Sample records for vra modeling phase

  1. 7 CFR 1730.27 - Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). 1730.27 Section 1730.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... Requirements § 1730.27 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (VRA). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the responses of Staphylococcus aureus to antimicrobial peptides and characterization of the roles of vraDE and vraSR in antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrenzel Jacques


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how pathogens respond to antimicrobial peptides, and how this compares to currently available antibiotics, is crucial for optimizing antimicrobial therapy. Staphylococcus aureus has several known resistance mechanisms against human cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs. Gene expression changes in S. aureus strain Newman exposed to linear CAMPs were analyzed by DNA microarray. Three antimicrobial peptides were used in the analysis, two are derived from frog, temporin L and dermaseptin K4-S4(1-16, and the ovispirin-1 is obtained from sheep. Results The peptides induced the VraSR cell-wall regulon and several other genes that are also up-regulated in cells treated with vancomycin and other cell wall-active antibiotics. In addition to this similarity, three genes/operons were particularly strongly induced by the peptides: vraDE, SA0205 and SAS016, encoding an ABC transporter, a putative membrane-bound lysostaphin-like peptidase and a small functionally unknown protein, respectively. Ovispirin-1 and dermaseptin K4-S4(1-16, which disrupt lipid bilayers by the carpet mechanism, appeared to be strong inducers of the vraDE operon. We show that high level induction by ovispirin-1 is dependent on the amide modification of the peptide C-terminus. This suggests that the amide group has a crucial role in the activation of the Aps (GraRS sensory system, the regulator of vraDE. In contrast, temporin L, which disrupts lipid bilayers by forming pores, revealed a weaker inducer of vraDE despite the C-terminal amide modification. Sensitivity testing with CAMPs and other antimicrobials suggested that VraDE is a transporter dedicated to resist bacitracin. We also showed that SA0205 belongs to the VraSR regulon. Furthermore, VraSR was shown to be important for resistance against a wide range of cell wall-active antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents including the amide-modified ovispirin-1, bacitracin, teicoplanin, cefotaxime and

  3. Characterization of a vraG Mutant in a Genetically Stable Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variant and Preliminary Assessment for Use as a Live-Attenuated Vaccine against Intrammamary Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Côté-Gravel

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bovine intramammary infections (IMIs that can evolve into difficult-to-treat chronic mastitis. To date, no vaccine formulation has shown high protective efficacy against S. aureus IMI, partly because this bacterium can efficiently evade the immune system. For instance, S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs have intracellular abilities and can persist without producing invasive infections. As a first step towards the development of a live vaccine, this study describes the elaboration of a novel attenuated mutant of S. aureus taking advantage of the SCV phenotype. A genetically stable SCV was created through the deletion of the hemB gene, impairing its ability to adapt and revert to the invasive phenotype. Further attenuation was obtained through inactivation of gene vraG (SACOL0720 which we previously showed to be important for full virulence during bovine IMIs. After infection of bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T, the double mutant (ΔvraGΔhemB was less internalized and caused less cell destruction than that seen with ΔhemB and ΔvraG, respectively. In a murine IMI model, the ΔvraGΔhemB mutant was strongly attenuated, with a reduction of viable counts of up to 5-log10 CFU/g of mammary gland when compared to the parental strain. A complete clearance of ΔvraGΔhemB from glands was observed whereas mortality rapidly (48h occurred with the wild-type strain. Immunization of mice using subcutaneous injections of live ΔvraGΔhemB raised a strong immune response as judged by the high total IgG titers measured against bacterial cell extracts and by the high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio observed against the IsdH protein. Also, ΔvraGΔhemB had sufficient common features with bovine mastitis strains so that the antibody response also strongly recognized strains from a variety of mastitis associated spa types. This double mutant could serve as a live-attenuated component in vaccines to improve cell-mediated immune

  4. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel


    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  5. Generation of a vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strain by two amino acid exchanges in VraS. (United States)

    Berscheid, Anne; François, Patrice; Strittmatter, Axel; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Schrenzel, Jacques; Sass, Peter; Bierbaum, Gabriele


    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious bacterial pathogen and antibiotic-resistant isolates complicate current treatment strategies. We characterized S. aureus VC40, a laboratory mutant that shows full resistance to glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs ≥32 mg/L) and daptomycin (MIC = 4 mg/L), to gain deeper insights into the underlying resistance mechanisms. Genomics and transcriptomics were performed to characterize changes that might contribute to development of resistance. The mutations in vraS were reconstituted into a closely related parental background. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, growth analyses, transmission electron microscopy, lysostaphin-induced lysis and autolysis assays were performed to characterize the phenotype of resistant strains. Genome sequencing of strain VC40 revealed 79 mutations in 75 gene loci including genes encoding the histidine kinases VraS and WalK that control cell envelope-related processes. Transcriptomics indicated the increased expression of their respective regulons. Although not reaching the measured MIC for VC40, reconstitution of the L114S and D242G exchanges in VraS(VC40) into the susceptible parental background (S. aureus NCTC 8325) resulted in increased resistance to glycopeptides and daptomycin. The expression of VraS(VC40) led to increased transcription of the cell wall stress stimulon, a thickened cell wall, a decreased growth rate, reduced autolytic activity and increased resistance to lysostaphin-induced lysis in the generated mutant. We show that a double mutation of a single gene locus, namely vraS, is sufficient to convert the vancomycin-susceptible strain S. aureus NCTC 8325 into a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Phase-Field Modeling (United States)

    Karma, Alain

    The phase-field method is a powerful simulation tool to describe xxx the complex evolution of interfaces in a wide range of contexts without explicitly tracking these interfaces. Its main application to date has been to problems in materials science where the evolution of interfaces and defects in the interior or on the surface of a material has a profound impact on its behavior [8]. A partial list of applications to date in this general area includes alloy solidification [5], where models combine elements of the first phase-field models of the solidification of pure materials [9, 32] and the Cahn-Hilliard equation (7), solid-state precipitation [66], stress-driven interfacial instabilities [29, 41, 58], microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials [17, 31, 36, 60], crystal nucleation [16], surface growth [13, 25, 44], thin film patterning [34], ferroelectric materials [57], dislocation dynamics [22, 49, 52, 55], and fracture [3, 11, 27, 56]. Interface tracking is avoided by making interfaces spatially diffuse with the help of order parameters that vary smoothly in space. Evolution equations for these order parameters are derived variationally from a Lyapounov functional that represents the total free-energy of the system. This theoretical construct provides great flexibility to model simultaneously various physical processes on different length and time scales within a single self-consistent set of coupled partial differential equations.

  7. A Computer Model for Analyzing Volatile Removal Assembly (United States)

    Guo, Boyun


    A computer model simulates reactional gas/liquid two-phase flow processes in porous media. A typical process is the oxygen/wastewater flow in the Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA) in the Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) installed in the International Space Station (ISS). The volatile organics in the wastewater are combusted by oxygen gas to form clean water and carbon dioxide, which is solved in the water phase. The model predicts the oxygen gas concentration profile in the reactor, which is an indicator of reactor performance. In this innovation, a mathematical model is included in the computer model for calculating the mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid phase. The amount of mass transfer depends on several factors, including gas-phase concentration, distribution, and reaction rate. For a given reactor dimension, these factors depend on pressure and temperature in the reactor and composition and flow rate of the influent.

  8. Phase-field model of eutectic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A. (Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States))


    A phase-field model which describes the solidification of a binary eutectic alloy with a simple symmetric phase diagram is introduced and the sharp-interface limit of this model is explored both analytically and numerically.

  9. Nonequilibrium modeling of three-phase distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higler, A.P.; Chande, R.; Taylor, R.; Baur, R.; Krishna, R.


    A nonequilibrium (NEQ) model for a complete three-phase distillation in tray columns is described. The model consists of a set of mass and energy balances for each of the three possible phases present. Mass and heat transfer between these phases is modeled using the Maxwell–Stefan equations.

  10. Simple Fermionic Model of Deconfined Phases and Phase Transitions (United States)

    Assaad, F. F.; Grover, Tarun


    Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we study a series of models of fermions coupled to quantum Ising spins on a square lattice with N flavors of fermions per site for N =1 , 2, and 3. The models have an extensive number of conserved quantities but are not integrable, and they have rather rich phase diagrams consisting of several exotic phases and phase transitions that lie beyond the Landau-Ginzburg paradigm. In particular, one of the prominent phases for N >1 corresponds to 2 N gapless Dirac fermions coupled to an emergent Z2 gauge field in its deconfined phase. However, unlike a conventional Z2 gauge theory, we do not impose "Gauss's Law" by hand; instead, it emerges because of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Correspondingly, unlike a conventional Z2 gauge theory in two spatial dimensions, our models have a finite-temperature phase transition associated with the melting of the order parameter that dynamically imposes the Gauss's law constraint at zero temperature. By tuning a parameter, the deconfined phase undergoes a transition into a short-range entangled phase, which corresponds to Néel antiferromagnet or superconductor for N =2 and a valence-bond solid for N =3 . Furthermore, for N =3 , the valence-bond solid further undergoes a transition to a Néel phase consistent with the deconfined quantum critical phenomenon studied earlier in the context of quantum magnets.

  11. Simple Fermionic Model of Deconfined Phases and Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Assaad


    Full Text Available Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we study a series of models of fermions coupled to quantum Ising spins on a square lattice with N flavors of fermions per site for N=1, 2, and 3. The models have an extensive number of conserved quantities but are not integrable, and they have rather rich phase diagrams consisting of several exotic phases and phase transitions that lie beyond the Landau-Ginzburg paradigm. In particular, one of the prominent phases for N>1 corresponds to 2N gapless Dirac fermions coupled to an emergent Z_{2} gauge field in its deconfined phase. However, unlike a conventional Z_{2} gauge theory, we do not impose “Gauss’s Law” by hand; instead, it emerges because of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Correspondingly, unlike a conventional Z_{2} gauge theory in two spatial dimensions, our models have a finite-temperature phase transition associated with the melting of the order parameter that dynamically imposes the Gauss’s law constraint at zero temperature. By tuning a parameter, the deconfined phase undergoes a transition into a short-range entangled phase, which corresponds to Néel antiferromagnet or superconductor for N=2 and a valence-bond solid for N=3. Furthermore, for N=3, the valence-bond solid further undergoes a transition to a Néel phase consistent with the deconfined quantum critical phenomenon studied earlier in the context of quantum magnets.

  12. Die woord vra kontak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need for general recognition of the interdisciplinary nature of modem lexico- graphical work and for a genuine will to cooperate.''! Vir sover hierdie same- werking implikasiesinhou vir die leksikografiese bedryf, moet dit aanbod kom in die AFRILEX-reeks. R.R.K. Hartmann, daardie produktiewe en goed ingeligte skrywer en.

  13. Phase Field Modeling Using PetIGA

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe


    Phase field modeling has become a widely used framework in the computational material science community. Its ability to model different problems by defining appropriate phase field parameters and relating it to a free energy functional makes it highly versatile. Thermodynamically consistent partial differential equations can then be generated by assuming dissipative dynamics, and setting up the problem as one of minimizing this free energy. The equations are nonetheless challenging to solve, and having a highly efficient and parallel framework to solve them is necessary. In this work, a brief review on phase field models is given, followed by a short analysis of the Phase Field Crystal Model solved with Isogeometric Analysis us- ing PetIGA. We end with an introduction to a new modeling concept, where free energy functions are built with a periodic equilibrium structure in mind.

  14. Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva A. I.


    Full Text Available We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott’s SU(3 basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3 basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.

  15. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Phase 2 (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Kaercher, Bernd; Liu, Xiaohong


    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) project, a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on cirrus clouds (GCSS WG2), is an international effort to advance our knowledge of numerical simulations of cirrus cloud initiation. This project was done in two phases. In Phase 1 of CPMC, the critical components determining the predicted cloud microphysical properties were identified using parcel models in which the aerosol and ice crystal size distributions are explicitly resolved, the formulation of the homogeneous freezing of aqueous solution droplets, especially the gradient of nucleation rate with respect to solution concentration; aerosol growth modeling; and the mass accommodation coefficient of water vapor on ice surface (the deposition coefficient). In Phase 1, all simulations were conducted using a given background aerosol distribution. To complete the comparison study, participant model responses to a range of background aerosol distributions are investigated in Phase 2.

  16. Geometric Phase and Quantum Phase Transition in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model


    Cui, H. T.; Li, K.; Yi, X. X.


    The relation between the geometric phase and quantum phase transition has been discussed in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model. Our calculation shows the ability of geometric phase of the ground state to mark quantum phase transition in this model. The possibility of the geometric phase or its derivatives as the universal order parameter of characterizing quantum phase transitions has been also discussed.

  17. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus of the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used in

  18. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1 (United States)

    Lin, R . F.; Starr, D.; DeMott, P. J.; Cotton, R.; Sassen, K.; Jensen, E.


    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify and quantify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. These factors are key to understanding microphysical development in cirrus and for developing realistic treatments of such processes in larger-scale models. Phase 1 of the project will be described.

  19. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems (United States)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  20. Phase-field model of oxidation: Equilibrium. (United States)

    Sherman, Q C; Voorhees, P W


    A phase-field model of an oxide relevant to corrosion resistant alloys for film thicknesses below the Debye length L_{D}, where charge neutrality in the oxide does not occur, is formulated. The phase-field model is validated in the Wagner limit using a sharp interface Gouy-Chapman model for the electrostatic double layer. The phase-field simulations show that equilibrium oxide films below the Wagner limit are charged throughout due to their inability to electrostatically screen charge over the length of the film, L. The character of the defect and charge distribution profiles in the oxide vary depending on whether reduced oxygen adatoms are present on the gas-oxide interface. The Fermi level in the oxide increases for thinner films, approaching the Fermi level of the metal in the limit L/L_{D}→0, which increases the driving force for adsorbed oxygen reduction at the gas-oxide interface.

  1. Phase-field modeling of directional solidification (United States)

    Echebarria, Blas; Karma, Alain


    Phase-field models have become an important tool to simulate interfacial pattern formation in solidification and other systems. Here we investigate the directional solidification of a dilute binary alloy by means of a new phase-field model. The thin interface limit of this model yields a much less stringent restriction on the choice of interface thickness than previous models and permits, in addition, to eliminate non-equilibrium effects at the interface that are typically negligibly small in low growth rate experiments. Simulations of this model are used to investigate the interface evolution far above the onset of morphological instability for realistic values of the physical parameters and to make quantitative comparisons with experiments.

  2. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    simulator, which was then used to assess the impact of the capillary pressure on phase behavior in oil and gas production from tight reservoirs. Since capillary pressure and adsorption occur simultaneously in shale, its combined effect was studied. A model comparison for high-pressure adsorption in shale...... is presented. The adsorption data in shale is generally scarce, therefore, additional capabilities besides the accuracy were considered in the comparison. The multicomponent potential theory of adsorption yields the best results. Moreover, it shows to be useful to extrapolate adsorption data for hydrocarbons...... calculation tools for phase equilibrium in porous media with capillary pressure and adsorption effects. Analysis using these tools have shown that capillary pressure and adsorption have non-negligible effects on phase equilibrium in shale. As general tools, they can be used to calculate phase equilibrium...

  3. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Walton


    Full Text Available A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.

  4. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe


    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Seismic modeling is a core component of petroleum exploration and production today. Potential applications include modeling the influence of dip on anisotropic migration; source/receiver placement in deviated-well three-dimensional surveys for vertical seismic profiling (VSP); and the generation of realistic data sets for testing contractor-supplied migration algorithms or for interpreting AVO (amplitude variation with offset) responses. This project was designed to extend the use of a finite-difference modeling package, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, to the advanced applications needed by industry. The approach included a realistic, easy-to-use 2-D modeling package for the desktop of the practicing geophysicist. The feasibility of providing a wide-ranging set of seismic modeling engines was fully demonstrated in Phase I. The technical focus was on adding variable gridding in both the horizontal and vertical directions, incorporating attenuation, improving absorbing boundary conditions and adding the optional coefficient finite difference methods.

  6. Phase field modeling of crack propagation (United States)

    Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim; Karma, Alain


    Fracture is a fundamental mechanism of materials failure. Propagating cracks can exhibit a rich dynamical behavior controlled by a subtle interplay between microscopic failure processes in the crack tip region and macroscopic elasticity. We review recent approaches to understand crack dynamics using the phase field method. This method, developed originally for phase transformations, has the well-known advantage of avoiding explicit front tracking by making material interfaces spatially diffuse. In a fracture context, this method is able to capture both the short-scale physics of failure and macroscopic linear elasticity within a self-consistent set of equations that can be simulated on experimentally relevant length and time scales. We discuss the relevance of different models, which stem from continuum field descriptions of brittle materials and crystals, to address questions concerning crack path selection and branching instabilities, as well as models that are based on mesoscale concepts for crack tip scale selection. Open questions which may be addressed using phase field models of fracture are summarized.

  7. Modeling thermodynamics of Fe-N phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekelharing, Marjon I.; Böttger, Amarante; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    In the present work homogeneous epsilon-nitride powders prepared at 723 K, having nitrogen contents ranging from 26.1 at. % N (z=0.29) to 31.1 at.% N (z=0.10), were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. A thermodynamic model accounting for the two possible configur...... over the available sites and the occurrence of a two phase region A+B as predicted by the model. The discrepancy between XRD and Mössbauer results is discussed in terms of a reason for extinguished superstructure reflections in the X-ray diffractogram of configuration A....

  8. Design of language models at various phases of Tamil speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the use of language models in various phases of Tamil speech recognition system for improving its performance. In this work, the language models are applied at various levels of speech recognition such as segmentation phase, recognition phase and the syllable and word level error correction phase.

  9. Space market model development project, phase 3 (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.


    The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

  10. Dynamic Modeling of Phase Crossings in Two-Phase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Veje, Christian; Willatzen, Morten


    Two-phase flow and heat transfer, such as boiling and condensing flows, are complicated physical phenomena that generally prohibit an exact solution and even pose severe challenges for numerical approaches. If numerical solution time is also an issue the challenge increases even further. We present...... of the variables and are usually very slow to evaluate. To overcome these challenges, we use an interpolation scheme with local refinement. The simulations show that the method handles crossing of the saturation lines for both liquid to two-phase and two-phase to gas regions. Furthermore, a novel result obtained...... in this work, the method is stable towards dynamic transitions of the inlet/outlet boundaries across the saturation lines. Results for these cases are presented along with a numerical demonstration of conservation of mass under dynamically varying boundary conditions. Finally we present results...

  11. Quantitative phase-field model for phase transformations in multi-component alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Abhik Narayan


    Phase-field modeling has spread to a variety of applications involving phase transformations. While the method has wide applicability, derivation of quantitative predictions requires deeper understanding of the coupling between the system and model parameters. The present work highlights a novel phase-field model based on a grand-potential formalism allowing for an elegant and efficient solution to the problems in phase transformations. In particular, applications involving single and multi-phase, multi-component solidification have been investigated and a thorough study into the quantitative modeling of these problems have been examined.

  12. The phase transition of Axelrod's model revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M


    Axelrod's model with $F=2$ cultural features, where each feature can assume $k$ states drawn from a Poisson distribution of parameter $q$, exhibits a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition in the square lattice. Here we use extensive Monte Carlo simulations and finite size scaling to study the critical behavior of the order parameter $\\rho$, which is the fraction of sites that belong to the largest domain of an absorbing configuration averaged over many runs. We find that it vanishes as $\\rho \\sim \\left (q_c^0 - q \\right)^\\beta$ with $\\beta \\approx 0.25$ at the critical point $q_c^0 \\approx 3.10$ and that the exponent that measures the width of the critical region is $\

  13. Phase field modeling of liquid metal embrittlement (United States)

    Spatschek, Robert; Wang, Nan; Karma, Alain


    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) is a phenomenon whereby a liquid metal in contact with another, higher-melting-point polycrystalline metal, rapidly penetrates from the surface along grain boundaries. This phenomenon is known to be greatly accelerated by the application of tensile stress, resulting in the rapid propagation of intergranular cracks in normally ductile materials. Although this phenomenon has been known for a long time, it still lacks a convincing physical explanation. In particular, the relationship of LME to conventional fracture mechanics remains unclear. We investigate LME using a phenomenological three-order-parameter phase field model that describes both the short scale physics of crystal decohesion and macroscopic linear elasticity. The model reproduces expected macroscopic properties for well separated crack surfaces and additionally introduces short scale modifications for liquid layer thicknesses in the nanometric range, which depend on the interfacial and grain boundary energy as well as elastic effects. The results shed light on the relative importance of capillary phenomena and stress in the kinetics of LME.

  14. Mathematical models and simulations of phase noise in phase-locked loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethapong Limkumnerd


    Full Text Available Phase noises in Phase-Locked Loops (PLLs are a key parameter for communication systems that contribute the bit-rate-error of communication systems and cause synchronization problems. Accurate predictions of phase noises through mathematical models are consequently desirable for practical designs of PLLs. Despite many phase noise models derived from noise sources from electronic devices such as an oscillator and a multiplier have been proposed, no phase noise models that include noises from loop filters have specifically been investigated. This paper therefore investigates the roles of loop filters in phase noise contribution. The major scopes of this paper is a detailed analysis and simulations of phase noise models resulting from all components. i.e. a voltage-controlled oscillator, a multiplier and a filter. Two particular second-order passive and active low-pass filters are compared. The results show that simulations of phase noises without an inclusion of filter noises may not be accurate because the filter noises, particularly the active filter, significantly contribute the total phase noise. Moreover, the passive filter does not significantly dominate the phase noise at low offset frequency while the active filters entirely dominate. Therefore, the passive filter is a more efficient filter for PLL circuit at low offset frequency. The phase noise models presented in this paper are relatively simple and can be used for accurate phase noise prediction for PLL designs.

  15. Global quantum discord and quantum phase transition in XY model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Si-Yuan [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Yu-Ran, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wen-Li, E-mail: [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China)


    We study the relationship between the behavior of global quantum correlations and quantum phase transitions in XY model. We find that the two kinds of phase transitions in the studied model can be characterized by the features of global quantum discord (GQD) and the corresponding quantum correlations. We demonstrate that the maximum of the sum of all the nearest neighbor bipartite GQDs is effective and accurate for signaling the Ising quantum phase transition, in contrast, the sudden change of GQD is very suitable for characterizing another phase transition in the XY model. This may shed lights on the study of properties of quantum correlations in different quantum phases.

  16. Thermodynamic consistency and fast dynamics in phase field crystal modeling


    Cheng, Mowei; Cottenier, Stefaan; Emmerich, Heike


    A general formulation is presented to derive the equation of motion and to demonstrate thermodynamic consistency for several classes of phase field models at once. It applies to models with a conserved phase field, describing either uniform or periodic stable states, and containing slow as well as fast thermodynamic variables. The approach is based on an entropy functional formalism previously developed in the context of phase field models for uniform states [P. Galenko and D. Jou, Phys. Rev....

  17. Computationally efficient phase-field models with interface kinetics


    Vetsigian, Kalin; Goldenfeld, Nigel


    We present a new phase-field model of solidification which allows efficient computations in the regime when interface kinetic effects dominate over capillary effects. The asymptotic analysis required to relate the parameters in the phase-field with those of the original sharp interface model is straightforward, and the resultant phase-field model can be used for a wide range of material parameters.

  18. Regularity of solutions of a phase field model

    KAUST Repository

    Amler, Thomas


    Phase field models are widely-used for modelling phase transition processes such as solidification, freezing or CO2 sequestration. In this paper, a phase field model proposed by G. Caginalp is considered. The existence and uniqueness of solutions are proved in the case of nonsmooth initial data. Continuity of solutions with respect to time is established. In particular, it is shown that the governing initial boundary value problem can be considered as a dynamical system. © 2013 International Press.

  19. Quaternion-Valued Single-Phase Model for Three-Phase Power Systems


    Gou, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhiwen; Liu, Wei; Xu, Yougen; Wang, Jiabin


    In this work, a quaternion-valued model is proposed in lieu of the Clarke's \\alpha, \\beta transformation to convert three-phase quantities to a hypercomplex single-phase signal. The concatenated signal can be used for harmonic distortion detection in three-phase power systems. In particular, the proposed model maps all the harmonic frequencies into frequencies in the quaternion domain, while the Clarke's transformation-based methods will fail to detect the zero sequence voltages. Based on the...

  20. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.


    Issues related to the design of biphasic (liquid) catalytic reaction operations are discussed. A chemical system involving the reaction of an organic-phase soluble reactant (A) with an aqueous-phase soluble reactant (B) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is modeled and based on it, ...

  1. A Systematic Modelling Framework for Phase Transfer Catalyst Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Hyung Kim, Sun


    Phase-transfer catalyst systems contain two liquid phases, with a catalyst (PTC) that transfers between the phases, driving product formation in one phase and being regenerated in the other phase. Typically the reaction involves neutral species in an organic phase and regeneration involves ions...... in an aqueous phase. These reacting systems are receiving increased attention as novel organic synthesis options due to their flexible operation, higher product yields, and ability to avoid hazardous or expensive solvents. Major considerations in the design and analysis of PTC systems are physical and chemical...... equilibria, as well as kinetic mechanisms and rates. This paper presents a modelling framework for design and analysis of PTC systems that requires a minimum amount of experimental data to develop and employ the necessary thermodynamic and reaction models and embeds them into a reactor model for simulation...

  2. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows...... substantial amounts of the lighter component dissolved in the heavier solid. Calculations have been performed taking into account the recrystallization of the solid alkanes into a second solid form. The Coutinho UNIQUAC model has been used to describe the lower-temperature solid phases. The higher......-temperature mixed solid phase has been assumed to be either an ideal solution or to be described by Coutinho's Wilson activity coefficient model. This procedure accounts for more of the known behavior of mixed n-alkane solids. Comparison is also made with results assuming that all of the solid phases, both high...

  3. Advanced in numerical modelling of two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillere, H.; Kumbaro, A.; Toumi, I. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    Numerical modelling of two-phase flow using Godunov-type solvers is making progress. Schemes such as the Roe scheme, or the less sophisticated AUSM+scheme, have the ability to resolve propagating waves such as void or shock waves with no oscillations. Transition from two-phase to single phase flow can also be modelled, and interfaces captured in a satisfactory way. Extension to 3D and validation on more complex flow fields are also presently being performed. (authors)

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Two-Phase Flow. (United States)


    interactions between the fluids. In spite of much progress (Lahey & Moody 1977), two phase flow studies in nuclear reactors are still a concern. -7- The...Vi)] VX k> , (37) and the interfacial pressure on the kth phase by Pk,iIVak12 , <pk VXR>7 k ( 38) -21- Equation (38) is the dot product of Vak of...functions of a a k /at, Vak , Vk, VVk, 3Vk/at ... where ... represents the material -24- properties, such as the viscosities and densities of the two

  5. Anisotropy in wavelet-based phase field models

    KAUST Repository

    Korzec, Maciek


    When describing the anisotropic evolution of microstructures in solids using phase-field models, the anisotropy of the crystalline phases is usually introduced into the interfacial energy by directional dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients. We consider an alternative approach based on a wavelet analogue of the Laplace operator that is intrinsically anisotropic and linear. The paper focuses on the classical coupled temperature/Ginzburg--Landau type phase-field model for dendritic growth. For the model based on the wavelet analogue, existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data are proved for weak solutions. Numerical studies of the wavelet based phase-field model show dendritic growth similar to the results obtained for classical phase-field models.

  6. Elastic and dynamic properties of membrane phase-field models. (United States)

    Lázaro, Guillermo R; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Hernández-Machado, Aurora


    Phase-field models have been extensively used to study interfacial phenomena, from solidification to vesicle dynamics. In this article, we analyze a phase-field model that captures the relevant physical features that characterize biological membranes. We show that the Helfrich theory of elasticity of membranes can be applied to phase-field models, allowing to derive the expressions of the stress tensor, lateral stress profile and elastic moduli. We discuss the relevance and interpretations of these magnitudes from a phase-field perspective. Taking the sharp-interface limit we show that the membrane macroscopic equilibrium equation can be derived from the equilibrium condition of the phase-field interface. We also study two dynamic models that describe the behaviour of a membrane. From the study of the relaxational behaviour of the membrane we characterize the relevant dynamics of each model, and discuss their applications.

  7. Phase Chaos and Multistability in the Discrete Kuramoto Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maistrenko, V. L.; Vasylenko, A. A.; Maistrenko, Y. L.


    The paper describes the appearance of a novel high-dimensional chaotic regime, called phase chaos, in the discrete Kuramoto model of globally coupled phase oscillators. This type of chaos is observed at small and intermediate values of the coupling strength. It is caused by the nonlinear interact......The paper describes the appearance of a novel high-dimensional chaotic regime, called phase chaos, in the discrete Kuramoto model of globally coupled phase oscillators. This type of chaos is observed at small and intermediate values of the coupling strength. It is caused by the nonlinear...... interaction of the oscillators, while the individual oscillators behave periodically when left uncoupled. For the four-dimensional discrete Kuramoto model, we outline the region of phase chaos in the parameter plane, distinguish the region where the phase chaos coexists with other periodic attractors...

  8. A novel model of third phase inclusions on two phase boundaries (United States)

    Prudil, Andrew A.; Welland, Michael J.


    A new computationally efficient model of an included phase located at the interface between two other phases is developed by projecting the boundaries of the inclusion onto the boundary between the two other phases. This reduces the 3D problem to one on a 2D surface while still being embedded in 3D space, which significantly reduces computational expense of solving the system. The resulting model is similar to conventional phase-field models. The properties of the solution are examined, compared to classical theory, and the numerical behaviour, including a mesh sensitivity analysis, are discussed. The model accurately captures mesoscale effects, such as the Gibbs-Thompson effect, coarsening, and coalescence. An example application of the model simulating the evolution of grain boundary porosity in nuclear fuel is shown on a representative tetrakaidecahedron-shaped fuel grain.

  9. Simulation model for a seven-phase BLDCM drive system (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Won-Cheol; Lee, Jung-Hyo; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen


    BLDC motors have many advantages over brushed DC motors and induction motors. So, BLDC motors extend their application to many industrial fields. In this paper, the digital simulation and modeling of a 7-phase brushless DC motor have been presented. The 14-switch inverter and a 7-phase brushless DC motor drive system are simulated using hysteresis current controller and logic of switching pattern with the Boolean¡s function. Through some simulations, we found that our modeling and analysis of a 7-phase BLDCM with PWM inverter would be helpful for the further studies of the multi-phase BLDCM drive systems.

  10. Lattice-Boltzmann-based two-phase thermal model for simulating phase change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamali, M.R.; Gillissen, J.J.J.; Van den Akker, H.E.A.; Sundaresan, S.


    A lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is presented for solving the energy conservation equation in two phases when the phase change effects are included in the model. This approach employs multiple distribution functions, one for a pseudotemperature scalar variable and the rest for the various species. A

  11. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.


    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  12. Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    . The background and main targets for this thesis are presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, a comprehensive review of the application of group contribution (GC) models such as various forms of UNIFAC and the so-called AFC (Atom and Fragment Contributions) correlation model for Pow (octanol-water partition...... coefficient) calculations has been carried out. UNIFAC is an activity coefficient model while AFC is a model specifically developed for Pow calculations. Five different versions of UNIFAC and the AFC correlation model have been compared with each other and with experimental data. The range of applicability...

  13. Phase-field model for isothermal phase transitions in binary alloys (United States)

    Wheeler, A. A.; Boettinger, W. J.; Mcfadden, G. B.


    A new phase field model is described which models isothermal phase transitions between ideal binary alloy solution phases. Equations are developed for the temporal and spatial variation of the phase field, which describes the identity of the phase, and of the composition. An asymptotic analysis, as the gradient energy coefficient of the phase field becomes small, was conducted. From the analysis, it is shown that the model recovers classical sharp interface models of this situation when the interfacial layers are thin, and they show how to relate the parameters appearing in the phase field model to material and growth parameters in real systems. Further, three stages of temporal evolution are identified: the first corresponding to interfacial genesis which occurs very rapidly; the second to interfacial motion controlled by the local energy difference across the interface and diffusion; the last taking place on a long time scale in which curvature effects are important and which correspond to Ostwald ripening. The results of the numerical calculations are presented.

  14. An investigation of subchannel analysis models for single-phase and two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun


    The governing equations and lateral transport modelings of subchannel analysis code, which is the most widely used tool for the analysis of thermal hydraulics fields in reactor cores, have been thoroughly investigated in this study. The procedure for the derivation of subchannel integral balance equations from the local instantaneous phase equations was investigated by stages. The characteristics of governing equations according to the treatment of phase velocity were studies, and the equations based on the drift-flux equilibrium formulation have been derived. Turbulent mixing and void drift modeling, which affect considerably to the accuracy of subchannel analysis code, have been reviewed. In addition, some representative modelings of single-phase and two-phase turbulent mixing models have been introduced. (author). 5 tabs., 4 figs., 16 refs.

  15. Testing Numerical Modeling of Phase Coarsening by Microgravity Experiments (United States)

    Wang, K. G.; Glicksman, M. E.


    Quantitative understanding of the morphological evolution that occurs during phase coarsening is crucial for optimization of processing procedures to control the final structure and properties of multiphase materials. Generally, ground-based experimental studies of phase coarsening in solids are limited to model alloy systems. Data from microgravity experiments on phase coarsening in Sn-Pb solid-liquid mixtures, executed on the International Space Station, are archived in NASA's Physical Sciences Informatics (PSI) system. In such microgravity experiments, it is expected that the rate of sedimentation will be greatly reduced compared with terrestrial conditions, allowing the kinetics of phase coarsening to be followed more carefully and accurately. In this work we tested existing numerical models of phase coarsening using NASA's PSI microgravity data. Specially, we compared the microstructures derived from phase-field and multiparticle diffusion simulations with those observed in microgravity experiments.

  16. Topological Terms and Phases of Sigma Models


    Thorngren, Ryan


    We study boundary conditions of topological sigma models with the goal of generalizing the concepts of anomalous symmetry and symmetry protected topological order. We find a version of 't Hooft's anomaly matching conditions on the renormalization group flow of boundaries of invertible topological sigma models and discuss several examples of anomalous boundary theories. We also comment on bulk topological transitions in dynamical sigma models and argue that one can, with care, use topological ...

  17. Phase field crystal modeling of ternary solidification microstructures


    Berghoff, Marco; Nestler, Britta


    In the present work, we present a free energy derivation of the multi-component phase-field crystal model [1] and illustrate the capability to simulate dendritic and eutectic solidification in ternary alloys. Fast free energy minimization by a simulated annealing algorithm of an approximated crystal is compared with the free energy of a fully simulated phase field crystal structure. The calculation of ternary phase diagrams from these free energies is described. Based on the free energies rel...

  18. A model for phase noise generation in amplifiers. (United States)

    Tomlin, T D; Fynn, K; Cantoni, A


    In this paper, a model is presented for predicting the phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. The model correctly predicts the dependence of phase noise on the signal frequency (at a particular carrier offset frequency), explains the noise shaping of the phase noise about the signal frequency, and shows the functional dependence on the transistor parameters and the circuit parameters. Experimental studies on common emitter (CE) amplifiers have been used to validate the PM noise model at carrier frequencies between 10 and 100 MHz.

  19. HYTEST Phase I Facility Commissioning and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee P. Shunn; Richard D. Boardman; Shane J. Cherry; Craig G. Rieger


    The purpose of this document is to report the first year accomplishments of two coordinated Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects that utilize a hybrid energy testing laboratory that couples various reactors to investigate system reactance behavior. This work is the first phase of a series of hybrid energy research and testing stations - referred to hereafter as HYTEST facilities – that are planned for construction and operation at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A HYTEST Phase I facility was set up and commissioned in Bay 9 of the Bonneville County Technology Center (BCTC). The purpose of this facility is to utilize the hydrogen and oxygen that is produced by the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis test reactors operating in Bay 9 to support the investigation of kinetic phenomena and transient response of integrated reactor components. This facility provides a convenient scale for conducting scoping tests of new reaction concepts, materials performance, new instruments, and real-time data collection and manipulation for advance process controls. An enclosed reactor module was assembled and connected to a new ventilation system equipped with a variable-speed exhaust blower to mitigate hazardous gas exposures, as well as contract with hot surfaces. The module was equipped with a hydrogen gas pump and receiver tank to supply high quality hydrogen to chemical reactors located in the hood.

  20. Three phase model of the processive motor protein kinesin. (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxin


    Kinesin is a stepping motor that successively produces forward and backward 8-nm steps along microtubules. Under physiological conditions, the steps powering kinesin's motility are biased in one direction and drive various biological motile processes. So far, the physical mechanism underlying the unidirectional bias of the kinesin is not fully understood. Recently, Martin Bier have provided a stepper model [Martin Bier, 2003, Processive motor protein as an overdamped Brownian stepper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 148104], in which the stepping cycle of kinesin includes two distinguished phases: (i) a power stroke phase and (ii) a ratcheted diffusion phase which is characterized as a "random diffusional search". At saturating ATP level, this model can fit the experimental results accurately. In this paper, we'll provide a modified Brownian stepper model, in which the dependence of ATP concentration is considered. In our model, the stepping cycle of kinesin is distinguished into three phases: an ATP-binding phase, a power stroke phase and a ratcheted diffusion phase. This modified model can reconstruct most of the experimental results accurately.

  1. Modelling of phase diagrams of nanoalloys with complex metallic phases: application to Ni-Sn. (United States)

    Kroupa, A; Káňa, T; Buršík, J; Zemanová, A; Šob, M


    A method for modelling of size-dependent phase diagrams was developed by combining the semiempirical CALPHAD method and ab initio calculations of surface stresses for intermetallic phases. A novel approach was devised for the calculation of surface energy, free of systematic errors from the selection of different parameters of the software (e.g. number of the k-points) and for handling layered structures and off-stoichiometric slabs. Our approach allows the determination of complex size-dependent phase diagrams of systems with intermetallic phases, which was not possible up to now. The method was verified for the modelling of the phase diagram of the Ni-Sn system and basic comparison with rare experimental results was shown. There is reasonable agreement between the calculated and experimental results. The modelling of size-dependent phase diagrams of real systems allows the prediction of phase equilibria existing in nanosystems and possible changes in material properties. There is a need for such knowledge and the existence of reliable data for simpler systems is crucial for further application of this approach. This should motivate future experimental work.

  2. A multi-phase flow model for electrospinning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lan


    Full Text Available An electrospinning process is a multi-phase and multi-physicical process with flow, electric and magnetic fields coupled together. This paper deals with establishing a multi-phase model for numerical study and explains how to prepare for nanofibers and nanoporous materials. The model provides with a powerful tool to controlling over electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate, and others.

  3. Quantitative phase-field modeling for boiling phenomena. (United States)

    Badillo, Arnoldo


    A phase-field model is developed for quantitative simulation of bubble growth in the diffusion-controlled regime. The model accounts for phase change and surface tension effects at the liquid-vapor interface of pure substances with large property contrast. The derivation of the model follows a two-fluid approach, where the diffuse interface is assumed to have an internal microstructure, defined by a sharp interface. Despite the fact that phases within the diffuse interface are considered to have their own velocities and pressures, an averaging procedure at the atomic scale, allows for expressing all the constitutive equations in terms of mixture quantities. From the averaging procedure and asymptotic analysis of the model, nonconventional terms appear in the energy and phase-field equations to compensate for the variation of the properties across the diffuse interface. Without these new terms, no convergence towards the sharp-interface model can be attained. The asymptotic analysis also revealed a very small thermal capillary length for real fluids, such as water, that makes impossible for conventional phase-field models to capture bubble growth in the millimeter range size. For instance, important phenomena such as bubble growth and detachment from a hot surface could not be simulated due to the large number of grids points required to resolve all the scales. Since the shape of the liquid-vapor interface is primarily controlled by the effects of an isotropic surface energy (surface tension), a solution involving the elimination of the curvature from the phase-field equation is devised. The elimination of the curvature from the phase-field equation changes the length scale dominating the phase change from the thermal capillary length to the thickness of the thermal boundary layer, which is several orders of magnitude larger. A detailed analysis of the phase-field equation revealed that a split of this equation into two independent parts is possible for system sizes

  4. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model (United States)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.


    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  5. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C. [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela andInstituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Romanczukiewicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiecza 11, Kraków, 30-348 (Poland); Sanchez-Guillen, J. [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela andInstituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiecza 11, Kraków, 30-348 (Poland)


    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P,H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V=V(P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the “volume”, i.e., area of the solitons.

  6. A fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes: Phase field modeling and analytical results (United States)

    Haftbaradaran, H.; Maddahian, A.; Mossaiby, F.


    It is well known that phase separation could severely intensify mechanical degradation and expedite capacity fading in lithium-ion battery electrodes during electrochemical cycling. Experiments have frequently revealed that such degradation effects could be substantially mitigated via reducing the electrode feature size to the nanoscale. The purpose of this work is to present a fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes. To this end, a phase field model is utilized to predict how phase separation affects evolution of the solute distribution and stress profile in a planar electrode. Behavior of the preexisting flaws in the electrode in response to the diffusion induced stresses is then examined via computing the time dependent stress intensity factor arising at the tip of flaws during both the insertion and extraction half-cycles. Further, adopting a sharp-interphase approximation of the system, a critical electrode thickness is derived below which the phase separating electrode becomes flaw tolerant. Numerical results of the phase field model are also compared against analytical predictions of the sharp-interphase model. The results are further discussed with reference to the available experiments in the literature. Finally, some of the limitations of the model are cautioned.

  7. Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions. (United States)

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai


    A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k=k(m) will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k=0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k=k(m) will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C, but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure.

  8. A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    von Schwerin, Erik


    The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.

  9. Kaleidoscope of exotic quantum phases in a frustrated XY model. (United States)

    Varney, Christopher N; Sun, Kai; Galitski, Victor; Rigol, Marcos


    The existence of quantum spin liquids was first conjectured by Pomeranchuk some 70 years ago, who argued that frustration in simple antiferromagnetic theories could result in a Fermi-liquid-like state for spinon excitations. Here we show that a simple quantum spin model on a honeycomb lattice hosts the long sought for Bose metal with a clearly identifiable Bose surface. The complete phase diagram of the model is determined via exact diagonalization and is shown to include four distinct phases separated by three quantum phase transitions.

  10. The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedt, Joel


    In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

  11. Phase transitions in models of human cooperation (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž


    If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.

  12. Munition Expenditure Model Verification: KWIK. Phase I. (United States)


    environmental , and smoke plume behavior for each trial. 3. To compare and evaluate smoke munition expenditure calculations of the KWIK model from...Equipment Center ATTN: Technical Information Center Dr. Eugene W. Bierly Orlando, FL 32813 Director, Division of Atmos Sciences National Scinece Foundation...Meteorology Division Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703 AFGL/LY Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 Commander US Army Satellite Comm Agency The Environmental Research ATTN

  13. Mathematical model of two-phase flow in accelerator channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Ф. Нікулін


    Full Text Available  The problem of  two-phase flow composed of energy-carrier phase (Newtonian liquid and solid fine-dispersed phase (particles in counter jet mill accelerator channel is considered. The mathematical model bases goes on the supposition that the phases interact with each other like independent substances by means of aerodynamics’ forces in conditions of adiabatic flow. The mathematical model in the form of system of differential equations of order 11 is represented. Derivations of equations by base physical principles for cross-section-averaged quantity are produced. The mathematical model can be used for estimation of any kinematic and thermodynamic flow characteristics for purposely parameters optimization problem solving and transfer functions determination, that take place in  counter jet mill accelerator channel design.

  14. Mathematical modeling of disperse two-phase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, Christophe


    This book develops the theoretical foundations of disperse two-phase flows, which are characterized by the existence of bubbles, droplets or solid particles finely dispersed in a carrier fluid, which can be a liquid or a gas. Chapters clarify many difficult subjects, including modeling of the interfacial area concentration. Basic knowledge of the subjects treated in this book is essential to practitioners of Computational Fluid Dynamics for two-phase flows in a variety of industrial and environmental settings. The author provides a complete derivation of the basic equations, followed by more advanced subjects like turbulence equations for the two phases (continuous and disperse) and multi-size particulate flow modeling. As well as theoretical material, readers will discover chapters concerned with closure relations and numerical issues. Many physical models are presented, covering key subjects including heat and mass transfers between phases, interfacial forces and fluid particles coalescence and breakup, a...

