoglobin repletion efficiency assay. Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: a group receiving an iron-deficient (ID diet; a group receiving an ID diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (20 mg Fe/kg BW; and three groups receiving ID diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate and one of G. bicolor alcohol extract, G. bicolor water extract, or G. bicolor water extract. The results indicated that the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, liver ferritin, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological value, and hepcidin all were significantly higher than those of the ID diet group. Besides, the iron transporter divalent metal transporter-1 was significantly reduced, but iron release protein expression of ferroportin was significantly increased. It was concluded that G. bicolor extracts may promote iron bioavailability and regulate the expressions of divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin.

  8. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID FARHAT CHIBANI RAYDA BEN AYED MOHSEN HANANA JOELLE BREIDI RABIH KABALAN SAMIH EL-HAJJ HASSAN MACHLAB AHMED REBAI LAMIS ...

  9. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID1∗, FARHAT CHIBANI2, RAYDA BEN AYED3, MOHSEN HANANA1, JOELLE BREIDI4,. RABIH KABALAN4, SAMIH EL-HAJJ5, HASSAN MACHLAB6, AHMED ...

  10. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved fr...

  11. Effect of chitinase and thaumatin on mycelial growth of five sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain molding fungi under in vitro conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of various concentrations of chitinase, thaumatin, and their mixtures on radial mycelial growth of five grain molding fungi were studied. When compared with the control, chitinase and mixtures of chitinase and thaumatin markedly reduced mycelial growth of all the fungal species, except ...

  12. Phylogenetic relationship among Kenyan sorghum germplasms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to assess the level of phylogenetic relationships among the Kenyan sorghum germplasms at a known Al tolerance locus. Hierarchical cluster analysis joined at 70% simple matching coefficient using average ...

  13. Transgenic sorghum plants via microprojectile bombardment.

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, A M; Kononowicz, A K; Zehr, U B; Tomes, D T; Axtell, J. D.; Butler, L. G.; Bressan, R. A.; Hasegawa, P M

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants have been obtained after microprojectile bombardment of immature zygotic embryos of a drought-resistant sorghum cultivar, P898012. DNA delivery parameters were optimized based on transient expression of R and C1 maize anthocyanin regulatory elements in scutellar cells. The protocol for obtaining transgenic plants consists of the delivery of the bar gene to immature zygotic embryos and the imposition of bialaphos selection pressure at various stages during culture, fr...

  14. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Evaluation of yield and forage quality in main and ratoon crops of different sorghum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Vinutha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the yield and quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor forage for livestock feeding is a major breeding objective, because of sorghum’s inherently high biomass accumulation, high productivity per unit water utilized and its ability to produce a ratoon crop after harvesting of the plant crop. Newly bred sorghum lines, including 36 lines falling in 5 different categories, i.e. 12 experimental dual-purpose lines, 6 germplasm accessions from the ICRISAT collection, 11 commercial varieties and hybrids, 6 forage varieties and 1 bmr mutant line, were evaluated in terms of fodder yield, quality and ratooning ability. The main crop produced more dry biomass (P<0.05 at 80 days after planting (mean 22.87 t DM/ha; range 17.32‒33.82 t DM/ha than the ratoon crop (mean 8.47 t DM/ha; range 3.2‒17.42 t DM/ha after a further 80 days of growth. Mean nitrogen concentration in forage did not differ greatly between main and ratoon crops (2.56 vs. 2.40%, respectively but there was wide variation between lines (2.06‒2.89%. The line N 610 recorded highest N percentage of 2.89%, followed by SSG 59 3 (2.86% and SX 17 (2.81%. Highest acid detergent fiber % was recorded by ICSV 12008 (42.1%, closely followed by CO 31 and IS 34638 (40.0%. The least acid detergent lignin % was observed in MLSH-296 Gold (3.59%, ICSV 700 (3.75% and ICSSH 28 (3.83%. Metabolizable energy concentration was highest in N 610, Phule Yashodha and SX 17 (mean 8.34 MJ/kg DM, while in vitro organic matter digestibility ranged from 52.5 to 62.6%. The main crop contained much higher mean concentrations of the cyanogenic glycoside, dhurrin, than the ratoon (639 vs. 233 ppm, respectively with ranges of 38 to 2,298 ppm and 7 to 767 ppm, respectively. There was no significant correlation between dhurrin concentration and dry biomass yield so breeding and selection for low dhurrin concentrations should not jeopardize yields. Hence, breeding for sorghum can target simultaneously both quality and

  16. Effect of different cover crops on C and N cycling in sorghum NT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, Ileana; Quiroga, Alberto; Noellemeyer, Elke

    2016-08-15

    In many no-till (NT) systems, residue input is low and fallow periods excessive, for which reasons soil degradation occurs. Cover crops could improve organic matter, biological activity, and soil structure. In order to study changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass a field experiment (2010-2012) was set up with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.) monoculture and with cover crops. Treatments were control (NT with bare fallow), rye (Secale cereale L.) (R), rye with nitrogen fertilization (R+N), vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) (V), and rye-vetch mixture (VR) cover crops. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. Soil was sampled once a year at 0.06 and 0.12m depth for total C, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and-nitrogen (MBN) determinations. Shoot and root biomass of sorghum and cover crops, litter biomass, and their respective carbon and nitrogen contents were determined. Soil temperatures at 0.06 and 0.12m depth, volumetric water contents and nitrate concentrations were determined at sowing, and harvest of each crop, and during sorghum's vegetative phase. NT led to a small increase in MBC and MBN, despite low litter and root biomass residue. Cover crops increased litter, root biomass, total C, MBC, and MBN. Relationships between MBC, MBN, and root-C and -N adjusted to logistic models (R(2)=0.61 and 0.43 for C and N respectively). Litter cover improved soil moisture to 45-50% water filled pore space and soil temperatures not exceeding 25°C during the warmest month. Microbial biomass stabilized at 20.1gCm(-2) and 1.9gNm(-2) in the upper 0.06m. Soil litter disappearance was a good indicator of mineral N availability. These findings support the view that cover crops, specifically legumes in NT systems can increase soil ecosystem services related to water and carbon storage, habitat for biodiversity, and nutrient availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and its effect on improvement of sorghum bicolor (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan Meenakshisundaram , Karrupagnaniar Santhaguru Int J Cur Sci Res.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid on endophytic diazotrophs in recent times, because of its of ability to fix and transfer fixed nitrogen to the host plant. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous and play a significant role in improving the growth of plants through better uptake of nutrients, especially phosphorus. Interaction between AM fungi and nitrogen fixing bacteria and its impact on the host plant has been studied in several instances. In the present study, an attempt ha...

  18. Sorghum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Observations and sun'eys in semi-arid smallholder agriculture in Zimbabwe suggest that stand establishment of many crops is often extreme(v poor and is the major cause of low .vields. 'On-jarm' seed priming experiments were conducted in pots to identifY the optimum priming time and compare rate of emergence ...