  15. A phase-field model for fracture in biological tissues. (United States)

    Raina, Arun; Miehe, Christian


    This work presents a recently developed phase-field model of fracture equipped with anisotropic crack driving force to model failure phenomena in soft biological tissues at finite deformations. The phase-field models present a promising and innovative approach to thermodynamically consistent modeling of fracture, applicable to both rate-dependent or rate-independent brittle and ductile failure modes. One key advantage of diffusive crack modeling lies in predicting the complex crack topologies where methods with sharp crack discontinuities are known to suffer. The starting point is the derivation of a regularized crack surface functional that [Formula: see text]-converges to a sharp crack topology for vanishing length-scale parameter. A constitutive balance equation of this functional governs the crack phase-field evolution in a modular format in terms of a crack driving state function. This allows flexibility to introduce alternative stress-based failure criteria, e.g., isotropic or anisotropic, whose maximum value from the deformation history drives the irreversible crack phase field. The resulting multi-field problem is solved by a robust operator split scheme that successively updates a history field, the crack phase field and finally the displacement field in a typical time step. For the representative numerical simulations, a hyperelastic anisotropic free energy, typical to incompressible soft biological tissues, is used which degrades with evolving phase field as a result of coupled constitutive setup. A quantitative comparison with experimental data is provided for verification of the proposed methodology.

  16. A novel three-phase model of brain tissue microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana L Gevertz

    Full Text Available We propose a novel biologically constrained three-phase model of the brain microstructure. Designing a realistic model is tantamount to a packing problem, and for this reason, a number of techniques from the theory of random heterogeneous materials can be brought to bear on this problem. Our analysis strongly suggests that previously developed two-phase models in which cells are packed in the extracellular space are insufficient representations of the brain microstructure. These models either do not preserve realistic geometric and topological features of brain tissue or preserve these properties while overestimating the brain's effective diffusivity, an average measure of the underlying microstructure. In light of the highly connected nature of three-dimensional space, which limits the minimum diffusivity of biologically constrained two-phase models, we explore the previously proposed hypothesis that the extracellular matrix is an important factor that contributes to the diffusivity of brain tissue. Using accurate first-passage-time techniques, we support this hypothesis by showing that the incorporation of the extracellular matrix as the third phase of a biologically constrained model gives the reduction in the diffusion coefficient necessary for the three-phase model to be a valid representation of the brain microstructure.

  17. General single phase wellbore flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Liang-Biao; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K.


    A general wellbore flow model, which incorporates not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow, is presented in this report. The new wellbore model is readily applicable to any wellbore perforation patterns and well completions, and can be easily incorporated in reservoir simulators or analytical reservoir inflow models. Three dimensionless numbers, the accelerational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub af}, the gravitational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub gf}, and the inflow-directional to accelerational pressure gradient ratio R{sub da}, have been introduced to quantitatively describe the relative importance of different pressure gradient components. For fluid flow in a production well, it is expected that there may exist up to three different regions of the wellbore: the laminar flow region, the partially-developed turbulent flow region, and the fully-developed turbulent flow region. The laminar flow region is located near the well toe, the partially-turbulent flow region lies in the middle of the wellbore, while the fully-developed turbulent flow region is at the downstream end or the heel of the wellbore. Length of each region depends on fluid properties, wellbore geometry and flow rate. As the distance from the well toe increases, flow rate in the wellbore increases and the ratios R{sub af} and R{sub da} decrease. Consequently accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops have the greatest impact in the toe region of the wellbore. Near the well heel the local wellbore flow rate becomes large and close to the total well production rate, here R{sub af} and R{sub da} are small, therefore, both the accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops can be neglected.

  18. Modelling compressible dense and dilute two-phase flows (United States)

    Saurel, Richard; Chinnayya, Ashwin; Carmouze, Quentin


    Many two-phase flow situations, from engineering science to astrophysics, deal with transition from dense (high concentration of the condensed phase) to dilute concentration (low concentration of the same phase), covering the entire range of volume fractions. Some models are now well accepted at the two limits, but none are able to cover accurately the entire range, in particular regarding waves propagation. In the present work, an alternative to the Baer and Nunziato (BN) model [Baer, M. R. and Nunziato, J. W., "A two-phase mixture theory for the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in reactive granular materials," Int. J. Multiphase Flow 12(6), 861 (1986)], initially designed for dense flows, is built. The corresponding model is hyperbolic and thermodynamically consistent. Contrarily to the BN model that involves 6 wave speeds, the new formulation involves 4 waves only, in agreement with the Marble model [Marble, F. E., "Dynamics of a gas containing small solid particles," Combustion and Propulsion (5th AGARD Colloquium) (Pergamon Press, 1963), Vol. 175] based on pressureless Euler equations for the dispersed phase, a well-accepted model for low particle volume concentrations. In the new model, the presence of pressure in the momentum equation of the particles and consideration of volume fractions in the two phases render the model valid for large particle concentrations. A symmetric version of the new model is derived as well for liquids containing gas bubbles. This model version involves 4 characteristic wave speeds as well, but with different velocities. Last, the two sub-models with 4 waves are combined in a unique formulation, valid for the full range of volume fractions. It involves the same 6 wave speeds as the BN model, but at a given point of space, 4 waves only emerge, depending on the local volume fractions. The non-linear pressure waves propagate only in the phase with dominant volume fraction. The new model is tested numerically on various

  19. Mathematical modelling of ultrasound propagation in multi-phase flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simurda, Matej


    Transit-time ultrasonic flow meter is a well established and widely used method for measuring flow of fluids. However, its application when multi-phase flow conditions occur remains to be a challenging task, particularly in industrial applications. The presence of the multi-phase flow typically....... A good agreement (error below $2.1$ \\%) is found. The approach is afterwards used on a large set of experimental measurements conducted on an industrial multi-phase flow rig. It is demonstrated how the model can be used to give a good estimate of the signal deviation for a given gas-void fraction...... and size of the secondary phase inclusions. The presented work is, to the best of the author's knowledge, the only study available in the open literature that discusses simulation of ultrasonic flow meters under multi-phase flow conditions and its comparison to experimental measurements to such extent....

  20. Geometric curvature and phase of the Rabi model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Lijun; Huai, Sainan; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Yunbo, E-mail:


    We study the geometric curvature and phase of the Rabi model. Under the rotating-wave approximation (RWA), we apply the gauge independent Berry curvature over a surface integral to calculate the Berry phase of the eigenstates for both single and two-qubit systems, which is found to be identical with the system of spin-1/2 particle in a magnetic field. We extend the idea to define a vacuum-induced geometric curvature when the system starts from an initial state with pure vacuum bosonic field. The induced geometric phase is related to the average photon number in a period which is possible to measure in the qubit–cavity system. We also calculate the geometric phase beyond the RWA and find an anomalous sudden change, which implies the breakdown of the adiabatic theorem and the Berry phases in an adiabatic cyclic evolution are ill-defined near the anti-crossing point in the spectrum.

  1. A mechanical erosion model for two-phase mass flows

    CERN Document Server

    Pudasaini, Shiva P


    Erosion, entrainment and deposition are complex and dominant, but yet poorly understood, mechanical processes in geophysical mass flows. Here, we propose a novel, process-based, two-phase, erosion-deposition model capable of adequately describing these complex phenomena commonly observed in landslides, avalanches, debris flows and bedload transport. The model is based on the jump in the momentum flux including changes of material and flow properties along the flow-bed interface and enhances an existing general two-phase mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012). A two-phase variably saturated erodible basal morphology is introduced and allows for the evolution of erosion-deposition-depths, incorporating the inherent physical process including momentum and rheological changes of the flowing mixture. By rigorous derivation, we show that appropriate incorporation of the mass and momentum productions or losses in conservative model formulation is essential for the physically correct and mathematically consistent descript...

  2. Phase structure of a surface model with many fine holes. (United States)

    Koibuchi, H


    We study the phase structure of a surface model by using the canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique on triangulated, fixed connectivity, and spherical surfaces with many fine holes. The size of a hole is assumed to be of the order of lattice spacing (or bond length) and hence can be negligible compared to the surface size in the thermodynamic limit. We observe in the numerical data that the model undergoes a first-order collapsing transition between the smooth phase and the collapsed phase. Moreover the Hasudorff dimension H remains in the physical bound, i.e., H model in this paper and the previous one with many holes, whose size is of the order of the surface size, because the previous surface model with large-sized holes has only the collapsing transition and no transition of surface fluctuations.

  3. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Theory Department, TRIUMF,4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  4. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Component Flow with Disappearing Nonwetting Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Rebecca; Ippisch, Olaf


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a recently discussed new technology, aimed at allowing an ongoing use of fossil fuels while preventing the produced CO2 to be released to the atmosphere. CSS can be modeled with two components (water and CO2) in two phases (liquid and CO2). To simulate the process, a multiphase flow equation with equilibrium phase exchange is used. One of the big problems arising in two-phase two-component flow simulations is the disappearance of the nonwetting phase, which leads to a degeneration of the equations satisfied by the saturation. A standard choice of primary variables, which is the pressure of one phase and the saturation of the other phase, cannot be applied here. We developed a new approach using the pressure of the nonwetting phase and the capillary pressure as primary variables. One important advantage of this approach is the fact that we have only one set of primary variables that can be used for the biphasic as well as the monophasic case. We implemented this new choice o...

  6. Phase-Field Surface Tension Modeling for Two-Phase Navier-Stokes Flow (United States)

    Jacqmin, David


    The phase-field method applied to the multiphase Navier-Stokes equations provides a continuum-surface-tension model that is energetically and, with care, thermodynamically consistent. The phase-field Navier-Stokes equations are the Navier-Stokes equations with continuum-surface-tension forcing derived from the phase-field free energy plus the advective Cahn-Hilliard equation for describing phase convection. This equation system appears to have O(ɛ) convergence to the true multiphase Navier-Stokes equations (ɛ is interface thickness). The talk will discuss the numerical implementation of the equations with special attention paid to convergence of numerical methods in the double limit ɛ arrow 0, h arrow 0. Results will be shown for contact line flow, for interface breakup and coalescence, and for film flow and coating flow instabilities and behavior.

  7. A multi-scale strength model with phase transformation (United States)

    Barton, N.; Arsenlis, A.; Rhee, M.; Marian, J.; Bernier, J.; Tang, M.; Yang, L.


    We present a multi-scale strength model that includes phase transformation. In each phase, strength depends on pressure, strain rate, temperature, and evolving dislocation density descriptors. A donor cell type of approach is used for the transfer of dislocation density between phases. While the shear modulus can be modeled as smooth through the BCC to rhombohedral transformation in vanadium, the multi-phase strength model predicts abrupt changes in the material strength due to changes in dislocation kinetics. In the rhombohedral phase, the dislocation density is decomposed into populations associated with short and long Burgers vectors. Strength model construction employs an information passing paradigm to span from the atomistic level to the continuum level. Simulation methods in the overall hierarchy include density functional theory, molecular statics, molecular dynamics, dislocation dynamics, and continuum based approaches. We demonstrate the behavior of the model through simulations of Rayleigh Taylor instability growth experiments of the type used to assess material strength at high pressure and strain rate. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL-ABS-464695).

  8. Modelling Phase Change in a 3D Thermal Transient Analysis


    Haque, EEU; Hampson, PR


    A 3D thermal transient analysis of a gap profiling technique which utilises phase change material (plasticine) is conducted in ANSYS. Phase change is modelled by assigning enthalpy of fusion over a wide temperature range based on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results. Temperature dependent convection is approximated using Nusselt number correlations. A parametric study is conducted on the thermal contact conductance value between the profiling device (polymer) and adjacent (metal) s...

  9. The Application of Phase Type Distributions for Modelling Queuing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Queuing models are important tools for studying the performance of complex systems, but despite the substantial queuing theory literature, it is often necessary to use approximations in the case the system is nonmarkovian. Phase type distribution is by now indispensable tool in creation of queuing system models. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a method and software for evaluating queuing approximations. A numerical queuing model with priorities is used to explore the behaviour of exponential phase-type approximation of service-time distribution. The performance of queuing systems described in the event language is used for generating the set of states and transition matrix between them. Two examples of numerical models are presented – a queuing system model with priorities and a queuing system model with quality control.

  10. Investigations of a Two-Phase Fluid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nadiga, B T


    We study an interface-capturing two-phase fluid model in which the interfacial tension is modelled as a volumetric stress. Since these stresses are obtainable from a Van der Waals-Cahn-Hilliard free energy, the model is, to a certain degree, thermodynamically realistic. Thermal fluctuations are not considered presently for reasons of simplicity. The utility of the model lies in its momentum-conservative representation of surface tension and the simplicity of its numerical implementation resulting from the volumetric modelling of the interfacial dynamics. After validation of the model in two spatial dimensions, two prototypical applications---instability of an initially high-Reynolds-number liquid jet in the gaseous phase and spinodal decomposition in a liquid-gas system--- are presented.

  11. Numerical model of a three-phase Busbar Trunking System


    Delgado San Román, Fernando; Renedo Estébanez, Carlos Javier; Ortiz Fernández, Alfredo; Fernández Diego, Inmaculada


    The thermal behavior of an industrial Low Voltage non-segregated three-phase busduct is analyzed by means of the comparison of a 3D numerical model with experimental results. This model has been carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics, software based on finite element method. The numerical model replicates the short-circuit test, using the same geometry configuration and the boundary conditions of the laboratory in which this assay is carried out. The standard IEC 61439 is applied, both in test...

  12. Phase transition of p-adic Ising λ-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Mutlay; Akın, Hasan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Zirve University, Gaziantep, TR27260 (Turkey); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Department of Computational & Theoretical Sciences Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia P.O. Box, 141, 25710, Kuantan Pahang (Malaysia)


    We consider an interaction of the nearest-neighbors and next nearest-neighbors for the mixed type p-adic λ-model with spin values (−1, +1) on a Cayley tree of order two. In the previous work we have proved the existence of the p-adic Gibbs measure for the model. In this work we have proved the existence of the phase transition occurs for the model.

  13. Model dependence of peripheral NN phase parameters at medium energy (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.


    The model dependence of high L partial waves in nucleon-nucleon scattering for Tlab=400-1000 MeV is studied. Unlike at low energy, model predictions are not unique. This is due to the delta isobar, which plays a major role in determining high L inelasticities as well as real phase shifts. The differences between various model predictions are mainly due to the use of different delta propagators and delta vertex functions.

  14. Model dependence of peripheral NN phase parameters at medium energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M.; Tjon, J.A.


    The model dependence of high L partial waves in nucleon-nucleon scattering for T/sub lab/ = 400--1000 MeV is studied. Unlike at low energy, model predictions are not unique. This is due to the delta isobar, which plays a major role in determining high L inelasticities as well as real phase shifts. The differences between various model predictions are mainly due to the use of different delta propagators and delta vertex functions.

  15. Modeling melt convection in phase-field simulations of solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckermann, C.; Diepers, H.J.; Steinbach, I.; Karma, A.; Tong, X.


    A novel diffuse interface model is presented for the direct numerical simulation of microstructure evolution in solidification processes involving convection in the liquid phase. The solidification front is treated as a moving interface in the diffuse approximation as known from phase-field theories. The no-slip condition between the melt and the solid is realized via a drag resistivity in the diffuse interface region. The model is shown to accurately reproduce the usual sharp interface conditions in the limit of a thin diffuse interface region. A first test of the model is provided for flow through regular arrays of cylinders with a stationary interface. Then, two examples are presented that involve solid/liquid phase-change: (1) coarsening of a mush of a binary alloy, where both the interface curvature and the flow permeability evolve with time, and (2) dendritic growth in the presence of melt convection with particular emphasis on the operating point of the tip.

  16. A MATLAB GUI to study Ising model phase transition (United States)

    Thornton, Curtislee; Datta, Trinanjan

    We have created a MATLAB based graphical user interface (GUI) that simulates the single spin flip Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. The GUI has the capability to study temperature and external magnetic field dependence of magnetization, susceptibility, and equilibration behavior of the nearest-neighbor square lattice Ising model. Since the Ising model is a canonical system to study phase transition, the GUI can be used both for teaching and research purposes. The presence of a Monte Carlo code in a GUI format allows easy visualization of the simulation in real time and provides an attractive way to teach the concept of thermal phase transition and critical phenomena. We will also discuss the GUI implementation to study phase transition in a classical spin ice model on the pyrochlore lattice.

  17. Modeling and analysis for general non-isothermal convective phase field systems


    Haas, Robert


    In this work general non-isothermal phase field models for multi-phase and multi-component systems are considered. The modelling of the free energy by Ginzburg-Landau functionals for multi-phase systems is considered and analyzed theoretically and numerically. Furthermore a general non-isothermal phase field model for convective systems with multiple components and phases has been derived. Finally for a isothermal multi-phase phase field model the existence of a solution is proved in...

  18. Magnetic phase diagram and quantum phase transitions in a two-species boson model (United States)

    Belemuk, A. M.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Mikheyenkov, A. V.; Kugel, K. I.


    We analyze the possible types of ordering in a boson-fermion model. The Hamiltonian is inherently related to the Bose-Hubbard model for vector two-species bosons in optical lattices. We show that such a model can be reduced to the Kugel-Khomskii type spin-pseudospin model, but in contrast to the usual version of the latter model, we are dealing here with the case of spin S =1 and pseudospin 1 /2 . We show that the interplay of spin and pseudospin degrees of freedom leads to a rather nontrivial magnetic phase diagram including the spin-nematic configurations. Tuning the spin-channel interaction parameter Us gives rise to quantum phase transitions. We find that the ground state of the system always has the pseudospin domain structure. On the other hand, the sign change of Us switches the spin arrangement of the ground state within domains from a ferro- to antiferromagnetic one. Finally, we revisit the spin (pseudospin)-1/2 Kugel-Khomskii model and see the inverse picture of phase transitions.

  19. Quantum Ising phases and transitions in transverse Ising models

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sei; Chakrabarti, Bikas K


    Quantum phase transitions, driven by quantum fluctuations, exhibit intriguing features offering the possibility of potentially new applications, e.g. in quantum information sciences. Major advances have been made in both theoretical and experimental investigations of the nature and behavior of quantum phases and transitions in cooperatively interacting many-body quantum systems. For modeling purposes, most of the current innovative and successful research in this field has been obtained by either directly or indirectly using the insights provided by quantum (or transverse field) Ising models because of the separability of the cooperative interaction from the tunable transverse field or tunneling term in the relevant Hamiltonian. Also, a number of condensed matter systems can be modeled accurately in this approach, hence granting the possibility to compare advanced models with actual experimental results. This work introduces these quantum Ising models and analyses them both theoretically and numerically in gr...

  20. A two-phase model for smoothly joining disparate growth phases in the macropodid Thylogale billardierii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive R McMahon

    Full Text Available Generally, sigmoid curves are used to describe the growth of animals over their lifetime. However, because growth rates often differ over an animal's lifetime a single curve may not accurately capture the growth. Broken-stick models constrained to pass through a common point have been proposed to describe the different growth phases, but these are often unsatisfactory because essentially there are still two functions that describe the lifetime growth. To provide a single, converged model to age animals with disparate growth phases we developed a smoothly joining two-phase nonlinear function (SJ2P, tailored to provide a more accurate description of lifetime growth of the macropod, the Tasmanian pademelon Thylogale billardierii. The model consists of the Verhulst logistic function, which describes pouch-phase growth--joining smoothly to the Brody function, which describes post-pouch growth. Results from the model demonstrate that male pademelons grew faster and bigger than females. Our approach provides a practical means of ageing wild pademelons for life history studies but given the high variability of the data used to parametrise the second growth phase of the model, the accuracy of ageing of post-weaned animals is low: accuracy might be improved with collection of longitudinal growth data. This study provides a unique, first robust method that can be used to characterise growth over the lifespan of pademelons. The development of this method is relevant to collecting age-specific vital rates from commonly used wildlife management practices to provide crucial insights into the demographic behaviour of animal populations.

  1. Residual phase noise modeling of amplifiers using silicon bipolar transistors. (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Konstantinos; Everard, Jeremy


    In this paper, we describe the modeling of residual 1/f phase noise for Si bipolar amplifiers operating in the linear region. We propose that for Si bipolar amplifiers, the 1/f phase noise is largely caused by the base emitter recombination flicker noise. The up-conversion mechanism is described through linear approximation of the phase variation of the amplifier phase response by the variation of the device parameters (C(b)c, C(be), g(m), r(e)) caused by the recombination 1/f noise. The amplifier phase response describes the device over the whole frequency range of operation for which the influence of the poles and zeros is investigated. It is found that for a common emitter amplifier it is sufficient to only incorporate the effect of the device poles to describe the phase noise behavior over most of its operational frequency range. Simulations predict the measurements of others, including the flattening of the PM noise at frequencies beyond f(3dB), not predicted by previous models.

  2. Nuclear pasta phases within the quark-meson coupling model (United States)

    Grams, Guilherme; Santos, Alexandre M.; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providência, Constança; Menezes, Débora P.


    In this work, the low-density regions of nuclear and neutron star matter are studied. The search for the existence of nuclear pasta phases in this region is performed within the context of the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model, which incorporates quark degrees of freedom. Fixed proton fractions are considered, as well as nuclear matter in β equilibrium at zero temperature. We discuss the recent attempts to better understand the surface energy in the coexistence phases regime and we present results that show the existence of the pasta phases subject to some choices of the surface energy coefficient. We also analyze the influence of the nuclear pasta on some neutron star properties. The equation of state containing the pasta phase will be part of a complete grid for future use in supernova simulations.

  3. Characterization of topological phases in models of interacting fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motruk, Johannes


    The concept of topology in condensed matter physics has led to the discovery of rich and exotic physics in recent years. Especially when strong correlations are included, phenomenons such as fractionalization and anyonic particle statistics can arise. In this thesis, we study several systems hosting topological phases of interacting fermions. In the first part, we consider one-dimensional systems of parafermions, which are generalizations of Majorana fermions, in the presence of a Z{sub N} charge symmetry. We classify the symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases that can occur in these systems using the projective representations of the symmetries and find a finite number of distinct phases depending on the prime factorization of N. The different phases exhibit characteristic degeneracies in their entanglement spectrum (ES). Apart from these SPT phases, we report the occurrence of parafermion condensate phases for certain values of N. When including an additional Z{sub N} symmetry, we find a non-Abelian group structure under the addition of phases. In the second part of the thesis, we focus on two-dimensional lattice models of spinless fermions. First, we demonstrate the detection of a fractional Chern insulator (FCI) phase in the Haldane honeycomb model on an infinite cylinder by means of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). We report the calculation of several quantities characterizing the topological order of the state, i.e., (i) the Hall conductivity, (ii) the spectral flow and level counting in the ES, (iii) the topological entanglement entropy, and (iv) the charge and topological spin of the quasiparticles. Since we have access to sufficiently large system sizes without band projection with DMRG, we are in addition able to investigate the transition from a metal to the FCI at small interactions which we find to be of first order. In a further study, we consider a time-reversal symmetric model on the honeycomb lattice where a Chern insulator (CI

  4. Dividing phases in two-phase flow and modeling of interfacial drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumo, T.; Rajamaeki, M. [VTT Energy (Finland)


    Different models intended to describe one-dimensional two-phase flow are considered in this paper. The following models are introduced: conventional six-equation model, conventional model equipped with terms taking into account nonuniform transverse velocity distribution of the phases, several virtual mass models and a model in which the momentum equations have been derived by using the principles of Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The dynamics of the models have been tested by comparing their characteristic velocities to each other and against experimental data. The results show that the SFAV-model makes a hyperbolic system and predicts the propagation velocities of disturbances with the same order of accuracy as the best tested virtual mass models. Furthermore, the momentum interaction terms for the SFAV-model are considered. These consist of the wall friction terms and the interfacial friction term. The authors model wall friction with two independent terms describing the effect of each fluid on the wall separately. In the steady state, a relationship between the slip velocity and friction coefficients can be derived. Hence, the friction coefficients for the SFAV-model can be calculated from existing correlations, viz. from a drift-flux correlation and a wall friction correlation. The friction model was tested by searching steady-state distributions in a partial BWR fuel channel and comparing the relaxed values with the drift-flux correlation, which agreed very well with each other. In addition, response of the flow to a sine-wave disturbance in the water inlet flux was calculated as function of frequency. The results of the models differed from each other already with frequency of order 5 Hz, while the time constant for the relaxation, obtained from steady-state distribution calculation, would have implied significant differences appear not until with frequency of order 50 Hz.

  5. Modeling Human Population Separation History Using Physically Phased Genomes. (United States)

    Song, Shiya; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Emery, Sarah; Kidd, Jeffrey M


    Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende). We physically phased 98% of heterozygous SNPs into haplotype-resolved blocks, obtaining a block N50 of 1 Mbp. We combined these data with additional phased genomes from San, Mbuti, Gujarati, and Centre de'Etude du Polymorphism Humain European populations and analyzed population size and separation history using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent and multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent models. We find that statistically phased haplotypes yield a more recent split-time estimation compared with experimentally phased haplotypes. To better interpret patterns of cross-population coalescence, we implemented an approximate Bayesian computation approach to estimate population split times and migration rates by fitting the distribution of coalescent times inferred between two haplotypes, one from each population, to a standard isolation-with-migration model. We inferred that the separation between hunter-gatherer populations and other populations happened ∼120-140 KYA, with gene flow continuing until 30-40 KYA; separation between west-African and out-of-African populations happened ∼70-80 KYA; while the separation between Maasai and out-of-African populations happened ∼50 KYA. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Modeling Human Population Separation History Using Physically Phased Genomes (United States)

    Song, Shiya; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Emery, Sarah; Kidd, Jeffrey M.


    Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende). We physically phased 98% of heterozygous SNPs into haplotype-resolved blocks, obtaining a block N50 of 1 Mbp. We combined these data with additional phased genomes from San, Mbuti, Gujarati, and Centre de’Etude du Polymorphism Humain European populations and analyzed population size and separation history using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent and multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent models. We find that statistically phased haplotypes yield a more recent split-time estimation compared with experimentally phased haplotypes. To better interpret patterns of cross-population coalescence, we implemented an approximate Bayesian computation approach to estimate population split times and migration rates by fitting the distribution of coalescent times inferred between two haplotypes, one from each population, to a standard isolation-with-migration model. We inferred that the separation between hunter-gatherer populations and other populations happened ∼120–140 KYA, with gene flow continuing until 30–40 KYA; separation between west-African and out-of-African populations happened ∼70–80 KYA; while the separation between Maasai and out-of-African populations happened ∼50 KYA. PMID:28049708

  7. Thermal phase transition in a QCD-like holographic model (United States)

    Evans, Nick; Threlfall, Ed


    We investigate the high-temperature phase of a dilaton flow deformation of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. We argue that these geometries should be interpreted as the N=4 gauge theory perturbed by a SO(6) invariant scalar mass and that the high-temperature phase is just the well-known anti-de Sitter-Schwarzschild solution. We compute, within supergravity, the resulting Hawking-Page phase transition, which in this model can be interpreted as a deconfining transition in which the vacuum expectation value for the operator TrF2 dissolves. In the presence of quarks the model also displays a simultaneous chiral symmetry restoring transition with the Goldstone mode and other quark bound states dissolving into the thermal bath.

  8. Quantitative phase-field modeling for wetting phenomena. (United States)

    Badillo, Arnoldo


    A new phase-field model is developed for studying partial wetting. The introduction of a third phase representing a solid wall allows for the derivation of a new surface tension force that accounts for energy changes at the contact line. In contrast to other multi-phase-field formulations, the present model does not need the introduction of surface energies for the fluid-wall interactions. Instead, all wetting properties are included in a unique parameter known as the equilibrium contact angle θeq. The model requires the solution of a single elliptic phase-field equation, which, coupled to conservation laws for mass and linear momentum, admits the existence of steady and unsteady compact solutions (compactons). The representation of the wall by an additional phase field allows for the study of wetting phenomena on flat, rough, or patterned surfaces in a straightforward manner. The model contains only two free parameters, a measure of interface thickness W and β, which is used in the definition of the mixture viscosity μ=μlϕl+μvϕv+βμlϕw. The former controls the convergence towards the sharp interface limit and the latter the energy dissipation at the contact line. Simulations on rough surfaces show that by taking values for β higher than 1, the model can reproduce, on average, the effects of pinning events of the contact line during its dynamic motion. The model is able to capture, in good agreement with experimental observations, many physical phenomena fundamental to wetting science, such as the wetting transition on micro-structured surfaces and droplet dynamics on solid substrates.

  9. Network Inoculation: Heteroclinics and phase transitions in an epidemic model

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hui; Gross, Thilo


    In epidemiological modelling, dynamics on networks, and in particular adaptive and heterogeneous networks have recently received much interest. Here we present a detailed analysis of a previously proposed model that combines heterogeneity in the individuals with adaptive rewiring of the network structure in response to a disease. We show that in this model qualitative changes in the dynamics occur in two phase transitions. In a macroscopic description one of these corresponds to a local bifurcation whereas the other one corresponds to a non-local heteroclinic bifurcation. This model thus provides a rare example of a system where a phase transition is caused by a non-local bifurcation, while both micro- and macro-level dynamics are accessible to mathematical analysis. The bifurcation points mark the onset of a behaviour that we call network inoculation. In the respective parameter region exposure of the system to a pathogen will lead to an outbreak that collapses, but leaves the network in a configuration wher...

  10. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)


    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  11. Detailed behavioral modeling of bang-bang phase detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Andreani, Pietro; Keil, U. D.


    In this paper, the metastability of current-mode logic (CML) latches and flip-flops is studied in detail. Based on the results of this analysis, a behavioral model of bang-bang phase detectors (BBPDs) is proposed, which is able to reliably capture the critical deadzone effect. The impact of jitter...

  12. Quantitative phase-field model of alloy solidification (United States)

    Echebarria, Blas; Folch, Roger; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis


    We present a detailed derivation and thin interface analysis of a phase-field model that can accurately simulate microstructural pattern formation for low-speed directional solidification of a dilute binary alloy. This advance with respect to previous phase-field models is achieved by the addition of a phenomenological “antitrapping” solute current in the mass conservation relation [A. Karma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 115701 (2001)]. This antitrapping current counterbalances the physical, albeit artificially large, solute trapping effect generated when a mesoscopic interface thickness is used to simulate the interface evolution on experimental length and time scales. Furthermore, it provides additional freedom in the model to suppress other spurious effects that scale with this thickness when the diffusivity is unequal in solid and liquid [R. F. Almgren, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 59, 2086 (1999)], which include surface diffusion and a curvature correction to the Stefan condition. This freedom can also be exploited to make the kinetic undercooling of the interface arbitrarily small even for mesoscopic values of both the interface thickness and the phase-field relaxation time, as for the solidification of pure melts [A. Karma and W.-J. Rappel, Phys. Rev. E 53, R3017 (1996)]. The performance of the model is demonstrated by calculating accurately within a phase-field approach the Mullins-Sekerka stability spectrum of a planar interface and nonlinear cellular shapes for realistic alloy parameters and growth conditions.

  13. Modelling two-phase transport of 3H/3He

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Schaap, J.D.; Leijnse, T.; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.


    Degassing of groundwater by excess denitrification of agricultural pollution complicates the interpretation of 3H/3He data and hinders the estimation of travel times in nitrate pollution studies. In this study we used a two-phase flow and transport model (STOMP) to evaluate the method presented by

  14. Building a Virtual Model of a Baleen Whale: Phase 2 (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Building a virtual model of a baleen whale: Phase 2 Dr...display or manipulate the entire volume in real time. Throughout the entire body of the whale, each individual scan section contains pixels that are 0.6

  15. Two Phase Flow Split Model for Parallel Channels | Iloeje | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model and code are capable of handling single and two phase flows, steady states and transients, up to ten parallel flow paths, simple and complicated geometries, including the boilers of fossil steam generators and nuclear power plants. A test calculation has been made with a simplified three-channel system ...

  16. Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase I | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase I. The Centro de Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS - Center for Technology and Society) is part of the Fundação Getulio Vargas Law School in Rio de Janeiro and is the only institution in Brazil that specifically deals with the interplay of law, technology and society. The CTS is ...

  17. Phase transition in the Sznajd model with independence (United States)

    Sznajd-Weron, K.; Tabiszewski, M.; Timpanaro, A. M.


    We propose a model of opinion dynamics which describes two major types of social influence —conformity and independence. Conformity in our model is described by the so-called outflow dynamics (known as Sznajd model). According to sociologists' suggestions, we introduce also a second type of social influence, known in social psychology as independence. Various social experiments have shown that the level of conformity depends on the society. We introduce this level as a parameter of the model and show that there is a continuous phase transition between conformity and independence.

  18. Phase transition in the Sznajd model with independence

    CERN Document Server

    Sznajd-Weron, K; Timpanaro, A M


    We propose a model of opinion dynamics which describes two major types of social influence -- conformity and independence. Conformity in our model is described by the so called outflow dynamics (known as Sznajd model). According to sociologists' suggestions, we introduce also a second type of social influence, known in social psychology as independence. Various social experiments have shown that the level of conformity depends on the society. We introduce this level as a parameter of the model and show that there is a continuous phase transition between conformity and independence.

  19. Model-based magnetization retrieval from holographic phase images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röder, Falk, E-mail: [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut für Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Bautzner Landstr. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Vogel, Karin [Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Wolf, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut für Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Bautzner Landstr. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Hellwig, Olav [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut für Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Bautzner Landstr. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); AG Magnetische Funktionsmaterialien, Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany); HGST, A Western Digital Company, 3403 Yerba Buena Rd., San Jose, CA 95135 (United States); Wee, Sung Hun [HGST, A Western Digital Company, 3403 Yerba Buena Rd., San Jose, CA 95135 (United States); Wicht, Sebastian; Rellinghaus, Bernd [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)


    The phase shift of the electron wave is a useful measure for the projected magnetic flux density of magnetic objects at the nanometer scale. More important for materials science, however, is the knowledge about the magnetization in a magnetic nano-structure. As demonstrated here, a dominating presence of stray fields prohibits a direct interpretation of the phase in terms of magnetization modulus and direction. We therefore present a model-based approach for retrieving the magnetization by considering the projected shape of the nano-structure and assuming a homogeneous magnetization therein. We apply this method to FePt nano-islands epitaxially grown on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate, which indicates an inclination of their magnetization direction relative to the structural easy magnetic [001] axis. By means of this real-world example, we discuss prospects and limits of this approach. - Highlights: • Retrieval of the magnetization from holographic phase images. • Magnetostatic model constructed for a magnetic nano-structure. • Decomposition into homogeneously magnetized components. • Discretization of a each component by elementary cuboids. • Analytic solution for the phase of a magnetized cuboid considered. • Fitting a set of magnetization vectors to experimental phase images.

  20. Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens

    Material and energy balances and equilibrium data form the basis of most design calculations. While material and energy balances may be stated without much difficulty, the design engineer is left with a choice between a wide variety of models for describing phase equilibria in the design...... of physical separation processes. In a thermodynamic sense, design requires detailed knowledge of activity coefficients in the phases at equilibrium. The prediction of these quantities from a minimum of experimental data is the broad scope of this thesis. Adequate equations exist for predicting vapor-liquid...

  1. Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens

    Material and energy balances and equilibrium data form the basis of most design calculations. While material and energy balances may be stated without much difficulty, the design engineer is left with a choice between a wide variety of models for describing phase equilibria in the design...... of physical separation processes. In a thermodynamic sense, design requires detailed knowledge of activity coefficients in the phases at equilibrium. The prediction of these quantities from a minimum of experimental data is the broad scope of this thesis. Adequate equations exist for predicting vapor...

  2. Modelling Phase Change in a 3D Thermal Transient Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haque


    Full Text Available A 3D thermal transient analysis of a gap profiling technique which utilises phase change material (plasticine is conducted in ANSYS. Phase change is modelled by assigning enthalpy of fusion over a wide temperature range based on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC results. Temperature dependent convection is approximated using Nusselt number correlations. A parametric study is conducted on the thermal contact conductance value between the profiling device (polymer and adjacent (metal surfaces. Initial temperatures are established using a liner extrapolation based on experimental data. Results yield good correlation with experimental data.

  3. Model mismatch analysis and compensation for modal phase measuring deflectometry. (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo; McPherson, Chris; Beverage, Jacob; Idir, Mourad


    The correspondence residuals due to the discrepancy between the reality and the shape model in use are analyzed for the modal phase measuring deflectometry. Slope residuals are calculated from these discrepancies between the modal estimation and practical acquisition. Since the shape mismatch mainly occurs locally, zonal integration methods which are good at dealing with local variations are used to reconstruct the height residual for compensation. Results of both simulation and experiment indicate the proposed height compensation method is effective, which can be used as a post-complement for the modal phase measuring deflectometry.

  4. Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens

    of physical separation processes. In a thermodynamic sense, design requires detailed knowledge of activity coefficients in the phases at equilibrium. The prediction of these quantities from a minimum of experimental data is the broad scope of this thesis. Adequate equations exist for predicting vapor-liquid......Material and energy balances and equilibrium data form the basis of most design calculations. While material and energy balances may be stated without much difficulty, the design engineer is left with a choice between a wide variety of models for describing phase equilibria in the design...

  5. Model selection and averaging of nonlinear mixed-effect models for robust phase III dose selection. (United States)

    Aoki, Yasunori; Röshammar, Daniel; Hamrén, Bengt; Hooker, Andrew C


    Population model-based (pharmacometric) approaches are widely used for the analyses of phase IIb clinical trial data to increase the accuracy of the dose selection for phase III clinical trials. On the other hand, if the analysis is based on one selected model, model selection bias can potentially spoil the accuracy of the dose selection process. In this paper, four methods that assume a number of pre-defined model structure candidates, for example a set of dose-response shape functions, and then combine or select those candidate models are introduced. The key hypothesis is that by combining both model structure uncertainty and model parameter uncertainty using these methodologies, we can make a more robust model based dose selection decision at the end of a phase IIb clinical trial. These methods are investigated using realistic simulation studies based on the study protocol of an actual phase IIb trial for an oral asthma drug candidate (AZD1981). Based on the simulation study, it is demonstrated that a bootstrap model selection method properly avoids model selection bias and in most cases increases the accuracy of the end of phase IIb decision. Thus, we recommend using this bootstrap model selection method when conducting population model-based decision-making at the end of phase IIb clinical trials.

  6. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))


    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Laxemar. The inflow calculations were accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handled the impact of different deposition hole rejection criteria. The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled

  7. Phase transition and information cascade in a voting model (United States)

    Hisakado, M.; Mori, S.


    In this paper, we introduce a voting model that is similar to a Keynesian beauty contest and analyse it from a mathematical point of view. There are two types of voters—copycat and independent—and two candidates. Our voting model is a binomial distribution (independent voters) doped in a beta binomial distribution (copycat voters). We find that the phase transition in this system is at the upper limit of t, where t is the time (or the number of the votes). Our model contains three phases. If copycats constitute a majority or even half of the total voters, the voting rate converges more slowly than it would in a binomial distribution. If independents constitute the majority of voters, the voting rate converges at the same rate as it would in a binomial distribution. We also study why it is difficult to estimate the conclusion of a Keynesian beauty contest when there is an information cascade.

  8. Analysis of the phase structure in extended Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seniuch, M.


    We study the generation of the baryon asymmetry in the context of electroweak baryogenesis in two different extensions of the Standard Model. First, we consider an effective theory, in which the Standard Model is augmented by an additional dimension-six Higgs operator. The effects of new physics beyond a cut-off scale are parameterized by this operator. The second model is the two-Higgs-doublet model, whose particle spectrum is extended by two further neutral and two charged heavy Higgs bosons. In both cases we focus on the properties of the electroweak phase transition, especially on its strength and the profile of the nucleating bubbles. After reviewing some general aspects of the electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis we derive the respective thermal effective potentials to one-loop order. We systematically study the parameter spaces, using numerical methods, and compute the strength of the phase transition and the wall thickness as a function of the Higgs masses. We find a strong first order transition for a light Higgs state with a mass up to about 200 GeV. In case of the dimension-six model the cut-off scale has to stay between 500 and 850 GeV, in the two-Higgs-doublet model one needs at least one heavy Higgs mass of 300 GeV. The wall thickness varies for both theories in the range roughly from two to fifteen, in units of the inverse critical temperature. We also estimate the size of the electron and neutron electric dipole moments, since new sources of CP violation give rise to them. In wide ranges of the parameter space we are not in conflict with the experimental bounds. Finally the baryon asymmetry, which is predicted by these models, is related to the Higgs mass and the other appropriate input parameters. In both models the measured baryon asymmetry can be achieved for natural values of the model parameters. (orig.)

  9. Phase field modeling of partially saturated deformable porous media (United States)

    Sciarra, Giulio


    A poromechanical model of partially saturated deformable porous media is proposed based on a phase field approach at modeling the behavior of the mixture of liquid water and wet air, which saturates the pore space, the phase field being the saturation (ratio). While the standard retention curve is expected still^ to provide the intrinsic retention properties of the porous skeleton, depending on the porous texture, an enhanced description of surface tension between the wetting (liquid water) and the non-wetting (wet air) fluid, occupying the pore space, is stated considering a regularization of the phase field model based on an additional contribution to the overall free energy depending on the saturation gradient. The aim is to provide a more refined description of surface tension interactions. An enhanced constitutive relation for the capillary pressure is established together with a suitable generalization of Darcy's law, in which the gradient of the capillary pressure is replaced by the gradient of the so-called generalized chemical potential, which also accounts for the "force", associated to the local free energy of the phase field model. A micro-scale heuristic interpretation of the novel constitutive law of capillary pressure is proposed, in order to compare the envisaged model with that one endowed with the concept of average interfacial area. The considered poromechanical model is formulated within the framework of strain gradient theory in order to account for possible effects, at laboratory scale, of the micro-scale hydro-mechanical couplings between highly localized flows (fingering) and localized deformations of the skeleton (fracturing).

  10. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing


    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  11. The new JET phased ICRH array: first experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bures, M.; Bhatnagar, V.; Brown, T.; Fechner, B.; Gormezano, C.; Kaye, A.; Lennholm, M.; Righi, E.; Rimini, F.; Sibley, A.; Start, D.; Wade, T. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Goulding, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lamalle, P. [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Physique des Plasmas; Nguyen, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    New ICRH antennas on JET were designed to couple to the new JET divertor plasma configurations and to improve the Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) capabilities. The A2 antenna consists of 4 straps whose currents can be phased at arbitrary angles. The real time automatic tuning acts on frequency, line length (line phase shifters) and stub length. Provision is made for the coupling resistance/plasma position feedback to accommodate the fast changes in antenna loading. The first coupling, tuning and heating results are reported in 0{pi}0{pi}, 0000 and 00{pi}{pi} phasing. A new antenna model is described, which was developed to simulate the measured antenna loading in terms of plasma parameters and to provide a starting point for the real time automatic tuning. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. PhasePlot: A Software Program for Visualizing Phase Relations Computed Using Thermochemical Models and Databases (United States)

    Ghiorso, M. S.


    A new software program has been developed for Macintosh computers that permits the visualization of phase relations calculated from thermodynamic data-model collections. The data-model collections of MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995, CMP 119, 197-212), pMELTS (Ghiorso et al., 2002, G-cubed 3, 10.1029/2001GC000217) and the deep mantle database of Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni (2011, GJI 184, 1180-1213) are currently implemented. The software allows users to enter a system bulk composition and a range of reference conditions and then calculate a grid of phase relations. These relations may be visualized in a variety of ways including phase diagrams, phase proportion plots, and contour diagrams of phase compositions and abundances. Results may be exported into Excel or similar spreadsheet applications. Flexibility in stipulating reference conditions permit the construction of temperature-pressure, temperature-volume, entropy-pressure, or entropy-volume display grids. Calculations on the grid are performed for fixed bulk composition or in open systems governed by user specified constraints on component chemical potentials (e.g., specified oxygen fugacity buffers). The calculation engine for the software is optimized for multi-core compute architectures and is very fast, allowing a typical grid of 64 points to be calculated in under 10 seconds on a dual-core laptop/iMac. The underlying computational thermodynamic algorithms have been optimized for speed and robust behavior. Taken together, both of these advances facilitate in classroom demonstrations and permit novice users to work with the program effectively, focusing on problem specification and interpretation of results rather than on manipulation and mechanics of computation - a key feature of an effective instructional tool. The emphasis in this software package is graphical visualization, which aids in better comprehension of complex phase relations in multicomponent systems. Anecdotal experience in using Phase

  13. A Two-phase mixture model of platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Du, Jian; Fogelson, Aaron L


    We present a two-phase model of platelet aggregation in coronary-artery-sized blood vessels. The model tracks the number densities of three platelet populations as well as the concentration of a platelet activating chemical. Through the formation of elastic bonds, activated platelets can cohere with one another to form a platelet thrombus. Bound platelets in a thrombus move in a velocity field different from that of the bulk fluid. Stresses produced by the elastic bonds act on the bound platelet material. Movement of the bound platelet material and that of the background fluid are coupled through an interphase drag and an incompressibility constraint. The relative motion between bound platelets and the background fluid permits intraclot transport of individual platelets and activating chemical, allows the bound platelet density to reach levels much higher than the platelet density in the bulk blood, and allows thrombus formation to occur on a physiological timescale, all of which were precluded by our earlier single phase model. Computational results from the two-phase model indicate that through complicated fluid-structure interactions, the platelet thrombus can develop significant spatial inhomogeneities and that the amount of intraclot flow may greatly affect the growth, density, and stability of a thrombus. © The authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  14. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.


    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students’ emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter, Snyder, & Artman, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter & Van Norman, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al., 2005; Stormont, Reinke, Newcomer, Darney, & Lewis, 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker, Bradshaw, Domitrovich, & Ialongo, 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS® curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs. PMID:23660973

  15. Thermodynamic Property Model of Wide-Fluid Phase Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astina


    Full Text Available A new thermodynamic property model for propane is expressed in form of the Helmholtz free energy function. It consists of eight terms of the ideal-gas part and eighteen terms of the residual part. Accurate experimental data of fluid properties and theoretical approach from the intermolecular potential were simultaneously considered in the development to insure accuracy and to improve reliability of the equation of state over wide range of pressures and temperatures. Based on the state range of experimental data used in the model development, the validity range is judged from the triple-point of 85.48 K to temperature of 450 K and pressure up to 60 MPa. The uncertainties with respect to different properties are estimated to be 0.03% in ideal-gas isobaric specific heat, 0.2% in liquid phase density, 0.3% in gaseous phase density 1% in specific heats, 0.1% in vapor-pressure except at very low temperatures, 0.05% in saturated-liquid density, 0.02% in speed of sound of the gaseous phase and 1% in speed of sound of the liquid phase.

  16. Process Modelling Support for the Conceptual Modelling Phase of a Simulation Project


    Heavey, Cathal; Ryan, John


    While many developments have taken place around supportingthe model coding task of simulation, there are few toolsavailable to assist in the conceptual modelling phase. Severalauthors have reported the advantages of using processmodelling tools in the early phases of a simulation project.This paper provides an overview of process modelling toolsin relation to their support for simulation, categorizing thetools into formal method and descriptive methods. A conclusionfrom this review is that no...

  17. Phase-field-crystal model for ordered crystals. (United States)

    Alster, Eli; Elder, K R; Hoyt, Jeffrey J; Voorhees, Peter W


    We describe a general method to model multicomponent ordered crystals using the phase-field-crystal (PFC) formalism. As a test case, a generic B2 compound is investigated. We are able to produce a line of either first-order or second-order order-disorder phase transitions, features that have not been incorporated in existing PFC approaches. Further, it is found that the only elastic constant for B2 that depends on ordering is C_{11}. This B2 model is then used to study antiphase boundaries (APBs). The APBs are shown to reproduce classical mean-field results. Dynamical simulations of ordering across small-angle grain boundaries predict that dislocation cores pin the evolution of APBs.

  18. Phase transition of the Ising model on a fractal lattice. (United States)

    Genzor, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi


    The phase transition of the Ising model is investigated on a planar lattice that has a fractal structure. On the lattice, the number of bonds that cross the border of a finite area is doubled when the linear size of the area is extended by a factor of 4. The free energy and the spontaneous magnetization of the system are obtained by means of the higher-order tensor renormalization group method. The system exhibits the order-disorder phase transition, where the critical indices are different from those of the square-lattice Ising model. An exponential decay is observed in the density-matrix spectrum even at the critical point. It is possible to interpret that the system is less entangled because of the fractal geometry.

  19. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail:; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S. [Department of Physics, PRIMALAB Laboratory, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria)


    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ({beta}{sub 2}), axial hexadecapole ({beta}{sub 4}) and triaxial ({gamma}{sub 2}). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)xU(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU{sub {+-}}(3) and the {gamma}{sub 2}-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  20. Matrix model of QCD: Edge localized glueballs and phase transitions (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmalendu; Balachandran, A. P.


    In a matrix model of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, boundaries emerge in the space of Mat3(R ) and the Hamiltonian requires boundary conditions. We show the existence of edge localized glueball states that can have negative energies. These edge levels can be lifted to positive energies if the gluons acquire a London-like mass. This suggests a new phase of QCD with an incompressible bulk.

  1. Phase-Field Formulation for Quantitative Modeling of Alloy Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, Alain


    A phase-field formulation is introduced to simulate quantitatively microstructural pattern formation in alloys. The thin-interface limit of this formulation yields a much less stringent restriction on the choice of interface thickness than previous formulations and permits one to eliminate nonequilibrium effects at the interface. Dendrite growth simulations with vanishing solid diffusivity show that both the interface evolution and the solute profile in the solid are accurately modeled by this approach.

  2. Phase-Field Formulation for Quantitative Modeling of Alloy Solidification (United States)

    Karma, Alain


    A phase-field formulation is introduced to simulate quantitatively microstructural pattern formation in alloys. The thin-interface limit of this formulation yields a much less stringent restriction on the choice of interface thickness than previous formulations and permits one to eliminate nonequilibrium effects at the interface. Dendrite growth simulations with vanishing solid diffusivity show that both the interface evolution and the solute profile in the solid are accurately modeled by this approach.

  3. Modelling and simulation of phase equilibrium in dynamic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dahl


    Full Text Available The article reports an investigation on how to efficiently describe phase equilibrium in dynamic systems, and how to solve the resulting equations numerically. An overview of possible solution strategies is given. Different thermodynamic models are briefly reviewed, and important algorithms like PT flash are described. A flash tank with a mixture of propane and propylene is simulated to illustrate some different solution strategies.

  4. Phase-Field Model of Mode III Dynamic Fracture (United States)

    Karma, Alain; Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert


    We introduce a phenomenological continuum model for the mode III dynamic fracture that is based on the phase-field methodology used extensively to model interfacial pattern formation. We couple a scalar field, which distinguishes between ``broken'' and ``unbroken'' states of the system, to the displacement field in a way that consistently includes both macroscopic elasticity and a simple rotationally invariant short-scale description of breaking. We report two-dimensional simulations that yield steady-state crack motion in a strip geometry above the Griffith threshold.

  5. Plasticity and dislocation dynamics in a phase field crystal model. (United States)

    Chan, Pak Yuen; Tsekenis, Georgios; Dantzig, Jonathan; Dahmen, Karin A; Goldenfeld, Nigel


    The critical dynamics of dislocation avalanches in plastic flow is examined using a phase field crystal model. In the model, dislocations are naturally created, without any ad hoc creation rules, by applying a shearing force to the perfectly periodic ground state. These dislocations diffuse, interact and annihilate with one another, forming avalanche events. By data collapsing the event energy probability density function for different shearing rates, a connection to interface depinning dynamics is confirmed. The relevant critical exponents agree with mean field theory predictions.

  6. In-phase and quadrature imbalance modeling, estimation, and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yabo


    This book provides a unified IQ imbalance model and systematically reviews the existing estimation and compensation schemes. It covers the different assumptions and approaches that lead to many models of IQ imbalance. In wireless communication systems, the In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator and demodulator are usually used as transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), respectively. For Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) limited systems, such as multi-giga-hertz bandwidth millimeter-wave systems, using analog modulator and demodulator is still a low power and l

  7. Modeling of Gallium Nitride Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)


    A reactor model for the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN is presented. The governing flow, energy, and species conservation equations are solved in two dimensions to examine the growth characteristics as a function of process variables and reactor geometry. The growth rate varies with GaCl composition but independent of NH3 and H2 flow rates. A change in carrier gas for Ga source from H2 to N2 affects the growth rate and uniformity for a fixed reactor configuration. The model predictions are in general agreement with observed experimental behavior.

  8. Phase-field-crystal model for fcc ordering (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-An; Adland, Ari; Karma, Alain


    We develop and analyze a two-mode phase-field-crystal model to describe fcc ordering. The model is formulated by coupling two different sets of crystal density waves corresponding to ⟨111⟩ and ⟨200⟩ reciprocal lattice vectors, which are chosen to form triads so as to produce a simple free-energy landscape with coexistence of crystal and liquid phases. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated with numerical examples of polycrystalline and (111) twin growth. We use a two-mode amplitude expansion to characterize analytically the free-energy landscape of the model, identifying parameter ranges where fcc is stable or metastable with respect to bcc. In addition, we derive analytical expressions for the elastic constants for both fcc and bcc. Those expressions show that a nonvanishing amplitude of [200] density waves is essential to obtain mechanically stable fcc crystals with a nonvanishing tetragonal shear modulus (C11-C12)/2 . We determine the model parameters for specific materials by fitting the peak liquid structure factor properties and solid-density wave amplitudes following the approach developed for bcc [K.-A. Wu and A. Karma, Phys. Rev. B 76, 184107 (2007)]. This procedure yields reasonable predictions of elastic constants for both bcc Fe and fcc Ni using input parameters from molecular dynamics simulations. The application of the model to two-dimensional square lattices is also briefly examined.

  9. Traffic model with an absorbing-state phase transition (United States)

    Iannini, M. L. L.; Dickman, Ronald


    We consider a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model in which drivers do not decelerate if their speed is smaller than the headway (number of empty sites to the car ahead). (In the original NS model, such a reduction in speed occurs with probability p , independent of the headway, as long as the current speed is greater than zero.) In the modified model the free-flow state (with all vehicles traveling at the maximum speed, vmax) is absorbing for densities ρ smaller than a critical value ρc=1 /(vmax+2 ) . The phase diagram in the ρ -p plane is reentrant: for densities in the range ρc ,<<ρ <ρc , both small and large values of p favor free flow, while for intermediate values, a nonzero fraction of vehicles have speeds phase transition in the original model. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between traffic models and stochastic sandpiles.

  10. Two phase flow models in DxUNSp code platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin NAE


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to find an efficient implementation for a two phase flow model in an existing URANS CFD code platform (DxUNSp, initially based on unsteady URANS equations with a k- turbulence model and various other extensions, ranging from a broad selection of wall laws up to a very efficient LES model. This code has the capability for development for nonreacting/reacting multifluid flows for research applications and is under continuous progress. It is intend to present mainly three aspects of this implementation for unstructured mesh based solvers, for high Reynolds compressible flows: the importance of the 5/7 equation model, performance with respect to a basic test cases and implementation details of the proposed schemes. From a numerical point of view, we propose a new approximation schemes of this system based on the VFRoe-ncv.

  11. Floquet topological semimetal phases of an extended kicked Harper model (United States)

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Raghava, Gudapati Naresh; Zhou, Longwen; Gong, Jiangbin


    Recent discoveries on topological characterization of gapless systems have attracted interest in both theoretical studies and experimental realizations. Examples of such gapless topological phases are Weyl semimetals, which exhibit three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cones (Weyl points), and nodal line semimetals, which are characterized by line nodes (two bands touching along a line). Inspired by our previous discoveries that the kicked Harper model exhibits many fascinating features of Floquet topological phases, in this paper we consider a generalization of the model, where two additional periodic system parameters are introduced into the Hamiltonian to serve as artificial dimensions, so as to simulate a 3 D periodically driven system. We observe that by increasing the hopping strength and the kicking strength of the system, many new Floquet band touching points at Floquet quasienergies 0 and π will start to appear. Some of them are Weyl points, while the others form line nodes in the parameter space. By taking open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, edge states analogous to Fermi arcs in static Weyl semimetal systems are observed. Finally, by designing an adiabatic pumping scheme, the chirality of the Floquet-band Weyl points and the π Berry phase around Floquet-band line nodes can be manifested.

  12. Using the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory to Investigate College Students' Pre-instructional Mental Models of Lunar Phases (United States)

    Lindell, Rebecca S.; Sommer, Steven R.


    The Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) is a twenty-item multiple-choice inventory developed to aid instructors in assessing the mental models their students utilize when answering questions concerning phases of the moon. Based upon an in-depth qualitative investigation of students' understanding of lunar phases, the LPCI was designed to take advantage of the innovative model analysis theory to probe the different dimensions of students' mental models of lunar phases. As part of a national field test, pre-instructional LPCI data was collected for over 750 students from multiple post-secondary institutions across the United States and Canada. Application of model analysis theory to this data set allowed researchers to probe the different mental models of lunar phases students across the country utilize prior to instruction. Results of this analysis display strikingly similar results for the different institutions, suggesting a potential underlying cognitive framework.

  13. Dynamical phase separation using a microfluidic device: experiments and modeling (United States)

    Aymard, Benjamin; Vaes, Urbain; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Pradas, Marc; Gavriilidis, Asterios; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Complex Multiscale Systems Team


    We study the dynamical phase separation of a binary fluid by a microfluidic device both from the experimental and from the modeling points of view. The experimental device consists of a main channel (600 μm wide) leading into an array of 276 trapezoidal capillaries of 5 μm width arranged on both sides and separating the lateral channels from the main channel. Due to geometrical effects as well as wetting properties of the substrate, and under well chosen pressure boundary conditions, a multiphase flow introduced into the main channel gets separated at the capillaries. Understanding this dynamics via modeling and numerical simulation is a crucial step in designing future efficient micro-separators. We propose a diffuse-interface model, based on the classical Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes system, with a new nonlinear mobility and new wetting boundary conditions. We also propose a novel numerical method using a finite-element approach, together with an adaptive mesh refinement strategy. The complex geometry is captured using the same computer-aided design files as the ones adopted in the fabrication of the actual device. Numerical simulations reveal a very good qualitative agreement between model and experiments, demonstrating also a clear separation of phases.

  14. A traffic model with an absorbing-state phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Iannini, M L L


    We consider a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model in which drivers do not decelerate if their speed is smaller than the headway (number of empty sites to the car ahead). (In the original NS model, such a reduction in speed occurs with probability $p$, independent of the headway, as long as the current speed is greater than zero.) In the modified model the free-flow state (with all vehicles traveling at the maximum speed, $v_{max}$) is {\\it absorbing} for densities $\\rho$ smaller than a critical value $\\rho_c = 1/(v_{max} + 2)$. The phase diagram in the $\\rho - p$ plane is reentrant: for densities in the range $\\rho_{c,<} < \\rho < \\rho_c$, both small and large values of $p$ favor free flow, while for intermediate values, a nonzero fraction of vehicles have speeds $< v_{max}$. In addition to representing a more realistic description of driving behavior, this change leads to a better understanding of the phase transition in the original model. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between ...

  15. Dissipative phase transition in the open quantum Rabi model (United States)

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Rabl, Peter; Plenio, Martin B.


    We demonstrate that the open quantum Rabi model (QRM) exhibits a second-order dissipative phase transition (DPT) and propose a method to observe this transition with trapped ions. The interplay between the ultrastrong qubit-oscillator coupling and the oscillator damping brings the system into a steady state with a diverging number of excitations, in which a DPT is allowed to occur even with a finite number of system components. The universality class of the open QRM, modified from the closed QRM by a Markovian bath, is identified by finding critical exponents and scaling functions using the Keldysh functional integral approach. We propose to realize the open QRM with two trapped ions where the coherent coupling and the rate of dissipation can be individually controlled and adjusted over a wide range. Thanks to this controllability, our work opens a possibility to investigate potentially rich dynamics associated with a dissipative phase transition.

  16. Phase Characterization of Cucumber Growth: A Chemical Gel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li


    Full Text Available Cucumber grows with complex phenomena by changing its volume and shape, which is not fully investigated and challenges agriculture and food safety industry. In order to understand the mechanism and to characterize the growth process, the cucumber is modeled as a hydrogel in swelling and its development is studied in both preharvest and postharvest stages. Based on thermodynamics, constitutive equations, incorporating biological quantities, are established. The growth behavior of cucumber follows the classic theory of continuous or discontinuous phase transition. The mechanism of bulged tail in cucumber is interpreted by phase coexistence and characterized by critical conditions. Conclusions are given for advances in food engineering and novel fabrication techniques in mechanical biology.

  17. Phase-field-crystal models and mechanical equilibrium. (United States)

    Heinonen, V; Achim, C V; Elder, K R; Buyukdagli, S; Ala-Nissila, T


    Phase-field-crystal (PFC) models constitute a field theoretical approach to solidification, melting, and related phenomena at atomic length and diffusive time scales. One of the advantages of these models is that they naturally contain elastic excitations associated with strain in crystalline bodies. However, instabilities that are diffusively driven towards equilibrium are often orders of magnitude slower than the dynamics of the elastic excitations, and are thus not included in the standard PFC model dynamics. We derive a method to isolate the time evolution of the elastic excitations from the diffusive dynamics in the PFC approach and set up a two-stage process, in which elastic excitations are equilibrated separately. This ensures mechanical equilibrium at all times. We show concrete examples demonstrating the necessity of the separation of the elastic and diffusive time scales. In the small-deformation limit this approach is shown to agree with the theory of linear elasticity.

  18. A kinetic model for the burst phase of processive cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstgaard, Eigil; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Murphy, Leigh


    Cellobiohydrolases (exocellulases) hydrolyze cellulose processively, i.e. by sequential cleaving of soluble sugars from one end of a cellulose strand. Their activity generally shows an initial burst, followed by a pronounced slowdown, even when substrate is abundant and product accumulation...... is negligible. Here, we propose an explicit kinetic model for this behavior, which uses classical burst phase theory as the starting point. The model is tested against calorimetric measurements of the activity of the cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei on amorphous cellulose. A simple version...... of the model, which can be solved analytically, shows that the burst and slowdown can be explained by the relative rates of the sequential reactions in the hydrolysis process and the occurrence of obstacles for the processive movement along the cellulose strand. More specifically, the maximum enzyme activity...

  19. Phase-Field Modeling of Sigma-Phase Precipitation in 25Cr7Ni4Mo Duplex Stainless Steel (United States)

    Malik, Amer; Odqvist, Joakim; Höglund, Lars; Hertzman, Staffan; Ågren, John


    Phase-field modeling is used to simulate the formation of sigma phase in a model alloy mimicking a commercial super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) alloy, in order to study precipitation and growth of sigma phase under linear continuous cooling. The so-called Warren-Boettinger-McFadden (WBM) model is used to build the basis of the multiphase and multicomponent phase-field model. The thermodynamic inconsistency at the multiple junctions associated with the multiphase formulation of the WBM model is resolved by means of a numerical Cut-off algorithm. To make realistic simulations, all the kinetic and the thermodynamic quantities are derived from the CALPHAD databases at each numerical time step, using Thermo-Calc and TQ-Interface. The credibility of the phase-field model is verified by comparing the results from the phase-field simulations with the corresponding DICTRA simulations and also with the empirical data. 2D phase-field simulations are performed for three different cooling rates in two different initial microstructures. A simple model for the nucleation of sigma phase is also implemented in the first case. Simulation results show that the precipitation of sigma phase is characterized by the accumulation of Cr and Mo at the austenite-ferrite and the ferrite-ferrite boundaries. Moreover, it is observed that a slow cooling rate promotes the growth of sigma phase, while a higher cooling rate restricts it, eventually preserving the duplex structure in the SDSS alloy. Results from the phase-field simulations are also compared quantitatively with the experiments, performed on a commercial 2507 SDSS alloy. It is found that overall, the predicted morphological features of the transformation and the composition profiles show good conformity with the empirical data.

  20. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))


    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled.

  1. Phase diagram of the lattice SU(2) Higgs model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonati, C., E-mail: bonati@df.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Cossu, G., E-mail: cossu@post.kek.j [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Pisa (Italy); D' Elia, M., E-mail: Massimo.Delia@ge.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Genova (Italy); Di Giacomo, A., E-mail: digiaco@df.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Pisa (Italy)


    We perform a detailed study of the phase diagram of the lattice Higgs SU(2) model with fixed Higgs field length. Consistently with previsions based on the Fradkin-Shenker theorem we find a first order transition line with an endpoint whose position we determined. The diagram also shows cross-over lines: the cross-over corresponding to the pure SU(2) bulk is also present at nonzero coupling with the Higgs field and merges with the one that continues the line of first order transition beyond the critical endpoint. At high temperature the first order line becomes a crossover, whose position moves by varying the temperature.

  2. Phase Diagram of the Two-Chain Hubbard Model (United States)

    Park, Youngho; Liang, Shoudan; Lee, T. K.


    We have calculated the charge gap and spin gap for the two-chain Hubbard model as a function of the on-site Coulomb interaction and the interchain hopping amplitude. We used the density matrix renormalization group method and developed a method to calculate separately the gaps numerically for the symmetric and antisymmetric modes with respect to the exchange of the chain indices. We have found very different behaviors for the weak and strong interaction cases. Our calculated phase diagram is compared to the one obtained by Balents and Fisher using the weak coupling renormalization group technique.

  3. Phase field modeling of dendritic coarsening during isothermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo


    Full Text Available Dendritic coarsening in Al-2mol%Si alloy during isothermal solidification at 880K was investigated by phase field modeling. Three coarsening mechanisms operate in the alloy: (a melting of small dendrite arms; (b coalescence of dendrites near the tips leading to the entrapment of liquid droplets; (c smoothing of dendrites. Dendrite melting is found to be dominant in the stage of dendritic growth, whereas coalescence of dendrites and smoothing of dendrites are dominant during isothermal holding. The simulated results provide a better understanding of dendrite coarsening during isothermal solidification.

  4. Effects of surfactin on membrane models displaying lipid phase separation. (United States)

    Deleu, Magali; Lorent, Joseph; Lins, Laurence; Brasseur, Robert; Braun, Nathalie; El Kirat, Karim; Nylander, Tommy; Dufrêne, Yves F; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule


    Surfactin, a bacterial amphiphilic lipopeptide is attracting more and more attention in view of its bioactive properties which are in relation with its ability to interact with lipids of biological membranes. In this work, we investigated the effect of surfactin on membrane structure using model of membranes, vesicles as well as supported bilayers, presenting coexistence of fluid-disordered (DOPC) and gel (DPPC) phases. A range of complementary methods was used including AFM, ellipsometry, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence measurements of Laurdan, DPH, calcein release, and octadecylrhodamine B dequenching. Our findings demonstrated that surfactin concentration is critical for its effect on the membrane. The results suggest that the presence of rigid domains can play an essential role in the first step of surfactin insertion and that surfactin interacts both with the membrane polar heads and the acyl chain region. A mechanism for the surfactin lipid membrane interaction, consisting of three sequential structural and morphological changes, is proposed. At concentrations below the CMC, surfactin inserted at the boundary between gel and fluid lipid domains, inhibited phase separation and stiffened the bilayer without global morphological change of liposomes. At concentrations close to CMC, surfactin solubilized the fluid phospholipid phase and increased order in the remainder of the lipid bilayer. At higher surfactin concentrations, both the fluid and the rigid bilayer structures were dissolved into mixed micelles and other structures presenting a wide size distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Final model independent result of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)


    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles (i.e. adding a further 0.17 ton x yr exposure) are presented. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 data give evidence for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target, at 7.5{sigma} C.L. Including also the first generation DAMA/NaI experiment (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles), the C.L. is 9.3{sigma} and the modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112{+-}0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144{+-}7) days and the measured period is (0.998{+-}0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. (orig.)

  6. Phase Transition Couplings in the Higgsed Monopole Model

    CERN Document Server

    Laperashvili, L V


    Using a one-loop approximation for the effective potential in the Higgs model of electrodynamics for a charged scalar field, we argue for the existence of a triple point for the renormalized (running) values of the selfinteraction beta-function as a typical quantity we estimate that the one-loop approximation is valid with accuracy of deviations not more than 30% in the region of the parameters: $0.2 \\stackrel{<}{\\sim}{\\large \\alpha, \\tilde{\\alpha}} corresponds to the above-mentioned region of $\\alpha, \\tilde \\alpha$. Under the point of view that the Higgs particle is a monopole with a magnetic charge g, the obtained electric fine structure constant turns out to be to the $\\alpha_{crit}^{lat}\\approx{0.20}$ which in a U(1) lattice gauge theory corresponds to the phase transition between the "Coulomb" and confinement phases. Such a result is very encouraging for the idea of an approximate "universality" (regularization independence) of gauge couplings at the phase transition point. This idea was suggested by...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarz Ahmadi


    In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.


    Phase 1 of the 2013 Cold cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) test was completed on June 3, 2013 after a 5-day round-the-clock feeding and pouring operation. The main goal of the test was to characterize the CEF off-gas produced from a nitric-formic acid flowsheet feed and confirm whether the CEF platform is capable of producing scalable off-gas data necessary for the revision of the DWPF melter off-gas flammability model; the revised model will be used to define new safety controls on the key operating parameters for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet feeds including total organic carbon (TOC). Whether the CEF off-gas data were scalable for the purpose of predicting the potential flammability of the DWPF melter exhaust was determined by comparing the predicted H{sub 2} and CO concentrations using the current DWPF melter off-gas flammability model to those measured during Phase 1; data were deemed scalable if the calculated fractional conversions of TOC-to-H{sub 2} and TOC-to-CO at varying melter vapor space temperatures were found to trend and further bound the respective measured data with some margin of safety. Being scalable thus means that for a given feed chemistry the instantaneous flow rates of H{sub 2} and CO in the DWPF melter exhaust can be estimated with some degree of conservatism by multiplying those of the respective gases from a pilot-scale melter by the feed rate ratio. This report documents the results of the Phase 1 data analysis and the necessary calculations performed to determine the scalability of the CEF off-gas data. A total of six steady state runs were made during Phase 1 under non-bubbled conditions by varying the CEF vapor space temperature from near 700 to below 300°C, as measured in a thermowell (T{sub tw}). At each steady state temperature, the off-gas composition was monitored continuously for two hours using MS, GC, and FTIR in order to track mainly H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and organic gases such as CH{sub 4}. The standard

  9. Multiopinion coevolving voter model with infinitely many phase transitions. (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Mucha, Peter J; Durrett, Richard


    We consider an idealized model in which individuals' changing opinions and their social network coevolve, with disagreements between neighbors in the network resolved either through one imitating the opinion of the other or by reassignment of the discordant edge. Specifically, an interaction between x and one of its neighbors y leads to x imitating y with probability (1-α) and otherwise (i.e., with probability α) x cutting its tie to y in order to instead connect to a randomly chosen individual. Building on previous work about the two-opinion case, we study the multiple-opinion situation, finding that the model has infinitely many phase transitions (in the large graph limit with infinitely many initial opinions). Moreover, the formulas describing the end states of these processes are remarkably simple when expressed as a function of β=α/(1-α).

  10. Phase-field model of dendritic sidebranching with thermal noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Rappel, W. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)


    We investigate dendritic sidebranching during crystal growth in an undercooled melt by simulation of a phase-field model which incorporates thermal noise of microscopic origin. As a nontrivial quantitative test of this model, we first show that the simulated fluctuation spectrum of a one-dimensional interface in thermal equilibrium agrees with the exact sharp-interface spectrum up to an irrelevant short-wavelength cutoff comparable to the interface thickness. Simulations of dendritic growth are then carried out in two dimensions to compute sidebranching characteristics (root-mean-square amplitude and sidebranch spacing) as a function of distance behind the tip. These quantities are compared quantitatively to the predictions of the existing linear WKB theory of noise amplification. The extension of this study to three dimensions remains needed to determine the origin of noise in experiments. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. The Impact of Consumer Phase Models in Microbial Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Christensen, Bjarke Bak


    In quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), the consumer phase model (CPM) describes the part of the food chain between purchase of the food product at retail and exposure. Construction of a CPM is complicated by the large variation in consumer food handling practices and a limited......, where all the CPMs were analyzed using one single input distribution of concentrations at retail, and the same dose-response relationship. It was found that, between CPMs, there may be a considerable difference in the estimated probability of illness per serving. However, the estimated relative risk...... reductions are less different for scenarios modeling the implementation of control measures. For control measures affecting the Campylobacter  prevalence, the relative risk is proportional irrespective of the CPM used. However, for control measures affecting the concentration the CPMs show some difference...

  12. Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks. (United States)

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof


    We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; O' Brien, James


    benchmarked with CFD simulations. The analytical models generally agree well with the experimental data and CFD simulations. The analytical models are suitable for implementation into a reactor system analysis code or severe accident code as part of mechanistic and dynamical models to understand the RCIC behaviors. The cases with two-phase flow at the turbine inlet will be pursued in future work.

  14. Semi-analytical model of filtering effects in microwave phase shifters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Xue, Weiqi; Öhman, Filip


    We present a model to interpret enhanced microwave phase shifts based on filter assisted slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The model also demonstrates the spectral phase impact of input optical signals.......We present a model to interpret enhanced microwave phase shifts based on filter assisted slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The model also demonstrates the spectral phase impact of input optical signals....

  15. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.


    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  16. Phase-Field Model of Dynamic Crack Instability (United States)

    Karma, Alain


    Steady-state propagation of brittle cracks is known to end abruptly when the tip speed exceeds a fraction of the Rayleigh wave speed, at which point crack branching is typically observed in both real experiments and molecular dynamic simulations. There have been several theoretical attempts to understand the origin of this dynamic instability over the last decades, but no clear picture has yet emerged. We have recently introduced a phenomenological continuum model of dynamic fracture [Karma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol 87, 045501 (2001)] that is based on the phase-field methodology used extensively to model interfacial pattern formation. This model couples a scalar field, which distinguishes between ``broken'' and ``unbroken'' states of the system, to the displacement field in a way that consistently includes both macroscopic elasticity and a simple rotationally invariant short scale description of breaking. This talk will report the results of a numerical simulation study of this model done in collaboration with Alex Lobkovsky that sheds new light on the origin of this elusive instability.

  17. Three-Phase Text Error Correction Model for Korean SMS Messages (United States)

    Byun, Jeunghyun; Park, So-Young; Lee, Seung-Wook; Rim, Hae-Chang

    In this paper, we propose a three-phase text error correction model consisting of a word spacing error correction phase, a syllable-based spelling error correction phase, and a word-based spelling error correction phase. In order to reduce the text error correction complexity, the proposed model corrects text errors step by step. With the aim of correcting word spacing errors, spelling errors, and mixed errors in SMS messages, the proposed model tries to separately manage the word spacing error correction phase and the spelling error correction phase. For the purpose of utilizing both the syllable-based approach covering various errors and the word-based approach correcting some specific errors accurately, the proposed model subdivides the spelling error correction phase into the syllable-based phase and the word-based phase. Experimental results show that the proposed model can improve the performance by solving the text error correction problem based on the divide-and-conquer strategy.

  18. Phase response curves for models of earthquake fault dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaz; Klinshov, Vladimir; Nekorkin, Vladimir; Kurths, Jürgen


    We systematically study effects of external perturbations on models describing earthquake fault dynamics. The latter are based on the framework of the Burridge-Knopoff spring-block system, including the cases of a simple mono-block fault, as well as the paradigmatic complex faults made up of two identical or distinct blocks. The blocks exhibit relaxation oscillations, which are representative for the stick-slip behavior typical for earthquake dynamics. Our analysis is carried out by determining the phase response curves of first and second order. For a mono-block fault, we consider the impact of a single and two successive pulse perturbations, further demonstrating how the profile of phase response curves depends on the fault parameters. For a homogeneous two-block fault, our focus is on the scenario where each of the blocks is influenced by a single pulse, whereas for heterogeneous faults, we analyze how the response of the system depends on whether the stimulus is applied to the block having a shorter or a ...

  19. Numerical modelling of the expansion phase of steam explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farawila, Y.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Halvorson, P.J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Hyder, M.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)


    The two-fluid, three-dimensional, fluid dynamics code K-FIX has been modified to produce the K-FIX(GT) code, in order to simulate the expansion phase of steam explosions. For a given explosion, the interaction zone is represented by a high pressure bubble as an initial condition; subsequent calculations are made to determine pressure histories and impulse at the test vessel or confinement building walls and internal structures. Explosion energetics, i.e. the work and mechanical energy yield, are also calculated as a measure of the destructive potential of the explosion. The main modifications involved in developing the K-FIX(GT) code consist of adding new components representing a non-condensible gas, air, and debris particles to the two-phase water mixture, and introducing new exchange functions for mass, momentum, and energy which are particularly suited to this type of fast transient. This paper describes the theoretical models incorporated into the code. In addition, one of Sandia National Laboratories Fully Instrumented Test Series tests (FITS-2B) is simulated for the purpose of preliminary code and method validation. Comparison between experimental data and code predictions shows good agreement.

  20. Comparative simulation study of gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized bed reactors using aspen polymers and two phase models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiria Ahmad


    Full Text Available A comparative study describing gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized-bed reactors using Ziegler-Natta catalyst is presented. The reactor behavior was explained using a two-phase model (which is based on principles of fluidization as well as simulation using the Aspen Polymers process simulator. The two-phase reactor model accounts for the emulsion and bubble phases which contain different portions of catalysts with the polymerization occurring in both phases. Both models predict production rate, molecular weight, polydispersity index (PDI and melt flow index (MFI of the polymer. We used both models to investigate the effect of important polymerization parameters, namely catalyst feed rate and hydrogen concentration, on the product polypropylene properties, such as production rate, molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Both the two-phase model and Aspen Polymers simulator showed good agreement in terms of production rate. However, the models differed in their predictions for weight-average molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Based on these results, we propose incorporating the missing hydrodynamic effects into Aspen Polymers to provide a more realistic understanding of the phenomena encountered in fluidized bed reactors for polyolefin production.

  1. Phase diagram of the triangular extended Hubbard model. (United States)

    Tocchio, Luca F; Gros, Claudius; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Eggert, Sebastian


    We study the extended Hubbard model on the triangular lattice as a function of filling and interaction strength. The complex interplay of kinetic frustration and strong interactions on the triangular lattice leads to exotic phases where long-range charge order, antiferromagnetic order, and metallic conductivity can coexist. Variational Monte Carlo simulations show that three kinds of ordered metallic states are stable as a function of nearest neighbor interaction and filling. The coexistence of conductivity and order is explained by a separation into two functional classes of particles: part of them contributes to the stable order, while the other part forms a partially filled band on the remaining substructure. The relation to charge ordering in charge transfer salts is discussed.

  2. Quantum Phase Transition and Universal Dynamics in the Rabi Model. (United States)

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Puebla, Ricardo; Plenio, Martin B


    We consider the Rabi Hamiltonian, which exhibits a quantum phase transition (QPT) despite consisting only of a single-mode cavity field and a two-level atom. We prove QPT by deriving an exact solution in the limit where the atomic transition frequency in the unit of the cavity frequency tends to infinity. The effect of a finite transition frequency is studied by analytically calculating finite-frequency scaling exponents as well as performing a numerically exact diagonalization. Going beyond this equilibrium QPT setting, we prove that the dynamics under slow quenches in the vicinity of the critical point is universal; that is, the dynamics is completely characterized by critical exponents. Our analysis demonstrates that the Kibble-Zurek mechanism can precisely predict the universal scaling of residual energy for a model without spatial degrees of freedom. Moreover, we find that the onset of the universal dynamics can be observed even with a finite transition frequency.

  3. Nonlinear phase field model for electrodeposition in electrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Linyun, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, Long-Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)


    A nonlinear phase-field model has been developed for describing the electrodeposition process in electrochemical systems that are highly out of equilibrium. Main thermodynamic driving forces for the electrode-electrolyte interface (EEI) evolution are limited to local variations of overpotential and ion concentration. Application of the model to Li-ion batteries describes the electrode interface motion and morphology change caused by charge mass transfer in the electrolyte, an electrochemical reaction at the EEI and cation deposition on the electrode surface during the charging operation. The Li electrodeposition rate follows the classical Butler-Volmer kinetics with exponentially and linearly depending on local overpotential and cation concentration at the electrode surface, respectively. Simulation results show that the Li deposit forms a fiber-like shape and grows parallel to the electric field direction. The longer and thicker deposits are observed both for higher current density and larger rate constant where the surface reaction rate is expected to be high. The proposed diffuse interface model well captures the metal electrodeposition phenomena in plenty of non-equilibrium electrochemical systems.

  4. The continuum modelling of two-phase flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Drew, D.A.


    This research program is concerned with the development of self-consistent multidimensional two-fluid models which predict a wide variety of data and satisfy all relevant physical laws and constraints. If successful, these models can revolutionize the way in which two-phase lows are analyzed, since mechanistic, rather than empirical-based predictions should be possible. During this report period the research has focused on understanding the relationships between the interfacial closure laws and the onset of ill-posedness. In particular, it is now known that only the void wave eigenvalues can become complex, thus leading to ill-posedness. As a consequence, a detailed set of void wave data were taken and these data were compared with the two-fluid model we have developed. The kinematic void wave data was well predicted, and, in addition, a much faster void wave was also measured. The faster void wave was associated with bubble clusters which were observed to form due to hydrodynamic effects. Significantly, these clusters were found to be the precursors of Taylor bubble formation (i.e., the bubbly-to-slug flow regime transition). Moreover, it was found that for certain conditions, these void waves were amplified, thus triggering flow regime transition. 2 refs.

  5. Thermodynamic Model Formulations for Inhomogeneous Solids with Application to Non-isothermal Phase Field Modelling (United States)

    Gladkov, Svyatoslav; Kochmann, Julian; Reese, Stefanie; Hütter, Markus; Svendsen, Bob


    The purpose of the current work is the comparison of thermodynamic model formulations for chemically and structurally inhomogeneous solids at finite deformation based on "standard" non-equilibrium thermodynamics [SNET: e. g. S. de Groot and P. Mazur, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, North Holland, 1962] and the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) [H. C. Öttinger, Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Wiley Interscience, 2005]. In the process, non-isothermal generalizations of standard isothermal conservative [e. g. J. W. Cahn and J. E. Hilliard, Free energy of a non-uniform system. I. Interfacial energy. J. Chem. Phys. 28 (1958), 258-267] and non-conservative [e. g. S. M. Allen and J. W. Cahn, A macroscopic theory for antiphase boundary motion and its application to antiphase domain coarsening. Acta Metall. 27 (1979), 1085-1095; A. G. Khachaturyan, Theory of Structural Transformations in Solids, Wiley, New York, 1983] diffuse interface or "phase-field" models [e. g. P. C. Hohenberg and B. I. Halperin, Theory of dynamic critical phenomena, Rev. Modern Phys. 49 (1977), 435-479; N. Provatas and K. Elder, Phase Field Methods in Material Science and Engineering, Wiley-VCH, 2010.] for solids are obtained. The current treatment is consistent with, and includes, previous works [e. g. O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, Thermodynamically consistent models of phase-field type for the kinetics of phase transitions, Phys. D 43 (1990), 44-62; O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, On the relation between the standard phase-field model and a "thermodynamically consistent" phase-field model. Phys. D 69 (1993), 107-113] on non-isothermal systems as a special case. In the context of no-flux boundary conditions, the SNET- and GENERIC-based approaches are shown to be completely consistent with each other and result in equivalent temperature evolution relations.

  6. Is the Langevin phase equation an efficient model for oscillating neurons? (United States)

    Ota, Keisuke; Tsunoda, Takamasa; Omori, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Masato; Aonishi, Toru


    The Langevin phase model is an important canonical model for capturing coherent oscillations of neural populations. However, little attention has been given to verifying its applicability. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for neural oscillators by using the machine learning method in two steps: (a) Learning of the Langevin phase model. We estimated the parameters of the Langevin phase equation, i.e., a phase response curve and the intensity of white noise from physiological data measured in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (b) Test of the estimated model. We verified whether a Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Langevin phase equation with the estimated parameters could capture the stochastic oscillatory behavior of the same neurons disturbed by periodic perturbations. The estimated model could predict the neural behavior, so we can say that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for oscillating neurons.

  7. A ventral root avulsion injury model for neurogenic underactive bladder studies. (United States)

    Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A


    Detrusor underactivity (DU) is defined as a contraction of reduced strength and/or duration during bladder emptying and results in incomplete and prolonged bladder emptying. The clinical diagnosis of DU is challenging when present alone or in association with other bladder conditions such as detrusor overactivity, urinary retention, detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractility, aging, and neurological injuries. Several etiologies may be responsible for DU or the development of an underactive bladder (UAB), but the pathobiology of DU or UAB is not well understood. Therefore, new clinically relevant and interpretable models for studies of UAB are much needed in order to make progress towards new treatments and preventative strategies. Here, we review a neuropathic cause of DU in the form of traumatic injuries to the cauda equina (CE) and conus medullaris (CM) portions of the spinal cord. Lumbosacral ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury models in rats mimic the clinical phenotype of CM/CE injuries. Bilateral VRA injuries result in bladder areflexia, whereas a unilateral lesion results in partial impairment of lower urinary tract and visceromotor reflexes. Surgical re-implantation of avulsed ventral roots into the spinal cord and pharmacological strategies can augment micturition reflexes. The translational research need for the development of a large animal model for UAB studies is also presented, and early studies of lumbosacral VRA injuries in rhesus macaques are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1 (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, D.; DeMott, P.; Cotten, R.; Jensen, E.; Sassen, K.


    The cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (-40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 centimeters per second, respectively. Five models are participating in the project. These models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze drops) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found amongst the models for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, non-negligible quantitative differences are found. Systematic bias exists between results of a model based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies. This information is necessary, but not sufficient, to construct consistent formulae for the two approaches. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 centimeters per second) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size-dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice nucleation rate during the initial

  9. Towards a phase field model of the microstructural evolution of duplex steel with experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Voorhees, P.W.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal


    A phase field model to study the microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline dual-phase material with conserved phase fraction has been implemented, and 2D simulations have been performed. For 2D simulations, the model predicts the cubic growth well-known for diffusion-controlled systems. Some...

  10. Phase Field Modeling of Microstructure Banding in Steels (United States)

    Maalekian, Mehran; Azizi-Alizamini, Hamid; Militzer, Matthias


    A phase field model (PFM) is applied to simulate the effects of microsegregation, cooling rate, and austenite grain size on banding in a C-Mn steel. The PFM simulations are compared with experimental observations of continuous cooling transformation tests in the investigated steel. Using electron probe microanalysis, the microsegregation characteristics of Mn were determined and introduced into the model. Ferrite nucleation is assumed to occur at austenite grain boundaries, and ferrite growth is simulated as mixed-mode reaction for para-equilibrium conditions. The driving pressure for the austenite to ferrite transformation depends on Mn concentration and thus varies between the alternating microsegregation layers. In agreement with experimental observations, the simulation results demonstrate that by increasing the cooling rate and/or austenite grain size, banding tends to disappear as the transformation shifts to lower temperatures such that ferrite also forms readily in the layers with higher Mn levels. Further, a parametric study is conducted by changing thickness and Mn content of the bands. In accordance with experimental observations, it is shown that for sufficiently large band thickness, band splitting takes place where ferrite grains form close to the center of the Mn-rich band. Changing the degree of Mn segregation indicates that a segregation level of 0.2 wt pct is necessary in the present case to achieve banded microstructures.

  11. Phase Field Modeling of Microstructure Development in Microgravity (United States)

    Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Goldenfeld, Nigel


    This newly funded project seeks to extend our NASA-sponsored project on modeling of dendritic microstructures to facilitate collaboration between our research group and those of other NASA investigators. In our ongoing program, we have applied advanced computational techniques to study microstructural evolution in dendritic solidification, for both pure isolated dendrites and directionally solidified alloys. This work has enabled us to compute dendritic microstructures using both realistic material parameters and experimentally relevant processing conditions, thus allowing for the first time direct comparison of phase field computations with laboratory observations. This work has been well received by the materials science and physics communities, and has led to several opportunities for collaboration with scientists working on experimental investigations of pattern selection and segregation in solidification. While we have been able to pursue these collaborations to a limited extent, with some important findings, this project focuses specifically on those collaborations. We have two target collaborations: with Prof. Glicksman's group working on the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), and with Prof. Poirier's group studying directional solidification in Pb-Sb alloys. These two space experiments match well with our two thrusts in modeling, one for pure materials, as in the IDGE, and the other directional solidification. Such collaboration will benefit all of the research groups involved, and will provide for rapid dissemination of the results of our work where it will have significant impact.

  12. MARMOT Phase-Field Model for the U-Si System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagesen, Larry Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A phase-field model for the U-Si system has been implemented in MARMOT. The free energies for the phases relevant to accident-tolerant fuel applications (U3Si2, USi, U3Si, and liquid) were implemented as free energy materials within MARMOT. A new three-phase phase-field model based on the concepts of the Kim-Kim-Suzuki two-phase model was developed and implemented in the MOOSE phase-field module. Key features of this model are that two-phase interfaces are stable with respect to formation of the third phase, and that arbitrary phase free energies can be used. The model was validated using a simplified three-phase system and the U-Si system. In the U-Si system, the model correctly reproduced three-phase coexistence in a U3Si2-liquid-USi system at the eutectic temperature, solidification of a three-phase mixture below the eutectic temperature, and complete melting of a three-phase mixture above the eutectic temperature.