  19. Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, U.; Craufurd, P.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Kumar, A.A.; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2012-01-01

    The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on

  20. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D.; Brun, A.; Danchin, E. G. J.; Duchaussoy, F.; Gibon, J.; Kohler, A.; Lindquist, E.; Peresa, V.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H. J.; Wuyts, J.; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M.; Brokstein, P.; Canback, B.; Cohen, D.; Courty, P. E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Delaruelle, C.; Detter, J. C.; Deveau, A.; DiFazio, S.; Duplessis, S.; Fraissinet-Tachet, L.; Lucic, E.; Frey-Klett, P.; Fourrey, C.; Feussner, I.; Gay, G.; Grimwood, J.; Hoegger, P. J.; Jain, P.; Kilaru, S.; Labbe, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Legue, V.; Le Tacon, F.; Marmeisse, R.; Melayah, D.; Montanini, B.; Muratet, M.; Nehls, U.; Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le; Peter, M.; Quesneville, H.; Rajashekar, B.; Reich, M.; Rouhier, N.; Schmutz, J.; Yin, T.; Chalot, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kues, U.; Lucas, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Podila, G. K.; Polle, A.; Pukkila, P. J.; Richardson, P. M.; Rouze, P.; Sanders, I. R.; Stajich, J. E.; Tunlid, A.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2007-08-10

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  1. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F [UMR, France; Aerts, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ahren, D [Lund University, Sweden; Brun, A [UMR, France; Danchin, E [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Duchaussoy, F [UMR, France; Gibon, J [UMR, France; Kohler, A [UMR, France; Lindquist, E [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pereda, V [UMR, France; Salamov, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Shapiro, HJ [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wuyts, J [UMR, France; Blaudez, D. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France; Buee, M [UMR, France; Brokstein, P [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Canbeck, B [Lund University, Sweden; Cohen, D [UMR, France; Courty, PE [UMR, France; Coutinho, PM [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Delaruelle, C [UMR, France; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deveau, A [UMR, France; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Duplessis, S [UMR, France; Fraissinet-Tachet, L [Universite de Lyon, France; Lucic, E [UMR, France; Frey-Klett, P [UMR, France; Fourrey, C [UMR, France; Feussner, I [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Gay, G [Universite de Lyon, France; Grimwood, Jane [Stanford University; Hoegger, P J [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Jain, P [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Kilaru, S [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Labbe, J [UMR, France; Lin, Y C [Ghent University, Belgium; Legue, V [UMR, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Marmeisse, R [Universite de Lyon, France; Melayah, D [Universite de Lyon, France; Montanini, B [UMR, France; Muratet, M [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Nehls, U [Eberhard-Karls-Universitat, Tubingen, Germany; Niculita-Hirzel, H [University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Oudot-Le Secq, M P [UMR, France; Peter, M [UMR, France; Quesneville, H [Unite de Recherches en Genomique-Info,Evry Cedex; Rajashekar, B [Lund University, Sweden; Reich, M [UMR, France; Rouhler, N [UMR, France; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Chalot, M [UMR, France; Henrissat, B [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Unive; Kues, U [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Lucas, S [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Van de Peer, Y [Ghent University, Belgium; Podila, G [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Polle, A [Georg-August Universitat Gottingen Germany; Pukkila, P J [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rouze, P [Ghent University, Belgium; Sanders, I R [University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Stajich, J E [University of California, Berkeley; Tunlid, A [Lund University, Sweden; Grigoriev, I. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants1,2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  2. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... The aim of this study was to select the most suitable cultivar for salty ... Key words: Sweet sorghum, grain sorghum, salinity, stem yield, ..... The chemical analysis of food (6th edition).

  3. Maize and forage sorghum as silage crops under drought conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum yielded more digestible organic matter per hectare than maize. Maize and forage sorghum silage were well preserved and stable under aerobic conditions. Keywords: digestible organic matter; drought; ensiling; forage; lichtenburg district; maize; organic matter; silage; sorghum; south africa; yield. African Journal ...

  4. Optimum size distribution of sorghum grist for brewing purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of particle size distribution of malted sorghum grist on extract yield and lautering performance was assessed. Sorghum grist particle size evaluation was carried out by sieve analysis after milling. The malted sorghum grist with proportions of coarse, fine, and flour particles in the ratio of 0.36: 0.25: 0.39 respectively ...

  5. Grain Sorghum: A Conundrum for Chicken-Meat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y. Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of grain sorghum in diets for broiler chickens is quite common; however, under Australian conditions, the utilisation of starch/energy by birds offered sorghum-based diets appears inadequate. Various factors inherent in sorghum, including kafirin, phenolic compounds and phytate, may limit energy utilisation. The recent quantification of kafirin, the dominant protein fraction in sorghum, has allowed its nutritional significance to be assessed. This is important as indirect evidence suggests that kafirin concentrations in local sorghums are increasing as an unintended consequence of breeding programs. Presently, Australian sorghums do not contain condensed tannin but, from analyses and assessments of other polyphenolic compounds and phenolic acids, “non-tannin” phenols appear to be negative influences. Anecdotally, white sorghums are considered to be superior to red varieties thus the fact that polyphenolic pigments are responsible for the “redness” of sorghum assumes relevance. Inclusions of sulphite reducing agents in broiler diets have generated promising responses but seem dependent on sorghum properties. Preliminary studies have shown the possibilities of using rapid visco-analyser (RVA starch pasting profiles, promatest protein solubilities and grain textures to indicate sorghum quality and further studies are required to confirm these hypotheses. These assessments may indicate which sorghums will best respond to reducing agents such as sodium metabisulphite. Finally, the usually modest responses of broilers to exogenous feed enzyme inclusions in sorghum-based are considered in this review.

  6. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  7. Correlation of Product Quality of Extruded Sorghum Products to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of wheat and sorghum to gelatinize at different temperatures was identified as the main setback to production of good composite extrudes. Key words: Sorghum, wheat, extrusion, Direct Sc,mning Calorimetry (D.S.C), Scanning Electron. Microscopy (S.E.M). Introduction. The importance of sorghum as a cereal tc.

  8. Short communication: Effect of water treatment of sorghum on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to observe the efficacy of water treatment on sorghum grain and to determine its optimum inclusion in broiler diets. Sorghum grain was treated with water and dried. Seven isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were prepared, using raw and treated sorghum, and designated diets A, B, C, D, ...

  9. Genetic response of growing cockerels to sorghum offal substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that weight of organs such as spleen, heart, liver, kidney and proventriculus increased significantly across the row. The study indicated that the substitution of sorghum offal for sorghum meal at levels up to 35 % can be tolerated by cockerel chicks. KEYWORDS: Nutrient utilization, digestibility, Sorghum ...

  10. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications.

  11. Flag Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Function of Grain Sorghum as Influenced by Changing Photosynthetic Photon Flux Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arnold Bruns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis (A and stomatal function research in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is limited compared to other crops. Flag leaves from three plants of two hybrids, grown with added N-fertilizer of 0.0, 112, and 224 kg ha−1 near Elizabeth, MS, were measured for A and stomatal functions at growth stages GS6 and GS7. A Li-Cor LI-6400XT set at 355 µmol [CO2], a flow rate of 500 µmol s−1, and a 6400-02 LED light source were used to collect data. Light levels were initially set at 2200 µmol m−2 s−1 indicated photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, A was allowed to stabilize, data was recorded, indicated PPFD level was reduced by 200 µmol m−2 s−1, and the process was repeated to a level of 200 µmol m−2 s−1. At GS6 all data were unaffected by N-fertility, hybrids, or years. Data on Ci at GS6 indicated A declines faster with decreasing PPFD than gs. Intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE data supports prior research showing stomata function more to regulate water loss and only marginally limit A. Nitrogen fertility was null on A and stomatal functions and minimal on yield; thus no attempt was made to correlate yield with these data.

  12. Reduction of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in inoculated sorghum mesocotyls. Implications for a compensatory role in the defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S C; Nicholson, R L

    1998-03-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) accumulates the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-dimalonyl glucoside in etiolated mesocotyls in response to light. Inoculation with the nonpathogenic fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus drastically reduced the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanin by repressing the transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase. In contrast to these repression effects, fungal inoculation resulted in the synthesis of the four known 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins and a corresponding activation of genes encoding the key branch-point enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. In addition, a gene encoding the pathogenesis-related protein PR-10 was strongly induced in response to inoculation. The accumulation of phytoalexins leveled off by 48 h after inoculation and was accompanied by a more rapid increase in the rate of anthocyanin accumulation. The results suggest that the plant represses less essential metabolic activities such as anthocyanin synthesis as a means of compensating for the immediate biochemical and physiological needs for the defense response.