  13. Energy spectrum and phase diagrams of two-sublattice hard-core boson model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Stasyuk


    Full Text Available The energy spectrum, spectral density and phase diagrams have been obtained for two-sublattice hard-core boson model in frames of random phase approximation approach. Reconstruction of boson spectrum at the change of temperature, chemical potential and energy difference between local positions in sublattices is studied. The phase diagrams illustrating the regions of existence of a normal phase which can be close to Mott-insulator (MI or charge-density (CDW phase diagrams as well as the phase with the Bose-Einstein condensate (SF phase are built.

  14. Kinetic cross coupling between nonconserved and conserved fields in phase field models. (United States)

    Brener, Efim A; Boussinot, G


    We present a phase field model for isothermal transformations of two-component alloys that includes Onsager kinetic cross coupling between the nonconserved phase field and the conserved concentration field ø C. We also provide the reduction of the phase field model to the corresponding macroscopic description of the free boundary problem. The reduction is given in a general form. Additionally we use an explicit example of a phase field model and check that the reduced macroscopic description, in the range of its applicability, is in excellent agreement with direct phase field simulations. The relevance of the newly introduced terms to solute trapping is also discussed.

  15. Simplified phase noise model for negative-resistance oscillators and a comparison with feedback oscillator models. (United States)

    Everard, Jeremy; Xu, Min; Bale, Simon


    This paper describes a greatly simplified model for the prediction of phase noise in oscillators which use a negative resistance as the active element. It is based on a simple circuit consisting of the parallel addition of a noise current, a negative admittance/resistance, and a parallel (Qlimited) resonant circuit. The transfer function is calculated as a forward trans-resistance (VOUT/IIN) and then converted to power. The effect of limiting is incorporated by assuming that the phase noise element of the noise floor is kT/2, i.e., -177 dBm/Hz at room temperature. The result is the same as more complex analyses, but enables a simple, clear insight into the operation of oscillators. The phase noise for a given power in the resonator appears to be lower than in feedback oscillators. The reasons for this are explained. Simulation and experimental results are included.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifeanyichukwu Onwuka

    Volumetric Flux. ϕ. Wall Heat Addition Rate Watts. N. Number of Channels with. Lower Plenum entry and Upper plenum exit. M. Number of Cross-flow paths. K .... Phase Split Equation. One way of obtaining the additional information is to define (N+M-l) phase relationships between the liquid and vapour flows at the channel ...

  17. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matovic, M.


    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the

  18. Illustrating Phase Changes Using Graphics Modelling of Soap Film Patterns. (United States)

    Tilley, John; Lovett, David


    Soap films can exhibit sudden changes analogous to phase transitions, and these changes can be animated using the software package Mathematica. In this way students can be introduced to phase changes earlier than usual. Soap films provide excellent examples of patterning that arises from simple balancing of forces and minimizing of energy.…

  19. A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase Cr(V, Nb)N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John


    . A thermodynamic model of the Z-phase has been developed based on the regular solution model. The model predicts Z-phase to be stable and to fully replace the MX particles in most of the new 9%–12% Cr steels, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. The rate of precipitation of Z...

  20. Phase Error Modeling and Its Impact on Precise Orbit Determination of GRACE Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Tu


    Full Text Available Limiting factors for the precise orbit determination (POD of low-earth orbit (LEO satellite using dual-frequency GPS are nowadays mainly encountered with the in-flight phase error modeling. The phase error is modeled as a systematic and a random component each depending on the direction of GPS signal reception. The systematic part and standard deviation of random part in phase error model are, respectively, estimated by bin-wise mean and standard deviation values of phase postfit residuals computed by orbit determination. By removing the systematic component and adjusting the weight of phase observation data according to standard deviation of random component, the orbit can be further improved by POD approach. The GRACE data of 1–31 January 2006 are processed, and three types of orbit solutions, POD without phase error model correction, POD with mean value correction of phase error model, and POD with phase error model correction, are obtained. The three-dimensional (3D orbit improvements derived from phase error model correction are 0.0153 m for GRACE A and 0.0131 m for GRACE B, and the 3D influences arisen from random part of phase error model are 0.0068 m and 0.0075 m for GRACE A and GRACE B, respectively. Thus the random part of phase error model cannot be neglected for POD. It is also demonstrated by phase postfit residual analysis, orbit comparison with JPL precise science orbit, and orbit validation with KBR data that the results derived from POD with phase error model correction are better than another two types of orbit solutions generated in this paper.

  1. Mixed-phase cloud physics and Southern Ocean cloud feedback in climate models: MIXED-PHASE CLOUD FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Daniel T. [Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Hartmann, Dennis L. [Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Zelinka, Mark D. [Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California USA; Ceppi, Paulo [Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading UK; Grosvenor, Daniel P. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK


    Increasing optical depth poleward of 45° is a robust response to warming in global climate models. Much of this cloud optical depth increase has been hypothesized to be due to transitions from ice-dominated to liquid-dominated mixed-phase cloud. In this study, the importance of liquid-ice partitioning for the optical depth feedback is quantified for 19 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. All models show a monotonic partitioning of ice and liquid as a function of temperature, but the temperature at which ice and liquid are equally mixed (the glaciation temperature) varies by as much as 40 K across models. Models that have a higher glaciation temperature are found to have a smaller climatological liquid water path (LWP) and condensed water path and experience a larger increase in LWP as the climate warms. The ice-liquid partitioning curve of each model may be used to calculate the response of LWP to warming. It is found that the repartitioning between ice and liquid in a warming climate contributes at least 20% to 80% of the increase in LWP as the climate warms, depending on model. Intermodel differences in the climatological partitioning between ice and liquid are estimated to contribute at least 20% to the intermodel spread in the high-latitude LWP response in the mixed-phase region poleward of 45°S. It is hypothesized that a more thorough evaluation and constraint of global climate model mixed-phase cloud parameterizations and validation of the total condensate and ice-liquid apportionment against observations will yield a substantial reduction in model uncertainty in the high-latitude cloud response to warming.

  2. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability. (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Jen; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W


    Threshold versions of Schloegl's model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≥ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique value but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. Mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.

  3. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jen [Ames Laboratory–USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Liu, Da-Jiang [Ames Laboratory–USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Evans, James W. [Ames Laboratory–USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)


    Threshold versions of Schloegl’s model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≥ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique value but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. Mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.

  4. A New Model for Simulating Gas Metal Arc Welding based on Phase Field Model (United States)

    Jiang, Yongyue; Li, Li; Zhao, Zhijiang


    Lots of physical process, such as metal melting, multiphase fluids flow, heat and mass transfer and thermocapillary effect (Marangoni) and so on, will occur in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) which should be considered as a mixture system. In this paper, based on the previous work, we propose a new model to simulate GMAW including Navier-Stokes equation, the phase field model and energy equation. Unlike most previous work, we take the thermocapillary effect into the phase field model considering mixture energy which is different of volume of fluid method (VOF) widely used in GMAW before. We also consider gravity, electromagnetic force, surface tension, buoyancy effect and arc pressure in momentum equation. The spray transfer especially the projected transfer in GMAW is computed as numerical examples with a continuous finite element method and a modified midpoint scheme. Pulse current is set as welding current as the numerical example to show the numerical simulation of metal transfer which fits the theory of GMAW well. From the result compared with the data of high-speed photography and VOF model, the accuracy and stability of the model and scheme are easily validated and also the new model has the higher precieion.

  5. Modeling of a Two-Phase Jet Pump with Phase Change, Shocks and Temperature-Dependent Properties (United States)

    Sherif, S. A.


    One of the primary motivations behind this work is the attempt to understand the physics of a two-phase jet pump which constitutes part of a flow boiling test facility at NASA-Marshall. The flow boiling apparatus is intended to provide data necessary to design highly efficient two-phase thermal control systems for aerospace applications. The facility will also be capable of testing alternative refrigerants and evaluate their performance using various heat exchangers with enhanced surfaces. The test facility is also intended for use in evaluating single-phase performance of systems currently using CFC refrigerants. Literature dealing with jet pumps is abundant and covers a very wide array of application areas. Example application areas include vacuum pumps which are used in the food industry, power station work, and the chemical industry; ejector systems which have applications in the aircraft industry as cabin ventilators and for purposes of jet thrust augmentation; jet pumps which are used in the oil industry for oil well pumping; and steam-jet ejector refrigeration, to just name a few. Examples of work relevant to this investigation includes those of Fairuzov and Bredikhin (1995). While past researchers have been able to model the two-phase flow jet pump using the one-dimensional assumption with no shock waves and no phase change, there is no research known to the author apart from that of Anand (1992) who was able to account for condensation shocks. Thus, one of the objectives of this work is to model the dynamics of fluid interaction between a two-phase primary fluid and a subcooled liquid secondary fluid which is being injected employing atomizing spray injectors. The model developed accounts for phase transformations due to expansion, compression, and mixing. It also accounts for shock waves developing in the different parts of the jet pump as well as temperature and pressure dependencies of the fluid properties for both the primary two-phase mixture and the

  6. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbine nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for

  7. Topological Phase Transitions in the Repulsively Interacting Haldane-Hubbard Model. (United States)

    Vanhala, Tuomas I; Siro, Topi; Liang, Long; Troyer, Matthias; Harju, Ari; Törmä, Päivi


    Using dynamical mean-field theory and exact diagonalization we study the phase diagram of the repulsive Haldane-Hubbard model, varying the interaction strength and the sublattice potential difference. In addition to the quantum Hall phase with Chern number C=2 and the band insulator with C=0 present already in the noninteracting model, the system also exhibits a C=0 Mott insulating phase, and a C=1 quantum Hall phase. We explain the latter phase by a spontaneous symmetry breaking where one of the spin components is in the Hall state and the other in the band insulating state.

  8. New practical algorithm for modelling analyte recovery in bioanalytical reversed phase and mixed-mode solid phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.; Uges, D. R. A.; Franke, J. P.


    Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a widely used method for sample cleanup and sample concentration in bioanalytical sample preparation. A few methods to model the retention behaviour on SPE cartridges have been described previously but they are either not applicable to ionised species or are not

  9. Modeling Concrete Material Structure: A Two-Phase Meso Finite Element Model (United States)

    Bonifaz, E. A.; Baus, Juan; Lantsoght, Eva O. L.

    Concrete is a compound material where aggregates are randomly placed within the cement paste. To describe the behavior of concrete structures at the ultimate, it is necessary to use nonlinear finite element models, which for shear and torsion problems do not always give satisfactory results. The current study aims at improving the modeling of concrete at the meso-level, which eventually can result in an improved assessment of existing structures. Concrete as a heterogeneous material is modeled consisting of hydrated cement paste and aggregates. The stress-strain curves of the hydrated cement paste and aggregates are described with results from the literature. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model was developed to determine the influence of individual phases on the inelastic stress-strain distribution of concrete structures. A random distribution and morphology of the cement and aggregate fractions are achieved by using DREAM.3D. Two affordable computational dual-phase representative volume elements (RVEs) are imported to ABAQUS to be studied in compression and tension. The virtual specimens (concrete mesh) subjected to continuous monotonic strain loading conditions were constrained with 3D boundary conditions. Results demonstrate differences in stress-strain mechanical behavior in both compression and tension test simulations. A strong dependency of flow stress and plastic strain on phase type, aggregate (andesite) size, shape and distribution upon the composite local response are clearly observed. It is noted that the resistance to flow is higher in concrete meshes composed of finer and homogeneous aggregate particles because the Misses stresses and effective plastic strains are better distributed. This study shows that at the meso-level, concrete can be modeled consisting of aggregates and hydrated cement paste.

  10. A Three-dimensional Two-phase Mixture Model for Sediment Transport (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Zhong, Deyu; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Li, Xiaonan


    Suspended load often constitutes a large portion of the total load in a fluvial river. In classical fluvial numeric models, flows carrying suspended sediment are usually modeled by the Reynolds averaged equations directly borrowed from the classical fluid dynamics for single-phase flows with an advection-diffusion equation and single-phase turbulence model is adopted to close the equations. Due to the omission of the effect of the sediment on fluid, results from the classical models can deviate significantly from experimental and field observations. In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional numerical model based on two-phase mixture theory to study the sediment-laden flows. The two-phase mixture equations are closed by a two-phase mixture turbulence model derived from two-fluid turbulence model. The two-phase mixture model therefore inherits the essential capabilities of two-fluid models in considering inter-phase interaction, but without solving the full set of governing equations for the two-fluid models. Two-phase mixture equations have similar form to the governing equations for classical fluvial hydraulics, thus allowing us to embed the two-phase mixture model into SCHISM, a 3D unstructured-grid model for oceans, estuaries and rivers. We verify the new model with a set of experiments , and the results show that the new model is valid for sediment-laden flows covering a wide range of particle diameters and concentrations. We also apply the new model to the study of representative flood events in the Lower Yellow River (LYR), and investigate sediment distributions, velocity profiles, circulation flows in river bends, flood propagation and erosion and deposition patterns. The computed water surface elevation, cross-sectional bathymetry and sediment concentration show good agreement with the measured data.

  11. Research Note: Full-waveform inversion of the unwrapped phase of a model

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Reflections in seismic data induce serious non-linearity in the objective function of full- waveform inversion. Thus, without a good initial velocity model that can produce reflections within a half cycle of the frequency used in the inversion, convergence to a solution becomes difficult. As a result, we tend to invert for refracted events and damp reflections in data. Reflection induced non-linearity stems from cycle skipping between the imprint of the true model in observed data and the predicted model in synthesized data. Inverting for the phase of the model allows us to address this problem by avoiding the source of non-linearity, the phase wrapping phenomena. Most of the information related to the location (or depths) of interfaces is embedded in the phase component of a model, mainly influenced by the background model, while the velocity-contrast information (responsible for the reflection energy) is mainly embedded in the amplitude component. In combination with unwrapping the phase of data, which mitigates the non-linearity introduced by the source function, I develop a framework to invert for the unwrapped phase of a model, represented by the instantaneous depth, using the unwrapped phase of the data. The resulting gradient function provides a mechanism to non-linearly update the velocity model by applying mainly phase shifts to the model. In using the instantaneous depth as a model parameter, we keep track of the model properties unfazed by the wrapping phenomena. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  12. Modeling of gamma/gamma-prime phase equilibrium in the nickel-aluminum system (United States)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Barefoot, J. R.; Jarrett, R. N.; Tien, J. K.


    A theoretical model is proposed for the determination of phase equilibrium in alloys, taking into consideration dissimilar lattice parameters. Volume-dependent pair interactions are introduced by means of phenomenological Lennard-Jones potentials and the configurational entropy of the system is treated in the tetrahedron approximation of the cluster variation method. The model is applied to the superalloy-relevant, nickel-rich, gamma/gamma-prime phase region of the Ni-Al phase diagram. The model predicts reasonable values for the lattice parameters and the enthalpy of formation as a function of composition, and the calculated phase diagram closely approximates the experimental diagram.

  13. Generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach to inhomogeneous phases in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlomagno, J.P. [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gómez Dumm, D., E-mail: [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scoccola, N.N. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physics Department, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solís 453, 1078 Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We analyze the presence of inhomogeneous phases in the QCD phase diagram within the framework of nonlocal chiral quark models. We concentrate in particular in the positions of the tricritical (TCP) and Lifshitz (LP) points, which are studied in a general context using a generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach. We find that for all the phenomenologically acceptable model parametrizations considered the TCP is located at a higher temperature and a lower chemical potential in comparison with the LP. Consequently, these models seem to favor a scenario in which the onset of the first order transition between homogeneous phases is not covered by an inhomogeneous, energetically favored phase.

  14. Stability of the AFM phase in the three-band Hubbard-Holstein model (United States)

    Huang, Edwin; Johnston, Steve; Kung, Yvonne; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Tom


    The interplay between electron-electron interactions and electron-phonon coupling in cuprates can be explored via the Hubbard-Holstein model. Here, we use determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study the three-band version of the model with electron coupling to c-axis optical oxygen vibrations. The model exhibits competition between an antiferromagnetic phase and a charge density wave phase. The corresponding phase diagram is compared against that from existing single-band Hubbard-Holstein results. Finally we investigate the evolution of the phase diagram due to changes in doping and temperature.

  15. Generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach to inhomogeneous phases in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Carlomagno


    Full Text Available We analyze the presence of inhomogeneous phases in the QCD phase diagram within the framework of nonlocal chiral quark models. We concentrate in particular in the positions of the tricritical (TCP and Lifshitz (LP points, which are studied in a general context using a generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach. We find that for all the phenomenologically acceptable model parametrizations considered the TCP is located at a higher temperature and a lower chemical potential in comparison with the LP. Consequently, these models seem to favor a scenario in which the onset of the first order transition between homogeneous phases is not covered by an inhomogeneous, energetically favored phase.

  16. SiGe HBT Nonlinear Phase Noise Modeling - X-band amplifier design


    Gribaldo, Sébastien; Bary, Laurent; Llopis, Olivier


    International audience; A nonlinear noise model of a SiGe bipolar transistor is presented. This model includes a nonlinear noise source and is able to predict the noise conversion phenomena in circuits using this transistor such as oscillator phase noise. It is based on two main low frequency noise sources, which are extracted thanks to noise measurements under large RF signal superposition. An original low phase noise X band amplifier is also presented. This amplifier features a phase noise ...

  17. Basic and mixed models for computer simulation of liquid phase sintering of a porous structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Z.S.


    Full Text Available A two-dimensional method based on basic and mixed models for simulation of liquid phase sintering of a porous structure will be developed. These models will be tested in order to conduct a study of diffusion phenomena and gravitational effects on microstructural evolution during liquid phase sintering of a W-Ni system.

  18. Numerical modeling of coupled heat transfer and phase transformation for solidification of the gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Azin


    In the present study the numerical model in 2D is used to study the solidification bahavior of the gray cast iron. The conventional heat transfer is coupled with the proposed micro-model to predict the amount of different phases, i.e. total austenite (c) phase, graphite (G) and cementite (C...

  19. Models for research into decision-making processes: On phases, streams and decision-making rounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Teisman (Geert)


    textabstractThis article elaborates on the question how complex decision-making can be analysed. Three conceptual models are compared: the phase model, the stream model and the rounds model. Each model is based on specific assumptions about what decision-making is and how it should be analysed. The

  20. A phase transition model for mother-child interaction: Comment on Olthof et al.,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.


    Comments on the article by T. Olthof et al (see record 2000-03307-003) which describes 2 non-linear models for mother-child interaction: a connectionist model and a logical growth model. The present authors propose an alternative model, a phase transition model (PTM), which they say provides

  1. Phase field model for the study of boiling; Modele de champ de phase pour l'etude de l'ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyer, P


    This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)

  2. Modelling a Three-Phase Current Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neukirchner László


    Full Text Available A current source inverter model has been developed in the given paper that is constructed from six LTI models for the different switching modes. The overall model is in a piecewise affine form that supports the use of model predictive control. The model has been verified against engineering expectations and its open-loop performance shows that it is a promising basis of model predictive control structures.

  3. Basic simulation models of phase tracking devices using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William


    The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), and many of the devices used for frequency and phase tracking, carrier and symbol synchronization, demodulation, and frequency synthesis, are fundamental building blocks in today's complex communications systems. It is therefore essential for both students and practicing communications engineers interested in the design and implementation of modern communication systems to understand and have insight into the behavior of these important and ubiquitous devices. Since the PLL behaves as a nonlinear device (at least during acquisition), computer simulation can be used

  4. Spiral magnetic phases on the Kondo Lattice Model: A Hartree-Fock approach (United States)

    Costa, N. C.; Lima, J. P.; dos Santos, Raimundo R.


    We study the Kondo Lattice Model (KLM) on a square lattice through a Hartree-Fock approximation in which the local spins are treated semi-classically, in the sense that their average values are modulated by a magnetic wavevector Q while they couple with the conduction electrons through fermion operators. In this way, we obtain a ground state phase diagram in which spiral magnetic phases (in which the wavevector depends on the coupling constants and on the density) interpolate between the low-density ferromagnetic phase and the antiferromagnetic phase at half filling; within small regions of the phase diagram commensurate magnetic phases can coexist with Kondo screening. We have also obtained 'Doniach-like' diagrams, showing the effect of temperature on the ground state phases, and established that for some ranges of the model parameters (the exchange coupling and conduction electron density) the magnetic wavevector changes with temperature, either continuously or abruptly (e.g., from spiral to ferromagnetic).

  5. The phase behavior of a hard sphere chain model of a binary n-alkane mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malanoski, A. P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Monson, P. A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)


    Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to study the solid and fluid phase properties as well as phase equilibrium in a flexible, united atom, hard sphere chain model of n-heptane/n-octane mixtures. We describe a methodology for calculating the chemical potentials for the components in the mixture based on a technique used previously for atomic mixtures. The mixture was found to conform accurately to ideal solution behavior in the fluid phase. However, much greater nonidealities were seen in the solid phase. Phase equilibrium calculations indicate a phase diagram with solid-fluid phase equilibrium and a eutectic point. The components are only miscible in the solid phase for dilute solutions of the shorter chains in the longer chains. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Phase-field modeling of microstructure evolutions in magnetic materials (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki


    Recently, the phase-field method has been extended and utilized across many fields of materials science. Since this method can incorporate, systematically, the effect of the coherency induced by lattice mismatch and the applied stress as well as the external electrical and magnetic fields, it has been applied to many material processes including solidification, solid-state phase transformations and various types of complex microstructure changes. In this paper, we focus on the recent phase-field simulations of real magnetic materials, and the simulation method for magnetic materials is explained comprehensively. Several applications of the phase-field method to clarifying the microstructure changes in magnetic materials, such as Ni2MnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy, FePt nanogranular thin film, Co–Sm–Cu rare-earth magnet, Fe–Cr–Co spinodal magnet, and Fe–C steel with external magnetic field, are demonstrated. Furthermore, the general concept of the effective strategy for controlling microstructure in magnetic materials is proposed. PMID:27877924


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifeanyichukwu Onwuka

    transients, up to ten parallel flow paths, simple and complicated geometries, including the boilers of fossil steam generators and nuclear power plants. A test calculation has been made with a simplified three- channel system subjected to a two-phase flow transient, and the results have been very encouraging. NOTATION.

  8. Phase behavior of flowerlike micelles in a SCF cell model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    We study the interactions between flowerlike micelles, self-assembled from telechelic associative polymers, using a molecular self-consistent field (SCF) theory and discuss the corresponding phase behavior. In these calculations we do not impose properties such as aggregation number, micellar

  9. Simulation of droplet formation and coalescence using lattice Boltzmann-based single-phase model. (United States)

    Xing, Xiu Qing; Butler, David Lee; Ng, Sum Huan; Wang, Zhenfeng; Danyluk, Steven; Yang, Chun


    A lattice Boltzmann method-based single-phase free surface model is developed to study the interfacial dynamics of coalescence, droplet formation and detachment phenomena related to surface tension and wetting effects. Compared with the conventional multiphase models, the lattice Boltzmann-based single-phase model has a higher computational efficiency since it is not necessary to simulate the motion of the gas phase. A perturbation, which is given in the same fashion as the perturbation step in Gunstensen's color model, is added to the distribution functions of the interface cells for incorporating the surface tension into the single-phase model. The assignment of different mass gradients along the fluid-wall interface is used to model the wetting properties of the solid surface. Implementations of the model are demonstrated for simulating the processes of the droplet coalescence, the droplet formation and detachment from ceiling and from nozzles with different shapes and different wall wetting properties.

  10. A novel mechanical model for phase-separation in debris flows (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Understanding the physics of phase-separation between solid and fluid phases as a two-phase mass moves down slope is a long-standing challenge. Here, I propose a fundamentally new mechanism, called 'separation-flux', that leads to strong phase-separation in avalanche and debris flows. This new model extends the general two-phase debris flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) to include a separation-flux mechanism. The new flux separation mechanism is capable of describing and controlling the dynamically evolving phase-separation, segregation, and/or levee formation in a real two-phase, geometrically three-dimensional debris flow motion and deposition. These are often observed phenomena in natural debris flows and industrial processes that involve the transportation of particulate solid-fluid mixture material. The novel separation-flux model includes several dominant physical and mechanical aspects that result in strong phase-separation (segregation). These include pressure gradients, volume fractions of solid and fluid phases and their gradients, shear-rates, flow depth, material friction, viscosity, material densities, boundary structures, gravity and topographic constraints, grain shape, size, etc. Due to the inherent separation mechanism, as the mass moves down slope, more and more solid particles are brought to the front, resulting in a solid-rich and mechanically strong frontal surge head followed by a weak tail largely consisting of the viscous fluid. The primary frontal surge head followed by secondary surge is the consequence of the phase-separation. Such typical and dominant phase-separation phenomena are revealed here for the first time in real two-phase debris flow modeling and simulations. However, these phenomena may depend on the bulk material composition and the applied forces. Reference: Pudasaini, Shiva P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/2011JF002186.

  11. Topological phases characterized by spin Chern number and skyrmion number in triangular Bose-Hubbard model (United States)

    Guo, Long-Fei; Li, Peng


    Topological phases are important topics in condensed matter physics. Here, we investigate a spin-orbit coupling Bose-Hubbard model in triangular lattice. In the strong coupling limit, we obtained the single particle Green’s function and constructed the phase diagram for ground states. We found two types of nontrivial topological ground phases characterized by spin Chern number and skyrmion number, respectively. The spin Chern numbers characterize the spin Chern insulators. While the skyrmion numbers characterize the skyrmion textures. We show that the phase transitions between different spin Chern insulators take place with gap closing and reopening. While the phase transitions between different skyrmion textures occur without gap closing.

  12. Phased mission modelling of systems with maintenance-free operating periods using simulated Petri nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, S.P.; Dunnett, S.J. [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics (United Kingdom); Andrews, J.D. [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    A common scenario in engineering is that of a system which operates throughout several sequential and distinct periods of time, during which the modes and consequences of failure differ from one another. This type of operation is known as a phased mission, and for the mission to be a success the system must successfully operate throughout all of the phases. Examples include a rocket launch and an aeroplane flight. Component or sub-system failures may occur at any time during the mission, yet not affect the system performance until the phase in which their condition is critical. This may mean that the transition from one phase to the next is a critical event that leads to phase and mission failure, with the root cause being a component failure in a previous phase. A series of phased missions with no maintenance may be considered as a maintenance-free operating period (MFOP). This paper describes the use of a Petri net (PN) to model the reliability of the MFOP and phased missions scenario. The model uses Monte-Carlo simulation to obtain its results, and due to the modelling power of PNs, can consider complexities such as component failure rate interdependencies and mission abandonment. The model operates three different types of PN which interact to provide the overall system reliability modelling. The model is demonstrated and validated by considering two simple examples that can be solved analytically.

  13. Exactly solvable models for symmetry-enriched topological phases (United States)

    Cheng, Meng; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Jiang, Shenghan; Qi, Yang


    We construct fixed-point wave functions and exactly solvable commuting-projector Hamiltonians for a large class of bosonic symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases, based on the concept of equivalent classes of symmetric local unitary transformations. We argue that for onsite unitary symmetries, our construction realizes all SETs free of anomaly, as long as the underlying topological order itself can be realized with a commuting-projector Hamiltonian. We further extend the construction to antiunitary symmetries (e.g., time-reversal symmetry), mirror-reflection symmetries, and to anomalous SETs on the surface of three-dimensional symmetry-protected topological phases. Mathematically, our construction naturally leads to a generalization of group extensions of unitary fusion categories to antiunitary symmetries.

  14. Testing and modeling of a two-phase ejector


    Harrell, Greg S.


    The ejector expansion refrigeration cycle is a modified vapor compression cycle in which a two phase ejector is used to recover a portion of the work otherwise lost in the expansion valve. The ejector improves cycle performance by increasing compressor inlet pressure and by lowering the quality of the fluid entering the evaporator. Theoretically, a cooling COP improvement of approximately 21 % is achievable for a typical refrigerating cycle and an ideal ejector. If the ejector ...

  15. [A phase model of trauma rehabilitation : How can we avoid the "rehab-hole"? (United States)

    Simmel, Stefan; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Reimertz, Christoph; Kühne, Christian; Glaesener, Jean-Jacques


    Advances in the rescue chain and first aid of polytrauma patients, which have consequently increased their chance of survival, have led to an increase in demands for rehabilitation. However, there is still a large hole in the continuity of rehabilitation between acute patient care and in-patient rehabilitation, the so-called "rehab-hole". The consequences are untapped rehabilitation potential, loss of strength, endurance and motivation as well as impairment of function of the patient.Based on the phase model of neurological/neurosurgical rehabilitation, we propose a step model for the rehabilitation of polytrauma patients that ensures an uninterrupted chain of rehabilitation. After acute patient care (phase a) and a potentially required early patient rehabilitation (phase b), trauma rehabilitation should seamlessly continue on to phase c. The implementation of phase c after acute patient rehabilitation requires changes in the structure of "orthopaedic" rehabilitation clinics and financial support due the large consumption of resources by more complexly injured patients in this phase. The subsequent rehabilitation in phase d is well established and complies with current rehabilitation measures (AHB, BGSW). Further rehabilitation measures may be essential for social and occupational reintegration of the patient (phase e), depending on the complexity of their injuries after the accident. For patients with long-lasting results after an accident, it is crucial to implement continuous follow-ups (phase f) to ensure a better long-term outcome.In order to implement this phase model it is necessary to establish specialized facilities that meet the particular requirements needed for phase c. This tri-phased treatment model in trauma centres can therefore be used in trauma rehabilitation. In addition to the already established local and regional rehabilitation centres, nationwide trauma rehabilitation centres have adopted phase c rehabilitation.

  16. Cloud radiative effects and changes simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ok-Yeon; Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In


    Using 32 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models, this study examines the veracity in the simulation of cloud amount and their radiative effects (CREs) in the historical run driven by observed external radiative forcing for 1850-2005, and their future changes in the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario runs for 2006-2100. Validation metrics for the historical run are designed to examine the accuracy in the representation of spatial patterns for climatological mean, and annual and interannual variations of clouds and CREs. The models show large spread in the simulation of cloud amounts, specifically in the low cloud amount. The observed relationship between cloud amount and the controlling large-scale environment are also reproduced diversely by various models. Based on the validation metrics, four models—ACCESS1.0, ACCESS1.3, HadGEM2-CC, and HadGEM2-ES—are selected as best models, and the average of the four models performs more skillfully than the multimodel ensemble average. All models project global-mean SST warming at the increase of the greenhouse gases, but the magnitude varies across the simulations between 1 and 2 K, which is largely attributable to the difference in the change of cloud amount and distribution. The models that simulate more SST warming show a greater increase in the net CRE due to reduced low cloud and increased incoming shortwave radiation, particularly over the regions of marine boundary layer in the subtropics. Selected best-performing models project a significant reduction in global-mean cloud amount of about -0.99% K-1 and net radiative warming of 0.46 W m-2 K-1, suggesting a role of positive feedback to global warming.

  17. Parameter estimation for LLDPE gas-phase reactor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Neumann


    Full Text Available Product development and advanced control applications require models with good predictive capability. However, in some cases it is not possible to obtain good quality phenomenological models due to the lack of data or the presence of important unmeasured effects. The use of empirical models requires less investment in modeling, but implies the need for larger amounts of experimental data to generate models with good predictive capability. In this work, nonlinear phenomenological and empirical models were compared with respect to their capability to predict the melt index and polymer yield of a low-density polyethylene production process consisting of two fluidized bed reactors connected in series. To adjust the phenomenological model, the optimization algorithms based on the flexible polyhedron method of Nelder and Mead showed the best efficiency. To adjust the empirical model, the PLS model was more appropriate for polymer yield, and the melt index needed more nonlinearity like the QPLS models. In the comparison between these two types of models better results were obtained for the empirical models.

  18. Improving Mixed-phase Cloud Parameterization in Climate Model with the ACRF Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    Mixed-phase cloud microphysical and dynamical processes are still poorly understood, and their representation in GCMs is a major source of uncertainties in overall cloud feedback in GCMs. Thus improving mixed-phase cloud parameterizations in climate models is critical to reducing the climate forecast uncertainties. This study aims at providing improved knowledge of mixed-phase cloud properties from the long-term ACRF observations and improving mixed-phase clouds simulations in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The key accomplishments are: 1) An improved retrieval algorithm was developed to provide liquid droplet concentration for drizzling or mixed-phase stratiform clouds. 2) A new ice concentration retrieval algorithm for stratiform mixed-phase clouds was developed. 3) A strong seasonal aerosol impact on ice generation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds was identified, which is mainly attributed to the high dust occurrence during the spring season. 4) A suite of multi-senor algorithms was applied to long-term ARM observations at the Barrow site to provide a complete dataset (LWC and effective radius profile for liquid phase, and IWC, Dge profiles and ice concentration for ice phase) to characterize Arctic stratiform mixed-phase clouds. This multi-year stratiform mixed-phase cloud dataset provides necessary information to study related processes, evaluate model stratiform mixed-phase cloud simulations, and improve model stratiform mixed-phase cloud parameterization. 5). A new in situ data analysis method was developed to quantify liquid mass partition in convective mixed-phase clouds. For the first time, we reliably compared liquid mass partitions in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds. Due to the different dynamics in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds, the temperature dependencies of liquid mass partitions are significantly different due to much higher ice concentrations in convective mixed phase clouds. 6) Systematic evaluations

  19. Three-phase packed bed reactor with an evaporating solvent—II. Modelling of the reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, K.B.; Borman, P.C.; Weenink, R.E.; Westerterp, K.R.


    In this paper two models are presented for a three-phase catalytic packed bed reactor in which in evaporating solvent is used to absorb and remove most of the reaction heat. A plug flow model and a model comprising mass and heat dispersion in the reactor are discussed. The results of both models are

  20. Phase model analysis of the long-range excitation in the hippocampal CA1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Gui [Nonlinear and Complex Systems Lab., Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung-Kee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Hyung-Tae [Kyungwon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The synchronization of rhythms in various frequency ranges over participating cortical areas is one of the important issues in neuroscience. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that rhythms of the beta frequency range have a dynamical structure distinct from that of the gamma rhythms. To elucidate the mechanism of synchronization, the role of the long-range excitatory connection which is incorporated with finite conduction delay time needs to be analyzed. This work attempts such analysis, utilizing the reduced phase oscillator model. It is shown that the long-range gamma rhythm remains unstable, regardless of the presence of the excitatory connection. However, the beta rhythm is stable over a broad range of conduction time delay, which cannot apparently be tolerated by the long-range gamma rhythm. These synchronization features are consistent with experimental observations which imply that gamma rhythms are used for local computations, whereas beta rhythms are used for higher level interactions involving more distant structures.

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium for water + poly(Ethylene glycol + salt aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G. Sé


    Full Text Available The NRTL (nonrandom, two-liquid model, expressed in mass fraction instead of mole fraction, was used to correlate liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous two-phase polymer-salt solutions. New interaction energy parameters for this model were determined using reported data on the water + poly(ethylene glycol + salt systems, with different molecular masses for PEG and the salts potassium phosphate, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate and magnesium sulfate. The correlation of liquid-liquid equilibrium is quite satisfactory.

  2. Scaling of geometric phase versus band structure in cluster-Ising models. (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Mei, Feng; Amico, Luigi; Kwek, Leong Chuan


    We study the phase diagram of a class of models in which a generalized cluster interaction can be quenched by an Ising exchange interaction and external magnetic field. The various phases are studied through winding numbers. They may be ordinary phases with local order parameters or exotic ones, known as symmetry protected topologically ordered phases. Quantum phase transitions with dynamical critical exponents z=1 or z=2 are found. In particular, the criticality is analyzed through finite-size scaling of the geometric phase accumulated when the spins of the lattice perform an adiabatic precession. With this study, we quantify the scaling behavior of the geometric phase in relation to the topology and low-energy properties of the band structure of the system.

  3. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  4. It's Only a Phase: Applying the 5 Phases of Clinical Trials to the NSCR Model Improvement Process (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Milder, C. M.; Chappell, L. J.; Semones, E. J.


    NASA limits astronaut radiation exposures to a 3% risk of exposure-induced death from cancer (REID) at the upper 95% confidence level. Since astronauts approach this limit, it is important that the estimate of REID be as accurate as possible. The NASA Space Cancer Risk 2012 (NSCR-2012) model has been the standard for NASA's space radiation protection guidelines since its publication in 2013. The model incorporates elements from U.S. baseline statistics, Japanese atomic bomb survivor research, animal models, cellular studies, and radiation transport to calculate astronaut baseline risk of cancer and REID. The NSCR model is under constant revision to ensure emerging research is incorporated into radiation protection standards. It is important to develop guidelines, however, to determine what new research is appropriate for integration. Certain standards of transparency are necessary in order to assess data quality, statistical quality, and analytical quality. To this effect, all original source code and any raw data used to develop the code are required to confirm there are no errors which significantly change reported outcomes. It is possible to apply a clinical trials approach to select and assess the improvement concepts that will be incorporated into future iterations of NSCR. This poster describes the five phases of clinical trials research, pre-clinical research, and clinical research phases I-IV, explaining how each step can be translated into an appropriate NSCR model selection guideline.

  5. Phase transition in the Sznajd model with independence


    Sznajd-Weron, K.; Tabiszewski, M.; Timpanaro, A. M.


    We propose a model of opinion dynamics which describes two major types of social influence -- conformity and independence. Conformity in our model is described by the so called outflow dynamics (known as Sznajd model). According to sociologists' suggestions, we introduce also a second type of social influence, known in social psychology as independence. Various social experiments have shown that the level of conformity depends on the society. We introduce this level as a parameter of the mode...

  6. Matrix model approximations of fuzzy scalar field theories and their phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekel, Juraj [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina, Bratislava, 842 48 (Slovakia)


    We present an analysis of two different approximations to the scalar field theory on the fuzzy sphere, a nonperturbative and a perturbative one, which are both multitrace matrix models. We show that the former reproduces a phase diagram with correct features in a qualitative agreement with the previous numerical studies and that the latter gives a phase diagram with features not expected in the phase diagram of the field theory.

  7. Effect of deformation induced nucleation and phase mixing, a two phase model for the ductile deformation of rocks. (United States)

    Bevillard, Benoit; Richard, Guillaume; Raimbourg, Hugues


    Rocks are complex materials and particularly their rheological behavior under geological stresses remains a long-standing question in geodynamics. To test large scale lithosphere dynamics numerical modeling is the main tool but encounter substantial difficulties to account for this complexity. One major unknown is the origin and development of the localization of deformation. This localization is observed within a large range of scales and is commonly characterized by sharp grain size reduction. These considerations argues for a control of the microscopical scale over the largest ones through one predominant variable: the mean grain-size. However, the presence of second phase and broad grain-size distribution may also have a important impact on this phenomenon. To address this question, we built a model for ductile rocks deformation based on the two-phase damage theory of Bercovici & Ricard 2012. We aim to investigate the role of grain-size reduction but also phase mixing on strain localization. Instead of considering a Zener-pining effect on damage evolution, we propose to take into account the effect of the grain-boundary sliding (GBS)-induced nucleation mechanism which is better supported by experimental or natural observations (Precigout et al 2016). This continuum theory allows to represent a two mineral phases aggregate with explicit log-normal grain-size distribution as a reasonable approximation for polymineralic rocks. Quantifying microscopical variables using a statistical approach may allow for calibration at small (experimental) scale. The general set of evolutions equations remains up-scalable provided some conditions on the homogenization scale. Using the interface density as a measure of mixture quality, we assume unlike Bercovici & Ricard 2012 that it may depend for some part on grain-size . The grain-size independent part of it is being represented by a "contact fraction" variable, whose evolution may be constrained by the dominant deformation

  8. Application of New Electrolyte Model to Phase Transfer Catalyst (PTC) Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyung Kim, Sun; Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kang, Jeong Won


    Abstract Phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is used to transfer the desirable active form of an anion from the aqueous phase to organic phase where the reaction occurs. One of major challenges for process design of the PTC system is to establish a reliable thermodynamic model capable of describing phase...... behaviours of all components including water, organic solvents, inorganic salts, and the PTC. In this work, a new electrolyte model based on the KT-UNIFAC group contribution approach has been developed by adding the Debye-Hückel theory and a second virial coefficient-type term into the KT-UNIFAC model...... in PTC systems, thereby, extending the application range of the PTC-system model. The solubility of PTC in organic solvents, which is a key factor for strategy of PTC and solvent selection, has been calculated using the e-NRTL-SAC model....

  9. A simplified model for nonlinear cross-phase modulation in hybrid optical coherent system. (United States)

    Tao, Zhenning; Yan, Weizhen; Oda, Shoichiro; Hoshida, Takeshi; Rasmussen, Jens C


    Cross-phase modulation (XPM) has been considered as one of the ultimate obstacles for optical coherent dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. In order to facilitate the XPM analysis, a simplified model was proposed. The model reduced the distributed XPM phenomena to a lumped phase modulation. The XPM phase noise was generated by a linear system which was determined by the DWDM system parameters and whose inputs were undistorted pump channel intensity waveforms. The model limitations induced by the lumped phase modulation and undistorted pumps approximations were intensively discussed and verified. The simplified model showed a good agreement with simulations and experiments for a typical hybrid optical coherent system. Various XPM phenomena were explained by the proposed model.

  10. Power Loss Calculation and Thermal Modelling for a Three Phase Inverter Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhou


    Full Text Available Power losses calculation and thermal modelling for a three-phase inverter power system is presented in this paper. Aiming a long real time thermal simulation, an accurate average power losses calculation based on PWM reconstruction technique is proposed. For carrying out the thermal simulation, a compact thermal model for a three-phase inverter power module is built. The thermal interference of adjacent heat sources is analysed using 3D thermal simulation. The proposed model can provide accurate power losses with a large simulation time-step and suitable for a long real time thermal simulation for a three phase inverter drive system for hybrid vehicle applications.

  11. Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases; Modelisation thermodynamique des verres nucleaires: coexistence entre phases amorphes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjanor, G


    Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)

  12. A conceptual assessment model to identify phase of industrial cluster life cycle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniek Utami Handayani


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop an assessment model to identify phase of industrial cluster life cycle which comprises definition of the cycle phases, identification of assessment components, and characterization of each phase of cluster life cycle. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses the Delphi method to develop the conceptual model i.e. define phases of cluster life cycle and identify assessment components, and design typology of cluster life cycle. Findings: The proposed indicators used to assess industrial cluster phases are (i concentration of industry, (ii market accessibility, (iii completeness of actors, and (iv collaboration of stakeholders. Research limitations/implications: This study developed a conceptual model based on expert opinion in Indonesia. Given the limitations of experts in this field in Indonesia, it is necessary to develop advanced research involving more experts and if possible, to involve experts outside Indonesia. Practical implications: This paper provides an assessment conceptual model to identify phase of industrial cluster life cycle. The objective of assessing industrial cluster phases is to evaluate and improve the condition of industrial clusters and as basis for formulation policy interventions in accordance with each phase of cluster life cycle. The final results of this study are the position of each cluster on their life cycle, which reflects the condition of each industrial cluster. On a practical level, the assessment result could be used to improve the competitiveness of industrial sectors and help local and central government to formulate appropriate policy interventions. Originality/value: The paper provides an assessment conceptual model to identify phases of industrial cluster life cycle, which include definition phases, assessment components and typology of each phase of cluster life cycle based on assessment criteria. Research in this field was rarely done by the

  13. Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Huneeus


    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of 15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e., aerosol optical depth (AOD and dust deposition. Additional comparisons to Angström exponent (AE, coarse mode AOD and dust surface concentrations are included to extend the assessment of model performance and to identify common biases present in models. These data comprise a benchmark dataset that is proposed for model inspection and future dust model development. There are large differences among the global models that simulate the dust cycle and its impact on climate. In general, models simulate the climatology of vertically integrated parameters (AOD and AE within a factor of two whereas the total deposition and surface concentration are reproduced within a factor of 10. In addition, smaller mean normalized bias and root mean square errors are obtained for the climatology of AOD and AE than for total deposition and surface concentration. Characteristics of the datasets used and their uncertainties may influence these differences. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the deposition fluxes in the southern oceans. Further measurements and model studies are necessary to assess the general model performance to reproduce dust deposition in ocean regions sensible to iron contributions. Models overestimate the wet deposition in regions dominated by dry deposition. They generally simulate more realistic surface concentration at stations downwind of the main sources than at remote ones. Most models simulate the gradient in AOD and AE between the different dusty regions. However the seasonality and magnitude of both variables is better simulated at African stations than Middle East ones. The models simulate the offshore transport of West Africa throughout the year

  14. Engineering a Trapped Ion Open-System Dicke Model with Dissipative Phase Transitions (United States)

    Reiter, Florentin; Dueholm, Malte D.; Sorensen, Anders S.; Yelin, Susanne F.