  13. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  14. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  15. Primeiro registro de Chalcodermus bicolor (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantios de eucalipto First record of Chalcodermus bicolor in eucalypt plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Molinário de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou relatar, pela primeira vez, o ataque de um besouro podador em plantios de clones híbridos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla vs. E. grandis, localizados nos Estados da Bahia e do Espírito Santo. A espécie foi determinada como sendo Chalcodermus bicolor Fiedler, 1936 (Curculionidae: Molytinae. A fêmea poda os ponteiros e constrói um pequeno orifício onde deposita um único ovo, logo abaixo do ponto de incisão. O eucalipto é o primeiro hospedeiro relatado para esta espécie de besouro.This research aimed to record, for the first time, the damage caused by a pruner beetle on hybrid eucalypts cloned trees (Eucalyptus urophylla vs. E. grandis, located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil. The specie was determined as Chalcodermus bicolor Fiedler, 1936 (Curculionidae: Molytinae. The female prunes the tree shoot and lays a single egg inside a small hole, just below the incision point. Eucalypt is the first host recorded to this pruner beetle specie.

  16. A Common histone modification code on C4 genes in maize and its conservation in Sorghum and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Louisa; Horst, Ina; Perduns, Renke; Dreesen, Björn; Offermann, Sascha; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    C4 photosynthesis evolved more than 60 times independently in different plant lineages. Each time, multiple genes were recruited into C4 metabolism. The corresponding promoters acquired new regulatory features such as high expression, light induction, or cell type-specific expression in mesophyll or bundle sheath cells. We have previously shown that histone modifications contribute to the regulation of the model C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C4-Pepc) promoter in maize (Zea mays). We here tested the light- and cell type-specific responses of three selected histone acetylations and two histone methylations on five additional C4 genes (C4-Ca, C4-Ppdk, C4-Me, C4-Pepck, and C4-RbcS2) in maize. Histone acetylation and nucleosome occupancy assays indicated extended promoter regions with regulatory upstream regions more than 1,000 bp from the transcription initiation site for most of these genes. Despite any detectable homology of the promoters on the primary sequence level, histone modification patterns were highly coregulated. Specifically, H3K9ac was regulated by illumination, whereas H3K4me3 was regulated in a cell type-specific manner. We further compared histone modifications on the C4-Pepc and C4-Me genes from maize and the homologous genes from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Setaria italica. Whereas sorghum and maize share a common C4 origin, C4 metabolism evolved independently in S. italica. The distribution of histone modifications over the promoters differed between the species, but differential regulation of light-induced histone acetylation and cell type-specific histone methylation were evident in all three species. We propose that a preexisting histone code was recruited into C4 promoter control during the evolution of C4 metabolism.

  17. Evaluation of Water Stress on Yield, Its Components and Some Physiological Traits at Different Growth Stages in Grain Sorghum Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AZARINASRABAD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on yield improvement and development under drought condition using breeding techniques is difficult, due to the association with low heritability of specific traits. Even more, investigation of physiological indicators (stomatal conductance, chlorophyll index, relative water content, chlorophyll fluorescence, canopy temperature, radiation use efficiency, stay-green etc. is of interest as they are more accessible, with a low cost, therefore these indicators of physiological traits can be used as good criteria in selecting valuable species. In order to evaluate the effects of water stress on grain yield, its components and some physiological traits of grain sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L., a field experiment using split plot design with three replications was carried. The main plots included three water stress treatments: normal irrigation as control, halting irrigation at the stage of terminal leaf emergence and halting irrigation at the stage of 50% flowering. The sub-plots included 10 genotypes of sorghum (‘KGS29’, ‘MGS2’, ‘Sepideh’, ‘KGFS27’, ‘MGS5’, ‘KGFS5’, ‘KGFS17’, ‘KGFS13’ and ‘KGFS30’. Results showed that water stress significantly decreased grain yield and its components (1,000 seed weight, number of seed per panicle and had various effects on physiological traits. The water stress increased canopy temperature and radiation use efficiency, while stomatal conductance, chlorophyll index (SPAD and stay-green of genotypes were decreased; the maximum efficiency of photosystem II of photosynthesis remained unchanged between the treatments. Genotypes turned out to have significantly different responses to the drought treatments for all the studied traits, indicating the existence of a high variability among them. In general, physiological traits could be used as good indicators in water stress investigations and might provide comprehensive information as compared with morphological traits.

  18. Effect of Tillage on Soil Properties and Yield of Sorghum ( Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    season 2005 and lateseason 2006 on an Alfisol of southwest Nigeria to assess the effect of five tillage methods on soil properties and yield of sorghum. The tillage treatments were zero tillage, manual clearing, ploughing, ploughing plus ...

  19. A web-based decision support system for managing panicle caterpillars in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum headworms are economically important insect pests of sorghum throughout the United States and are often ranked 1st or 2nd in importance among the myriad of insects that feed on sorghum, depending on the geographic location where the sorghum is grown. Sorghum producers, crop consultants, and...

  20. Calcium-mediated conversion of sucrose to starch in relation to the activities of amylases and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in sorghum grains raised through liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S; Singh, R

    2000-04-01

    Detached ears of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were cultured in complete liquid medium containing Ca2+(0, 3, 10 and 30 mM) and effect of this ion on the conversion of sucrose to starch with respect to the activities of amylases, sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase and soluble invertases were studied in developing grains. Presence of 3 mM Ca2+ in culture medium enhanced both accumulation of starch and activity of alpha-amylase in grain but without having any influence on the activity of beta-amylase. However, with 10 and 30 mM Ca2+, the accumulation of starch and activities of both amylases decreased and with advancement in culturing period, starch accumulation was further decreased. Irrespective of its concentration, Ca2+ enhanced the activities of sucrose synthase (synthesis), sucrose-phosphate synthase, soluble acid invertase and soluble-neutral invertase. Increase in the concentration of Ca2+ in culture medium was concomitant with an elevation in relative proportion of sucrose in the grain reflecting a net balance in per cent increase with Ca2+ in the activities of sucrose-synthesizing enzymes over sucrose-hydrolysing ones. Based on the results, it is suggested that assimilation of Ca2+ by grain is essential for maintaining high activity of alpha-amylase to generate starch primers required for the conversion of sucrose to starch during grain filling in sorghum.

  1. Antimicrobial peptides from the venoms of Vespa bicolor Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhu; Yang, Xinbo; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhai, Lei; Lu, Zekuan; Liu, Jingze; Yu, Haining

    2008-11-01

    Hornets possess highly toxic venoms, which are rich in toxins, enzymes and biologically active peptides. Many bioactive substances have been identified from wasp venoms. Vespa mastoparan (MP-VBs) and Vespa chemotatic peptide presenting antimicrobial action (VESP-VBs) were purified and characterized from the venom of the wasp, Vespa bicolor Fabricius. The precursors encoding VESP-VBs and MP-VBs were cloned from the cDNA library of the venomous glands. Analyzed by FAB-MS, the amino acid sequence and molecular mass for VESP-VB1 were FMPIIGRLMSGSL and 1420.6, for MP-VB1 were INMKASAAVAKKLL and 1456.5, respectively. The primary structures of these peptides are homologous to those of chemotactic peptides and mastoparans isolated from other vespid venoms. These peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi and induced mast cell degranulation, but displayed almost no hemolytic activity towards human blood red cells.

  2. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Han, Zhongjie; Wang, Li; Xiong, Liu

    2014-02-15

    Sorghum starch and sorghum flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at two different moisture contents, 20% and 25%. The result showed that solubility and swelling power of modified samples decreased. In addition, the pasting viscosities of most modified samples were lower than that of native samples. The onset, peak and conclusion temperatures of gelatinization, and the enthalpy of samples modified by HMT increased. The crystallinity of the modified samples was higher than that of control samples. HMT had a far greater effect on the solubility, swelling power, setback viscosity, through viscosity, enthalpy and crystallinity of sorghum flour than of sorghum starch. On the granules surface there were more holes for the HMT starches than for HMT flours. The microstructure of HMT sorghum starch gel had a more orderly and smaller holey structure. The sorghum flour gel had originally a crackled structure, but after the HMT treatment, it had many ordered and small holes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  4. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  5. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... to maize in utilization, therefore, could be an alternative staple food crop in arid areas prone to drought. ... indigenous Kenyan crop, sorghum could provide food security and become a suitable alternative in ... industry to replace barley, yet the amount produced by farmers is too low to satisfy the market ...

  6. a Fermented Milk-Based-Sorghum-Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein solubility by 11.5% and available lysine content by an average of 3.04% and reduced the phycate content by 30%. The Water absorption capacity of flours was equally reduced by an average of 4%. Key words: Fermented milk, sorghum, malting, drying kinetic, physico~chernical properties, nutritional properties.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and relationships among sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of genetic diversity among sorghum lines indicated that the genetic distances calculated from SSR data were highly correlated with the distances based on the geographic origin and race classifications. Based on the results of these studies, SSR markers appear to be particularly useful for the estimation of ...

  8. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF SPENT SORGHUM RESIDUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The yeast isolat~s used were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry yeast), Candido. A I isolated from ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae and molasses as substrates, Schwaniomyces caste/Ii and molasses and starch wastes as ... spent sorghum slurry; 2.5 g/100 ml, 5.0 g/100 ml, 7.5g/ JOO ml and 10 g/100 ml in fermentation medium.

  9. Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces and polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are playing an important role in molecular breeding. This investigation was undertaken to study the genetic diversity among local sorghum accessions from two different agro-ecological zones of Burkina Faso and to assess the polymorphism within local improved varieties ...

  10. Flavonoids Isolated From the Flowers of Limonium bicolor and their In vitro Antitumor Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian; Teng, Jiehui; Ma, Li; Tong, Haiying; Ren, Bingru; Wang, Linshan; Li, Weilin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limonium bicolor, a halophytic species, can grow in saline or saline-alkali soil, is well known as a traditional Chinese medicine. Recently it attracted much attention for its treatment for cancer. Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate this species from the phytochemical standpoint and the possible relationship between the antitumor activity and its natural products. Materials and methods: The chemical constituents from the flowers of L. bicolor were investigated ...

  11. Analysis of chromosomal polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and between H. vulgare and H. chilense using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, É; Kruppa, K; Molnár-Láng, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study chromosomal polymorphism within cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The physical distribution of the most frequently used, highly repetitive DNA sequences (GAA)7 specific for pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, the ribosomal DNA clone pTa71, specific for the 45S rDNA, and the barley-specific telomere-associated sequence HvT01, was investigated to reveal genetic diversity in metaphase spreads of ten barley genotypes with diverse geographical origin, growth habit and row number. A wild relative of barley, Hordeum chilense was also studied in order to compare the polymorphism between and within Hordeum species. Significant differences in the hybridization patterns of all three DNA probes could be detected between the two related species, but only probes pTa71 and HvT01 showed variation in the intensity and/or position of hybridization sites among genotypes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare. The extent of polymorphism was less than that earlier reported for molecular markers and was restricted to the long chromosome arms, with differences between the chromosomes. 1H and 3H proved to be the most variable chromosomes and 4H and 6H the most conserved.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  13. Characterization of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. associated with roots and soil of two sorghum genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum, useful for bioenergy feedstock, animal feed, and food, requires economical methods for disease prevention and control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from sorghum roots and adherent soil to identify isolates that inhibited sorghum fungal pathogens. Pseudomonads were collected fr...

  14. Detection and validation of stay-green QTL in post-rainy sorghum involving widely adapted cultivar, M35-1 and a popular stay-green genotype B35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Ragimasalawada, Madhusudhana; Sabbavarapu, Murali Mohan; Nadoor, Seetharama; Patil, Jagannatha Vishnu

    2014-10-18

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important dry-land cereal of the world providing food, fodder, feed and fuel. Stay-green (delayed-leaf senescence) is a key attribute in sorghum determining its adaptation to terminal drought stress. The objective of this study was to validate sorghum stay-green quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified in the past, and to identify new QTL in the genetic background of a post-rainy adapted genotype M35-1. A genetic linkage map based on 245 F9 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from a cross between M35-1 (more senescent) and B35 (less senescent) with 237 markers consisting of 174 genomic, 60 genic and 3 morphological markers was used. The phenotypic data collected for three consecutive post-rainy crop seasons on the RIL population (M35-1 × B35) was used for QTL analysis. Sixty-one QTL were identified for various measures of stay-green trait and each trait was controlled by one to ten QTL. The phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 3.8 to 18.7%. Co-localization of QTL for more than five traits was observed on two linkage groups i.e. on SBI-09-3 flanked by S18 and Xgap206 markers and, on SBI-03 flanked by XnhsbSFCILP67 and Xtxp31. QTL identified in this study were stable across environments and corresponded to sorghum stay-green and grain yield QTL reported previously. Of the 60 genic SSRs mapped, 14 were closely linked with QTL for ten traits. A genic marker, XnhsbSFCILP67 (Sb03g028240) encoding Indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.5, was co-located with QTL for GLB, GLM, PGLM and GLAM on SBI-03. Genes underlying key enzymes of chlorophyll metabolism were also found in the stay-green QTL regions. We validated important stay-green QTL reported in the past in sorghum and detected new QTL influencing the stay-green related traits consistently. Stg2, Stg3 and StgB were prominent in their expression. Collectively, the QTL/markers identified are likely candidates for subsequent verification for their

  15. Anatomical and morphological diagnostics of Tanacetum vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Kurkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, histological and microscopical investigations on tansy Tanacetum vulgareL. flowers were carried out. For the first time were studied the microscopic and histological structures of the inflorescence (the basket of T. vulgare, its flowers and diagnostic signs are revealed. There were observed the presence of the layer of sclerenchyma in the mesophyll of the inflorescence spathe. For the first time were described the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the structure of the fertile part of the tubular flower, flower stalk and leaflets, which compose corymbiform inflorescence from the baskets.