    The Dicke model is a paradigmatic model in quantum optics known to exhibit a quantum phase transition between a normal and a superradiant phase. Such superradiant phase transitions have recently been observed experimentally using cavity systems. These implementation have, however, conserved the total spin and thus restricted the dynamics. To overcome such restrictions, we consider implementation of an open-system Dicke model using systems of trapped ions. Here spontaneous emission breaks the symmetry and thereby allows the system to explore richer driven-dissipative dynamics. We observe phase transitions in the steady state with respect to both Hamiltonian and dissipative parameters, as well as novel phases which do not appear in closed systems and cavity realizations.

  15. Crystal Level Continuum Modeling of Phase Transformations: The (alpha) <--> (epsilon) Transformation in Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, N R; Benson, D J; Becker, R; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M


    We present a crystal level model for thermo-mechanical deformation with phase transformation capabilities. The model is formulated to allow for large pressures (on the order of the elastic moduli) and makes use of a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Elastic and thermal lattice distortions are combined into a single lattice stretch to allow the model to be used in conjunction with general equation of state relationships. Phase transformations change the mass fractions of the material constituents. The driving force for phase transformations includes terms arising from mechanical work, from the temperature dependent chemical free energy change on transformation, and from interaction energy among the constituents. Deformation results from both these phase transformations and elasto-viscoplastic deformation of the constituents themselves. Simulation results are given for the {alpha} to {epsilon} phase transformation in iron. Results include simulations of shock induced transformation in single crystals and of compression of polycrystals. Results are compared to available experimental data.

  16. Conservative phase-field lattice Boltzmann model for interface tracking equation. (United States)

    Geier, Martin; Fakhari, Abbas; Lee, Taehun


    Based on the phase-field theory, we propose a conservative lattice Boltzmann method to track the interface between two different fluids. The presented model recovers the conservative phase-field equation and conserves mass locally and globally. Two entirely different approaches are used to calculate the gradient of the phase field, which is needed in computation of the normal to the interface. One approach uses finite-difference stencils similar to many existing lattice Boltzmann models for tracking the two-phase interface, while the other one invokes central moments to calculate the gradient of the phase field without any finite differences involved. The former approach suffers from the nonlocality of the collision operator while the latter is entirely local making it highly suitable for massive parallel implementation. Several benchmark problems are carried out to assess the accuracy and stability of the proposed model.

  17. Compositional modeling of three-phase flow with gravity using higher-order finite element methods

    KAUST Repository

    Moortgat, Joachim


    A wide range of applications in subsurface flow involve water, a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) or oil, and a gas phase, such as air or CO2. The numerical simulation of such processes is computationally challenging and requires accurate compositional modeling of three-phase flow in porous media. In this work, we simulate for the first time three-phase compositional flow using higher-order finite element methods. Gravity poses complications in modeling multiphase processes because it drives countercurrent flow among phases. To resolve this issue, we propose a new method for the upwinding of three-phase mobilities. Numerical examples, related to enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed algorithm. We pay special attention to challenges associated with gravitational instabilities and take into account compressibility and various phase behavior effects, including swelling, viscosity changes, and vaporization. We find that the proposed higher-order method can capture sharp solution discontinuities, yielding accurate predictions of phase boundaries arising in computational three-phase flow. This work sets the stage for a broad extension of the higher-order methods for numerical simulation of three-phase flow for complex geometries and processes.

  18. Modeling of Eutectic Formation in Al-Si Alloy Using A Phase-Field Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Z.


    Full Text Available We have utilized a phase-field model to investigate the evolution of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloy. The interfacial fluctuations are included into a phase-field model of two-phase solidification, as stochastic noise terms and their dominant role in eutectic silicon formation is discussed. We have observed that silicon spherical particles nucleate on the foundation of primary aluminum phase and their nucleation continues on concentric rings, through the Al matrix. The nucleation of silicon particles is attributed to the inclusion of fluctuations into the phase-field equations. The simulation results have shown needle-like, fish-bone like and flakes of silicon phase by adjusting the noise coefficients to larger values. Moreover, the role of primary Al phase on nucleation of silicon particles in Al-Si alloy is elaborated. We have found that the addition of fluctuations plays the role of modifiers in our simulations and is essential for phase-field modeling of eutectic growth in Al-Si system. The simulated finger-like Al phases and spherical Si particles are very similar to those of experimental eutectic growth in modified Al-Si alloy.

  19. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model. (United States)

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V


    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  20. Phase transitions in a holographic s + p model with back-reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, INPAC, Department of Physics, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai (China); Cai, Rong-Gen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Gao, Xin [Virginia Tech, Department of Physics, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Li, Li [University of Crete, Department of Physics, Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)


    In a previous paper (Nie et al. in JHEP 1311:087, arXiv:1309.2204 [hep-th], 2013), we presented a holographic s + p superconductor model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2) gauge field in the bulk. We also study the competition and coexistence of the s-wave and p-wave orders in the probe limit. In this work we continue to study the model by considering the full back-reaction. The model shows a rich phase structure and various condensate behaviors such as the ''n-type'' and ''u-type'' ones, which are also known as reentrant phase transitions in condensed matter physics. The phase transitions to the p-wave phase or s + p coexisting phase become first order in strong back-reaction cases. In these first order phase transitions, the free energy curve always forms a swallow tail shape, in which the unstable s + p solution can also play an important role. The phase diagrams of this model are given in terms of the dimension of the scalar order and the temperature in the cases of eight different values of the back-reaction parameter, which show that the region for the s + p coexisting phase is enlarged with a small or medium back-reaction parameter but is reduced in the strong back-reaction cases. (orig.)

  1. The Lunar Phases Project: A Mental Model-Based Observational Project for Undergraduate Nonscience Majors (United States)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Mon, Manuel J.; Hibbard, Susan T.


    We present our Lunar Phases Project, an ongoing effort utilizing students' actual observations within a mental model building framework to improve student understanding of the causes and process of the lunar phases. We implement this project with a sample of undergraduate, nonscience major students enrolled in a midsized public university located…

  2. Interface ordering and phase competition in a model Mott-insulator--band-insulator heterostructure


    Okamoto, Satoshi; Andrew J. Millis


    The phase diagram of model Mott-insulator--band-insulator heterostructures is studied using the semiclassical approximation to the dynamical-mean-field method as a function of thickness, coupling constant, and charge confinement. An interface-stabilized ferromagnetic phase is found, allow the study of its competition and possible coexistence with the antiferromagnetic order characteristic of the bulk Mott insulator.


    A two-dimensional finite-element model was developed to predict coupled transient flow and multicomponent transport of organic chemicals which can partition between nonaqueous phase liquid, water, gas and solid phases in porous media under the assumption of local chemical equilib...

  4. Dynamic Characterization and Impulse Response Modeling of Amplitude and Phase Response of Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleary, Ciaran S.; Ji, Hua; Dailey, James M.


    Amplitude and phase dynamics of silicon nanowires were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy. Time shifts of the maximum phase change and minimum amplitude as a function of pump power due to saturation of the free-carrier density were observed. A phenomenological impulse response model used t...

  5. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  6. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  7. Hierarchy of two-phase flow models for autonomous control of cryogenic loading operation (United States)

    Luchinskiy, Dmitry G.; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Kashani, Ali; Khasin, Michael; Timucin, Dogan; Sass, Jared; Perotti, Jose; Brown, Barbara


    We report on the development of a hierarchy of models of cryogenic two-phase flow motivated by NASA plans to develop and maturate technology of cryogenic propellant loading on the ground and in space. The solution of this problem requires models that are fast and accurate enough to identify flow conditions, detect faults, and to propose optimal recovery strategy. The hierarchy of models described in this presentation is ranging from homogeneous moving- front approximation to separated non-equilibrium two-phase cryogenic flow. We compare model predictions with experimental data and discuss possible application of these models to on-line integrated health management and control of cryogenic loading operation.

  8. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: Scientific Objectives and Experimental Design (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; hide


    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. Following on from PlioMIP Phase 1, Phase 2 will continue to be a mechanism for sampling structural uncertainty within climate models. However, Phase 1 demonstrated the requirement to better understand boundary condition uncertainties as well as uncertainty in the methodologies used for data-model comparison. Therefore, our strategy for Phase 2 is to utilize state-of-the-art boundary conditions that have emerged over the last 5 years. These include a new palaeogeographic reconstruction, detailing ocean bathymetry and land-ice surface topography. The ice surface topography is built upon the lessons learned from offline ice sheet modelling studies. Land surface cover has been enhanced by recent additions of Pliocene soils and lakes. Atmospheric reconstructions of palaeo-CO2 are emerging on orbital timescales, and these are also incorporated into PlioMIP Phase 2. New records of surface and sea surface temperature change are being produced that will be more temporally consistent with the boundary conditions and forcings used within models. Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  9. Numerical modeling of two-phase transonic flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halama, Jan; Benkhaldoun, F.; Fořt, Jaroslav


    Roč. 80, č. 88 (2010), s. 1624-1635 ISSN 0378-4754 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/08/0012 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : two-phase flow * condensation * fractional step method Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010

  10. Interactive Model Centric Systems Engineering (IMCSE) Phase 4 (United States)


    about a number of  things  including model  ontologies , model meta‐data,  latest  modeling techniques and classes of models, policies on data rights...Fact‐Finding and the Use of Technical Experts, in The  Consensus  Building  Handbook :  A  Comprehensive  Guide  to  Reaching  Agreement,  ed.  L.  E...Severance,  L.  (2004).  The  Psychology  of  Negotiation  and  Mediation, in APA  Handbook  of Industrial and Organized Psychology, Vol 3, pp. 495

  11. Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens

    -liquid equilibria from data on binary mixtures, composed of structurally simple molecules with a single functional group. More complex is the situation with mixtures composed of structurally more complicated molecules or molecules with more than one functional group. The UNIFAC method is extended to handle...... on ideas applied to modelling of pure component properties. Chapter 2 describes the conceptual background of the approach. Three extensions of the present first-order UNIFAC model are formulated in chapter 3. These obey the Gibbs-Duhem restriction, and satisfy other traditional consistency requirements....... In chapter 4 parameters are estimated for the first-order UNIFAC model, based on which parameters are estimated for one of the second-order models described in chapter 3. The parameter estimation is based on measured binary data on around 4000 systems, covering 11 C-, H- and O-containing functional groups...

  12. A Robust Asymptotically Based Modeling Approach for Two-Phase Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Awad


    Full Text Available A simple semitheoretical method for calculating two-phase frictional pressure gradient in horizontal circular pipes using asymptotic analysis to develop a robust compact model is presented. Two-phase frictional pressure gradient is expressed in terms of the asymptotic single-phase frictional pressure gradients for liquid and gas flowing alone. The proposed model can be transformed into either a two-phase frictional multiplier for liquid flowing alone (ϕl2 or two-phase frictional multiplier for gas flowing alone (ϕg2 as a function of the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter, X. Single-phase friction factors are calculated using the Churchill model which allows for prediction over the full range of laminar-transition-turbulent regions and allows for pipe roughness effects. The proposed model is compared against published data to show the asymptotic behavior. Comparison with other existing correlations for two-phase frictional pressure gradient such as the Chisholm correlation, the Friedel correlation, and the Müller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation, is also presented. Comparison with experimental data for both ϕl and ϕl versus X is also presented. At the end of the paper, the present asymptotic model is also extended to minichannels and microchannels.

  13. Observation of the ground-state geometric phase in a Heisenberg XY model. (United States)

    Peng, Xinhua; Wu, Sanfeng; Li, Jun; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng


    Geometric phases play a central role in a variety of quantum phenomena, especially in condensed matter physics. Recently, it was shown that this fundamental concept exhibits a connection to quantum phase transitions where the system undergoes a qualitative change in the ground state when a control parameter in its Hamiltonian is varied. Here we report the first experimental study using the geometric phase as a topological test of quantum transitions of the ground state in a Heisenberg XY spin model. Using NMR interferometry, we measure the geometric phase for different adiabatic circuits that do not pass through points of degeneracy.

  14. Computational and Mathematical Model with Phase Change and Metal Addition Applied to GMAW

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    dos Santos Maia Neto, Alfredo; Gonçalves de Souza, Marcelo; Alves Figueira Júnior, Edson; Borges, Valério Luiz; Carvalho, Solidônio Rodrigues de


      This work presents a 3D computational/mathematical model to solve the heat diffusion equation with phase change, considering metal addition, complex geometry, and thermal properties varying with temperature...

  15. Model Orlando regionally efficient travel management coordination center (MORE TMCC), phase II : final report. (United States)


    The final report for the Model Orlando Regionally Efficient Travel Management Coordination Center (MORE TMCC) presents the details of : the 2-year process of the partial deployment of the original MORE TMCC design created in Phase I of this project...

  16. U 26: Enhanced finite element analysis crash model of tractor-trailers (Phase C). (United States)


    NTRCI sponsored the research team of Battelle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (UTK) to conduct a : three-phase investigation to enhance and refine a FE model for simulating tractor-semitrailer crash ...

  17. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 Data Model to IDC Schema Mapping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Montoya, Mark Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandoval, Rudy Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vickers, James Wallace [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This initial draft document contains formative data model content for select areas of Re-Engineering Phase 2 IDC System. The purpose of this document is to facilitate discussion among the stakeholders. It is not intended as a definitive proposal.

  18. Modeling second-phase formation during rapid resolidification of stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Eagar, T.W.; Allen, S.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))


    Many common stainless steel (SS) alloy microstructures consist of a mixture of ferrite and austenite phases, however, when these alloys are rapidly resolidified using laser beam (LB) or electron beam (EB) processes they solidify in the single-phase-austenite or single-phase-ferrite mode. This paper investigates the influence of solidification rate on the reduction, and eventual elimination, of second phases during the rapid solidification of SS alloys. The influence of solidification rate on the ferrite content of these alloys was studied by calculating the dendrite-tip undercooling and then incorporating these results into a solute-redistribution model to calculate the relative fractions of primary and secondary phase that solidify from the melt. Single-phase solidification was predicted at high cooling rates and was confirmed through STEM analysis, showing solidification microstructures void of any significant microchemical composition gradients. Results showed a rapid-solidification model was used to calculate the relative fractions of primary and secondary phases that form during the resolidification of stainless steel alloys. The rapid-solidification model shows that the ferrite content of primary-austenite solidified alloys decreases and the ferrite content of primary-ferrite solidified alloys increases with increasing cooling rate. Results of the model indicate that primary-austenite alloys will solidify in the single-phase mode at all interface velocities greater than about 20 mm/s. This value correlates well with experiments. Results of the model indicate that primary-ferrite alloys will solidify in the single-phase mode at all interface velocities greater than about 50 mm/s. The experimentally-observed interface velocity for single-phase-ferrite solidification is significantly less (10 mm/s). This discrepancy is proposed to be related to the relative difficulty of nucleating austenite from the eutectic liquid. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Brittle fracture phase-field modeling of a short-rod specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Ivana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tupek, Michael R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bishop, Joseph E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Predictive simulation capabilities for modeling fracture evolution provide further insight into quantities of interest in comparison to experimental testing. Based on the variational approach to fracture, the advent of phase-field modeling achieves the goal to robustly model fracture for brittle materials and captures complex crack topologies in three dimensions.

  20. Statistical modelling of a stratified two-phase flow; Statistische Modellierung einer geschichteten Zweiphasenstroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Matthias


    A new modeling approach for stratified two-phase flows has been developed. The two-layer turbulence model is a simple method to model the interaction between turbulence and surface waves. The wave amplitude is used here as turbulent length scale in the inner wavy region. It can be calculated from a statistical equilibrium between turbulent kinetic, turbulent potential and turbulent surface energy.

  1. First Order Electroweak Phase Transition from (Non)Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Virkajärvi, Jussi


    We analyse and compare the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition properties of classically (non)conformal extensions of the Standard Model. In the classically conformal scenarios the breaking of the electroweak symmetry is generated radiatively. The models feature new scalars coupled co...... the associated models are testable at the upcoming Large Hadron Collider run two experiments....

  2. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainties in Modeling: Assessment of Phase I Lattice to Core Model Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxelin, Pascal Nicolas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Best-estimate plus uncertainty analysis of reactors is replacing the traditional conservative (stacked uncertainty) method for safety and licensing analysis. To facilitate uncertainty analysis applications, a comprehensive approach and methodology must be developed and applied. High temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) have several features that require techniques not used in light-water reactor analysis (e.g., coated-particle design and large graphite quantities at high temperatures). The International Atomic Energy Agency has therefore launched the Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling to study uncertainty propagation in the HTGR analysis chain. The benchmark problem defined for the prismatic design is represented by the General Atomics Modular HTGR 350. The main focus of this report is the compilation and discussion of the results obtained for various permutations of Exercise I 2c and the use of the cross section data in Exercise II 1a of the prismatic benchmark, which is defined as the last and first steps of the lattice and core simulation phases, respectively. The report summarizes the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) best estimate results obtained for Exercise I 2a (fresh single-fuel block), Exercise I 2b (depleted single-fuel block), and Exercise I 2c (super cell) in addition to the first results of an investigation into the cross section generation effects for the super-cell problem. The two dimensional deterministic code known as the New ESC based Weighting Transport (NEWT) included in the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 6.1.2 package was used for the cross section evaluation, and the results obtained were compared to the three dimensional stochastic SCALE module KENO VI. The NEWT cross section libraries were generated for several permutations of the current benchmark super-cell geometry and were then provided as input to the Phase II core calculation of the stand alone neutronics Exercise

  3. Procedural Modeling for Rapid-Prototyping of Multiple Building Phases (United States)

    Saldana, M.; Johanson, C.


    RomeLab is a multidisciplinary working group at UCLA that uses the city of Rome as a laboratory for the exploration of research approaches and dissemination practices centered on the intersection of space and time in antiquity. In this paper we present a multiplatform workflow for the rapid-prototyping of historical cityscapes through the use of geographic information systems, procedural modeling, and interactive game development. Our workflow begins by aggregating archaeological data in a GIS database. Next, 3D building models are generated from the ArcMap shapefiles in Esri CityEngine using procedural modeling techniques. A GIS-based terrain model is also adjusted in CityEngine to fit the building elevations. Finally, the terrain and city models are combined in Unity, a game engine which we used to produce web-based interactive environments which are linked to the GIS data using keyhole markup language (KML). The goal of our workflow is to demonstrate that knowledge generated within a first-person virtual world experience can inform the evaluation of data derived from textual and archaeological sources, and vice versa.

  4. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications


    Hussein J. Akeiber; Mazlan A. Wahid; Hussen, Hasanen M.; Abdulrahman Th. Mohammad


    The application of phase change materials (PCMs) in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed accordi...

  5. UA(1) breaking and phase transition in chiral random matrix model


    Sano, T.; Fujii, H.; Ohtani, M


    We propose a chiral random matrix model which properly incorporates the flavor-number dependence of the phase transition owing to the \\UA(1) anomaly term. At finite temperature, the model shows the second-order phase transition with mean-field critical exponents for two massless flavors, while in the case of three massless flavors the transition turns out to be of the first order. The topological susceptibility satisfies the anomalous \\UA(1) Ward identity and decreases gradually with the temp...

  6. RCS estimation of linear and planar dipole phased arrays approximate model

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    In this book, the RCS of a parallel-fed linear and planar dipole array is derived using an approximate method. The signal propagation within the phased array system determines the radar cross section (RCS) of phased array. The reflection and transmission coefficients for a signal at different levels of the phased-in scattering array system depend on the impedance mismatch and the design parameters. Moreover the mutual coupling effect in between the antenna elements is an important factor. A phased array system comprises of radiating elements followed by phase shifters, couplers, and terminating load impedance. These components lead to respective impedances towards the incoming signal that travels through them before reaching receive port of the array system. In this book, the RCS is approximated in terms of array factor, neglecting the phase terms. The mutual coupling effect is taken into account. The dependence of the RCS pattern on the design parameters is analyzed. The approximate model is established as a...

  7. Building information modeling in the architectural design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders


    The overall economical benefits of Building Information Modeling are generally comprehensible, but are there other problems with the implementation of BIM as a formulized system in a field that ultimately is dependant on a creative input? Is optimization and economic benefit really contributing...... with an architectural quality? In Denmark the implementation of the digital working methods related to BIM has been introduced by government law in 2007. Will the important role of the architect as designer change in accordance with these new methods, and does the idea of one big integrated model represent a paradox...... in relation to designing? The BIM mindset requires changes on many levels....

  8. Reconstructed jets in a multi-phase transport model (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Liang


    With a framework of a multiphase transport model, we studied various of properties of fully reconstructed jets, including dijet asymmetry, jet shape, jet fragmentation function, jet azimuthal anisotropy, and overall momentum balance of dijet events. Our studies concentrate on the stage evolution of these full jet observables in heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate that the medium modification effect on these observables mainly arises from strong interactions between jet and partonic matter, with further slight modifications from hadronization and hadronic rescatterings. Our model results provide a dynamical understanding of jet transport process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Quasi-phases and pseudo-transitions in one-dimensional models with nearest neighbor interactions (United States)

    de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre


    There are some particular one-dimensional models, such as the Ising-Heisenberg spin models with a variety of chain structures, which exhibit unexpected behaviors quite similar to the first and second order phase transition, which could be confused naively with an authentic phase transition. Through the analysis of the first derivative of free energy, such as entropy, magnetization, and internal energy, a "sudden" jump that closely resembles a first-order phase transition at finite temperature occurs. However, by analyzing the second derivative of free energy, such as specific heat and magnetic susceptibility at finite temperature, it behaves quite similarly to a second-order phase transition exhibiting an astonishingly sharp and fine peak. The correlation length also confirms the evidence of this pseudo-transition temperature, where a sharp peak occurs at the pseudo-critical temperature. We also present the necessary conditions for the emergence of these quasi-phases and pseudo-transitions.

  10. Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.


    This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

  11. A development of multi-Species mass transport model considering thermodynamic phase equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosokawa, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Kazuo; Johannesson, Björn


    ) variation in solid-phase composition when using different types of cement, (ii) physicochemical evaluation of steel corrosion initiation behaviour by calculating the molar ratio of chloride ion to hydroxide ion [Cl]/[OH] in pore solution, (iii) complicated changes of solid-phase composition caused......In this paper, a multi-species mass transport model, which can predict time dependent variation of pore solution and solid-phase composition due to the mass transport into the hardened cement paste, has been developed. Since most of the multi-species models established previously, based...

  12. Phase Transitions in Lattice-Gas Models Far from Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Schulman, L.S.


    A lattice-gas model with particle-conserving hopping dynamics on a periodic lattice is exposed to a strong external field along one of the principal axes. The resulting stationary state is determined exactly in the limit of infinite ratio of jump rates in and perpendicular to the field direction. In

  13. Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.; Winn, C.B.


    Results obtained from a validation study of the TRNSYS, SIMSHAC, and SOLCOST solar system simulation and design are presented. Also included are comparisons between the FCHART and SOLCOST solar system design programs and some changes that were made to the SOLCOST program. Finally, results obtained from the analysis of several solar radiation models are presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for ten papers.

  14. Modeling of phase equilibria with CPA using the homomorph approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    For association models, like CPA and SAFT, a classical approach is often used for estimating pure-compound and mixture parameters. According to this approach, the pure-compound parameters are estimated from vapor pressure and liquid density data. Then, the binary interaction parameters, kij, are ...

  15. Building a Virtual Model of a Baleen Whale: Phase 2 (United States)


    contribute to the sound reception process by producing differences in the vibrational characteristics of these components. Two finite element models...A. (2011). "The Comparative Osteology of the Petrotympanic Complex (Ear Region) of Extant Baleen Whales ( Cetacea : Mysticeti)," in PLoS ONE

  16. Coupled Interfacial Tension and Phase Behavior Model Based on Micellar Curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, V. A.


    This article introduces a consistent and robust model that predicts interfacial tensions for all microemulsion Winsor types and overall compositions. The model incorporates film bending arguments and Huh\\'s equation and is coupled to phase behavior so that simultaneous tuning of both interfacial tension (IFT) and phase behavior is possible. The oil-water interfacial tension and characteristic length are shown to be related to each other through the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD). The phase behavior is tied to the micelle curvatures, without the need for using the net average curvature (NAC). The interfacial tension model is related to solubilization ratios in order to introduce a coupled interfacial tension-phase behavior model for all phase environments. The approach predicts two- and three-phase interfacial tensions and phase behavior (i.e., tie lines and tie triangles) for changes in composition and HLD input parameters, such as temperature, pressure, surfactant structure, and oil equivalent alkane carbon number. Comparisons to experimental data show excellent fits and predictive capability.

  17. Detecting Gait Phases from RGB-D Images Based on Hidden Markov Model. (United States)

    Heravi, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Afshin; Olyaee, Ehsan


    Gait contains important information about the status of the human body and physiological signs. In many medical applications, it is important to monitor and accurately analyze the gait of the patient. Since walking shows the reproducibility signs in several phases, separating these phases can be used for the gait analysis. In this study, a method based on image processing for extracting phases of human gait from RGB-Depth images is presented. The sequence of depth images from the front view has been processed to extract the lower body depth profile and distance features. Feature vector extracted from image is the same as observation vector of hidden Markov model, and the phases of gait are considered as hidden states of the model. After training the model using the images which are randomly selected as training samples, the phase estimation of gait becomes possible using the model. The results confirm the rate of 60-40% of two major phases of the gait and also the mid-stance phase is recognized with 85% precision.

  18. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy


    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  19. Fractional single-phase-lagging heat conduction model for describing anomalous diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Mishra


    Full Text Available The fractional single-phase-lagging (FSPL heat conduction model is obtained by combining scalar time fractional conservation equation to the single-phase-lagging (SPL heat conduction model. Based on the FSPL heat conduction model, anomalous diffusion within a finite thin film is investigated. The effect of different parameters on solution has been observed and studied the asymptotic behavior of the FSPL model. The analytical solution is obtained using Laplace transform method. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. Numerical examples of particular interest have been studied and discussed in details.

  20. 2d frustrated Ising model with four phases


    Pasquini, M.; Serva, M.


    In this paper we consider a 2d random Ising system on a square lattice with nearest neighbour interactions. The disorder is short range correlated and asymmetry between the vertical and the horizontal direction is admitted. More precisely, the vertical bonds are supposed to be non random while the horizontal bonds alternate: one row of all non random horizontal bonds is followed by one row where they are independent dichotomic random variables. We solve the model using an approximate approach...

  1. 2014 Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Isabelle [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [Energy Solutions, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gilbo, Konstantin [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report describes the results of testing specified by the Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, VSL-13T3050-1, Rev. 0 Test Plan. The work was performed in compliance with the quality assurance requirements specified in the Test Plan. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. The te4st results and this report have been reviewed for correctness, technical adequacy, completeness, and accuracy.

  2. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe


    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  3. Two-fluid model for reacting turbulent two-phase flows (United States)

    Chan, S. H.; Abou-Ellail, M. M. M.


    A reacting two-fluid model, based on the solution of separate transport equations for reacting gas-liquid two-phase flow, is presented. New time-mean transport equations for two-phase mixture fraction bar-f and its variance g are derived. The new two-fluid transport equations for bar-f and g are useful for two-phase reacting flows in which phases strongly interact. They are applicable to both submerged and nonsubmerged combustion. A pdf approach to the reaction process is adopted. The mixture fraction pdf assumes the shape of a beta function while the instantaneous thermochemical properties are computed from an equilibrium model. The proposed two-fluid model is verified by predicting turbulent flow structures of an n-pentane spray flame and a nonreacting bubbly jet flow for which experimental data exist. Good agreement is found between the predictions and the corresponding experimental data.

  4. Numerical model of phase transformation of steel C80U during hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański


    Full Text Available The article concerns numerical modelling of the phase transformations in solid state hardening of tool steel C80U. The transformations were assumed: initial structure – austenite, austenite – perlite, bainite and austenite – martensite. Model for evaluation of fractions of phases and their kinetics based on continuous heating diagram (CHT and continuous cooling diagram (CCT. The dilatometric tests on the simulator of thermal cycles were performed. The results of dilatometric tests were compared with the results of the test numerical simulations. In this way the derived models for evaluating phase content and kinetics of transformations in heating and cooling processes were verified. The results of numerical simulations confirm correctness of the algorithm that were worked out. In the numerical example the simulated estimation of the phase fraction in the hardened axisimmetrical element was performed.

  5. A 3-phase model for mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification in DC casting of bronze (United States)

    Hao, J.; Grasser, M.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.; Riedle, J.; Eberle, R.


    A three-phase Eulerian approach is used to model the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) during solidification in DC casting of technical bronze. The three phases are the melt, the solidifying columnar dendrites and the equiaxed grains. They are considered as spatially interpenetrating and interacting continua by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, species and enthalpy for all three phases. The so defined solidification model is applied to a binary CuSn6 DC casting process as a benchmark to demonstrate the model potentials. Two cases are studied: one considering only feeding flow and one including both feeding flow and equiaxed sedimentation. The simulated results of mixed columnar and equiaxed solidification are presented and discussed including the occurrence of CET, phase distribution, feeding flow, equiaxed sedimentation and their influence on macrosegregation.

  6. Bifurcation analysis and phase diagram of a spin-string model with buckled states (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, M.; Bonilla, L. L.; Prados, A.


    We analyze a one-dimensional spin-string model, in which string oscillators are linearly coupled to their two nearest neighbors and to Ising spins representing internal degrees of freedom. String-spin coupling induces a long-range ferromagnetic interaction among spins that competes with a spin-spin antiferromagnetic coupling. As a consequence, the complex phase diagram of the system exhibits different flat rippled and buckled states, with first or second order transition lines between states. This complexity translates to the two-dimensional version of the model, whose numerical solution has been recently used to explain qualitatively the rippled to buckled transition observed in scanning tunneling microscopy experiments with suspended graphene sheets. Here we describe in detail the phase diagram of the simpler one-dimensional model and phase stability using bifurcation theory. This gives additional insight into the physical mechanisms underlying the different phases and the behavior observed in experiments.

  7. Application of a computable model of human spatial vision to phase discrimination (United States)

    Nielsen, K. R. K.; Watson, A. B.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.


    A computable model of human spatial vision is used to make predictions for phase-discrimination experiments. This model is being developed to deal with a broad range of problems in vision and was not specifically formulated to deal with phase discrimination. In the model, cross-correlation of the stimuli with an array of sensors produces feature vectors that are operated on by a position-uncertain ideal observer to simulate detection and discrimination experiments. In this report, the stimuli are compound sinusoidal gratings composed of a fundamental and a higher-frequency component added in various phases. Model predictions are compared with three key results from the literature: (1) the effect of the contrast of the fundamental on phase discrimination, (2) threshold phase difference as a function of the fundamental frequency, and (3) the contrast required for phase discrimination as a function of the frequency ratio of the two grating components. In the first two cases, the predictions capture the main features of the data, although quantitative discrepancies remain. In the third case, the model fails, and this failure suggests additional restrictions on the combination of information across sensors.

  8. On the relation between phase-field crack approximation and gradient damage modelling (United States)

    Steinke, Christian; Zreid, Imadeddin; Kaliske, Michael


    The finite element implementation of a gradient enhanced microplane damage model is compared to a phase-field model for brittle fracture. Phase-field models and implicit gradient damage models share many similarities despite being conceived from very different standpoints. In both approaches, an additional differential equation and a length scale are introduced. However, while the phase-field method is formulated starting from the description of a crack in fracture mechanics, the gradient method starts from a continuum mechanics point of view. At first, the scope of application for both models is discussed to point out intersections. Then, the analysis of the employed mathematical methods and their rigorous comparison are presented. Finally, numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the findings of the comparison which are summarized in a conclusion at the end of the paper.

  9. Parallel phase model : a programming model for high-end parallel machines with manycores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junfeng (Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY); Wen, Zhaofang; Heroux, Michael Allen; Brightwell, Ronald Brian


    This paper presents a parallel programming model, Parallel Phase Model (PPM), for next-generation high-end parallel machines based on a distributed memory architecture consisting of a networked cluster of nodes with a large number of cores on each node. PPM has a unified high-level programming abstraction that facilitates the design and implementation of parallel algorithms to exploit both the parallelism of the many cores and the parallelism at the cluster level. The programming abstraction will be suitable for expressing both fine-grained and coarse-grained parallelism. It includes a few high-level parallel programming language constructs that can be added as an extension to an existing (sequential or parallel) programming language such as C; and the implementation of PPM also includes a light-weight runtime library that runs on top of an existing network communication software layer (e.g. MPI). Design philosophy of PPM and details of the programming abstraction are also presented. Several unstructured applications that inherently require high-volume random fine-grained data accesses have been implemented in PPM with very promising results.

  10. Isogeometric Analysis for Topology Optimization with a Phase Field Model (United States)


    Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 2003. [13] M. Bischoff, W.A. Wall, K.U. Bletzinger, E. Ramm , Models and finite elements for thin–walled structures, in...Bletzinger and K. Maute, Towards generalized shape and topology optimiza- tion, Eng. Optim. 29 (1997), 201–216. [15] K.U. Bletzinger and E. Ramm , Form...finding of shells by structural optimization, Engng. with Comp. 9 (1993), 27–35. [16] K.U. Bletzinger, R. Reitnger, S. Kimmich and E. Ramm , Shape

  11. Phase diagram of the uniaxial and biaxial soft-core Gay-Berne model. (United States)

    Berardi, Roberto; Lintuvuori, Juho S; Wilson, Mark R; Zannoni, Claudio


    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been used to explore the phase diagrams for a family of attractive-repulsive soft-core Gay-Berne models [R. Berardi, C. Zannoni, J. S. Lintuvuori, and M. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 174107 (2009)] and determine the effect of particle softness, i.e., of a moderately repulsive short-range interaction, on the order parameters and phase behaviour of model systems of uniaxial and biaxial ellipsoidal particles. We have found that isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial nematic and smectic phases are obtained for the model. Extensive calculations of the nematic region of the phase diagram show that endowing mesogenic particles with such soft repulsive interactions affect the stability range of the nematic phases, and in the case of phase biaxiality it also shifts it to lower temperatures. For colloidal particles, stabilised by surface functionalisation, (e.g., with polymer chains), we suggest that it should be possible to tune liquid crystal behaviour to increase the range of stability of uniaxial and biaxial phases (by varying solvent quality). We calculate second virial coefficients and show that they are a useful means of characterising the change in effective softness for such systems. For thermotropic liquid crystals, the introduction of softness in the interactions between mesogens with overall biaxial shape (e.g., through appropriate conformational flexibility) could provide a pathway for the actual chemical synthesis of stable room-temperature biaxial nematics. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Thermodynamically Consistent Algorithms for the Solution of Phase-Field Models

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe


    Phase-field models are emerging as a promising strategy to simulate interfacial phenomena. Rather than tracking interfaces explicitly as done in sharp interface descriptions, these models use a diffuse order parameter to monitor interfaces implicitly. This implicit description, as well as solid physical and mathematical footings, allow phase-field models to overcome problems found by predecessors. Nonetheless, the method has significant drawbacks. The phase-field framework relies on the solution of high-order, nonlinear partial differential equations. Solving these equations entails a considerable computational cost, so finding efficient strategies to handle them is important. Also, standard discretization strategies can many times lead to incorrect solutions. This happens because, for numerical solutions to phase-field equations to be valid, physical conditions such as mass conservation and free energy monotonicity need to be guaranteed. In this work, we focus on the development of thermodynamically consistent algorithms for time integration of phase-field models. The first part of this thesis focuses on an energy-stable numerical strategy developed for the phase-field crystal equation. This model was put forward to model microstructure evolution. The algorithm developed conserves, guarantees energy stability and is second order accurate in time. The second part of the thesis presents two numerical schemes that generalize literature regarding energy-stable methods for conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The time discretization strategies can conserve mass if needed, are energy-stable, and second order accurate in time. We also develop an adaptive time-stepping strategy, which can be applied to any second-order accurate scheme. This time-adaptive strategy relies on a backward approximation to give an accurate error estimator. The spatial discretization, in both parts, relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. The codes are

  13. Out-of-equilibrium phase transitions in the Hamiltonian mean-field model: a closer look. (United States)

    Staniscia, F; Chavanis, P H; De Ninno, G


    We provide a detailed discussion of out-of-equilibrium phase transitions in the Hamiltonian mean-field (HMF) model in the framework of Lynden-Bell's statistical theory of the Vlasov equation. For two-level initial conditions, the caloric curve β(E) only depends on the initial value f(0) of the distribution function. We evidence different regions in the parameter space where the nature of the phase transitions between magnetized and nonmagnetized states changes: (i) For f(0)>0.10965, the system displays a second-order phase transition; (ii) for 0.109497phase transition and a first-order phase transition; (iii) for 0.10947phase transitions; and (iv) for f(0)phase transition. The passage from a first-order to a second-order phase transition corresponds to a tricritical point. The sudden appearance of two second-order phase transitions from nothing corresponds to a second-order azeotropy. This is associated with a phenomenon of phase reentrance. When metastable states are taken into account, the problem becomes even richer. In particular, we find another situation of phase reentrance. We consider both microcanonical and canonical ensembles and report the existence of a tiny region of ensemble inequivalence. We also explain why the use of the initial magnetization M(0) as an external parameter, instead of the phase level f(0), may lead to inconsistencies in the thermodynamical analysis. Finally, we mention different causes of incomplete relaxation that could be a limitation to the application of Lynden-Bell's theory.

  14. Bayes Estimation of Two-Phase Linear Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuri Pandya


    Full Text Available Let the regression model be Yi=β1Xi+εi, where εi are i. i. d. N (0,σ2 random errors with variance σ2>0 but later it was found that there was a change in the system at some point of time m and it is reflected in the sequence after Xm by change in slope, regression parameter β2. The problem of study is when and where this change has started occurring. This is called change point inference problem. The estimators of m, β1,β2 are derived under asymmetric loss functions, namely, Linex loss & General Entropy loss functions. The effects of correct and wrong prior information on the Bayes estimates are studied.

  15. Phase-field lattice Boltzmann modeling of boiling using a sharp-interface energy solver (United States)

    Mohammadi-Shad, Mahmood; Lee, Taehun


    The main objective of this paper is to extend an isothermal incompressible two-phase lattice Boltzmann equation method to model liquid-vapor phase change problems using a sharp-interface energy solver. Two discrete particle distribution functions, one for the continuity equation and the other for the pressure evolution and momentum equations, are considered in the current model. The sharp-interface macroscopic internal energy equation is discretized with an isotropic finite difference method to find temperature distribution in the system. The mass flow generated at liquid-vapor phase interface is embedded in the pressure evolution equation. The sharp-interface treatment of internal energy equation helps to find the interfacial mass flow rate accurately where no free parameter is needed in the calculations. The proposed model is verified against available theoretical solutions of the two-phase Stefan problem and the two-phase sucking interface problem, with which our simulation results are in good agreement. The liquid droplet evaporation in a superheated vapor, the vapor bubble growth in a superheated liquid, and the vapor bubble rising in a superheated liquid are analyzed and underlying physical characteristics are discussed in detail. The model is successfully tested for the liquid-vapor phase change with large density ratio up to 1000.

  16. Phase description of the Huber-Braun neuron model for mammalian cold receptors (United States)

    Freund, J. A.; Finke, C.; Braun, H. A.; Feudel, U.


    The spiking activity of mammalian cold receptors is described by the Huber-Braun neuron model. Sweeping temperature as a control parameter across a biologically relevant range this model exhibits a complex bifurcation structure seen in the sequence of interspike intervals. The model's distinctive feature is the interaction between a fast spike generating dynamics and a slow subthreshold oscillation. Viewing the spike generation as a cycle, the dynamics may also be modeled phenomenologically by two phases, one for the spike cycle and the second for the slow subthreshold oscillation. In fact, a phase model of temperature-dependent mammalian cold receptors was already proposed by Roper et al. (2000). Here we follow their approach and investigate to what extent this model is able to reproduce the bifurcation patterns of the Huber-Braun model. Special attention is paid to the tonic firing to bursting transition observed in the low temperature range.

  17. Fermionic Symmetry-Protected Topological Phase in a Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model. (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chien; Muechler, Lukas; Car, Roberto; Neupert, Titus; Maciejko, Joseph


    We study the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model using exact diagonalization for spin-1/2 fermions on the triangular and honeycomb lattices decorated with a single hexagon per site. In certain parameter ranges, the Hubbard model maps to a quantum compass model on those lattices. On the triangular lattice, the compass model exhibits collinear stripe antiferromagnetism, implying d-density wave charge order in the original Hubbard model. On the honeycomb lattice, the compass model has a unique, quantum disordered ground state that transforms nontrivially under lattice reflection. The ground state of the Hubbard model on the decorated honeycomb lattice is thus a 2D fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase. This state-protected by time-reversal and reflection symmetries-cannot be connected adiabatically to a free-fermion topological phase.

  18. Identification and modelling of a three phase arc furnace for voltage disturbance simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes-Bellido, R.; Gomez, T. [Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica


    This paper presents a new arc furnace model which copes with the two main voltage disturbances normally associated with arc furnaces: voltage fluctuations and harmonics. The model is based on the stochastic nature of the electric arc current-voltage characteristic. The model has been estimated from measurements made in two actual electric plants. Although a single-phase model has been normally proposed, this paper develops a three-phase model in order to fully represent the unbalances that are present in real plants and which play a central role in the behavior of compensation devices such as SVCs. The model has been implemented using the SIMULINK environment in order to facilitate later simulation of advanced disturbance control systems. Finally, the simulation results are compared with actual data in order to validate the accuracy of the model.

  19. Impact of the initialisation on population balance CFD models coupled with two-phase flow (United States)

    Hliwa, Ghizlane Zineb; Bannari, Rachid; Belghiti, Mly Taib


    Several studies have been made about Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of bubble columns and compared to experimental data. In the present work, a rectangular bubble column is simulated using a model of two-phase flows. The inter-phase forces are used. A population balance equation is introduced by comparing two different models to account the effects of bubble size distribution. The turbulence model k-ɛ is used with mixture transport properties. In this work, the impact of boundary conditions at the inlet is studied. The numerical predictions are validated with experimental data available in the literature.

  20. A New Appraoch to Modeling Immiscible Two-phase Flow in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    based on Rapoport-Leas Equation and Film Model, a systematic literature review of the LBM CFD methods including the particle-based LBM and porous-medium-based LBM for multiphase flow, and the sample calculation of particle-based LBM in a random porous medium. Finally we come to present a new approach......In this work we present a systematic literature review regarding the macroscopic approaches to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media, the formulation process of the incorporate PDE based on Film Model(viscous coupling), the calculation of saturation profile around the transition zone...... to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. The suggested approach to immiscible two-phase flow in porous media describes the dispersed mesoscopic fluids’ interfaces which are highly influenced by the injected interfacial energy and the local interfacial energy capacity. It reveals a new...

  1. A Coupled Phase-Temperature Model for Dynamics of Transient Neuronal Signal in Mammals Cold Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Ahmad Kirana


    Full Text Available We propose a theoretical model consisting of coupled differential equation of membrane potential phase and temperature for describing the neuronal signal in mammals cold receptor. Based on the results from previous work by Roper et al., we modified a nonstochastic phase model for cold receptor neuronal signaling dynamics in mammals. We introduce a new set of temperature adjusted functional parameters which allow saturation characteristic at high and low steady temperatures. The modified model also accommodates the transient neuronal signaling process from high to low temperature by introducing a nonlinear differential equation for the “effective temperature” changes which is coupled to the phase differential equation. This simple model can be considered as a candidate for describing qualitatively the physical mechanism of the corresponding transient process.

  2. Effect of viscosity on wave propagation in anisotropic thermoelastic medium with three-phase-lag model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajneesh


    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to study the wave propagation in anisotropic viscoelastic medium in the context of the theory threephase- lag model of thermoelasticity. It is found that there exist two quasi-longitudinal waves (qP1, qP2 and two transverse waves (qS1, qS2. The governing equations for homogeneous transversely isotropic thermoviscoelastic are reduced as a special case from the considered model. Different characteristics of waves like phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, specific loss and penetration depth are computed from the obtained results. Viscous effect is shown graphically on different resulting quantities for two-phase-lag model and three-phase-lag model of thermoelasticity. Some particular cases of interest are also deduced from the present investigation.

  3. Numerical modelling of tools steel hardening. A thermal phenomena and phase transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański


    Full Text Available This paper the model hardening of tool steel takes into considerations of thermal phenomena and phase transformations in the solid state are presented. In the modelling of thermal phenomena the heat equations transfer has been solved by Finite Elements Method. The graph of continuous heating (CHT and continuous cooling (CCT considered steel are used in the model of phase transformations. Phase altered fractions during the continuous heating austenite and continuous cooling pearlite or bainite are marked in the model by formula Johnson-Mehl and Avrami. For rate of heating >100 K/s the modified equation Koistinen and Marburger is used. Modified equation Koistinen and Marburger identify the forming fraction of martensite.