  16. Teratogenic effects of Origanum Vulgare extract in mice fetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on reproduction have mentioned Origanum Vulgare extract’s ability to reduce mortality rates and improve fertility rates. However, other studies have suggested that it is possible to use Origanum Vulgare extract to induce abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of Origanum Vulgare on embryo survival and macroscopic abnormalities in mice.Methods: In this study, 24 mice Balb/c female weighting approximately 25-30 g were divided into 4 groups. Origanum Vulgare extract was prepared; different concentrations (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg in 0.25 ml distilled water were administered, by oral gavage, to three experimental groups of mice between day 6 (starting gastrulation until day 15 of pregnancy (end of organogenesis. The control group consisted of six mice that received 0.25 ml of distilled water daily. On day 16 of study, pregnant mice were anesthetized by chloroform and fetuses were removed and stained with Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red s and microwave irradiation. Morphological and skeletal abnormalities were investigated by light and stereomicroscopes.Results: The results of this study showed that high doses of the Origanum Vulgare extract significantly decreased the mean number of embryos (100.5, P>0.05, mean number of live embryos (70.5, P>0.05 in each mouse and resulted in significant reduction in mean weight(11848 mg, P>0.05 and crown-rump length(11.90.23 mm, P>0.05 and the overall size of fetuses compared to control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the groups receiving low dose of Origanum Vulgare extract with control group. In addition, under the effect of the Origanum Vulgare extract the subcutaneous bleeding seemed (20.1, P>0.05 significantly more frequent compared to the control group. Conclusion: Origanum Vulgare extract did not have any positive effect on fetal development; and high dosages led to an increased incidence rate of

  17. Determination of improved steeping conditions for sorghum malting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dewar, J

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available distinct operations, i.e. steeping, germination and drying.In Africa, the cereal sorghum is malted widely to Steeping (the soaking of grain in water) is widelyprovide an important raw material in brewing. In acknowledged as the most critical stage... of thesouthern Africa, approximately 200 000 tonnes malting process3,4. This is a consequence of theper annum of malted sorghum are used in the importance of initiating germination such thatproduction of traditional (opaque) sorghum beer1. modi...

  18. Amphidinolide P from the Brazilian octocoral Stragulum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiciana S. Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract Dinoflagellates are an important source of unique bioactive secondary metabolites. Symbiotic species, commonly named zooxanthellae, transfer most of their photosynthetically fixed carbon to their host. The mutualistic relationship provides the organic metabolites used for energy production but there are very few reports of the role of the dinoflagellates in the production of secondary metabolites in the symbiotic association. Corals and other related cnidarians are the most well-known animals containing symbiotic dinoflagellates. In the present paper we describe the isolation of amphidinolide P (1 from the octocoral Stragulum bicolor and its prey, the nudibranch Marionia limceana, collected off the coasts of Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil. The coral extracts also contained 3-O-methyl derivative (2 of amphidinolide P, together with minor compounds still under investigation. Amphidinolides have been so far reported only in laboratory cultures of Amphidinium sp., thus compounds 1 and 2 represents the first identification of these polyketides in invertebrates. The finding proves the possibility to isolate amphidinolides from a natural symbiosis, enabling further biological and biotechnological studies.

  19. NUTRITIONAL AND ROTI QUALITY OF SORGHUM GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.D. Chavan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains are mostly used for the roti preparation. The M 35-1 (Maldhandi a sorghum cultivar is known for its good quality of roti due to having pearly white grain color, its flour having higher water holding capacity, and good organoleptic taste. However, this cultivar is low yielder. To evolve sorghum high yielding genotype coupled with this good roti qualities, systematic breeding program was planned and executed to overcome this problem. Twenty local land races, 92 genotypes, and seven improved cultivars of sorghum along with check M 35-1 were studied for various nutritional quality parameters, with special reference to the roti quality. Considering nutritional quality and organoleptic evaluation parameters studied for roti quality, the local land races viz., RSLG 428-1, RSLG 1238, RSLG 1275 and the genotypes viz., RSV 290, RSV 292, RSV 858, RSV 859, RSV 861, RSV 868, RSV 894, RSV 985, RSV 992, RSV 995, RSV 999 were found to be promising for protein, sugar, water absorption, and soluble protein content. Therefore, they can be used for further improvement in nutritional quality through breeding program. Among the improved cultivars, Phule Vasudha (RSV 423, CSV 22, and Phule Chitra (SPV 1546 werefound to be most promising for roti quality. The maximum score for overall acceptability was found for Phule Vasudha followed by Phule Anuradha (RSV 458, Phule Yeshoda (RSLG 262, and Phule Maulee (CSV 216.

  20. Transgenic sorghum plants via microprojectile bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, A M; Kononowicz, A K; Zehr, U B; Tomes, D T; Axtell, J D; Butler, L G; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1993-12-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants have been obtained after microprojectile bombardment of immature zygotic embryos of a drought-resistant sorghum cultivar, P898012. DNA delivery parameters were optimized based on transient expression of R and C1 maize anthocyanin regulatory elements in scutellar cells. The protocol for obtaining transgenic plants consists of the delivery of the bar gene to immature zygotic embryos and the imposition of bialaphos selection pressure at various stages during culture, from induction of somatic embryogenesis to rooting of regenerated plantlets. One in about every 350 embryos produced embryogenic tissues that survived bialaphos treatment; six transformed callus lines were obtained from three of the eight sorghum cultivars used in this research. Transgenic (T0) plants were obtained from cultivar P898012 (two independent transformation events). The presence of the bar and uidA genes in the T0 plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase activity was detected in extracts of the T0 plants. These plants were resistant to local application of the herbicide Ignite/Basta, and the resistance was inherited in T1 plants as a single dominant locus.

  1. Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. ... In conclusion, OEO exerted growth promoting effects and also displayed potent antibacterial effects against cecal E. coli. Key words: Oregano essential oil, performance, ...

  2. Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from. Ethiopia as Measured by Morphological Characters and. SDS-page of Seed Storage Proteins. Alemayehu Assefa1, M.T. Labuschagne2 and H. Maartens2. 1Ethiopian Institute Agricultural Research, Holetta Research Center; 2Unicersity of the. Free State ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of whole plant extract of Marrubium vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare whole plant was tested by disc diffusion method. Zones of Inhibition produced by methanolic extract in a dose of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/ml against selected strains was measured and compared with those of standard discs of antibiotic ...

  4. Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.) Variety for Bale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guta is a common name for this barley (Hordeium vulgare L.) variety with a pedigree designation of Acc.3260-18. The variety has been developed and released by Sinana agricultural research center for commercial production in the highlands of Bale. It has been tested at Sinana, Agarfa, Robe and Adaba major barley ...

  5. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  7. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...

  8. Novel Sources of Witchweed (Striga) Resistance from Wild Sorghum Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuvi, Dorothy A; Masiga, Clet W; Kuria, Eric; Masanga, Joel; Wamalwa, Mark; Mohamed, Abdallah; Odeny, Damaris A; Hamza, Nada; Timko, Michael P; Runo, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but its production is constrained by the parasitic plant Striga that attaches to the roots of many cereals crops and causes severe stunting and loss of yield. Away from cultivated farmland, wild sorghum accessions grow as weedy plants and have shown remarkable immunity to Striga. We sought to determine the extent of the resistance to Striga in wild sorghum plants. Our screening strategy involved controlled laboratory assays of rhizotrons, where we artificially infected sorghum with Striga, as well as field experiments at three sites, where we grew sorghum with a natural Striga infestation. We tested the resistance response of seven accessions of wild sorghum of the aethiopicum, drummondii, and arundinaceum races against N13, which is a cultivated Striga resistant landrace. The susceptible control was farmer-preferred variety, Ochuti. From the laboratory experiments, we found three wild sorghum accessions (WSA-1, WSE-1, and WSA-2) that had significantly higher resistance than N13. These accessions had the lowest Striga biomass and the fewest and smallest Striga attached to them. Further microscopic and histological analysis of attached Striga haustorium showed that wild sorghum accessions hindered the ingression of Striga haustorium into the host endodermis. In one of the resistant accessions (WSE-1), host and parasite interaction led to the accumulation of large amounts of secondary metabolites that formed a dark coloration at the interphase. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory screening experiments in that these same accessions were found to have resistance against Striga. In the field, wild sorghum had low Area under the Striga Number Progressive curve (AUSNPC), which measures emergence of Striga from a host over time. We concluded that wild sorghum accessions are an important reservoir for Striga resistance that could be used to expand the genetic basis of cultivated sorghum for resistance to the

  9. The Sorghum Gene for Leaf Color Changes upon Wounding (P Encodes a Flavanone 4-Reductase in the 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kawahigashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon wounding or pathogen invasion, leaves of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] plants with the P gene turn purple, whereas leaves with the recessive allele turn brown or tan. This purple phenotype is determined by the production of two 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, apigeninidin and luteolinidin, which are not produced by the tan-phenotype plants. Using map-based cloning in progeny from a cross between purple Nakei-MS3B (PP and tan Greenleaf (pp cultivars, we isolated this gene, which was located in a 27-kb genomic region around the 58.1 Mb position on chromosome 6. Four candidate genes identified in this region were similar to the maize leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene. None of them was expressed before wounding, and only the Sb06g029550 gene was induced in both cultivars after wounding. The Sb06g029550 protein was detected in Nakei-MS3B, but only slightly in Greenleaf, in which it may be unstable because of a Cys252Tyr substitution. A recombinant Sb06g029550 protein had a specific flavanone 4-reductase activity, and converted flavanones (naringenin or eriodictyol to flavan-4-ols (apiforol or luteoforol in vitro. Our data indicate that the Sb06g029550 gene is involved in the 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis pathway.

  10. Performance of broiler chickens fed South African sorghum-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of sorghum variety and xylanase on performance of broiler chickens. In Experiment 1A, a total of 240 day-old Ross broiler chickens were assigned to a 2 (sex) × 3 (sorghum variety) × 2 (with or without xylanase) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized ...

  11. Phenotypic evaluation of sweet sorghum lines for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem juice of sweet sorghum is rich in fermentable sugars and is a desirable primary material for alcoholic fermentation. Today, interest in growing sweet sorghum for fermentable sugars is increasing worldwide; thus there is strong demand for elite varieties and hybrids offering high sugar yiel...

  12. Correlation of Product Quality of Extruded Sorghum Products to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison was made of extrudes made from pure sorghum flour (Ll87), wheat flour (biscuit) and composites of the two flours containing various percentages of sorghum. The different parameters which were contrasted included expansion and density, mechanical strength (shear) and colour. Correlation of these ...

  13. Correlation of Product Quality of Extruded Sorghum Products to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison was made of extrudes made from pure sorghum flour (Ll87), wheat flour (biscuit) and composites of the two flours containing various percentages of sorghum. The different parameters which were contrasted included expansion and density, mechanical strength (shear) and colour. Corre- lation of these ...

  14. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... the stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as main substrate for ethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The fermentation medium compositions were optimized by RSM, from which the yield of ethanol was enhanced. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Materials. Sweet sorghum was obtained ...

  15. Nutritional value and sensory properties of sorghum gruel enriched ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sorghum gruel is a breakfast cereal that is commonly eaten by adults and also used as complementary food for infants in southwest Nigeria. Objective: To determine the nutritional value and sensory properties of sorghum gruel enriched with date palm and sweet potato flour using different proportions.

  16. Nitrogen fertilization effects on sorghum forage yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn. This study was a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged in a 4 x 8 factorial...

  17. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Data collected was entered in SPSS and Excel computer soft ware for analysis. Gross margin was computed to determine the profitability of the intercrops and sole component crops. Gross margin was subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS and results showed that the gross margin of sorghum-cowpea and sorghum- ...

  18. Baseline survey on factors affecting sorghum production and use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its suitability in the semiarid areas, the area under sorghum production is still low and farmers attain low yields in eastern Kenya. Most farmers still opt to grow maize which is frequented by cropfailures. The purpose of this study was to gather information on socio-economic factors affecting sorghum production and ...

  19. Development of sorghum varieties and hybrids for dryland areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    A study was conducted to scrutinize the development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolar) varieties and hybrids that have been carried out for the dryland areas of Ethiopia in the past 35 years (1969-2003). The experiments were conducted at the three major research centers and sub-centers representing the dryland areas of the ...

  20. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.P. Hayes. Department of Poultry Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, Republic of South Africa. An experiment was conducted to evaluate a .... based diet based diet. Ingredient. (%). Maize. 63,94. G766W sorghum. 63,94. Normal GL sorghum. 63,94. Wheaten bran. 17,60. 17,70. 17,70. Fishmeal. 9,00.

  1. Distribution efficiency of Sorghum marketing in selected areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution efficiency of Sorghum marketing in selected areas of Adamawa central zone of Nigeria. ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and budgeting techniques. It was observed that ... The study reveals that sorghum marketing system was performing fairly efficient in Adamawa central zone. The study make ...

  2. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product size (bp). Linkage group.

  3. Protein enrichment of spent sorghum residue using Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude protein and the ether extract contents of fermented spent sorghum are comparable to the levels found in most animal feeds available in the market. So inclusion of this nutritionally enriched byproduct in animal diet may be recommended preceded by animal trials. Key words: S.cerevisiae, Candida sp., sorghum, ...

  4. development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on the relationship between grain yield, stem sugar and biomass is important in developing dual- purpose sorghums. The objective of this study was to determine, correlations and path-coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar traits. The study was conducted using 100 sorghum genotypes evaluated in six.

  5. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations | Araujo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the partial replacement of wheat flour by sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations in order to characterize the nutritional and physical profile of the flour. Four bread formulations were prepared and evaluated for sensory and textural profile. The composition of sweet sorghum flour ...

  6. Height growth and moisture distribution in Sorghum intercropped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and moisture distribution assessments of sorghum intercropped with Parkia, Leucaena and Gmelina on plinthustalf in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria were carried out over four growing seasons. Compared to sole crop, reduced sorghum height (15 and 30 %) due to Gmelina was observed in the ...

  7. Differential Yield Response of Groundnut, Maize and Sorghum to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental site was a well-drained Millhopper fine sand, Groundnut, sorghum and maize, planted as subplots were subjected to 4 water treatments as main plots in 4 replications: (1) optimum irrigation based on maize water requirements, (2) irrigation allowing 2 days of wilt on sorghum, or (3) on groundnut, and (4) ...

  8. Development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the relationship between grain yield, stem sugar and biomass is important in developing dualpurpose sorghums. The objective of this study was to determine, correlations and path-coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar traits. The study was conducted using 100 sorghum genotypes evaluated in six ...

  9. Effect of germination on mineral bioavailability of sorghum-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of germination on mineral bioavailability of sorghum-based complementary foods. ... In contrast, germination of sorghum grains for 36 and 48 hours increased significantly (p<0.05) the contents of total phosphorus, non-phytate phosphorous, iron, zinc and calcium.Hence, germination appeared to be a promising food ...

  10. Evaluation of sorghum genotypes under drought stress conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) were studied in both drought and normal conditions. In each condition, the genotypes were evaluated using a split plot based randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI), mean ...

  11. Chemical composition and nutritive value of South African sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mabelebele, Monnye

    2015-07-20

    Jul 20, 2015 ... sorghum varieties should be evaluated for their suitability as food and feed. The physical characteristics and proximate composition, total phenolic content, mineral content, amino acid profile and digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of four sorghum varieties were studied. The condensed tannin ...

  12. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... This study describes the establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for use in proteomics studies. ... Key words: Sorghum, proteomics, callus, cell suspension cultures, total soluble protein, secretome. INTRODUCTION ..... system, are dynamic and heterogeneous, being com- posed of a ...