  4. Phase models and clustering in networks of oscillators with delayed coupling (United States)

    Campbell, Sue Ann; Wang, Zhen


    We consider a general model for a network of oscillators with time delayed coupling where the coupling matrix is circulant. We use the theory of weakly coupled oscillators to reduce the system of delay differential equations to a phase model where the time delay enters as a phase shift. We use the phase model to determine model independent existence and stability results for symmetric cluster solutions. Our results extend previous work to systems with time delay and a more general coupling matrix. We show that the presence of the time delay can lead to the coexistence of multiple stable clustering solutions. We apply our analytical results to a network of Morris Lecar neurons and compare these results with numerical continuation and simulation studies.

  5. The behavior of commensurate-incommensurate transitions using the phase field crystal model (United States)

    Zhang, Tinghui; Lu, Yanli; Chen, Zheng


    We study the behavior of the commensurate-incommensurate (CI) transitions by using a phase field crystal model. The model is capable of modeling both elastic and plastic deformation and can simulate the evolution of the microstructure of the material at the atomic scale and the diffusive time scale, such as for adsorbed monolayer. Specifically, we study the behavior of the CI transitions as a function of lattice mismatch and the amplitude of substrate pinning potential. The behavior of CI phase transitions is revealed with the increase of the amplitude of pinning potential in some certain lattice mismatches. We find that for the negative lattice mismatch absorbed monolayer undergoes division, reorganization and displacement as increasing the amplitude of substrate pinning potential. In addition, for the positive mismatch absorbed monolayer undergoes a progress of phase transformation after a complete grain is split. Our results accord with simulations for atomic models of absorbed monolayer on a substrate surface.

  6. Creating physically-based three-dimensional microstructures: Bridging phase-field and crystal plasticity models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Owen, Steven J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanks, Byron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.

  7. A phenomenological two-phase constitutive model for porous shape memory alloys

    KAUST Repository

    El Sayed, Tamer S.


    We present a two-phase constitutive model for pseudoelastoplastic behavior of porous shape memory alloys (SMAs). The model consists of a dense SMA phase and a porous plasticity phase. The overall response of the porous SMA is obtained by a weighted average of responses of individual phases. Based on the chosen constitutive model parameters, the model incorporates the pseudoelastic and pseudoplastic behavior simultaneously (commonly reported for porous SMAs) as well as sequentially (i.e. dense SMAs; pseudoelastic deformation followed by the pseudoplastic deformation until failure). The presented model also incorporates failure due to the deviatoric (shear band formation) and volumetric (void growth and coalescence) plastic deformation. The model is calibrated by representative volume elements (RVEs) with different sizes of spherical voids that are solved by unit cell finite element calculations. The overall response of the model is tested against experimental results from literature. Finally, application of the presented constitutive model has been presented by performing finite element simulations of the deformation and failure in unaixial dog-bone shaped specimen and compact tension (CT) test specimen. Results show a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Constitutive modeling of two phase materials using the Mean Field method for homogenization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.


    A Mean-Field homogenization framework for constitutive modeling of materials involving two distinct elastic-plastic phases is presented. With this approach it is possible to compute the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this type of materials based on the constitutive models of the constituent

  9. Electronic phase diagram in the half-filled ionic Hubbard model with site-dependent interactions (United States)

    Hoang, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Thi-Hai-Yen; Le, Duc-Anh


    The ionic Hubbard model with spatially alternating interactions, which may be realized by cold atoms in optical lattices, is studied by mean of the coherent potential approximation. The paramagnetic phase diagram for the half-filled model at zero temperature is obtained. The possibility of enlarging an intermediate metallic region in the parameter space is addressed.

  10. A spherical wave expansion model of sequentially rotated phased arrays with arbitrary elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav


    An analytical model of sequentially rotated phased arrays with arbitrary antenna elements is presented. It is applied to different arrays and the improvements of axial ratio bandwidth and copolar directivity are investigated. It is compared to a numerical method of auxiliary Sources model to asce...... to ascertain the accuracy and limitations. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  11. Dynamic simulation of dispersed gas-liquid two-phase flow using a discrete bubble model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, E.; Lammers, F.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    In this paper a detailed hydrodynamic model for gas-liquid two-phase flow will be presented. The model is based on a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and describes the time-dependent two-dimensional motion of small, spherical gas bubbles in a bubble column operating in the homogeneous regime. The

  12. Absence of a spin liquid phase in the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorella, Sandro; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yunoki, Seiji


    .... Very recently, it has been reported that a model of graphene, i.e., the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice, can show a spin liquid ground state in a wide region of the phase diagram, between a semi-metal (SM...

  13. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P

    We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Espanol and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by

  14. Improved thermal lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of liquid-vapor phase change (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhou, P.; Yan, H. J.


    In this paper, an improved thermal lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for simulating liquid-vapor phase change, which is aimed at improving an existing thermal LB model for liquid-vapor phase change [S. Gong and P. Cheng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 4923 (2012), 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.04.037]. First, we emphasize that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇.(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) is an inappropriate treatment for diffuse interface modeling of liquid-vapor phase change. Furthermore, the error terms ∂t 0(T v ) +∇ .(T vv ) , which exist in the macroscopic temperature equation recovered from the previous model, are eliminated in the present model through a way that is consistent with the philosophy of the LB method. Moreover, the discrete effect of the source term is also eliminated in the present model. Numerical simulations are performed for droplet evaporation and bubble nucleation to validate the capability of the model for simulating liquid-vapor phase change. It is shown that the numerical results of the improved model agree well with those of a finite-difference scheme. Meanwhile, it is found that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇ .(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) leads to significant numerical errors and the error terms in the recovered macroscopic temperature equation also result in considerable errors.

  15. State-of-the-art models for the phase diagram of carbon and diamond nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Valeriani, C.; Los, J.H.; Meijer, E.J.; Fasolino, A.; Frenkel, D.


    We review recent developments in the modelling of the phase diagram and the kinetics of crystallization of carbon. In particular, we show that a particular class of bond-order potentials (the so-called LCBOP models) account well for many of the known structural and thermodynamic properties of carbon

  16. Advanced induction machine model in phase coordinates for wind turbine applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajardo, L.A.; Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela


    In this paper an advanced phase coordinates squirrel cage induction machine model with time varying electrical parameters affected by magnetic saturation and rotor deep bar effects, is presented. The model uses standard data sheet for characterization of the electrical parameters, it is developed...

  17. Calculation of the P-T phase diagram of nitrogen using a mean field model (United States)

    Enginer, Y.; Algul, G.; Yurtseven, H.


    The P-T phase diagram is calculated at low and moderate pressures by obtaining the phase line equations for the transitions considered in nitrogen using the Landau phenomenological model. For some transitions, a quadratic coupling between the order parameters is taken into account in the expansion of free energies in terms of the order parameters. A quadratic function in T and P is fitted to the experimental P-T data from the literature and the fitted parameters are determined. It is shown that the model studied here describes the observed data adequately, which can also be used to predict the thermodynamic properties of the phases of the molecular nitrogen within the temperatures and pressures of the P-T phase diagram of this system.

  18. Bilayered smectic phase polymorphism in the dipolar Gay-Berne liquid crystal model. (United States)

    Houssa, Mohammed; Rull, Luis F; Romero-Enrique, Jose M


    We present computer simulations of the Gay-Berne model with a strong terminal dipole. We report the existence of different stable antiferroelectric interdigitated bilayered phases in this model with diverse in-plane organization. The occurrence of these phases depends crucially on the value of the molecular elongation kappa. For kappa=3 we find an interdigitated bilayered smectic-A phase (absent when there is no dipole) and a bilayered smectic-T (or crystal) with positional in-plane tetragonal ordering, different from the hexatic observed in the absence of the molecular dipole. For kappa=4, bilayered smectic-A and in-plane hexatic-ordered smectic-B (or crystal) phases are observed.

  19. Phase equilibria of a lattice model for an oil{endash}water{endash}amphiphile mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, A.D.; Onur, K.; Panagiotopoulos, A.Z. [School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-5201 (United States)


    Monte Carlo simulation and quasichemical theory are used to study the phase behavior of a lattice model for oil{endash}water{endash}amphiphile ternary systems. Several short amphiphiles with varying tail and head lengths are studied. Two- and three-phase coexistence regions are observed as well as the formation of microemulsions. In contrast to previous work on this model, quantitative phase diagrams are determined for both symmetric and asymmetric amphiphiles. The removal and regrowth of whole chains by configurational bias methods is used to help equilibration and sampling. Near quantitative agreement is found between quasichemical theory and our simulations except when one of the phases self-assembles or in the vicinity of a critical point. In these areas the quasichemical theory is still qualitatively correct. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Investigation of degenerate dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier using multi-wave model. (United States)

    Xie, Weilin; Fsaifes, Ihsan; Labidi, Tarek; Bretenaker, Fabien


    Operation of a degenerate dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier (PSA) is thoroughly numerically investigated using a multi-wave model, taking into account high-order waves associated with undesired four-wave mixing (FWM) processes. More accurate phase-sensitive signal gain characteristics are obtained compared to the conventional 3-wave model, leading to precise optimization of the pump configuration in a degenerate dual-pump PSA. The signal gain for different pump configurations, as well as the phase sensitivity, is obtained and interpreted by investigating the dominant FWM processes in terms of the corresponding phase matching. Moreover, the relation between dispersion slope and the width of the signal gain curve versus the pump-pump wavelength separation is revealed, permitting the application-oriented arbitrary tailoring of the signal gains by manipulating the dispersion profile and pump wavelength allocation.

  1. Phase transitions of the dimerized Kane-Mele model with/without strong interaction (United States)

    Du, Tao; Li, Yue-Xun; Li, Yan; Lu, He-Lin; Zhang, Hui


    The dimerized Kane-Mele model with/without strong interaction is studied using analytical methods. The boundary of the topological phase transition of the model without strong interaction is obtained. Our results show that the occurrence of the transition only depends on dimerized parameter α . From the one-particle spectrum, we obtain the completed phase diagram including the quantum spin Hall state and the topologically trivial insulator. Then, using different mean field methods, we investigate the Mott transition and the magnetic transition of the strongly correlated dimerized Kane-Mele model. In the region between the two transitions, the topological Mott insulator with characteristics of Mott insulators and topological phases may be the most interesting phase. In this work, the effects of hopping anisotropy and Hubbard interaction U on the boundaries of the two transitions are observed in detail. The completed phase diagram of the dimerized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model is also obtained in this work. Quantum fluctuations have extremely important influences on a quantum system. However, investigations are under the framework of mean field treatment in this work and the effects of fluctuations in this model will be discussed in the future.

  2. PLL application research of a broadband MEMS phase detector: Theory, measurement and modeling (United States)

    Han, Juzheng; Liao, Xiaoping


    This paper evaluates the capability of a broadband MEMS phase detector in the application of phase locked loops (PLLs) through the aspect of theory, measurement and modeling. For the first time, it demonstrates how broadband property and optimized structure are realized through cascaded transmission lines and ANSYS simulations. The broadband MEMS phase detector shows potential in PLL application for its dc voltage output and large power handling ability which is important for munition applications. S-parameters of the power combiner in the MEMS phase detector are measured with S11 better than -15 dB and S23 better than -10 dB over the whole X-band. Compared to our previous works, developed phase detection measurements are performed and focused on signals at larger power levels up to 1 W. Cosine tendencies are revealed between the output voltage and the phase difference for both small and large signals. Simulation approach through equivalent circuit modeling is proposed to study the PLL application of the broadband MEMS phase detector. Synchronization and tracking properties are revealed.

  3. Modeling Phase-transitions Using a High-performance, Isogeometric Analysis Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe


    In this paper, we present a high-performance framework for solving partial differential equations using Isogeometric Analysis, called PetIGA, and show how it can be used to solve phase-field problems. We specifically chose the Cahn-Hilliard equation, and the phase-field crystal equation as test cases. These two models allow us to highlight some of the main advantages that we have access to while using PetIGA for scientific computing.

  4. Equilibrium Phase Behavior of the Square-Well Linear Microphase-Forming Model. (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Charbonneau, Patrick


    We have recently developed a simulation approach to calculate the equilibrium phase diagram of particle-based microphase formers. Here, this approach is used to calculate the phase behavior of the square-well linear model for different strengths and ranges of the linear long-range repulsive component. The results are compared with various theoretical predictions for microphase formation. The analysis further allows us to better understand the mechanism for microphase formation in colloidal suspensions.

  5. The second order phase transition in Sn2P2S6 crystals: anharmonic oscillator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Vysochanskii


    Full Text Available Statistical theory for ferroelectrics based on triple well anharmonic potential was used for the case of structural second order phase transition in Sn2P2S6 crystals. Parameters of effective Hamiltonian of the model were estimated using available experimental data. These findings confirm the assumption that the phase transition in these crystals is located in crossover region between order-disorder and displacive type, and very closely to tricritical point.

  6. Identifying the Reducing Resistance to Change Phase in an Organizational Change Model


    Daniela Bradutanu


    In this article we examine where in an organizational change process it is better to place the reducing resistance to change phase, so that employees would accept the new changes easier and not manifest too much resistance. After analyzing twelve organizational change models we have concluded that the place of the reducing resistance to change phase in an organizational change process is not the same, it being modified according to the type of change. The results of this study are helpful for...

  7. Model-based reconstruction for real-time phase-contrast flow MRI: Improved spatiotemporal accuracy. (United States)

    Tan, Zhengguo; Roeloffs, Volkert; Voit, Dirk; Joseph, Arun A; Untenberger, Markus; Merboldt, K Dietmar; Frahm, Jens


    To develop a model-based reconstruction technique for real-time phase-contrast flow MRI with improved spatiotemporal accuracy in comparison to methods using phase differences of two separately reconstructed images with differential flow encodings. The proposed method jointly computes a common image, a phase-contrast map, and a set of coil sensitivities from every pair of flow-compensated and flow-encoded datasets obtained by highly undersampled radial FLASH. Real-time acquisitions with five and seven radial spokes per image resulted in 25.6 and 35.7 ms measuring time per phase-contrast map, respectively. The signal model for phase-contrast flow MRI requires the solution of a nonlinear inverse problem, which is accomplished by an iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method. Aspects of regularization and scaling are discussed. The model-based reconstruction was validated for a numerical and experimental flow phantom and applied to real-time phase-contrast MRI of the human aorta for 10 healthy subjects and 2 patients. Under all conditions, and compared with a previously developed real-time flow MRI method, the proposed method yields quantitatively accurate phase-contrast maps (i.e., flow velocities) with improved spatial acuity, reduced phase noise and reduced streaking artifacts. This novel model-based reconstruction technique may become a new tool for clinical flow MRI in real time. Magn Reson Med 77:1082-1093, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Evaluation of the Component Chemical Potentials in Analytical Models for Ordered Alloy Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Oates


    Full Text Available The component chemical potentials in models of solution phases with a fixed number of sites can be evaluated easily when the Helmholtz energy is known as an analytical function of composition. In the case of ordered phases, however, the situation is less straightforward, because the Helmholtz energy is a functional involving internal order parameters. Because of this, the chemical potentials are usually obtained numerically from the calculated integral Helmholtz energy. In this paper, we show how the component chemical potentials can be obtained analytically in ordered phases via the use of virtual cluster chemical potentials. Some examples are given which illustrate the simplicity of the method.

  9. The gas-phase thermal chemistry of tetralin and related model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malandra, James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The thesis is divided into 5 papers: gas-phase thermal decomposition of tetralin; flash vacuum pyrolysis of 3-benzocycloheptenone and 1,3, 4,5-tetrahydro-2-benzothiepin-2,2-dioxide (model systems for gas-phase pyrolysis of tetralin); high-temperature gas-phase reactions of o-allylbenzyl radicals generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis of is(o-allylbenzyl) oxalate; flash vacuum pyrolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane; and flash vacuum pyrolysis of o-allyltoluene, o-(3-butenyl)toluene and o-(pentenyl)toluene were also used.

  10. Density induced phase transitions in the Schwinger model. A study with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC


    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  11. Presumed PDF modeling of reactive two-phase flow in a three dimensional jet-stabilized model combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazdidi-Tehrani, Farzad, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeinivand, Hamed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The objective of the present work is to investigate the modeling of a two-phase reactive flow concerning a diesel oil/air flame in order to predict the turbulent flow behavior and temperature distribution in a three dimensional jet-stabilized model combustion chamber. A Finite Volume staggered grid approach is adopted to solve the governing equations. The second-order upwind scheme is applied for the space derivatives of the advection terms in all transport equations. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation is used for the two-phase (gas-droplet) flow. The presumed PDF is taken on to model the heat release and the Realizable k-epsilon turbulence model is applied for the flow predictions. The thermal radiation model for the gas-phase is based on the Discrete Ordinates Method, adopting its S{sub 4} approximation. Comparisons of present numerical predictions with available experimental data and also with another numerical solution employing different combustion and turbulence models reveal that the Realizable k-epsilon model predicts jet flow behavior more accurately than the standard k-epsilon model. Also, the presumed PDF model predicts the temperature distribution better than the eddy dissipation model, especially in the near wall region. Negligence of thermal radiation mode results in a failure to predict the concentration of NO species.

  12. Bond-order-wave phase and quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model (United States)

    Sengupta, Pinaki; Sandvik, Anders W.; Campbell, David K.


    We use a stochastic series-expansion quantum Monte Carlo method to study the phase diagram of the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model at half-filling for small to intermediate values of the on-site U and nearest-neighbor V repulsions. We confirm the existence of a novel, long-range-ordered bond-order-wave (BOW) phase recently predicted by Nakamura [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68, 3123 (1999)] in a small region of the parameter space between the familiar charge-density-wave (CDW) state for V≳U/2 and the state with dominant spin-density-wave (SDW) fluctuations for V≲U/2. We discuss the nature of the transitions among these states and evaluate some of the critical exponents. Further, we determine accurately the position of the multicritical point, (Um,Vm)=(4.7±0.1,2.51±0.04) (in energy units where the hopping integral is normalized to unity), above which the two continuous SDW-BOW-CDW transitions are replaced by one discontinuous (first-order) direct SDW-CDW transition. We also discuss the evolution of the CDW and BOW states upon hole doping. We find that in both cases the ground state is a Luther-Emery liquid, i.e., the spin gap remains but the charge gap existing at half-filling is immediately closed upon doping. The charge and bond-order correlations decay with distance r as r-Kρ, where Kρ is approximately 0.5 for the parameters we have considered. We also discuss advantages of using parallel tempering (or exchange Monte Carlo)—an extended ensemble method that we here combine with quantum Monte Carlo—in studies of quantum phase transitions.

  13. Implementing The Automated Phases Of The Partially-Automated Digital Triage Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D Cantrell


    Full Text Available Digital triage is a pre-digital-forensic phase that sometimes takes place as a way of gathering quick intelligence. Although effort has been undertaken to model the digital forensics process, little has been done to date to model digital triage. This work discuses the further development of a model that does attempt to address digital triage the Partially-automated Crime Specific Digital Triage Process model. The model itself will be presented along with a description of how its automated functionality was implemented to facilitate model testing.

  14. Phase partitioning modeling of ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol with BTEX compounds in water. (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth Y


    This study investigates the equilibrium phase partitioning behavior of ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol in a two-phase liquid-liquid system consisting of water and an individual BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) compound. A previously developed computer program is enhanced to generate ternary phase diagrams for analysis of each three-component cosolvent-nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-water mixture combination. The required activity coefficients are estimated using the UNIFAC (Universal Quasichemical Functional group Activity Coefficient) model. The UNIFAC-derived ternary phase diagrams generally show good agreement against published experimental data, and similar phase partitioning behavior is observed for every BTEX compound in the presence of the same cosolvent. Furthermore, a set of laboratory experiments is conducted to determine the maximum single-phase water content for every mixture combination considered in this study where the volume composition of the cosolvent and the NAPL components is a blend of 85% alcohol and 15% BTEX compound. Comparison of experimentally-derived maximum single-phase water contents against UNIFAC-derived results shows good agreement for mixtures containing ethanol and methanol, but relatively poor agreement for mixtures containing isopropanol.

  15. Best practices of Building Information Modelling (BIM) implementation in design phase for construction project (United States)

    Kasim, N.; Zainal Abidin, N. A.; Zainal, R.; Sarpin, N.; Rahim, M. H. I. Abd; Saikah, M.


    Implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) was expected to bring improvement in current practices of Malaysian construction industry. In the design phase, there is a lack of a ready pool of skilled workers who are able to develop BIM strategic plan and effectively utilise it. These create boundaries for BIM nature in Malaysian construction industry specifically in the design phase to achieve its best practices. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to investigate the current practices of BIM implementation in the design phase as well as the best practices factors of BIM implementation in the design phase. The qualitative research approach is carried out through semi-structured interviews with the designers of different organisations which adopt BIM in the design phase. Data collection is analysed by executing content analysis method. From the findings, the best practices factors of BIM implementation in design phase such as the incentive for BIM training, formal approach to monitoring automated Level of Detailing (LOD), run a virtual meeting and improve Industry Foundation Class (IFC). Thus, best practices factors which lead to practices improvements in the design phase of project development which subsequently improves the implementation of BIM in the design phase of Malaysian construction industry.

  16. A Volume-Fraction Based Two-Phase Constitutive Model for Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rui (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); Massoudi, Mehrdad; Hund, S.J. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); •Antaki, J.F. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.)


    Mechanically-induced blood trauma such as hemolysis and thrombosis often occurs at microscopic channels, steps and crevices within cardiovascular devices. A predictive mathematical model based on a broad understanding of hemodynamics at micro scale is needed to mitigate these effects, and is the motivation of this research project. Platelet transport and surface deposition is important in thrombosis. Microfluidic experiments have previously revealed a significant impact of red blood cell (RBC)-plasma phase separation on platelet transport [5], whereby platelet localized concentration can be enhanced due to a non-uniform distribution of RBCs of blood flow in a capillary tube and sudden expansion. However, current platelet deposition models either totally ignored RBCs in the fluid by assuming a zero sample hematocrit or treated them as being evenly distributed. As a result, those models often underestimated platelet advection and deposition to certain areas [2]. The current study aims to develop a two-phase blood constitutive model that can predict phase separation in a RBC-plasma mixture at the micro scale. The model is based on a sophisticated theory known as theory of interacting continua, i.e., mixture theory. The volume fraction is treated as a field variable in this model, which allows the prediction of concentration as well as velocity profiles of both RBC and plasma phases. The results will be used as the input of successive platelet deposition models.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vepryk


    Full Text Available Purpose. The models of electrical machines in the phase coordinates, the universal algorithm for the simulation of separate elements in a d-q coordinates system and in a phase-coordinates system are proposed. Methodology. Computer methods of investigation of transients in electrical systems are based on a compilation of systems of differential equations and their numerical integration solution methods. To solve differential equations an implicit method of numerical integration was chosen. Because it provides to complete structural simulation possibility: firstly developing models of separate elements and then forming a model of the complex system. For the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic transients in the elements of the electrical systems has been accepted the implicit Euler-Cauchy method, because it provides a higher precision and stability of the computing processes. Results. In developing the model elements identified two groups of elements: - Static elements and electrical machines in the d-q coordinates; - Rotating electrical machines in phase coordinates. As an example, the paper provides a model of synchronous and asynchronous electric machines in the d-q coordinates system and the phase coordinate system. The generalization algorithm and the unified notation form of equations of elements of an electrical system are obtained. It provides the possibility of using structural methods to develop a mathematical model of power systems under transient conditions. Practical value. In addition, the using of a computer model allows to implement multivariant calculations for research and study of factors affecting the quantitative characteristics of the transients.

  18. The Fire Modeling Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), phase 1: experimental and analytical protocols with detailed model descriptions (United States)

    Rabin, Sam S.; Melton, Joe R.; Lasslop, Gitta; Bachelet, Dominique; Forrest, Matthew; Hantson, Stijn; Kaplan, Jed O.; Li, Fang; Mangeon, Stéphane; Ward, Daniel S.; Yue, Chao; Arora, Vivek K.; Hickler, Thomas; Kloster, Silvia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Nieradzik, Lars; Spessa, Allan; Folberth, Gerd A.; Sheehan, Tim; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kelley, Douglas I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Sitch, Stephen; Harrison, Sandy; Arneth, Almut


    The important role of fire in regulating vegetation community composition and contributions to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols make it a critical component of dynamic global vegetation models and Earth system models. Over 2 decades of development, a wide variety of model structures and mechanisms have been designed and incorporated into global fire models, which have been linked to different vegetation models. However, there has not yet been a systematic examination of how these different strategies contribute to model performance. Here we describe the structure of the first phase of the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), which for the first time seeks to systematically compare a number of models. By combining a standardized set of input data and model experiments with a rigorous comparison of model outputs to each other and to observations, we will improve the understanding of what drives vegetation fire, how it can best be simulated, and what new or improved observational data could allow better constraints on model behavior. In this paper, we introduce the fire models used in the first phase of FireMIP, the simulation protocols applied, and the benchmarking system used to evaluate the models. We have also created supplementary tables that describe, in thorough mathematical detail, the structure of each model.

  19. Phase boundaries of power-law Anderson and Kondo models: A poor man's scaling study (United States)

    Cheng, Mengxing; Chowdhury, Tathagata; Mohammed, Aaron; Ingersent, Kevin


    We use the poor man's scaling approach to study the phase boundaries of a pair of quantum impurity models featuring a power-law density of states ρ (ɛ ) ∝|ɛ| r , either vanishing (for r >0 ) or diverging (for r 0 ), we find the phase boundary for (a) 0 1 , where the phases are separated by first-order quantum phase transitions that are accessible only for broken p-h symmetry. For the p-h-symmetric Kondo model with easy-axis or easy-plane anisotropy of the impurity-band spin exchange, the phase boundary and scaling trajectories are obtained for both r >0 and r <0 . Throughout the regime of weak-to-moderate impurity-band coupling in which poor man's scaling is expected to be valid, the approach predicts phase boundaries in excellent qualitative and good quantitative agreement with the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group, while also establishing the functional relations between model parameters along these boundaries.

  20. Investigations of effect of phase change mass transfer rate on cavitation process with homogeneous relaxation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixia; Zhang, Liang; Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Duan, Lian; Wang, Qian


    The super high fuel injection pressure and micro size of nozzle orifice has been an important development trend for the fuel injection system. Accordingly, cavitation transient process, fuel compressibility, amount of noncondensable gas in the fuel and cavitation erosion have attracted more attention. Based on the fact of cavitation in itself is a kind of thermodynamic phase change process, this paper takes the perspective of the cavitation phase change mass transfer process to analyze above mentioned phenomenon. The two-phase cavitating turbulent flow simulations with VOF approach coupled with HRM cavitation model and U-RANS of standard k-ε turbulence model were performed for investigations of cavitation phase change mass transfer process. It is concluded the mass transfer time scale coefficient in the Homogenous Relaxation Model (HRM) representing mass transfer rate should tend to be as small as possible in a condition that ensured the solver stable. At very fast mass transfer rate, the phase change occurs at very thin interface between liquid and vapor phase and condensation occurs more focused and then will contribute predictably to a more serious cavitation erosion. Both the initial non-condensable gas in fuel and the fuel compressibility can accelerate the cavitation mass transfer process.

  1. Uhlenbeck-Ford model: Phase diagram and corresponding-states analysis (United States)

    Paula Leite, Rodolfo; Santos-Flórez, Pedro Antonio; de Koning, Maurice


    Using molecular dynamics simulations and nonequilibrium thermodynamic-integration techniques we compute the Helmholtz free energies of the body-centered-cubic (bcc), face-centered-cubic (fcc), hexagonal close-packed, and fluid phases of the Uhlenbeck-Ford model (UFM) and use the results to construct its phase diagram. The pair interaction associated with the UFM is characterized by an ultrasoft, purely repulsive pair potential that diverges logarithmically at the origin. We find that the bcc and fcc are the only thermodynamically stable crystalline phases in the phase diagram. Furthermore, we report the existence of two reentrant transition sequences as a function of the number density, one featuring a fluid-bcc-fluid succession and another displaying a bcc-fcc-bcc sequence near the triple point. We find strong resemblances to the phase behavior of other soft, purely repulsive systems such as the Gaussian-core model (GCM), inverse-power-law, and Yukawa potentials. In particular, we find that the fcc-bcc-fluid triple point and the phase boundaries in its vicinity are in good agreement with the prediction supplied by a recently proposed corresponding-states principle [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 241101 (2011), 10.1063/1.3605659; Europhys. Lett. 100, 66004 (2012), 10.1209/0295-5075/100/66004]. The particularly strong resemblance between the behavior of the UFM and GCM models are also discussed.

  2. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong


    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  3. Long-range correlation in synchronization and syncopation tapping: a linear phase correction model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Delignières

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper a model for accounting for the increase in long-range correlations observed in asynchrony series in syncopation tapping, as compared with synchronization tapping. Our model is an extension of the linear phase correction model for synchronization tapping. We suppose that the timekeeper represents a fractal source in the system, and that a process of estimation of the half-period of the metronome, obeying a random-walk dynamics, combines with the linear phase correction process. Comparing experimental and simulated series, we show that our model allows accounting for the experimentally observed pattern of serial dependence. This model complete previous modeling solutions proposed for self-paced and synchronization tapping, for a unifying framework of event-based timing.

  4. Phase-field Model for Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics and Thermodynamic and Kinetic Models of Irradiated Fe-Cr Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    Microstructure evolution kinetics in irradiated materials has strongly spatial correlation. For example, void and second phases prefer to nucleate and grow at pre-existing defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and cracks. Inhomogeneous microstructure evolution results in inhomogeneity of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Therefore, the simulation capability for predicting three dimensional (3-D) microstructure evolution kinetics and its subsequent impact on material properties and performance is crucial for scientific design of advanced nuclear materials and optimal operation conditions in order to reduce uncertainty in operational and safety margins. Very recently the meso-scale phase-field (PF) method has been used to predict gas bubble evolution, void swelling, void lattice formation and void migration in irradiated materials,. Although most results of phase-field simulations are qualitative due to the lake of accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties of defects, possible missing of important kinetic properties and processes, and the capability of current codes and computers for large time and length scale modeling, the simulations demonstrate that PF method is a promising simulation tool for predicting 3-D heterogeneous microstructure and property evolution, and providing microstructure evolution kinetics for higher scale level simulations of microstructure and property evolution such as mean field methods. This report consists of two parts. In part I, we will present a new phase-field model for predicting interstitial loop growth kinetics in irradiated materials. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) generation, diffusion and recombination, sink strength, long-range elastic interaction, inhomogeneous and anisotropic mobility on microstructure evolution kinetics is taken into account in the model. The model is used to study the effect of elastic interaction on interstitial loop growth kinetics, the interstitial flux, and sink

  5. Phase Transition in a Sexual Age-Structured Model of Learning Foreign Languages (United States)

    Schwämmle, V.

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition of the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages with the mutation rate as control parameter.

  6. A mathematical model for phase separation: A generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation (United States)

    Berti, A.; Bochicchio, I.


    In this paper we present a mathematical model to describe the phenomenon of phase separation, which is modelled as space regions where an order parameter changes smoothly. The model proposed, including thermal and mixing effects, is deduced for an incompressible fluid, so the resulting differential system couples a generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation with the Navier-Stokes equation. Its consistency with the second law of thermodynamics in the classical Clausius-Duhem form is finally proved.

  7. Phase transition and gravitational wave phenomenology of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)


    Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)

  8. A two phase field model for tracking vesicle-vesicle adhesion. (United States)

    Gu, Rui; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Gunzburger, Max


    A multi-phase-field model for simulating the adhesion between two vesicles is constructed. Two phase field functions are introduced to simulate each of the two vesicles. An energy model is defined which accounts for the elastic bending energy of each vesicle and the contact potential energy between the two vesicles; the vesicle volume and surface area constraints are imposed using a penalty method. Numerical results are provided to verify the efficacy of our model and to provide visual illustrations of the different types of contact. The method can be adjusted to solve endocytosis problems by modifying the bending rigidity coefficients of the two elastic bending energies. The method can also be extended to simulate multi-cell adhesions, one example of which is erythrocyte rouleaux. A comparison with laboratory observations demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-phase field approach.

  9. Phase-space networks of the six-vertex model under different boundary conditions. (United States)

    Han, Yilong


    The six-vertex model is mapped to three-dimensional sphere stacks and different boundary conditions corresponding to different containers. The shape of the container provides a qualitative visualization of the boundary effect. Based on the sphere-stacking picture, we map the phase spaces of the six-vertex models to discrete networks. A node in the network represents a state of the system, and an edge between two nodes represents a zero-energy spin flip, which corresponds to adding or removing a sphere. The network analysis shows that the phase spaces of systems with different boundary conditions share some common features. We derived a few formulas for the number and the sizes of the disconnected phase-space subnetworks under the periodic boundary conditions. The sphere stacking provides new challenges in combinatorics and may cast light on some two-dimensional models.

  10. Multiphysics modelling of volume phase transition of ionic hydrogels responsive to thermal stimulus. (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Xiaogui; Wang, Zijie; Lam, K Y


    This paper presents the analysis of the volume phase transition of ionic thermo-sensitive hydrogels to thermal stimulus through mathematical modelling. The model is termed the multi-effect-coupling thermal-stimulus (MECtherm) model and it considers the effects of multi-phases and multi-physics. Its application to steady-state analysis of the hydrogels in swelling equilibrium is validated against available experimental data for the relation between volume swelling ratio and temperature, in which very good agreement is achieved. The phenomenon of volume phase transition is studied for the thermal-stimulus responsive hydrogel. The numerical studies predict well the influences of initially fixed charge density and initial volume fraction of polymeric network on the swelling equilibrium of the hydrogels.

  11. Meso-Scale Modeling of Spall in a Heterogeneous Two-Phase Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Harry Keo [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    The influence of the heterogeneous second-phase particle structure and applied loading conditions on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material was investigated. Quantitative metallography, three-dimensional (3D) meso-scale simulations (MSS), and small-scale spall experiments provided the foundation for this study. Nodular ductile iron (NDI) was selected as the model two-phase material for this study because it contains a large and readily identifiable second- phase particle population. Second-phase particles serve as the primary void nucleation sites in NDI and are, therefore, central to its ductile spall response. A mathematical model was developed for the NDI second-phase volume fraction that accounted for the non-uniform particle size and spacing distributions within the framework of a length-scale dependent Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). This model was based on novel multiscale sampling measurements. A methodology was also developed for the computer generation of representative particle structures based on their mathematical description, enabling 3D MSS. MSS were used to investigate the effects of second-phase particle volume fraction and particle size, loading conditions, and physical domain size of simulation on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material. MSS results reinforce existing model predictions, where the spall strength metric (SSM) logarithmically decreases with increasing particle volume fraction. While SSM predictions are nearly independent of applied load conditions at lower loading rates, which is consistent with previous studies, loading dependencies are observed at higher loading rates. There is also a logarithmic decrease in SSM for increasing (initial) void size, as well. A model was developed to account for the effects of loading rate, particle size, matrix sound-speed, and, in the NDI-specific case, the probabilistic particle volume fraction model. Small-scale spall experiments were designed

  12. Modeling multi-phase effects in the combustion of HMX and RDX (United States)

    Washburn, Ephraim B.

    RDX and HMX are nitramines that are used in solid propellants and explosives. They have similar chemical structures, properties, and burning rates. However, the burning rate temperature sensitivity (sigmap) is significantly different between RDX and HMX at low pressures. sigmap is an important property as it relates to ballistic characteristics and unsteady combustion characteristics. It also provides an excellent validation comparison for a mathematical model since it is a derivative property. Recent efforts to model the steady-state combustion of RDX and HMX with detailed chemical kinetics in the gas phase have succeeded in modeling burning rates at a specific initial temperature. However, all previous models have failed to predict the observed sigmap trends of HMX and to differentiate the sigmap of RDX and HMX. Experimental photographs show that RDX and HMX both burn with a thin multi-phase region containing bubbles in the liquid phase and droplets in the gas phase, and that HMX combustion possesses greater multi-phase interactions. In the current study, three combustion submodels have been developed to simulate these phenomena and improve sigmap calculations. These include solid-phase decomposition, liquid-bubble, and gas-droplet submodels. Calculations using all three of these submodels together produced trends in the calculated sigmap values for both RDX and HMX that followed experimental trends. To be able to predict the proper HMX sigmap with the model it was determined that three important characteristics had to be simulated properly. First, evaporation in the sub-surface must be limited near the gas and liquid phase surface. Second, the difference in surface temperature at different initial temperatures must follow experimental trends. Third, the Marangoni effect must be added to the calculation of the bubble velocities. In RDX, the three new submodels predict no change in the calculated sigma p, demonstrating the ability to differentiate calculated sigma

  13. Comparing identically designed grayscale (50 phase level) and binary (5 phase levels) splitters: actual versus modeled performance (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.; Tuttle, Tracie


    Performance of diffractive optics is determined by high-quality design and a suitable fabrication process that can actually realize the design. Engineers who are tasked with developing or implementing a diffractive optic solution into a product need to take into consideration the risks of using grayscale versus binary fabrication processes. In many cases, grayscale design doesn't always provide the best solution or cost benefit during product development. This fabrication dilemma arises when the engineer has to select a source for design and/or fabrication. Engineers come face to face with reality in view of the fact that diffractive optic suppliers tend to provide their services on a "best effort basis". This can be very disheartening to an engineer who is trying to implement diffractive optics. This paper will compare and contrast the design and performance of a 1 to 24 beam, two dimensional; beam splitter fabricated using a fifty (50) phase level grayscale and a five (5) phase level binary fabrication methods. Optical modeling data will be presented showing both designs and the performance expected prior to fabrication. An overview of the optical testing methods used will be discussed including the specific test equipment and metrology techniques used to verify actual optical performance and fabricated dimensional stability of each optical element. Presentation of the two versions of the splitter will include data on fabrication dimensional errors, split beam-to-beam uniformity, split beam-to-beam spatial size uniformity and splitter efficiency as compared to the original intended design performance and models. This is a continuation of work from 2005, Laser Beam Shaping VI.

  14. The role of phase dynamics in a stochastic model of a passively advected scalar (United States)

    Moradi, Sara; Anderson, Johan


    Collective synchronous motion of the phases is introduced in a model for the stochastic passive advection-diffusion of a scalar with external forcing. The model for the phase coupling dynamics follows the well known Kuramoto model paradigm of limit-cycle oscillators. The natural frequencies in the Kuramoto model are assumed to obey a given scale dependence through a dispersion relation of the drift-wave form -βk/1 +k2 , where β is a constant representing the typical strength of the gradient. The present aim is to study the importance of collective phase dynamics on the characteristic time evolution of the fluctuation energy and the formation of coherent structures. Our results show that the assumption of a fully stochastic phase state of turbulence is more relevant for high values of β, where we find that the energy spectrum follows a k-7 /2 scaling. Whereas for lower β there is a significant difference between a-synchronised and synchronised phase states, one could expect the formation of coherent modulations in the latter case.

  15. Study of contrail microphysics in the vortex phase with a Lagrangian particle tracking model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Unterstrasser


    Full Text Available Crystal sublimation/loss is a dominant feature of the contrail evolution during the vortex phase and has a substantial impact on the later contrail-to-cirrus transition. Previous studies showed that the fraction of crystals surviving the vortex phase depends primarily on relative humidity, temperature and the aircraft type. An existing model for contrail vortex phase simulations (with a 2-moment bulk microphysics scheme was upgraded with a newly developed state-of-the-art microphysics module (LCM which uses Lagrangian particle tracking. This allows for explicit process-oriented modelling of the ice crystal size distribution in contrast to the bulk approach. We show that it is of great importance to employ an advanced microphysics scheme to determine the crystal loss during the vortex phase. The LCM-model shows even larger sensitivities to the above mentioned key parameters than previously estimated with the bulk model. The impact of the initial crystal number is studied and for the first time also the initial width of the crystal size distribution. Both are shown to be relevant. This corroborates the need for a realistic representation of microphysical processes and knowledge of the ice phase characteristics.

  16. Low temperature electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntharan Arunasalam


    Full Text Available We discuss a cosmological phase transition within the Standard Model which incorporates spontaneously broken scale invariance as a low-energy theory. In addition to the Standard Model fields, the minimal model involves a light dilaton, which acquires a large vacuum expectation value (VEV through the mechanism of dimensional transmutation. Under the assumption of the cancellation of the vacuum energy, the dilaton develops a very small mass at 2-loop order. As a result, a flat direction is present in the classical dilaton-Higgs potential at zero temperature while the quantum potential admits two (almost degenerate local minima with unbroken and broken electroweak symmetry. We found that the cosmological electroweak phase transition in this model can only be triggered by a QCD chiral symmetry breaking phase transition at low temperatures, T≲132 MeV. Furthermore, unlike the standard case, the universe settles into the chiral symmetry breaking vacuum via a first-order phase transition which gives rise to a stochastic gravitational background with a peak frequency ∼10−8 Hz as well as triggers the production of approximately solar mass primordial black holes. The observation of these signatures of cosmological phase transitions together with the detection of a light dilaton would provide a strong hint of the fundamental role of scale invariance in particle physics.

  17. Low temperature electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model with hidden scale invariance (United States)

    Arunasalam, Suntharan; Kobakhidze, Archil; Lagger, Cyril; Liang, Shelley; Zhou, Albert


    We discuss a cosmological phase transition within the Standard Model which incorporates spontaneously broken scale invariance as a low-energy theory. In addition to the Standard Model fields, the minimal model involves a light dilaton, which acquires a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) through the mechanism of dimensional transmutation. Under the assumption of the cancellation of the vacuum energy, the dilaton develops a very small mass at 2-loop order. As a result, a flat direction is present in the classical dilaton-Higgs potential at zero temperature while the quantum potential admits two (almost) degenerate local minima with unbroken and broken electroweak symmetry. We found that the cosmological electroweak phase transition in this model can only be triggered by a QCD chiral symmetry breaking phase transition at low temperatures, T ≲ 132 MeV. Furthermore, unlike the standard case, the universe settles into the chiral symmetry breaking vacuum via a first-order phase transition which gives rise to a stochastic gravitational background with a peak frequency ∼10-8 Hz as well as triggers the production of approximately solar mass primordial black holes. The observation of these signatures of cosmological phase transitions together with the detection of a light dilaton would provide a strong hint of the fundamental role of scale invariance in particle physics.

  18. A Lagrangian-Lagrangian Model for Two-Phase Bubbly Flow around Circular Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shademan


    Full Text Available A Lagrangian-Lagrangian model is developed using an in-house code to simulate bubble trajectory in two-phase bubbly flow around circular cylinder. Random Vortex Method (RVM which is a Lagrangian approach is used for solving the liquid phase. The significance of RVM relative to other RANS/LES methods is its capability in directly modelling the turbulence. In RVM, turbulence is modeled by solving the vorticity transport equation and there is no need to use turbulence closure models. Another advantage of RVM relative to other CFD approaches is its independence from mesh generation. For the bubbles trajectory, equation of motion of bubbles which takes into account effect of different forces are coupled with the RVM. Comparison of the results obtained from current model with the experimental data confirms the validity of the model. Effect of different parameters including flow Reynolds number, bubble diameter and injection point on the bubbles' trajectory are investigated. Results show that increase in the Reynolds number reduces the rising velocity of the bubbles. Similar behavior is observed for the bubbles when their diameter was decreased. According to the analysis carried out, present Lagrangian-Lagrangian model solves the issues of mesh generation and turbulence modelling which exist in common two phase flow modelling schemes.

  19. Noise-and delay-induced phase transitions of the dimer-monomer surface reaction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Chunhua, E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China) and Center of Metallurgical Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction, Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wang Hua, E-mail: [Center of Metallurgical Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction, Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the dimer-monomer surface reaction model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that noise induces first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of noise and time-delayed feedback induce first- and second-order IPT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First- and second-order IPT is viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions. - Abstract: The effects of noise and time-delayed feedback in the dimer-monomer (DM) surface reaction model are investigated. Applying small delay approximation, we construct a stochastic delayed differential equation and its Fokker-Planck equation to describe the state evolution of the DM reaction model. We show that the noise can only induce first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT) characteristic of the DM model, however the combination of the noise and time-delayed feedback can simultaneously induce first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model. Therefore, it is shown that the well-known first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model may be viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions.