  13. Nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs fed sorghum varying in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polyphenol content of sorghum on nitrogen and energy digestibility and. (2)to compare a high polyphenol content .... made up of a normal sorghum, Class KM, cultivar NK 283 with a total polyphenol content of 0,10 070; ... cedures followed in collecting and analysing faeces and urine. Chemical analyses. The diets fed were ...

  14. Genetic diversity of stay-green sorghums and their derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anit

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... The genetic variability of 28 sorghum genotypes of known senescence phenotype was investigated using 66 SSR markers well-distributed across the sorghum genome. The genotypes of a number of lines from breeding programmes for stay-green were also determined. This included lines selected.

  15. growth and yield parameters of sorghum genotypes as affected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    feasible. Sorghum is very versatile as a food and feed grain and exhibits wide adaptation and yield stability in marginal areas where it is used as a subsistence staple food. As a consequence, sorghum is important in traditional, low input, cereal based, semi-arid production farming systems in Africa (Norman, et al.,. 1984).

  16. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01. ... It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt ...

  17. Genetic diversity of stay-green sorghums and their derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variability of 28 sorghum genotypes of known senescence phenotype was investigated using 66 SSR markers well-distributed across the sorghum genome. The genotypes of a number of lines from breeding programmes for stay green were also determined. This included lines selected phenotypically for stay ...

  18. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to select the most suitable cultivar for salty land in this geographical area. Two sweet sorghum cultivars (Keller and Sofra) and one grain sorghum cultivar (Kimia) were grown in greenhouse benches under four salinity levels of 2, 4, 8 and 12 dSm-1 to evaluate the effects of salinity on stem yield and ...

  19. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available isozyme of pI approximately 4.4-4.5, unlike the many isozymes all of higher pI in barley. However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. Beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt was increased by germination time...

  20. Aftn"'Mozsmnn msmmdfioni IN SORGHUM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hedgerow alleys in finances in liusaka. "Zambiawith erratic rainfall and'f'where. ' periodic droughts and crop failures are. Common (Chirwa m" a]. 1994}. Enhanced moisture in'sorghum plant is a reflection of the soil moisture status. The high moisture content of sorghum at 90 days after sowing was probably advantageous.

  1. Electrochemical evaluation of sweet sorghum fermentable sugar bioenergy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redox active constituents of sorghum, e.g., anthocyanin, flavonoids, and aconitic acid, putatively contribute to its pest resistance. Electrochemical reactivity of sweet sorghum stem juice was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) for five male (Atlas, Chinese, Dale, Isidomba, N98) and three fema...

  2. Influence of cowpea genotype and sorghum-cropping system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of cowpea genotype and sorghum-cropping system on cowpea infestation by some insect pests in the sudan savannah of Nigeria. ... seasons to investigate the influence of cowpea genotypes and sorghum cropping system on cowpea damage by legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Fabricius), bean flower thrips,

  3. Corrected synonymies: the identities of Strymon bicolor (Philippi, 1859 and Strymon heodes (Druce, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The South American hairstreak species Strymon bicolor (Philippi, 1859 and S. heodes (Druce, 1909 are diagnosed and their synonymies are revised. The distribution of S. bicolor is restricted to the Andean-Patagonian region south of the Atacama Desert and represented now in Argentina and Chile by seven available species group names, considered as subjective synonyms. However, some of these names can most probably be considered as valid taxa. A key to identification is given for distinguishing the superficially most similar Strymon species patterned by orange scaling in the dorsal wing surfaces. It is noted that the Austral S. bicolor group and the Central Peruvian S. heodes appear to belong to a mimicry ring inhabiting the dry areas of the Andes.

  4. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsar Daniel S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between

  5. Sorghum Biomass Production for Energy Purpose Using Treated Urban Wastewater and Different Fertilization in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at enhancing the sustainability of biomass production in the Mediterranean area, this paper analyzes, for the first time, the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench biomass for bioenergy production using urban treated wastewaters and bio-fertilization. For this purpose, the effects on biomass production of three different fertilizations (no-nitrogen control, biofertilizer, and mineral ammonium nitrate, four levels of constructed wetland (CW wastewater restitutions (0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc and three harvesting dates (at full plant maturity, at the initial senescence stage, and at the post-senescence stage were evaluated in a two year trial. For bio-fertilization, a commercial product based on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was used. Mineral nitrogen (N fertilization significantly increased dry biomass (+22.8% in the first year and +16.8% in the second year compared to the control (95.9 and 188.2 g·plant−1, respectively. The lowest and highest biomass production, in 2008 and 2009, was found at 0% (67.1 and 118.2 g·plant−1 and 100% (139.2 and 297.4 g·plant−1 ETc restitutions. In both years, the first harvest gave the highest biomass yield (124.3 g·plant−1 in the first year and 321.3 g·plant−1 in the second, followed by the second and the third one. The results showed that in Mediterranean areas, constructed wetlands treated wastewaters, when complying with the European restrictions for their use in agriculture, may represent an important tool to enhance and stabilize the biomass of energy crops by recycling scarce quality water and nutrients otherwise lost in the environment.

  6. Domestication and the storage starch biosynthesis pathway: signatures of selection from a whole sorghum genome sequencing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bradley C; Gilding, Edward K; Mace, Emma S; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tao, Yongfu; Prentis, Peter J; Thomelin, Pauline; Jordan, David R; Godwin, Ian D

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing of complete genomes has given researchers unprecedented levels of information to study the multifaceted evolutionary changes that have shaped elite plant germplasm. In conjunction with population genetic analytical techniques and detailed online databases, we can more accurately capture the effects of domestication on entire biological pathways of agronomic importance. In this study, we explore the genetic diversity and signatures of selection in all predicted gene models of the storage starch synthesis pathway of Sorghum bicolor, utilizing a diversity panel containing lines categorized as either 'Landraces' or 'Wild and Weedy' genotypes. Amongst a total of 114 genes involved in starch synthesis, 71 had at least a single signal of purifying selection and 62 a signal of balancing selection and others a mix of both. This included key genes such as STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE 2 (SbPHO2, under balancing selection), PULLULANASE (SbPUL, under balancing selection) and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (SHRUNKEN2, SbSH2 under purifying selection). Effectively, many genes within the primary starch synthesis pathway had a clear reduction in nucleotide diversity between the Landraces and wild and weedy lines indicating that the ancestral effects of domestication are still clearly identifiable. There was evidence of the positional rate variation within the well-characterized primary starch synthesis pathway of sorghum, particularly in the Landraces, whereby low evolutionary rates upstream and high rates downstream in the metabolic pathway were expected. This observation did not extend to the wild and weedy lines or the minor starch synthesis pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A survey of sorghum downy mildew in sorghum in the Sudano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence was generally low, but efforts should be made towards controlling the spread of the disease further. Farmers should be advised to use improved cultural practices like early sowing, seed dressing with the sole aim of reducing the disease. Keywords: sorghum downy mildew, incidence, distribution, Sudan and ...

  8. a survey of sorghum downy mildew in sorghum in the sudano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The prevalence was generally low, but efforts should be made towards controlling the spread of the disease further. Farmers should be advised to use improved cultural practices like early sowing, seed dressing with the sole aim of reducing the disease. Keywords: sorghum downy mildew, incidence, distribution, Sudan and ...

  9. Performance of dairy cows fed conventional sorghum or corn silages compared to brown midrib sorghum silage: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of feeding dairy cows conventional sorghum (CSS) or corn silages (CCS) vs. brown midrib sorghum silage (BMRSS) on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition. Data from nine published articles (1984-2015) were used to contrast CSS (7...

  10. Contrasting effects of sorghum biochars and sorghum residues on soil chemical changes of coastal plains ultisols with winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most soil properties were improved following applications of various crop residues, there is still a need to pursue additional research that will improve understanding on the impact of soil fertility enhancement because the effect could vary greatly between sorghum residues and sorghum bioc...