  20. Fierz-complete NJL model study: Fixed points and phase structure at finite temperature and density (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Leonhardt, Marc; Pospiech, Martin


    Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models are frequently employed as low-energy models in various research fields. With respect to the theory of the strong interaction, this class of models is indeed often used to analyze the structure of the phase diagram at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. The predictions from such models for the phase structure at finite quark chemical potential are of particular interest as this regime is difficult to access with lattice Monte Carlo approaches. In this work, we consider a Fierz-complete version of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. By studying its renormalization group flow, we analyze in detail how Fierz-incomplete approximations affect the predictive power of such model studies. In particular, we investigate the curvature of the phase boundary at small chemical potential, the critical value of the chemical potential above which no spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the possible interpretation of the underlying dynamics in terms of difermion-type degrees of freedom. We find that the inclusion of four-fermion channels other than the conventional scalar-pseudoscalar channel is not only important at large chemical potential but also leaves a significant imprint on the dynamics at small chemical potential as measured by the curvature of the finite-temperature phase boundary.

  1. Application of the Double-Tangent Construction of Coexisting Phases to Any Type of Phase Equilibrium for Binary Systems Modeled with the Gamma-Phi Approach (United States)

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Privat, Romain


    The double-tangent construction of coexisting phases is an elegant approach to visualize all the multiphase binary systems that satisfy the equality of chemical potentials and to select the stable state. In this paper, we show how to perform the double-tangent construction of coexisting phases for binary systems modeled with the gamma-phi…

  2. Model of the self-Q-switching instability of passively phased fiber laser arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochove, Erik J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM; Aceves, Alejandro B. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL; Colet, Pere R. [University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL; Jacobo, Adrian [University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Miller, Casey A [ORNL; Rhodes, Charles [Liberations Systems Management, Inc.; Shakir, Sami A. [TASC, Inc.


    A simple physical model is presented to explain observed self-pulsations in passively phased rare earth-doped fiber laser arrays. Their essential features are the feedback level s sensitivity to small perturbations in the phases of array fields, hence altering the cavity s Q-value, and the nonlinear changes in the refractive index of the amplifier gain media. The model s qualitative prediction for an array having at least two elements that is operated at sufficiently high power levels, of the growth of an initial disturbance, is confirmed by a linearized stability analysis of the field and medium equations.

  3. Absolute IGS antenna phase center model igs08.atx: status and potential improvements (United States)

    Schmid, R.; Dach, R.; Collilieux, X.; Jäggi, A.; Schmitz, M.; Dilssner, F.


    On 17 April 2011, all analysis centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) adopted the reference frame realization IGS08 and the corresponding absolute antenna phase center model igs08.atx for their routine analyses. The latter consists of an updated set of receiver and satellite antenna phase center offsets and variations (PCOs and PCVs). An update of the model was necessary due to the difference of about 1 ppb in the terrestrial scale between two consecutive realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008 vs. ITRF2005), as that parameter is highly correlated with the GNSS satellite antenna PCO components in the radial direction.

  4. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber


    Full Text Available The application of phase change materials (PCMs in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  5. Review of development survey of phase change material models in building applications. (United States)

    Akeiber, Hussein J; Wahid, Mazlan A; Hussen, Hasanen M; Mohammad, Abdulrahman Th


    The application of phase change materials (PCMs) in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  6. Phase diagram and dynamic response functions of the Holstein-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, W. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Meyer, D. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Hewson, A.C. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); O-bar no, Y. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)


    We present the phase diagram and dynamical correlation functions for the Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling and at zero temperature. The calculations are based on the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The effective impurity model is solved using exact diagonalization (ED) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG). Excluding long-range order, we find three different paramagnetic phases, metallic, bipolaronic and Mott insulating, depending on the Hubbard interaction U and the electron-phonon coupling g. We present the behaviour of the one-electron spectral functions and phonon spectra close to the metal-insulator transitions.

  7. Anisotropic solid-liquid interface kinetics in silicon: an atomistically informed phase-field model (United States)

    Bergmann, S.; Albe, K.; Flegel, E.; Barragan-Yani, D. A.; Wagner, B.


    We present an atomistically informed parametrization of a phase-field model for describing the anisotropic mobility of liquid-solid interfaces in silicon. The model is derived from a consistent set of atomistic data and thus allows to directly link molecular dynamics and phase field simulations. Expressions for the free energy density, the interfacial energy and the temperature and orientation dependent interface mobility are systematically fitted to data from molecular dynamics simulations based on the Stillinger-Weber interatomic potential. The temperature-dependent interface velocity follows a Vogel-Fulcher type behavior and allows to properly account for the dynamics in the undercooled melt.

  8. Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system. (United States)

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene


    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  9. Geometric phases and quantum correlations dynamics in spin-boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    We explore the dynamics of spin-boson model for the Ohmic bath by employing the master equation approach and obtain an explicit expression of reduced density matrix. We also calculate the geometric phases of the spin-boson model by making use of the analytical results and discuss how the dissipative bosonic environment affects geometric phases. Furthermore, we investigate the dynamics of quantum discord and entanglement of two qubits each locally interacting with its own independent bosonic environments. It is found that the decay properties of quantum discord and entanglement are sensitive to the choice of initial state's parameter and coupling strength between system and bath.

  10. Predicting dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals: transient model development, evaluation, and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, M.; Zhang, Y.; Weschler, Charles J.


    A transient model is developed to predict dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals via direct air-to-skin-to-blood transport under non-steady-state conditions. It differs from published models in that it considers convective mass-transfer resistance in the boundary layer of air adjacent to the skin....... Results calculated with this transient model are in good agreement with the limited experimental results that are available for comparison. The sensitivity of the modeled estimates to key parameters is examined. The model is then used to estimate air-to-skin-to-blood absorption of six phthalate esters...

  11. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede


    . This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...... are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control method....

  12. Finite temperature spin-dynamics and phase transitions in spin-orbital models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-C.


    We study finite temperature properties of a generic spin-orbital model relevant to transition metal compounds, having coupled quantum Heisenberg-spin and Ising-orbital degrees of freedom. The model system undergoes a phase transition, consistent with that of a 2D Ising model, to an orbitally ordered state at a temperature set by short-range magnetic order. At low temperatures the orbital degrees of freedom freeze-out and the model maps onto a quantum Heisenberg model. The onset of orbital excitations causes a rapid scrambling of the spin spectral weight away from coherent spin-waves, which leads to a sharp increase in uniform magnetic susceptibility just below the phase transition, reminiscent of the observed behavior in the Fe-pnictide materials.

  13. A numerical simulation of wheel spray for simplified vehicle model based on discrete phase method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjun Hu


    Full Text Available Road spray greatly affects vehicle body soiling and driving safety. The study of road spray has attracted increasing attention. In this article, computational fluid dynamics software with widely used finite volume method code was employed to investigate the numerical simulation of spray induced by a simplified wheel model and a modified square-back model proposed by the Motor Industry Research Association. Shear stress transport k-omega turbulence model, discrete phase model, and Eulerian wall-film model were selected. In the simulation process, the phenomenon of breakup and coalescence of drops were considered, and the continuous and discrete phases were treated as two-way coupled in momentum and turbulent motion. The relationship between the vehicle external flow structure and body soiling was also discussed.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the use of homogeneous and slip-flow two-phase dynamic models in evaporator modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Antonius, Jesper; Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard


    Distributed dynamic models of a simple coaxial-type evaporator are implemented in the simulation tool Sinda/Fluint. In order to obtain data for model validation an experimental set-up is built, where dynamic responses to changes in inflow and/or outflow of refrigerant are recorded. Model validation...... shows that the dynamic response of the homogeneous model is too fast whereas the simulation results based on the slip-flow model agrees very well with the experimental results. Another difference in the results from the two types of models is the estimation of charge. The charge calculated by the use...... of the homogeneous model is approximately a factor 3 less than the charge calculated using the slip-flow model.The overall conclusion is that when one wants to investigate the dynamic behaviour due to the movement and amount of the refrigerant in the evaporator, then it is needed to use a slip-flow two-phase model...

  15. Phase transitions and steady-state microstructures in a two-temperature lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.


    The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive....... The properties of the model are calculated by Monte Carlo computer-simulation techniques. The two temperatures and the external drive on the system lead to a rich phase diagram including regions of microstructured phases in addition to macroscopically ordered (phase-separated) and disordered phases. Depending...

  16. Phase transitions and multicritical behavior in the Ising model with dipolar interactions. (United States)

    Bab, M A; Horowitz, C M; Rubio Puzzo, M L; Saracco, G P


    In this work, the phase diagram of the ferromagnetic Ising model with dipole interactions is revisited with the aim of determining the nature of the phase transition between stripe-ordered phases with width n (h_{n}) and tetragonal liquid (TL) phases. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to study the short-time dynamic behavior of the observables for selected values of the ratio between the ferromagnetic exchange and dipolar constants δ. The obtained results indicate that the h_{1}-TL phase transition line is continuous up to δ=1.2585, while for the h_{2}-TL line a weak first-order character is found in the interval 1.2585≤δ≤1.36 and becomes continuous for 1.37≤δ≤1.9. This result suggests the existence of a tricritical point close to δ=1.37. When it is appropriate, the complete set of critical exponents is obtained, and in all the studied cases they depend on δ but do not belong to the Ising universality class. Furthermore, short-time dynamic studies reveal that at the point where the mentioned lines meet the h_{1}-h_{2} line, i.e., at δ=1.2585, the critical phase corresponding to the h_{1}-TL transition coexists with the h_{2} phase.

  17. Phase equilibrium modeling for high temperature metallization on GaAs solar cells (United States)

    Chung, M. A.; Davison, J. E.; Smith, S. R.


    Recent trends in performance specifications and functional requirements have brought about the need for high temperature metallization technology to be developed for survivable DOD space systems and to enhance solar cell reliability. The temperature constitution phase diagrams of selected binary and ternary systems were reviewed to determine the temperature and type of phase transformation present in the alloy systems. Of paramount interest are the liquid-solid and solid-solid transformations. Data are being utilized to aid in the selection of electrical contact materials to gallium arsenide solar cells. Published data on the phase diagrams for binary systems is readily available. However, information for ternary systems is limited. A computer model is being developed which will enable the phase equilibrium predictions for ternary systems where experimental data is lacking.

  18. The half-skyrmion phase in a chiral-quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani Sarti, Valentina [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara and INFN, Sez. Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Vento, Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)


    The Chiral Dilaton Model, where baryons arise as non-topological solitons built from the interaction of quarks and chiral mesons, shows in the high density low temperature regime a two phase scenario in the nuclear matter phase diagram. Dense soliton matter described by the Wigner–Seitz approximation generates a periodic potential in terms of the sigma and pion fields that leads to the formation of a band structure. The analysis up to three times nuclear matter density shows that soliton matter undergoes two separate phase transitions: a delocalization of the baryon number density leading to B=1/2 structures, as in skyrmion matter, at moderate densities, and quark deconfinement at larger densities. This description fits well into the so-called quarkyonic phase where, before deconfinement, nuclear matter should undergo structural changes involving the restoration of fundamental symmetries of QCD.

  19. Two-phase flow modelling of sediment suspension in the Ems/Dollard estuary (United States)

    Xu, Chunyang; Dong, Ping


    Understanding and quantifying mud suspension and sediment transport processes are of great importance for effective exploitation and sustainable management of estuarine environments. Event-based predictive models are widely used to identify the key interactions and mechanisms that govern the dynamics involved and to provide the essential parameterisation for assessing the long-term morphodynamic evolution of the estuaries. This study develops a one-dimensional-vertical (1DV) Reynolds averaged two-phase model for cohesive sediments resuspension driven by tidal flows. To capture the time-dependent flocculation process more accurately, a new drag force closure which relates empirically to settling velocity of mud flocs with suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is incorporated into the two-phase model. The model is then applied to simulate mud suspension in the Ems/Dollard estuary during two periods (June and August 1996) of tidal forcing. Numerical predictions of bed shear stresses and sediment concentrations at different elevations above the bed are compared with measured variations. The results confirm the importance of including flocculation effects in calculating the settling velocity of mud flocs and demonstrates the sensitivity of prediction with the settling velocity in terms of flocs concentration. Although the two-phase modelling approach can in principle better capture the essential interactions between fluid and sediment phases, its practical advantages over the simpler single phase approach cannot be confirmed for the data periods simulated, partly because the overall suspended sediment concentration measured is rather low and the interaction between the two phases is weak and also because the uncertainties in the relationship between the settling velocity and flocs concentration.

  20. Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang


    Full Text Available In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As two-phase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.

  1. Partial inertia induces additional phase transition in the majority vote model (United States)

    Harunari, Pedro E.; de Oliveira, M. M.; Fiore, C. E.


    Explosive (i.e., discontinuous) transitions have aroused great interest by manifesting in distinct systems, such as synchronization in coupled oscillators, percolation regime, absorbing phase transitions, and more recently, the majority-vote model with inertia. In the latter, the model rules are slightly modified by the inclusion of a term depending on the local spin (an inertial term). In such a case, Chen et al. [Phys Rev. E 95, 042304 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.042304] have found that relevant inertia changes the nature of the phase transition in complex networks, from continuous to discontinuous. Here we give a further step by embedding inertia only in vertices with degree larger than a threshold value 〈k 〉 k* , 〈k 〉 being the mean system degree and k* the fraction restriction. Our results, from mean-field analysis and extensive numerical simulations, reveal that an explosive transition is presented in both homogeneous and heterogeneous structures for small and intermediate k*'s. Otherwise, a large restriction can sustain a discontinuous transition only in the heterogeneous case. This shares some similarities with recent results for the Kuramoto model [Phys. Rev. E 91, 022818 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.022818]. Surprisingly, intermediate restriction and large inertia are responsible for the emergence of an extra phase, in which the system is partially synchronized and the classification of phase transition depends on the inertia and the lattice topology. In this case, the system exhibits two phase transitions.

  2. The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system

    CERN Document Server

    Stroev, Nikita


    The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM($\\sim$)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with ``linear mixture'' (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM($\\sim$) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM($\\sim$) there were reproduced two-dimensional r...

  3. Stochastic modeling for starting-time of phase evolution of random seismic ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Peng


    Full Text Available In response to the challenge inherent in classical high-dimensional models of random ground motions, a family of simulation methods for non-stationary seismic ground motions was developed previously through employing a wave-group propagation formulation with phase spectrum model built up on the frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution. The present paper aims at extending the formulation to the simulation of non-stationary random seismic ground motions. The ground motion records associated with N—S component of Northridge Earthquake at the type-II site are investigated. The frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution of is identified from the ground motion records, and is proved to admit the Gamma distribution through data fitting. Numerical results indicate that the simulated random ground motion features zero-mean, non-stationary, and non-Gaussian behaviors, and the phase spectrum model with only a few starting-times of phase evolution could come up with a sound contribution to the simulation.

  4. A statistical model of false negative and false positive detection of phase singularities (United States)

    Jacquemet, Vincent


    The complexity of cardiac fibrillation dynamics can be assessed by analyzing the distribution of phase singularities (PSs) observed using mapping systems. Interelectrode distance, however, limits the accuracy of PS detection. To investigate in a theoretical framework the PS false negative and false positive rates in relation to the characteristics of the mapping system and fibrillation dynamics, we propose a statistical model of phase maps with controllable number and locations of PSs. In this model, phase maps are generated from randomly distributed PSs with physiologically-plausible directions of rotation. Noise and distortion of the phase are added. PSs are detected using topological charge contour integrals on regular grids of varying resolutions. Over 100 × 106 realizations of the random field process are used to estimate average false negative and false positive rates using a Monte-Carlo approach. The false detection rates are shown to depend on the average distance between neighboring PSs expressed in units of interelectrode distance, following approximately a power law with exponents in the range of 1.14 to 2 for false negatives and around 2.8 for false positives. In the presence of noise or distortion of phase, false detection rates at high resolution tend to a non-zero noise-dependent lower bound. This model provides an easy-to-implement tool for benchmarking PS detection algorithms over a broad range of configurations with multiple PSs.

  5. Numerical Study of Single Phase/Two-Phase Models for Nanofluid Forced Convection and Pressure Drop in a Turbulence Pipe Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esfandiary


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of turbulent forced convection flow of water- alumina nanofluid in a uniformly heated pipe has been thoroughly investigated. In numerical study, single and two-phase models have been used. In single-phase modeling of nanofluid, thermal and flow properties of nanofluid have been considered to be dependent on temperature and volume fraction. Effects of volume fraction and Reynolds number (3000

  6. NCC Simulation Model: Simulating the operations of the network control center, phase 2 (United States)

    Benjamin, Norman M.; Paul, Arthur S.; Gill, Tepper L.


    The simulation of the network control center (NCC) is in the second phase of development. This phase seeks to further develop the work performed in phase one. Phase one concentrated on the computer systems and interconnecting network. The focus of phase two will be the implementation of the network message dialogues and the resources controlled by the NCC. These resources are requested, initiated, monitored and analyzed via network messages. In the NCC network messages are presented in the form of packets that are routed across the network. These packets are generated, encoded, decoded and processed by the network host processors that generate and service the message traffic on the network that connects these hosts. As a result, the message traffic is used to characterize the work done by the NCC and the connected network. Phase one of the model development represented the NCC as a network of bi-directional single server queues and message generating sources. The generators represented the external segment processors. The served based queues represented the host processors. The NCC model consists of the internal and external processors which generate message traffic on the network that links these hosts. To fully realize the objective of phase two it is necessary to identify and model the processes in each internal processor. These processes live in the operating system of the internal host computers and handle tasks such as high speed message exchanging, ISN and NFE interface, event monitoring, network monitoring, and message logging. Inter process communication is achieved through the operating system facilities. The overall performance of the host is determined by its ability to service messages generated by both internal and external processors.

  7. A continuum theoretical model and finite elements simulation of bacterial flagellar filament phase transition. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Meng, Shuo; Han, Jingshi


    The Bacterial flagellar filament can undergo a polymorphic phase transition in response to both mechanical and chemical variations in vitro and in vivo environments. Under mechanical stimuli, such as viscous flow or forces induced by motor rotation, the filament changes its phase from left-handed normal (N) to right-handed semi-coiled (SC) via phase nucleation and growth. Our detailed mechanical analysis of existing experiments shows that both torque and bending moment contribute to the filament phase transition. In this paper, we establish a non-convex and non-local continuum model based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory to describe main characteristics of the filament phase transition such as new-phase nucleation, growth, propagation and the merging of neighboring interfaces. The finite element method (FEM) is adopted to simulate the phase transition under a displacement-controlled loading condition (rotation angle and bending deflection). We show that new-phase nucleation corresponds to the maximum torque and bending moment at the stuck end of the filament. The hysteresis loop in the loading and unloading curves indicates energy dissipation. When the new phase grows and propagates, torque and bending moment remain static. We also find that there is a drop in load when the two interfaces merge, indicating a concomitant reduction in the interfacial energy. Finally, the interface thickness is governed by the coefficients of the gradient of order parameters in the non-local interface energy. Our continuum theory and the finite element method provide a method to study the mechanical behavior of such biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On a New Kinetic Modelling Approach of the Irreversible Quasi-Surface Metallurgical Phase Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Antoni


    Full Text Available Irreversible quasi-surface metallurgical phase transformations are the specific response of some metallic materials—such as metals and alloys—subjected to high thermomechanical loads applied very near their surface during the manufacturing processes or after being put into operation. These solid/solid phase transformations can be observed, for example, on the tread of many rails in railroad networks frequented by freight trains. The severe thermal and mechanical loads imposed on the surface of the rails and in the immediate vicinity of the surface by the wheel/rail contact often result in highly localized irreversible metallurgical transformations. A new kinetic model based on a previous study is presented here, which accounts more realistically for the nucleation and growth of these irreversible solid/solid phase transformations resulting from high thermomechanical loads. This metallurgical behavioral model was developed in the framework of continuum thermodynamics with gradients of temperature and internal variables.

  9. Considerations Concerning Matrix Diagram Transformations Associated with Mathematical Model Study of a Three-phase Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Poienar


    Full Text Available The clock hour figure mathematical model of a threephase transformer can be expressed, in the most plain form, through a 3X3 square matrix, called code matrix. The lines position reflect the modification in the high voltage windings terminal and the columns position reflect the modification in the low voltage winding terminal. The main changes on the transformer winding terminal are: the circular permutation of connection between windings; terminal supply reversal; reverse direction for the phase winding wrapping; reversal the beginning with the end for a phase winding; the connection conversion from N in Z between phase winding or inverse. The analytical form of these changes actually affect the configuration of the mathematical model expressed through a transformations diagram proposed and analyzed in two ways: bipolar version and unipolar version (fanwise. In the end of the paper are presented about the practical exploitation of the transformations diagram.

  10. Doping dependence of ordered phases in the Hubbard-Holstein model (United States)

    Mendl, Christian; Nowadnick, Elizabeth; Kung, Yvonne; Moritz, Brian; Johnston, Steven; Devereaux, Thomas

    Complex phase diagrams of strongly correlated materials are often accessed by the addition or removal of carriers, for example the emergence of high-temperature superconductivity from a charge transfer insulating state in the cuprates, and the metal-insulator transition in the nickelates. In many cases, these doping-dependent transitions are closely linked to the competition between multiple phases of similar energy scales, e.g., charge-stripe and superconducting states in the cuprates. The Hubbard-Holstein model, which includes electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, provides a framework to study competing phases. In this talk I will present determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations of the Hubbard-Holstein model and use spin and charge susceptibilities and single-particle spectral functions to elucidate the doping evolution of the competition between spin and charge order.

  11. Consistent phase-change modeling for CO2-based heat mining operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Veje, Christian


    The accuracy of mathematical modeling of phase-change phenomena is limited if a simple, less accurate equation of state completes the governing partial differential equation. However, fluid properties (such as density, dynamic viscosity and compressibility) and saturation state are calculated using......–gas phase transition with more accuracy and consistency. Calculation of fluid properties and saturation state were based on the volume translated Peng–Robinson equation of state and results verified. The present model has been applied to a scenario to simulate a CO2-based heat mining process. In this paper......, using temporal and spatial variations in pressure and fluid phase temperature, the energy capacity and how it is affected by fluid compression (Joule–Thomson effect) and convection was predicted. Results suggest that super-heated vapor can be produced at a higher rate with elevated heat content...

  12. Modeling nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions at the nanoscale: Application to spin-crossover. (United States)

    Park, Sang Tae; van der Veen, Renske M


    In this article, we present a continuum mechanics based approach for modeling thermally induced single-nanoparticle phase transitions studied in ultrafast electron microscopy. By using coupled differential equations describing heat transfer and the kinetics of the phase transition, we determine the major factors governing the time scales and efficiencies of thermal switching in individual spin-crossover nanoparticles, such as the thermal properties of the (graphite) substrate, the particle thickness, and the interfacial thermal contact conductance between the substrate and the nanoparticle. By comparing the simulated dynamics with the experimental single-particle diffraction time profiles, we demonstrate that the proposed non-equilibrium phase transition model can fully account for the observed switching dynamics.

  13. Modeling nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions at the nanoscale: Application to spin-crossover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Tae Park


    Full Text Available In this article, we present a continuum mechanics based approach for modeling thermally induced single-nanoparticle phase transitions studied in ultrafast electron microscopy. By using coupled differential equations describing heat transfer and the kinetics of the phase transition, we determine the major factors governing the time scales and efficiencies of thermal switching in individual spin-crossover nanoparticles, such as the thermal properties of the (graphite substrate, the particle thickness, and the interfacial thermal contact conductance between the substrate and the nanoparticle. By comparing the simulated dynamics with the experimental single-particle diffraction time profiles, we demonstrate that the proposed non-equilibrium phase transition model can fully account for the observed switching dynamics.

  14. A symmetry-breaking phase transition in a dynamical decision model (United States)

    Lambert, Gaultier; Chevereau, Guillaume; Bertin, Eric


    We consider a simple decision model in which a set of agents randomly choose one of two competing shops selling the same perishable products (typically food). The satisfaction of agents with respect to a given store is related to the freshness of the previously bought products. Agents select with a higher probability the store that they are most satisfied with. Studying the model from a statistical physics perspective, both through numerical simulations and mean-field analytical methods, we find a rich behaviour with continuous and discontinuous phase transitions between a symmetric phase where both stores maintain the same level of activity, and a phase with broken symmetry where one of the two shops attracts more customers than the other.

  15. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  16. Development of Environmental Load Estimation Model for Road Drainage Systems in the Early Design Phase (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Byung-Soo


    Due to the increasing concern about climate change, efforts to reduce environmental load are continuously being made in construction industry, and LCA (life cycle assessment) is being presented as an effective method to assess environmental load. Since LCA requires information on construction quantity used for environmental load estimation, however, it is not being utilized in the environmental review in the early design phase where it is difficult to obtain such information. In this study, computation system for construction quantity based on standard cross section of road drainage facilities was developed to compute construction quantity required for LCA using only information available in the early design phase to develop and verify the effectiveness of a model that can perform environmental load estimation. The result showed that it is an effective model that can be used in the early design phase as it revealed a 13.39% mean absolute error rate.

  17. Synchronization of multi-phase oscillators: an Axelrod-inspired model (United States)

    Kuperman, M. N.; Zanette, D. H.


    Inspired by Axelrod’s model of culture dissemination, we introduce and analyze a model for a population of coupled oscillators where different levels of synchronization can be assimilated to different degrees of cultural organization. The state of each oscillator is represented by a set of phases, and the interaction - which occurs between homologous phases - is weighted by a decreasing function of the distance between individual states. Both ordered arrays and random networks are considered. We find that the transition between synchronization and incoherent behaviour is mediated by a clustering regime with rich organizational structure, where any two oscillators can be synchronized in some of their phases, while their remain unsynchronized in the others.

  18. Dynamic Modeling of the Two-Phase Leakage Process of Natural Gas Liquid Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wu


    Full Text Available The leakage process simulation of a Natural Gas Liquid (NGL storage tank requires the simultaneous solution of the NGL’s pressure, temperature and phase state in the tank and across the leak hole. The methods available in the literature rarely consider the liquid/vapor phase transition of the NGL during such a process. This paper provides a comprehensive pressure-temperature-phase state method to solve this problem. With this method, the phase state of the NGL is predicted by a thermodynamic model based on the volume translated Peng-Robinson equation of state (VTPR EOS. The tank’s pressure and temperature are simulated according to the pressure-volume-temperature and isenthalpic expansion principles of the NGL. The pressure, temperature, leakage mass flow rate across the leak hole are calculated from an improved Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Diener-Schmidt (HNE-DS model and the isentropic expansion principle. In particular, the improved HNE-DS model removes the ideal gas assumption used in the original HNE-DS model by using a new compressibility factor developed from the VTPR EOS to replace the original one derived from the Clausius-Clayperon equation. Finally, a robust procedure of simultaneously solving the tank model and the leak hole model is proposed and the method is validated by experimental data. A variety of leakage cases demonstrates that this method is effective in simulating the dynamic leakage process of NGL tanks under critical and subcritical releasing conditions associated with vapor/liquid phase change.

  19. Size-resolved aqueous-phase atmospheric chemistry in a three-dimensional chemical transport model (United States)

    Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N.


    Three-dimensional chemical transport models typically include a bulk description of aqueous-phase atmospheric chemistry. Previously, this bulk description has been shown to be often inadequate in predicting sulfate production. The pH of the bulk mixture does not adequately describe the pH of the typically heterogeneous droplet population found in clouds and fogs. This often leads to an inability of bulk models to predict sulfate production when pH-dependent production pathways are important. A more accurate size-resolved aqueous-phase chemistry model, however, has long been considered infeasible for incorporation in a three-dimensional chemical transport model because of high computational costs. Here we investigate the feasibility of adding a computationally efficient size-resolved aqueous-phase chemistry module (Variable Size Resolution Model (VSRM)) to a three-dimensional model (the latest version of the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAMx)). The VSRM treats mass transfer between the gas phase and the different droplet populations and executes bulk or two-section size-resolved chemistry calculations in each step on the basis of the chemical environment of each computational cell. A fall air pollution episode in California's South Coast Air Basin is simulated, and model predictions are compared to observations. In an environment where clouds or fogs are present, the model without aqueous-phase chemistry severely underpredicts secondary sulfate formation. In cases where there is a high potential for sulfate production and widely varying composition across the droplet spectrum (over the ocean and near the coast), there is a significant increase in sulfate production over bulk predictions with the activation of a size-resolved aqueous-phase chemistry module. Unfortunately, measurements were only available at inland sites, where the difference between bulk and size-resolved sulfate predictions was small. The effects of other uncertainties on

  20. Moving Boudary Models for Dynamic Simulations of Two-phase Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Tummelscheit, H.


    ) and consequently the wall also into three regions corresponding to the flow regions. The flow regions are each described by a mass balance and an energy balance, and the wall regions are each described by an energy balance. Some typical model simplifications in MB-models naturally lead to high DAE-index problems....... The Dymola Modelica translator can automatically reduce the DAE index and thus makes efficient simulation possible. Usually the flow entering a dry-expansion evaporator in a refrigeration system is two-phase, and there is thus no liquid region. The general MB model has a number of special cases where only......Two-phase flows are commonly found in components in energy systems such as evaporators and boilers. The performance of these components depends among others on the controller. Transient models describing the evaporation process are important tools for determining control parameters, and fast low...

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of liquid–liquid phase change solvents for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; von Solms, Nicolas; Thomsen, Kaj


    A thermodynamic model based on Extended UNIQUAC framework has been developed in this work for the de-mixing liquid–liquid phase change solvents, DEEA (2-(diethylamino)ethanol) and MAPA (3-(methylamino)propylamine). Parameter estimation was performed for two ternary systems, H2O-DEEA-CO2 and H2O......-MAPA-CO2, and a quaternary system, H2O-DEEA-MAPA-CO2 (phase change system), by using different types of experimental data (equilibrium and thermal) consisting of pure amine vapor pressure, vapor-liquid equilibrium, solid-liquid equilibrium, liquid–liquid equilibrium, excess enthalpy, and heat of absorption...... of CO2 in aqueous amine solutions. 94 model parameters and 6 thermodynamic properties were fitted to approximately 1500 experimental data. The developed model accurately represents the equilibrium and thermal data for the studied systems with a single unique set of parameters. The model parameters...

  2. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik


    This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...... are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...... on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature...

  3. Mesoscopic modeling of Li insertion in phase-separating electrode materials: application to lithium iron phosphate. (United States)

    Farkhondeh, Mohammad; Pritzker, Mark; Fowler, Michael; Safari, Mohammadhosein; Delacourt, Charles


    A simple mesoscopic model is presented which accounts for the inhomogeneity of physical properties and bi-stable nature of phase-change insertion materials used in battery electrodes. The model does not include any geometric detail of the active material and discretizes the total active material domain into meso-scale units featuring basic thermodynamic (non-monotonic equilibrium potential as a function of Li content) and kinetic (insertion-de-insertion resistance) properties. With only these two factors incorporated, the model is able to simultaneously capture unique phenomena including the memory effect observed in lithium iron phosphate electrodes. The analysis offers a new physical insight into modeling of phase-change active materials which are of special interest for use in high power Li-ion batteries.

  4. Renewable Distributed Generation Models in Three-Phase Load Flow Analysis for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nor


    Full Text Available The paper presents renewable distributed generation  (RDG models as three-phase resource in load flow computation and analyzes their effect when they are connected in composite networks. The RDG models that have been considered comprise of photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine generation (WTG. The voltage-controlled node and complex power injection node are used in the models. These improvement models are suitable for smart grid power system analysis. The combination of IEEE transmission and distribution data used to test and analyze the algorithm in solving balanced/unbalanced active systems. The combination of IEEE transmission data and IEEE test feeder are used to test the the algorithm for balanced and unbalanced multi-phase distribution system problem. The simulation results show that by increased number and size of RDG units have improved voltage profile and reduced system losses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A Pessôa Filho


    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs have found wide application in the separation of biological molecules such as amino acids, peptides and proteins. Most of the research in this area has been dedicated to experimental determination and less effort has been devoted to the proper thermodynamic modeling of these systems. This work presents a new model for ATPS that accounts for solvation effects between polymer and water molecules, which are commonly reported to be responsible for phase separation. The model uses the Flory-Huggins equation as a starting point and modifies the combinatorial term by considering the presence of a hydration shell. The modified equation parameters were fit to a number of isotherms of poly(ethylene glycol - dextran systems, and the results obtained are reported herein. These results show that the adopted modification leads to remarkable improvements in the performance of the model.

  6. Multi-Path Signal Synchronization Model with Phase Ratio and Dispersion Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tzu-Jung


    Full Text Available Proper designs of offsets forsignalized intersections in an urban arterial system can help improve the level of service (LoS significantly. The MAXBAND model has been the most widely used approach for this purpose. In this paper, a MAXBAND model in which the lengt hs of phases in a cycle are variable is proposed. In other words, the lengths of phases in a cycle, as well as the cycle itself, are no longer fixed. Besides, theincorporation oftraffic dispersion module in the proposed model allows that the travel times from upstream intersection to the downstream one are taken into account. Real-world application on an arterial system in Taiwanfor evaluating the performance of the proposed model is conducted to validate the methodology. Actual traffic flow data are collected through on-site experiments. Results suggest that the improvements are around 44%, on average, in terms of total delay of the entire network.

  7. Topological phases in the non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model (United States)

    Lieu, Simon


    We address the conditions required for a Z topological classification in the most general form of the non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Any chirally symmetric SSH model will possess a "conjugated-pseudo-Hermiticity" which we show is responsible for a quantized "complex" Berry phase. Consequently, we provide an example where the complex Berry phase of a band is used as a quantized invariant to predict the existence of gapless edge modes in a non-Hermitian model. The chirally broken, P T -symmetric model is studied; we suggest an explanation for why the topological invariant is a global property of the Hamiltonian. A geometrical picture is provided by examining eigenvector evolution on the Bloch sphere. We justify our analysis numerically and discuss relevant applications.

  8. A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander


    In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models for two-phase Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) floods (oil displacement by gases, polymers, carbonized water, hot water, etc.). The main result presented here is the splitting of the EOR mathematical model into thermodynamical and hydrodynamical parts. T...... formation water for chemical flooding can be calculated from the reduced auxiliary system. Reduction of the number of equations allows the generation of new analytical models for EOR. The analytical model for displacement of oil by a polymer slug with water drive is presented.......) and transitional tie lines are independent of relative permeabilities and phases viscosities. Relative motion of polymer, surfactant and fresh water slugs depends on sorption isotherms only. Therefore, MMP for gasflood or minimum fresh water slug size providing isolation of polymer/surfactant from incompatible...

  9. A multiscale approach to modeling formability of dual-phase steels (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Bower, A. F.; Hector, L. G., Jr.; Carsley, J. E.; Zhang, L.; Abu-Farha, F.


    A multiscale modeling approach is used to predict how the formability of dual-phase (DP) steels depend on the properties of their constituent phases and microstructure. First, the flow behavior of the steels is predicted using microstructure-based finite element simulations of their 3D representative volume elements, wherein the two phases (ferrite and martensite) are discretely modeled using crystal plasticity constitutive models. These results are then used to calibrate homogenized constitutive models which are then used in large-scale finite element simulations to compute the forming limit diagrams (FLDs). The multiscale approach is validated by predicting the FLDs of two commercial DP steels and comparing the predictions with experimental measurements. Subsequently, the approach is used to compute flow behavior and FLDs of a series of ‘virtual’ DP steels, constructed by varying the microstructural parameters in the commercial DP steels. The results of these computations suggest that combining the ferrite from one of the two commercial steels with the martensite of the other and optimizing the phase volume fractions can yield ‘virtual’ steels with substantially improved properties. These include a material with an FLD0 (plane strain) that exceeds those of the commercial steels by 75% without a degradation in strength; and a material with a flow strength (0.2% offset) that exceeds those of the commercial steels by ~30% without degradation of formability.

  10. Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model (United States)

    Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit


    Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

  11. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. II. Diffusion in a binary mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P

    A previously formulated smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for a phase separating mixture is tested for the case when viscous processes are negligible and only mass and energy diffusive processes take place. We restrict ourselves to the case of a binary mixture that can exhibit liquid-liquid

  12. Five-phase model of the intelligence cycle of Competitive Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Bartes


    Full Text Available In business Competitive Intelligence practice is often used four-phase model of intelligence cycle in Competitive Intelligence and Management, collection, analysis and distribution. Based on its 20 years of business experience, the author believes that this four-phase model CI cycle is suitable for simpler tasks of CI, or its use is appropriate in the particular circumstances of governmental organizations – e.g. CIA etc.. But current business practice confronts Competitive Intelligence in a globalized world much more demanding tasks.For lack of basic four-step model of intelligence cycle author considers a substantial disparity of the data, information or snippets of information. It is these disparate elements, which then enter the next phase of the intelligence cycle – analysis. It is a fact that these figures, data or pieces of information can be well developed in the intelligence analysis only to a limited extent. Larger quantities of data have resulted in the high-quality processing. This leads top management to its strategic decision-making with less quality materials. These problems can be solved by using the five phase model of intelligence cycle in Competitive Intelligence.

  13. Surface-wave mode coupling : modelling and inverting waveforms including body-wave phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquering, H.A.


    This thesis is concerned with a similar problem as addressed by Li & Tanimoto (1993) in the surfacewave mode approach. In this thesis it is shown that surface-wave mode coupling is required when body-wave phases in laterally heterogeneous media are modelled by surface-wave mode summation. An

  14. Finite-size effects in Luther-Emery phases of Holstein and Hubbard models (United States)

    Greitemann, J.; Hesselmann, S.; Wessel, S.; Assaad, F. F.; Hohenadler, M.


    The one-dimensional Holstein model and its generalizations have been studied extensively to understand the effects of electron-phonon interaction. The half-filled case is of particular interest, as it describes a transition from a metallic phase with a spin gap due to attractive backscattering to a Peierls insulator with charge-density-wave order. Our quantum Monte Carlo results support the existence of a metallic phase with dominant power-law charge correlations, as described by the Luther-Emery fixed point. We demonstrate that for Holstein and also for purely fermionic models the spin gap significantly complicates finite-size numerical studies, and explains inconsistent previous results for Luttinger parameters and phase boundaries. On the other hand, no such complications arise in spinless models. The correct low-energy theory of the spinful Holstein model is argued to be that of singlet bipolarons with a repulsive, mutual interaction. This picture naturally explains the existence of a metallic phase, but also implies that gapless Luttinger liquid theory is not applicable.

  15. Lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial peptide induces a micellar cubic phase in a model membrane system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos, M.; Silva, T.; Teixeira, V.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Funari, S.S.; Uhríková, D.


    The observation of a micellar cubic phase is reported for a mixture of an antimicrobial peptide from the Lactoferrin family, LFampin 265-284, and a model membrane system of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (3:1), as derived from small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD)

  16. Quantum phase diagram of the half filled Hubbard model with bond-charge interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobry, A.O., E-mail: [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario and Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Aligia, A.A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)


    Using quantum field theory and bosonization, we determine the quantum phase diagram of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with bond-charge interaction X in addition to the usual Coulomb repulsion U at half-filling, for small values of the interactions. We show that it is essential to take into account formally irrelevant terms of order X. They generate relevant terms proportional to X{sup 2} in the flow of the renormalization group (RG). These terms are calculated using operator product expansions. The model shows three phases separated by a charge transition at U=U{sub c} and a spin transition at U=U{sub s}>U{sub c}. For UU{sub s}, the system is in the spin-density wave phase as in the usual Hubbard model. For intermediate values U{sub c}phase, which is absent in the ordinary Hubbard model with X=0. We obtain that the charge transition remains at U{sub c}=0 for X{ne}0. Solving the RG equations for the spin sector, we provide an analytical expression for U{sub s}(X). The results, with only one adjustable parameter, are in excellent agreement with numerical ones for X

  17. Orbital-selective Mott phase in multiorbital models for iron pnictides and chalcogenides (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao


    There is increasing recognition that the multiorbital nature of the 3 d electrons is important to the proper description of the electronic states in the normal state of the iron-based superconductors. Earlier studies of the pertinent multiorbital Hubbard models identified an orbital-selective Mott phase, which anchors the orbital-selective behavior seen in the overall phase diagram. An important characteristics of the models is that the orbitals are kinetically coupled, i.e., hybridized, to each other, which makes the orbital-selective Mott phase especially nontrivial. A U (1 ) slave-spin method was used to analyze the model with nonzero orbital-level splittings. Here we develop a Landau free-energy functional to shed further light on this issue. We put the microscopic analysis from the U (1 ) slave-spin approach in this perspective, and show that the intersite spin correlations are crucial to the renormalization of the bare hybridization amplitude towards zero and the concomitant realization of the orbital-selective Mott transition. Based on this insight, we discuss additional ways to study the orbital-selective Mott physics from a dynamical competition between the interorbital hybridization and collective spin correlations. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the orbital-selective Mott phase in the multiorbital models appropriate for the iron-based superconductors.

  18. Direct fit of a theoretical model of phase transition in oscillatory finger motions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, K.M.; Molenaar, P.C.M.


    This paper presents a general method to fit the Schoner-Haken-Kelso (SHK) model of human movement phase transitions directly to time series data. A robust variant of the extended Kalman filter technique is applied to the data of a single subject. The options of covariance resetting and iteration

  19. Time evolution of chiral phase transition at finite temperature and density in the linear sigma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Koide, Tomoi; Maruyama, Masahiro [Tohoku Univ., Faculty of Science, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)


    There are various approaches to nonequilibrium system. We use the projection operator method investigated by F. Shibata and N. Hashitsume on the linear sigma model at finite temperature and density. We derive a differential equation of the time evolution for the order parameter and pion number density in chiral phase transition. (author)

  20. Finite-Temperature Phase Transition in the Montorsi-Rasetti Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Schneider, T.; de Vries, Pedro


    Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo methods are used to compute the specific heat and the charge and spin correlation functions for a two-dimensional system of correlated electrons, described by the Montorsi-Rasetti model. Our results strongly suggest the occurrence of an unusual phase

  1. A Rate-Theory–Phase-Field Model of Irradiation-Induced Recrystallization in UMo Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Joshi, Vineet; Lavender, Curt A.


    Experiments showed that recrystallization dramatically speeds up the gas bubble swelling kinetics in metallic UMo fuels. In this work a recrystallization model is developed to study the effect of microstructures and radiation conditions on recrystallization kinetics. The model integrates the rate theory of intra-granular gas bubble and interstitial loop evolution and a phase field model of recrystallization zone evolution. A fast passage method is employed to describe one dimensional diffusion of interstitials which have diffusivity several order magnitude larger than that of the fission gas Xe. With the model, the effect of grain sizes on recrystallization kinetics is simulated.

  2. Non-robust Phase Transitions in the Generalized Clock Model on Trees (United States)

    Külske, C.; Schriever, P.


    Pemantle and Steif provided a sharp threshold for the existence of a robust phase transition (RPT) for the continuous rotator model and the Potts model in terms of the branching number and the second eigenvalue of the transfer matrix whose kernel describes the nearest neighbor interaction along the edges of the tree. Here a RPT is said to occur if an arbitrarily weak coupling with symmetry-breaking boundary conditions suffices to induce symmetry breaking in the bulk. They further showed that for the Potts model RPT occurs at a different threshold than PT (phase transition in the sense of multiple Gibbs measures), and conjectured that RPT and PT should occur at the same threshold in the continuous rotator model. We consider the class of four- and five-state rotation-invariant spin models with reflection symmetry on general trees which contains the Potts model and the clock model with scalarproduct-interaction as limiting cases. The clock model can be viewed as a particular discretization which is obtained from the classical rotator model with state space S^1. We analyze the transition between PT=RPT and PT≠ RPT, in terms of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of the model at the critical threshold value for the existence of RPT. The transition between the two regimes depends sensitively on the third largest eigenvalue.

  3. Non-robust Phase Transitions in the Generalized Clock Model on Trees (United States)

    Külske, C.; Schriever, P.


    Pemantle and Steif provided a sharp threshold for the existence of a robust phase transition (RPT) for the continuous rotator model and the Potts model in terms of the branching number and the second eigenvalue of the transfer matrix whose kernel describes the nearest neighbor interaction along the edges of the tree. Here a RPT is said to occur if an arbitrarily weak coupling with symmetry-breaking boundary conditions suffices to induce symmetry breaking in the bulk. They further showed that for the Potts model RPT occurs at a different threshold than PT (phase transition in the sense of multiple Gibbs measures), and conjectured that RPT and PT should occur at the same threshold in the continuous rotator model. We consider the class of four- and five-state rotation-invariant spin models with reflection symmetry on general trees which contains the Potts model and the clock model with scalarproduct-interaction as limiting cases. The clock model can be viewed as a particular discretization which is obtained from the classical rotator model with state space S^1 . We analyze the transition between PT=RPT and PT≠RPT , in terms of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of the model at the critical threshold value for the existence of RPT. The transition between the two regimes depends sensitively on the third largest eigenvalue.