  11. Expression of seed dormancy in grain sorghum lines with contrasting pre-harvest sprouting behavior involves differential regulation of gibberellin metabolism genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Verónica; Mendiondo, Guillermina Mónica; Cantoro, Renata; Auge, Gabriela Alejandra; Luna, Virginia; Masciarelli, Oscar; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis

    2012-01-01

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) moench] exhibits intraspecific variability for the rate of dormancy release and pre-harvest sprouting behavior. Two inbred lines with contrasting sprouting response were compared: IS9530 (resistant) and RedlandB2 (susceptible). Precocious dormancy release in RedlandB2 is related to an early loss of embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher levels of gibberellins in imbibed grains as compared with IS9530. With the aim of identifying potential regulatory sites for gibberellin metabolism involved in the expression of dormancy in immature grains of both lines, we carried out a time course analysis of transcript levels of putative gibberellin metabolism genes and hormone content (GA(1), GA(4), GA(8) and GA(34)). A lower embryonic GA(4) level in dormant IS9530 was related to a sharp and transient induction of two SbGA2-oxidase (inactivation) genes. In contrast, these genes were not induced in less dormant RedlandB2, while expression of two SbGA20-oxidase (synthesis) genes increased together with active GA(4) levels before radicle protrusion. Embryonic levels of GA(4) and its catabolite GA(34) correlated negatively. Thus, in addition to the process of gibberellin synthesis, inactivation is also important in regulating GA(4) levels in immature grains. A negative regulation by gibberellins was observed for SbGA20ox2, SbGA2ox1 and SbGA2ox3 and also for SbGID1 encoding a gibberellin receptor. We propose that the coordinated regulation at the transcriptional level of several gibberellin metabolism genes identified in this work affects the balance between gibberellin synthesis and inactivation processes, controlling active GA(4) levels during the expression of dormancy in maturing sorghum grains.

  12. Effects of cadmium on the growth and physiological characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the growth and physiological characteristics were studied in 3 sorghum species viz., sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. cv. Hunnigreen], sorghum hybrid sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum sudanense, cv. Everlush) and sudangrass [Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf ...

  13. Effects of Cadmium on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the growth and physiological characteristics were studied in 3 sorghum species viz., sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. cv. Hunnigreen], sorghum hybrid sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum sudanense, cv. Everlush) and sudangrass [Sorghum.

  14. Sazonalidade dos ductos secretores e óleo essencial de Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os ductos secretores e o óleo essencial das folhas de Foeniculum vulgare em diferentes épocas do ano. Para esta finalidade, foram realizados estudos de caracterização anatômica, bem como anatomia comparada dos ductos secretores e testes histoquímicos das folhas. O óleo essencial foi obtido de folhas e frutos, por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e analisados quantitativamente e qualitativamente por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa, realizando-se análises seguidas de três réplicas para folhas coletadas durante o inverno e primavera, e frutos no verão. Os resultados encontrados para os ductos secretores de óleo corresponderam à redução do teor de óleo essencial nas folhas coletadas no final da primavera. O componente majoritário do óleo essencial de folhas e frutos foi o trans-anetol, durante todas as estações do ano. Portanto, evidenciou-se que os ductos secretores e teor de óleo essencial estão relacionados, bem como os constituintes químicos também estão sujeitos a sazonalidade, conforme o estágio fenológico da planta.

  15. Pénfigo vulgar : caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Lauro Gilberto Nunes da; Ventura, Raquel Moresco; Silva, Marlei Giovanaz; Baumgart, Cristina da Silva; Matesanz Pérez, P.

    2005-01-01

    El pénfigo vulgar es una enfermedad auto-inmune ampollosa, muco cutánea, de carácter crónico, donde las lesiones de la mucosa bucal pueden anteceder las lesiones cutáneas. Así, el odontólogo asume papel importante en la identificación de las lesiones, debiendo realizar el diagnóstico por la historia clínica i exámenes complementares adecuados. Este artículo relata un caso de pénfigo vulgar acometiendo un paciente del sexo masculino, 47 años, con lesiones en la mucosa bucal y piel.Pemphigus vu...

  16. Geotrichum vulgare sp. nov., a novel asexual arthroconidial yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuczkowski, Michael; Bond, Chris; Prillinger, Hansjörg

    2006-01-01

    Two strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from different habitats, from soil in an alluvial zone national park in Austria and from a drain in a Turkish soft drinks factory. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the D1/D2 region of their large-subunit rDNAs and PCR fingerprints show that the strains are members of the same species, described as Geotrichum vulgare sp. nov. Analysis of nucleotide sequences showed that this species is related to the ascogenous genus Galactomyces. The closest phylogenetic relative is Geotrichum silvicola, a recently described species. The type strain of Geotrichum vulgare is HA1379T (= CBS 10073T = NRRL Y-27915T).

  17. Chemical diversity in Indian oregano (Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit; Verma, Rajesh K; Yadav, Ajai K; Singh, Hemendra P

    2010-08-01

    The terpenoid composition of the essential oils of 17 different populations of Origanum vulgare L., collected from wild populations and subsequently grown under similar conditions in the sub-temperate region of the Western Himalaya, was studied. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 51 components, representing 90.15 to 99.94% of the total oil. The two classes of the phenolic compounds and the monoterpenoids were predominant in all the essential oils. On the basis of the major constituents, i.e., marker compounds, and by comparison of the results with previous reports, new chemotypes could be identified. Principal component analysis was performed to determine the chemical variability within the different populations of O. vulgare collected and grown under similar conditions. Based on the marker compounds, six chemotypes with significant variations in their terpenoid profile were noticed within the 17 populations.

  18. Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awika, Joseph M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2004-05-01

    Sorghum is a rich source of various phytochemicals including tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, phytosterols and policosanols. These phytochemicals have potential to significantly impact human health. Sorghum fractions possess high antioxidant activity in vitro relative to other cereals or fruits. These fractions may offer similar health benefits commonly associated with fruits. Available epidemiological evidence suggests that sorghum consumption reduces the risk of certain types of cancer in humans compared to other cereals. The high concentration of phytochemicals in sorghum may be partly responsible. Sorghums containing tannins are widely reported to reduce caloric availability and hence weight gain in animals. This property is potentially useful in helping reduce obesity in humans. Sorghum phytochemicals also promote cardiovascular health in animals. Such properties have not been reported in humans and require investigation, since cardiovascular disease is currently the leading killer in the developed world. This paper reviews available information on sorghum phytochemicals, how the information relates to current phytonutrient research and how it has potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  19. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of sorghum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Madhrapakkam Pagadala Rajendra; Rao, Benhur Dayakar; Kalpana, Kommi; Rao, Mendu Vishuvardhana; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum, a small-seeded grass, is an important food crop and chief energy source for the people of semi-arid regions of the world. In India, sorghum production/consumption decreased after the 'green revolution', but it is now regaining momentum owing to numerous health and nutritional benefits. An understanding of the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of staples can help in choosing suitable foods for the prevention and control of diabetes. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the GI and GL of different sorghum foods and compare them with those of wheat/rice based foods. The GI of sorghum-based foods such as coarse semolina upma (P semolina upma (P semolina upma, fine semolina upma, flakes poha and pasta) and all sorghum-based products (with the exception of sorghum roti) tested in the present study have lower GL than their respective wheat/rice-based foods. Consumption of low-GI and low-GL sorghum-based foods may help in decreasing postprandial blood glucose levels. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Annamalai, T.; Radhakrishnan, N.; Sahoo, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760