  4. Physical and numerical modelling of heat treatment the precipitation-hardening complex-phase steel (CP)


    B. Koczurkiewicz; H. Dyja; Rapalska-Nowakowska, J.; A. Kawałek


    The article presents the results of physical and numerical modeling of the processes of thermo- plastic treatment of an experimental complex-phase (CP) steel. Numerical tests were carried out using a commercial software program, ThermoCalc. Based on the obtained test results, the austenitization temperature was established. Physical modeling was performed using a DIL 805A/D dilatometer and the Gleeble 3800 system. The characteristic temperatures of the steel and the primary austenite grain si...

  5. Psycho-Motor and Error Enabled Simulations: Modeling Vulnerable Skills in the Pre-Mastery Phase (United States)


    Resident’s Operative Leadership Skills Correlate with Self-Assessments of Technical Skill ? Law K.E., D’Angelo A.D., Cohen E.R., Ray R.D...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0080 TITLE: Psycho-Motor and Error Enabled Simulations: Modeling Vulnerable Skills in the Pre...13 Mar 2015 - 12 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Psycho-Motor and Error Enabled Simulations: Modeling Vulnerable Skills in the Pre- Mastery Phase 5a

  6. Mathematical modeling of radiative-conductive heat transfer in semitransparent medium with phase change (United States)

    Savvinova, Nadezhda A.; Sleptsov, Semen D.; Rubtsov, Nikolai A.


    A mathematical phase change model is a formulation of the Stefan problem. Various formulations of the Stefan problem modeling of radiative-conductive heat transfer during melting or solidification of a semitransparent material are presented. Analysis of numerical results show that the radiative heat transfer has a significant effect on temperature distributions during melting (solidification) of the semitransparent material. In this paper conditions for application of various statements of the Stefan problem are analyzed.

  7. A phase plane graph based model of the ovulatory cycle lacking the "positive feedback" phenomenon


    Kurbel Sven


    Abstract When hormones during the ovulatory cycle are shown in phase plane graphs, reported FSH and estrogen values form a specific pattern that resembles the leaning “&" symbol, while LH and progesterone (Pg) values form a "boomerang" shape. Graphs in this paper were made using data reported by Stricker et al. [Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44:883–887]. These patterns were used to construct a simplistic model of the ovulatory cycle without the conventional "positive feedback" phenomenon. The model ...

  8. Chiral phase transition in the SU (3) Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimt, S.; Lutz, M.; Weise, W. (Regensburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik)


    We calculate the thermodynamical potential of the SU(3) Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in the mean field approximation and discuss the nature of the chiral phase transition, i.e. the mechanisms which govern chiral symmetry restoration at large temperature and/or quark densities. No evidence is found for a first order transition once realistic coupling strengths are used in the model. (orig.).

  9. A robust optimization model for distribution and evacuation in the disaster response phase


    Fereiduni, Meysam; Shahanaghi, Kamran


    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, affect thousands of people and can cause enormous financial loss. Therefore, an efficient response immediately following a natural disaster is vital to minimize the aforementioned negative effects. This research paper presents a network design model for humanitarian logistics which will assist in location and allocation decisions for multiple disaster periods. At first, a single-objective optimization model is presented that addresses the response phase...

  10. Modeling and simulation of nanoparticles transport in a two-phase flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    In the current paper, a mathematical model to describe the nanoparticles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium is presented. Both capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered in the model. A numerical example of countercurrent water-oil imbibition is considered. We monitor the changing of the fluid and solid properties due to the addition of the nanoparticles using numerical experiments. Variation of water saturation, nanoparticles concentration and porosity ratio are investigated.

  11. A Unified Bond Graph Modeling Approach for the Ejection Phase of the Cardiovascular System




    In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is presented, simulated and validated. The integro-differential and ordinary differential equations obtained from the bond graph models are simulated using ODE45 (Ordinary Differential Equation Solver) on MATLAB and Simulink. The results, thus, obtained are compared with CVS (Cardiovascular System) physiological data present in Simbiosys (a software for simulating biological systems) and also with the CVS Wigge...

  12. Development and validation of a combined phased acoustical radiosity and image source model for predicting sound fields in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    A model, combining acoustical radiosity and the image source method, including phase shifts on reflection, has been developed. The model is denoted Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Method (PARISM), and it has been developed in order to be able to model both specular and diffuse reflec...

  13. Dust environment of an airless object: A phase space study with kinetic models (United States)

    Kallio, E.; Dyadechkin, S.; Fatemi, S.; Holmström, M.; Futaana, Y.; Wurz, P.; Fernandes, V. A.; Álvarez, F.; Heilimo, J.; Jarvinen, R.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Barabash, S.; Mäkelä, J.; Porjo, N.; Alho, M.


    The study of dust above the lunar surface is important for both science and technology. Dust particles are electrically charged due to impact of the solar radiation and the solar wind plasma and, therefore, they affect the plasma above the lunar surface. Dust is also a health hazard for crewed missions because micron and sub-micron sized dust particles can be toxic and harmful to the human body. Dust also causes malfunctions in mechanical devices and is therefore a risk for spacecraft and instruments on the lunar surface. Properties of dust particles above the lunar surface are not fully known. However, it can be stated that their large surface area to volume ratio due to their irregular shape, broken chemical bonds on the surface of each dust particle, together with the reduced lunar environment cause the dust particles to be chemically very reactive. One critical unknown factor is the electric field and the electric potential near the lunar surface. We have developed a modelling suite, Dusty Plasma Environments: near-surface characterisation and Modelling (DPEM), to study globally and locally dust environments of the Moon and other airless bodies. The DPEM model combines three independent kinetic models: (1) a 3D hybrid model, where ions are modelled as particles and electrons are modelled as a charged neutralising fluid, (2) a 2D electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model where both ions and electrons are treated as particles, and (3) a 3D Monte Carlo (MC) model where dust particles are modelled as test particles. The three models are linked to each other unidirectionally; the hybrid model provides upstream plasma parameters to be used as boundary conditions for the PIC model which generates the surface potential for the MC model. We have used the DPEM model to study properties of dust particles injected from the surface of airless objects such as the Moon, the Martian moon Phobos and the asteroid RQ36. We have performed a (v0, m/q)-phase space study where the

  14. Variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model for nonisothermal solidification in a multicomponent alloy (United States)

    Ohno, Munekazu; Takaki, Tomohiro; Shibuta, Yasushi


    A variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model is presented for nonisothermal solidification in a multicomponent alloy with two-sided asymmetric diffusion. The essential ingredient of this formulation is that the diffusion fluxes for conserved variables in both the liquid and solid are separately derived from functional derivatives of the total entropy and then these fluxes are related to each other on the basis of the local equilibrium conditions. In the present formulation, the cross-coupling terms between the phase-field and conserved variables naturally arise in the phase-field equation and diffusion equations, one of which corresponds to the antitrapping current, the phenomenological correction term in early nonvariational models. In addition, this formulation results in diffusivities of tensor form inside the interface. Asymptotic analysis demonstrates that this model can exactly reproduce the free-boundary problem in the thin-interface limit. The present model is widely applicable because approximations and simplifications are not formally introduced into the bulk's free energy densities and because off-diagonal elements of the diffusivity matrix are explicitly taken into account. Furthermore, we propose a nonvariational form of the present model to achieve high numerical performance. A numerical test of the nonvariational model is carried out for nonisothermal solidification in a binary alloy. It shows fast convergence of the results with decreasing interface thickness.

  15. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  16. Research on three-phase traffic flow modeling based on interaction range (United States)

    Zeng, Jun-Wei; Yang, Xu-Gang; Qian, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Xu-Ting


    On the basis of the multiple velocity difference effect (MVDE) model and under short-range interaction, a new three-phase traffic flow model (S-MVDE) is proposed through careful consideration of the influence of the relationship between the speeds of the two adjacent cars on the running state of the rear car. The random slowing rule in the MVDE model is modified in order to emphasize the influence of vehicle interaction between two vehicles on the probability of vehicles’ deceleration. A single-lane model which without bottleneck structure under periodic boundary conditions is simulated, and it is proved that the traffic flow simulated by S-MVDE model will generate the synchronous flow of three-phase traffic theory. Under the open boundary, the model is expanded by adding an on-ramp, the congestion pattern caused by the bottleneck is simulated at different main road flow rates and on-ramp flow rates, which is compared with the traffic congestion pattern observed by Kerner et al. and it is found that the results are consistent with the congestion characteristics in the three-phase traffic flow theory.

  17. Circuit-Level Model of Phase-Locked Spin-Torque Oscillators (United States)

    Ahn, Sora; Lim, Hyein; Kim, Miryeon; Shin, Hyungsoon; Lee, Seungjun


    Spin-torque oscillators (STOs) are new oscillating devices based on spintronics technology with many advantageous features, i.e., nanoscale size, high tunability, and compatibility with standard silicon processing. Recent research has shown that two electrically connected STOs may operate as a single device when specific conditions are met. To overcome the limitation of the small output power of STOs, the phase-locking behavior of multiple STOs is hereby extensively investigated. In this paper, we present a circuit-level model of two coupled STOs considering the interaction between them such that it can represent the phase-locking behavior of multiple STOs. In our model, the characteristics of each STO are defined first as functions of applied DC current and external magnetic field. Then, the phase-locking condition is examined to determine the properties of the two coupled STOs on the basis of a theoretical model. The analytic model of two coupled STOs is written in Verilog-A hardware description language. The behavior of the proposed model is verified by circuit-level simulation using HSPICE with CMOS circuits including a current-mirror circuit and differential amplifiers. Simulation results with various CMOS circuits have confirmed the effectiveness of our model.

  18. Interfacial free energy adjustable phase field crystal model for homogeneous nucleation. (United States)

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Huang, Yunhao


    To describe the homogeneous nucleation process, an interfacial free energy adjustable phase-field crystal model (IPFC) was proposed by reconstructing the energy functional of the original phase field crystal (PFC) methodology. Compared with the original PFC model, the additional interface term in the IPFC model effectively can adjust the magnitude of the interfacial free energy, but does not affect the equilibrium phase diagram and the interfacial energy anisotropy. The IPFC model overcame the limitation that the interfacial free energy of the original PFC model is much less than the theoretical results. Using the IPFC model, we investigated some basic issues in homogeneous nucleation. From the viewpoint of simulation, we proceeded with an in situ observation of the process of cluster fluctuation and obtained quite similar snapshots to colloidal crystallization experiments. We also counted the size distribution of crystal-like clusters and the nucleation rate. Our simulations show that the size distribution is independent of the evolution time, and the nucleation rate remains constant after a period of relaxation, which are consistent with experimental observations. The linear relation between logarithmic nucleation rate and reciprocal driving force also conforms to the steady state nucleation theory.

  19. Local structure, composition, and crystallization mechanism of a model two-phase “composite nanoglass”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro [CSRRI-IIT, MRCAT, Sector 10, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kelly, S. D. [EXAFS Analysis, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60440 (United States); Balasubramanian, M. [Sector 20 XOR, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Srinivasan, S. G.; Du, Jincheng; Banerjee, Rajarshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203-5017 (United States); Ayyub, Pushan, E-mail: [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)


    We report a detailed study of the local composition and structure of a model, bi-phasic nanoglass with nominal stoichiometry Cu{sub 55}Nb{sub 45}. Three dimensional atom probe data suggest a nanoscale-phase-separated glassy structure having well defined Cu-rich and Nb-rich regions with a characteristic length scale of ≈3 nm. However, extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates subtle differences in the local environments of Cu and Nb. While the Cu atoms displayed a strong tendency to cluster and negligible structural order beyond the first coordination shell, the Nb atoms had a larger fraction of unlike neighbors (higher chemical order) and a distinctly better-ordered structural environment (higher topological order). This provides the first experimental indication that metallic glass formation may occur due to frustration arising from the competition between chemical ordering and clustering. These observations are complemented by classical as well as ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our study indicates that these nanoscale phase-separated glasses are quite distinct from the single phase nanoglasses (studied by Gleiter and others) in the following three respects: (i) they contain at least two structurally and compositionally distinct, nanodispersed, glassy phases, (ii) these phases are separated by comparatively sharp inter-phase boundaries, and (iii) thermally induced crystallization occurs via a complex, multi-step mechanism. Such materials, therefore, appear to constitute a new class of disordered systems that may be called a composite nanoglass.

  20. Local structure, composition, and crystallization mechanism of a model two-phase “composite nanoglass”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soma; Kelly, S. D.; Shibata, Tomohiro; Balasubramanian, M.; Srinivasan, S. G.; Du, Jincheng; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Ayyub, Pushan


    We report a detailed study of the local composition and structure of a model, bi-phasic nanoglass with nominal stoichiometry Cu55Nb45. Three dimensional atom probe data suggest a nanoscale-phase-separated glassy structure having well defined Cu-rich and Nb-rich regions with a characteristic length scale of ≈3 nm. However, extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates subtle differences in the local environments of Cu and Nb. While the Cu atoms displayed a strong tendency to cluster and negligible structural order beyond the first coordination shell, the Nb atoms had a larger fraction of unlike neighbors (higher chemical order) and a distinctly better-ordered structural environment (higher topological order). This provides the first experimental indication that metallic glass formation may occur due to frustration arising from the competition between chemical ordering and clustering. These observations are complemented by classical as well as ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our study indicates that these nanoscale phase-separated glasses are quite distinct from the single phase nanoglasses (studied by Gleiter and others) in the following three respects: (i) they contain at least two structurally and compositionally distinct, nanodispersed, glassy phases, (ii) these phases are separated by comparatively sharp inter-phase boundaries, and (iii) thermally induced crystallization occurs via a complex, multi-step mechanism. Such materials, therefore, appear to constitute a new class of disordered systems that may be called a composite nanoglass.

  1. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.


    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.

  2. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems (United States)

    López-Bara, F. I.; López-Aguilar, F.


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  3. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems. (United States)

    López-Bara, F I; López-Aguilar, F


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  4. The phase behavior study of human antibody solution using multi-scale modeling (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George B.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.


    Phase transformation in antibody solutions is of growing interest in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Recent experimental studies have shown that, as in near-spherical proteins, antibodies can undergo a liquid-liquid phase separation under conditions metastable with respect to crystallization. However, the phase diagram of the Y-shaped antibodies exhibits unique features that differ substantially from those of spherical proteins. Specifically, antibody solutions have an exceptionally low critical volume fraction (CVF) and a broader and more asymmetric liquid-liquid coexistence curve than those of spherical proteins. Using molecular dynamics simulation on a series of trimetric Y-shaped coarse-grained models, we investigate the phase behavior of antibody solutions and compare the results with the experimental phase diagram of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), one of the most common Y-shape typical of antibody molecules. With the fitted size of spheres, our simulation reproduces both the low CVF and the asymmetric shape of the experimental coexistence curve of IgG antibodies. The broadness of the coexistence curve can be attributed to the anisotropic nature of the inter-protein interaction. In addition, the repulsion between the inner parts of the spherical domains of IgG dramatically expands the coexistence region in the scaled phase diagram, while the hinge length has only a minor effect on the CVF and the overall shape of the coexistence curve. We thus propose a seven-site model with empirical parameters characterizing the exclusion volume and the hinge length of the IgG molecules, which provides a base for simulation studies of the phase behavior of IgG antibodies.

  5. Modeling of effect of LC SLM phase fluctuations on kinoforms optical reconstruction quality (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.


    Phase-only liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are actively used in various applications. However, majority of scientific applications require stable phase modulation which might be hard to achieve with commercially available SLM due to its consumer origin. The use of digital voltage addressing scheme leads to phase temporal fluctuations, which results in lower diffraction efficiency and reconstruction quality of displayed diffractive optical elements (DOE). It is often preferable to know effect of these fluctuations on DOE reconstruction quality before SLM is implemented into experimental setup. It is especially important in case of multi-level phaseonly DOE such as kinoforms. Therefore we report results of modeling of effect of phase fluctuations of LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" on kinoforms optical reconstruction quality. Modeling was conducted in the following way. First dependency of LC SLM phase shift on addressed signal level and time from frame start was measured for all signal values (0-255) with temporal resolution of 0.5 ms in time period of one frame. Then numerical simulation of effect of SLM phase fluctuations on kinoforms reconstruction quality was performed. Based on measured dependency, for each time delay new distorted kinoform was generated and then numerically reconstructed. Averaged reconstructed image corresponds to optically reconstructed one with registration time exceeding time period of one frame (16.7 ms), while individual images correspond to momentary optical reconstruction with registration time less than 1 ms. Quality degradation of modeled optical reconstruction of several test kinoforms was analyzed. Comparison of kinoforms optical reconstruction with SLM and numerically simulated reconstruction was conducted.

  6. Disentangling phase transitions and critical points in the proton–neutron interacting boson model by catastrophe theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ramos, J.E., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Huelva al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Arias, J.M., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Sevilla al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Dukelsky, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    We introduce the basic concepts of catastrophe theory needed to derive analytically the phase diagram of the proton–neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2). Previous studies [1–3] were based on numerical solutions. We here explain the whole IBM-2 phase diagram including the precise order of the phase transitions in terms of the cusp catastrophe.

  7. A Novel Model Predictive Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil


    Single-phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the existing control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but also more complicated to implement. Recently, the Model Predictive Control (MPC...... vectors. Simulation results show that the proposed approach lead to a lower THD in the injected current combined with fast dynamics. The proposed predictive control has been simulated and implemented on a 1 kW single-phase HERIC (highly efficient and reliable inverter concept) inverter with an LCL filter...

  8. Quantum Criticality Due to Incipient Phase Separation in the Two-dimentional Hubbard Model (United States)

    Khatami, Ehsan; Mikelsons, Karlis; Macridin, Alexandru; Scalettar, Richard; Galanakis, Dimitrios; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark


    We investigate the two-dimensional Hubbard model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, t^', using the dynamical cluster approximation. We confirm the existence of a first order phase separation transition terminating at a second order critical point at filling nc(t^') and temperature Tps(t^'). We find that as t' approaches zero, Tps(t^') vanishes and nc(t^') approaches the filling associated with the quantum critical point separating the Fermi liquid from the pseudogap phase. We propose that the quantum critical point under the superconducting dome is the zero temperature limit of the line of second order critical points.

  9. Quantum criticality due to incipient phase separation in the two-dimensional Hubbard model (United States)

    Khatami, E.; Mikelsons, K.; Galanakis, D.; Macridin, A.; Moreno, J.; Scalettar, R. T.; Jarrell, M.


    We investigate the two-dimensional Hubbard model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, t' , using the dynamical cluster approximation. We confirm the existence of a first-order phase-separation transition terminating at a second-order critical point at filling nc(t') and temperature Tps(t') . We find that as t' approaches zero, Tps(t') vanishes and nc(t') approaches the filling associated with the quantum critical point separating the Fermi liquid from the pseudogap phase. We propose that the quantum critical point under the superconducting dome is the zero-temperature limit of the line of second-order critical points.

  10. Modeling of Thermal Phase Noise in a Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber-Optic Gyroscope. (United States)

    Song, Ningfang; Ma, Kun; Jin, Jing; Teng, Fei; Cai, Wei


    A theoretical model of the thermal phase noise in a square-wave modulated solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope has been established, and then verified by measurements. The results demonstrate a good agreement between theory and experiment. The contribution of the thermal phase noise to the random walk coefficient of the gyroscope is derived. A fiber coil with 2.8 km length is used in the experimental solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope, showing a random walk coefficient of 9.25 × 10 -5 deg/√h.

  11. Phases and geometry of the N=1 A_2 quiver gauge theory and matrix models


    Casero, Roberto; Trincherini, Enrico


    We study the phases and geometry of the N=1 A_2 quiver gauge theory using matrix models and a generalized Konishi anomaly. We consider the theory both in the Coulomb and Higgs phases. Solving the anomaly equations, we find that a meromorphic one-form sigma(z)dz is naturally defined on the curve Sigma associated to the theory. Using the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture, we evaluate the effective low-energy superpotential and demonstrate that its equations of motion can be translated into a geometric ...

  12. Phase space analysis for a scalar-tensor model with kinetic and Gauss-Bonnet couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Granda, L N


    We study the phase space for an scalar-tensor string inspired model of dark energy with non minimal kinetic and Gauss Bonnet couplings. The form of the scalar potential and of the coupling terms is of the exponential type, which give rise to appealing cosmological solutions. The critical points describe a variety of cosmological scenarios that go from matter or radiation dominated universe to dark energy dominated universe. There were found trajectories in the phase space departing from unstable or saddle fixed points and arriving to the stable scalar field dominated point corresponding to late-time accelerated expansion.

  13. Modeling of Thermal Phase Noise in a Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber-Optic Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningfang Song


    Full Text Available A theoretical model of the thermal phase noise in a square-wave modulated solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope has been established, and then verified by measurements. The results demonstrate a good agreement between theory and experiment. The contribution of the thermal phase noise to the random walk coefficient of the gyroscope is derived. A fiber coil with 2.8 km length is used in the experimental solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope, showing a random walk coefficient of 9.25 × 10−5 deg/√h.

  14. Order–disorder phase transitions in thin films described by transverse Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tu Niem


    Full Text Available The order–disorder phase transition in thin films at finite temperature and zero temperature (quantum phase transition is discussed within the transverse Ising model using molecular field approximation. Experimentally, it is shown that the Curie temperature TC of perovskite PbTiO3 ultra-thin film decreases with decreasing film thickness. We obtain an equation for TC of thin film in external magnetic and transverse fields. Our equation explains well for the case of strong transverse strain field this behaviour.

  15. Prolongation of two phases in the model of fluid displacement through a capillary (United States)

    Lucas, Yann; Panfilov, Mikhail; Buès, Michel


    The problem of a piston-like displacement of a fluid by another in a capillary is examined. It is suggested that each fluid is prolonged into the domain occupied by the other fluid. This enables the replacement of the two-phase flow problem by a transient single-phase flow problem, with discontinuity in velocity and pressure on a film interface. The problems related to the triple point are solved by introducing a limit fluid near the pore wall. The demonstration of the Washburn equation contributes to the physical justification of our model. To cite this article: Y. Lucas et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  16. SAR-PC: Edge Detection in SAR Images via an Advanced Phase Congruency Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Xiang


    Full Text Available Edge detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images has been a challenging task due to the speckle noise. Ratio-based edge detectors are robust operators for SAR images that provide constant false alarm rates, but they are only optimal for step edges. Edge detectors developed by the phase congruency model provide the identification of different types of edge features, but they suffer from speckle noise. By combining the advantages of the two edge detectors, we propose a SAR phase congruency detector (SAR-PC. Firstly, an improved local energy model for SAR images is obtained by replacing the convolution of raw image and the quadrature filters by the ratio responses. Secondly, a new noise level is estimated for the multiplicative noise. Substituting the SAR local energy and the new noise level into the phase congruency model, SAR-PC is derived. Edge response corresponds to the max moment of SAR-PC. We compare the proposed detector with the ratio-based edge detectors and the phase congruency edge detectors. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and visual effects are used to evaluate the performance. Experimental results of simulated images and real-world images show that the proposed edge detector is robust to speckle noise and it provides a consecutive edge response.

  17. Coarse-graining for fast dynamics of order parameters in the phase-field model (United States)

    Jou, D.; Galenko, P. K.


    In standard descriptions, the master equation can be obtained by coarse-graining with the application of the hypothesis of full local thermalization that is equivalent to the local thermodynamic equilibrium. By contrast, fast transformations proceed in the absence of local equilibrium and the master equation must be obtained with the absence of thermalization. In the present work, a non-Markovian master equation leading, in specific cases of relaxation to local thermodynamic equilibrium, to hyperbolic evolution equations for a binary alloy, is derived for a system with two order parameters. One of them is a conserved order parameter related to the atomistic composition, and the other one is a non-conserved order parameter, which is related to phase field. A microscopic basis for phenomenological phase-field models of fast phase transitions, when the transition is so fast that there is not sufficient time to achieve local thermalization between two successive elementary processes in the system, is provided. In a particular case, when the relaxation to local thermalization proceeds by the exponential law, the obtained coarse-grained equations are related to the hyperbolic phase-field model. The solution of the model equations is obtained to demonstrate non-equilibrium phenomenon of solute trapping which appears in rapid growth of dendritic crystals. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  18. Advanced Multi-Phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis (United States)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.; Doran, Denise


    It is known that the simulations of solid rocket motor internal flow field with AL-based propellants require complex multi-phase turbulent flow model. The objective of this study is to develop an advanced particulate multi-phase flow model which includes the effects of particle dynamics, chemical reaction and hot gas flow turbulence. The inclusion of particle agglomeration, particle/gas reaction and mass transfer, particle collision, coalescence and breakup mechanisms in modeling the particle dynamics will allow the proposed model to realistically simulate the flowfield inside a solid rocket motor. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes numerical code FDNS is used to simulate the steady-state multi-phase particulate flow field for a 3-zone 2-D axisymmetric ASRM model and a 6-zone 3-D ASRM model at launch conditions. The 2-D model includes aft-end cavity and submerged nozzle. The 3-D model represents the whole ASRM geometry, including additional grain port area in the gas cavity and two inhibitors. FDNS is a pressure based finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver with time-accurate adaptive second-order upwind schemes, standard and extended k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections, multi zone body-fitted formulations, and turbulence particle interaction model. Eulerian/Lagrangian multi-phase solution method is applied for multi-zone mesh. To simulate the chemical reaction, penalty function corrected efficient finite-rate chemistry integration method is used in FDNS. For the AL particle combustion rate, the Hermsen correlation is employed. To simulate the turbulent dispersion of particles, the Gaussian probability distribution with standard deviation equal to (2k/3)(exp 1/2) is used for the random turbulent velocity components. The computational results reveal that the flow field near the juncture of aft-end cavity and the submerged nozzle is very complex. The effects of the turbulent particles affect the flow field significantly and provide better

  19. Grid Generation Issues in the CFD Modelling of Two-Phase Flow in a Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hernandez-Perez


    Full Text Available The grid generation issues found in the 3D simulation of two-phase flow in a pipe using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD are discussed in this paper. Special attention is given to the effect of the element type and structure of the mesh. The simulations were carried out using the commercial software package STAR-CCM+, which is designed for numerical simulation of continuum mechanics problems. The model consisted of a cylindrical vertical pipe. Different mesh structures were employed in the computational domain. The condition of two-phase flow was simulated with the Volume of Fluid (VOF model, taking into consideration turbulence effects using the k-e model. The results showed that there is a strong dependency of the flow behaviour on the mesh employed. The best result was obtained with the grid known as butterfly grid, while the cylindrical mesh produced misleading results. The simulation was validated against experimental results.

  20. Study of Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Methane Phase Diagram Prediction using Two Different Potential Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad


    Lennard‐Jones (L‐J) and Buckingham exponential‐6 (exp‐6) potential models were used to produce isotherms for methane at temperatures below and above critical one. Molecular simulation approach, particularly Monte Carlo simulations, were employed to create these isotherms working with both canonical and Gibbs ensembles. Experiments in canonical ensemble with each model were conducted to estimate pressures at a range of temperatures above methane critical temperature. Results were collected and compared to experimental data existing in literature; both models showed an elegant agreement with the experimental data. In parallel, experiments below critical temperature were run in Gibbs ensemble using L‐J model only. Upon comparing results with experimental ones, a good fit was obtained with small deviations. The work was further developed by adding some statistical studies in order to achieve better understanding and interpretation to the estimated quantities by the simulation. Methane phase diagrams were successfully reproduced by an efficient molecular simulation technique with different potential models. This relatively simple demonstration shows how powerful molecular simulation methods could be, hence further applications on more complicated systems are considered. Prediction of phase behavior of elemental sulfur in sour natural gases has been an interesting and challenging field in oil and gas industry. Determination of elemental sulfur solubility conditions helps avoiding all kinds of problems caused by its dissolution in gas production and transportation processes. For this purpose, further enhancement to the methods used is to be considered in order to successfully simulate elemental sulfur phase behavior in sour natural gases mixtures.

  1. A constraint-free phase field model for ferromagnetic domain evolution. (United States)

    Yi, Min; Xu, Bai-Xiang


    A continuum constraint-free phase field model is proposed to simulate the magnetic domain evolution in ferromagnetic materials. The model takes the polar and azimuthal angles (ϑ1,ϑ2), instead of the magnetization unit vector m(m1,m2,m3), as the order parameters. In this way, the constraint on the magnetization magnitude can be exactly satisfied automatically, and no special numerical treatment on the phase field evolution is needed. The phase field model is developed from a thermodynamic framework which involves a configurational force system for ϑ1 and ϑ2. A combination of the configurational force balance and the second law of thermodynamics leads to thermodynamically consistent constitutive relations and a generalized evolution equation for the order parameters (ϑ1,ϑ2). Beneficial from the constraint-free model, the three-dimensional finite-element implementation is straightforward, and the degrees of freedom are reduced by one. The model is shown to be capable of reproducing the damping-dependent switching dynamics, and the formation and evolution of domains and vortices in ferromagnetic materials under the external magnetic or mechanical loading. Particularly, the calculated out-of-plane component of magnetization in a vortex is verified by the corresponding experimental results, as well as the motion of the vortex under a magnetic field.

  2. Renormalization-group theory for cooling first-order phase transitions in Potts models. (United States)

    Liang, Ning; Zhong, Fan


    We develop a dynamic field-theoretic renormalization-group (RG) theory for cooling first-order phase transitions in the Potts model. It is suggested that the well-known imaginary fixed points of the q-state Potts model for q>10/3 in the RG theory are the origin of the dynamic scaling found recently from numerical simulations, apart from logarithmic corrections. This indicates that the real and imaginary fixed points of the Potts model are both physical and control the scalings of the continuous and discontinuous phase transitions, respectively, of the model. Our one-loop results for the scaling exponents are already not far away from the numerical results. Further, the scaling exponents depend on q only slightly, consistent with the numerical results. Therefore, the theory is believed to provide a natural explanation of the dynamic scaling including the scaling exponents and their scaling laws for various observables in the cooling first-order phase transition of the Potts model.

  3. Colloid transport, retention, and remobilization during two-phase flow: Micro-model investigation and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.


    In this study the transport of colloids in a two-phase fluid system is investigated. In particular, the effects on the interface of two immiscible fluids in steady-state and transient circumstances in a micro-porous network are investigated. The experimental setup is designed consisting of micro

  4. Phase diagram of the three states Potts model with next nearest neighbour interactions on the Bethe lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir [Faculty of Science, IIUM, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia); Institute of Mathematics and Information Technology, 100125 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Faculty of Science, IIUM, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia); Pah, Chin Hee [Faculty of Science, IIUM, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia)], E-mail:


    We have found an exact phase diagram of the Potts model with competing nearest neighbor and next nearest neighbor interactions on the Bethe lattice of order two. The diagram consists of five phases: ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, modulated, antiphase and paramodulated, all meeting at the multicritical point (T=0,p=1/3). We report on a new phase which we denote as paramodulated, found at low temperatures and characterized by zero average magnetization lying inside the modulated phase. Such a phase, inherent in the Potts model has no analogues in the Ising setting.

  5. Sub-grid combustion modeling for compressible two-phase reacting flows (United States)

    Sankaran, Vaidyanathan


    A generic formulation for modeling the turbulent combustion in compressible, high Reynolds number, two-phase; reacting flows has been developed and validated. A sub-grid mixing/combustion model called Linear Eddy Mixing (LEM) model has been extended to compressible flows and used inside the framework of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in this LES-LEM approach. The LES-LEM approach is based on the proposition that the basic mechanistic distinction between the convective and the molecular effects should be preserved for accurate prediction of complex flow-fields such as those encountered in many combustion systems. Liquid droplets (represented by computational parcels) are tracked using the Lagrangian approach wherein the Newton's equation of motion for the discrete particles are integrated explicitly in the Eulerian gas field. The gas phase LES velocity fields are used to estimate the instantaneous gas velocity at the droplet location. Drag effects due to the droplets on the gas phase and the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid phase are explicitly included. Thus, full coupling is achieved between the two phases in the simulation. Validation of the compressible LES-LEM approach is conducted by simulating the flow-field in an operational General Electric Aircraft Engines combustor (LM6000). The results predicted using the proposed approach compares well with the experiments and a conventional (G-equation) thin-flame model. Particle tracking algorithms used in the present study are validated by simulating droplet laden temporal mixing layers. Quantitative and qualitative comparison with the results of spectral DNS exhibits good agreement. Simulations using the current LES-LEM for freely propagating partially premixed flame in a droplet-laden isotropic turbulent field correctly captures the flame structure in the partially premixed flames. Due to the strong spatial variation of equivalence ratio a broad flame similar to a premixed flame is realized. The current

  6. Numerical Modelling of Multi-Phase Multi-Component Reactive Transport in the Earth's interior (United States)

    Oliveira, Beñat; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Zlotnik, Sergio; Tilhac, Romain


    We present a conceptual and numerical approach to model processes in the Earth's interior that involve multiple phases that simultaneously interact thermally, mechanically and chemically. The approach is truly multiphase in the sense that each dynamic phase is explicitly modelled with an individual set of mass, momentum, energy and chemical mass balance equations coupled via interfacial interaction terms. It is also truly multi-component in the sense that the compositions of the system and its constituent thermodynamic phases are expressed by a full set of fundamental chemical components (e.g. SiO_2, Al_2O_3, MgO, etc) rather than proxies. In contrast to previous approaches these chemical components evolve, react with, and partition into, different phases with different physical properties according to an internally-consistent thermodynamic model. This enables a thermodynamically-consistent coupling of the governing set of balance equations. Interfacial processes such as surface tensions and/or surface energy contributions to the dynamics and energetics of the system are also taken into account. The model presented here describes the evolution of systems governed by Multi-Phase Multi-Component Reactive Transport (MPMCRT) based on Ensemble Averaging and Classical Irreversible Thermodynamics principles. This novel approach provides a flexible platform to study the dynamics and non-linear feedbacks occurring within various natural systems at different scales. This notably includes major- and trace-element transport, diffusion-controlled trace-element re-equilibration or rheological changes associated with melt generation and migration in the Earth's mantle.

  7. Phase-field-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible multiphase flows. (United States)

    Liang, H; Shi, B C; Guo, Z L; Chai, Z H


    In this paper, a phase-field-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for incompressible multiphase flow systems. In this model, one distribution function is used to solve the Chan-Hilliard equation and the other is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike previous phase-field-based LB models, a proper source term is incorporated in the interfacial evolution equation such that the Chan-Hilliard equation can be derived exactly and also a pressure distribution is designed to recover the correct hydrodynamic equations. Furthermore, the pressure and velocity fields can be calculated explicitly. A series of numerical tests, including Zalesak's disk rotation, a single vortex, a deformation field, and a static droplet, have been performed to test the accuracy and stability of the present model. The results show that, compared with the previous models, the present model is more stable and achieves an overall improvement in the accuracy of the capturing interface. In addition, compared to the single-relaxation-time LB model, the present model can effectively reduce the spurious velocity and fluctuation of the kinetic energy. Finally, as an application, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at high Reynolds numbers is investigated.

  8. A dynamical systems analysis of afferent control in a neuromechanical model of locomotion: II. Phase asymmetry (United States)

    Spardy, Lucy E.; Markin, Sergey N.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Prilutsky, Boris I.; Rybak, Ilya A.; Rubin, Jonathan E.


    In this paper we analyze a closed loop neuromechanical model of locomotor rhythm generation. The model is composed of a spinal central pattern generator (CPG) and a single-joint limb, with CPG outputs projecting via motoneurons to muscles that control the limb and afferent signals from the muscles feeding back to the CPG. In a preceding companion paper (Spardy et al 2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 065003), we analyzed how the model generates oscillations in the presence or absence of feedback, identified curves in a phase plane associated with the limb that signify where feedback levels induce phase transitions within the CPG, and explained how increasing feedback strength restores oscillations in a model representation of spinal cord injury; from these steps, we derived insights about features of locomotor rhythms in several scenarios and made predictions about rhythm responses to various perturbations. In this paper, we exploit our analytical observations to construct a reduced model that retains important characteristics from the original system. We prove the existence of an oscillatory solution to the reduced model using a novel version of a Melnikov function, adapted for discontinuous systems, and also comment on the uniqueness and stability of this solution. Our analysis yields a deeper understanding of how the model must be tuned to generate oscillations and how the details of the limb dynamics shape overall model behavior. In particular, we explain how, due to the feedback signals in the model, changes in the strength of a tonic supra-spinal drive to the CPG yield asymmetric alterations in the durations of different locomotor phases, despite symmetry within the CPG itself.

  9. Mid- and long-term runoff predictions by an improved phase-space reconstruction model. (United States)

    Hong, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Ge, Shanshan; Yan, Hengqian; Singh, Vijay P


    In recent years, the phase-space reconstruction method has usually been used for mid- and long-term runoff predictions. However, the traditional phase-space reconstruction method is still needs to be improved. Using the genetic algorithm to improve the phase-space reconstruction method, a new nonlinear model of monthly runoff is constructed. The new model does not rely heavily on embedding dimensions. Recognizing that the rainfall-runoff process is complex, affected by a number of factors, more variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) are incorporated in the model. In order to detect the possible presence of chaos in the runoff dynamics, chaotic characteristics of the model are also analyzed, which shows the model can represent the nonlinear and chaotic characteristics of the runoff. The model is tested for its forecasting performance in four types of experiments using data from six hydrological stations on the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Results show that the medium-and long-term runoff is satisfactorily forecasted at the hydrological stations. Not only is the forecasting trend accurate, but also the mean absolute percentage error is no more than 15%. Moreover, the forecast results of wet years and dry years are both good, which means that the improved model can overcome the traditional ''wet years and dry years predictability barrier,'' to some extent. The model forecasts for different regions are all good, showing the universality of the approach. Compared with selected conceptual and empirical methods, the model exhibits greater reliability and stability in the long-term runoff prediction. Our study provides a new thinking for research on the association between the monthly runoff and other hydrological factors, and also provides a new method for the prediction of the monthly runoff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon onset-phase rainfall using a regional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Srinivas


    Full Text Available This study examines the ability of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW regional model to simulate Indian summer monsoon (ISM rainfall climatology in different climate zones during the monsoon onset phase in the decade 2000–2009. The initial and boundary conditions for ARW are provided from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP global reanalysis. Seasonal onset-phase rainfall is compared with corresponding values from 0.25° IMD (India Meteorological Department rainfall and NNRP precipitation data over seven climate zones (perhumid, humid, dry/moist, subhumid, dry/moist, semiarid and arid of India to see whether dynamical downscaling using a regional model yields advantages over just using large-scale model predictions. Results show that the model could simulate the onset phase in terms of progression and distribution of rainfall in most zones (except over the northeast with good correlations and low error metrics. The observed mean onset dates and their variability over different zones are well reproduced by the regional model over most climate zones. It has been found that the ARW performed similarly to the reanalysis in most zones and improves the onset time by 1 to 3 days in zones 4 and 7, in which the NNRP shows a delayed onset compared to the actual IMD onset times. The variations in the onset-phase rainfall during the below-normal onset (June negative and above-normal onset (June positive phases are well simulated. The slight underestimation of onset-phase rainfall in the northeast zone could be due to failure in resolving the wide extent of topographic variations and the associated multiscale interactions in that zone. Spatial comparisons showed improvement of pentad rainfall in both space and quantity in ARW simulations over NNRP data, as evident from a wider eastward distribution of pentad rainfall over the Western Ghats, central and eastern India, as in IMD observations. While NNRP under-represented the high pentad rainfall over

  11. Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon onset-phase rainfall using a regional model

    KAUST Repository

    Srinivas, C. V.


    This study examines the ability of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) regional model to simulate Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall climatology in different climate zones during the monsoon onset phase in the decade 2000–2009. The initial and boundary conditions for ARW are provided from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) global reanalysis. Seasonal onset-phase rainfall is compared with corresponding values from 0.25° IMD (India Meteorological Department) rainfall and NNRP precipitation data over seven climate zones (perhumid, humid, dry/moist, subhumid, dry/moist, semiarid and arid) of India to see whether dynamical downscaling using a regional model yields advantages over just using large-scale model predictions. Results show that the model could simulate the onset phase in terms of progression and distribution of rainfall in most zones (except over the northeast) with good correlations and low error metrics. The observed mean onset dates and their variability over different zones are well reproduced by the regional model over most climate zones. It has been found that the ARW performed similarly to the reanalysis in most zones and improves the onset time by 1 to 3 days in zones 4 and 7, in which the NNRP shows a delayed onset compared to the actual IMD onset times. The variations in the onset-phase rainfall during the below-normal onset (June negative) and above-normal onset (June positive) phases are well simulated. The slight underestimation of onset-phase rainfall in the northeast zone could be due to failure in resolving the wide extent of topographic variations and the associated multiscale interactions in that zone. Spatial comparisons showed improvement of pentad rainfall in both space and quantity in ARW simulations over NNRP data, as evident from a wider eastward distribution of pentad rainfall over the Western Ghats, central and eastern India, as in IMD observations. While NNRP under-represented the high pentad rainfall over northeast, east and

  12. Thermodynamics and phase transitions for the Heisenberg model on the pinwheel distorted kagome lattice (United States)

    Khatami, Ehsan; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Rigol, Marcos


    We study the Heisenberg model on the pinwheel distorted kagome lattice as observed in the material Rb2Cu3SnF12. Experimentally relevant thermodynamic properties at finite temperatures are computed utilizing numerical linked-cluster expansions. We also develop a Lanczos-based, zero-temperature, numerical linked-cluster expansion to study the approach of the pinwheel distorted lattice to the uniform kagome-lattice Heisenberg model. We find strong evidence for a phase transition before the uniform limit is reached, implying that the ground state of the kagome-lattice Heisenberg model is likely not pinwheel dimerized and is stable to finite pinwheel-dimerizing perturbations.

  13. The 1D Ising model and the topological phase of the Kitaev chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiter, Martin, E-mail:; Schnells, Vera, E-mail:; Thomale, Ronny, E-mail:


    It has been noted that the Kitaev chain, a p-wave superconductor with nearest-neighbor pairing amplitude equal to the hopping term Δ=t, and chemical potential μ=0, can be mapped into a nearest neighbor Ising model via a Jordan–Wigner transformation. Starting from the explicit eigenstates of the open Kitaev chain in terms of the original fermion operators, we elaborate that despite this formal equivalence the models are physically inequivalent, and show how the topological phase in the Kitaev chain maps into conventional order in the Ising model.

  14. Modeling void growth and movement with phase change in thermal energy storage canisters (United States)

    Darling, Douglas; Namkoong, David; Skarda, J. Raymond Lee


    A scheme was developed to model the thermal hydrodynamic behavior of thermal energy storage salts. The model included buoyancy, surface tension, viscosity, phases change with density difference, and void growth and movement. The energy, momentum, and continuity equations were solved using a finite volume formulation. The momentum equation was divided into two pieces. The void growth and void movement are modeled between the two pieces of the momentum equations. Results showed this scheme was able to predict the behavior of thermal energy storage salts.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a model dual-phase system using the spark plasma sintering technique (United States)

    Teimouri, M.; Godfrey, A.


    Samples of a model dual-phase system, consisting of copper and AISI-420 martensitic steel have been synthesized using spark plasma sintering, with the objective of developing a microstructural analogue for dual-phase steels, in which the volume fraction and size of each phase can be controlled independently. Microstructural investigation of the samples, including fractography of samples deformed in tension until failure, show that densification is strongly temperature dependent. Samples sintered at temperatures of 900 °C or above at a pressure of 60 MPa show a density of more than 98%. The best mechanical properties, in terms of ultimate tensile strength and ductility is found in samples sintered at a temperature of 1000 °C, where a density of nearly 99% is achieved.

  16. Phase Diagram of Symmetric Two-Dimensional Traffic Model II. Higher-Velocity Case (United States)

    Fukui, Minoru; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro


    The phase diagram for a symmetric two-dimensional traffic system with cars moving with a maximum velocity of 2 (a kind of the extended Biham-Middleton-Levine model) is studied. It turns out that the critical car density giving rise to the complete stop transition can be well fitted by the formula previously proposed for the flow in the jam flow phase. A notable discrepancy between the velocities obtained by cellular automaton simulations and from the formula is found in the high-velocity range in the jam flow phase. The discrepancy is attributed to the probabilistic nature of the sequence of cars moving with different velocities, which prevents the formation of a wide-range ordered flow pattern, reducing the total flow in the system.

  17. Modeling of structural and thermodynamics properties of sigma-phase for the Fe-Cr system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovskya A.


    Full Text Available The three- sub-lattice model (3SLM for description of atom’s distribution of two components with different coordination numbers (12, 14 and 15, into s-phase structure depended on composition and temperature is depictured in this paper. Energetic parameters of 3SLM were calculated by fitting procedure fixed to results obtained by ab-initio calculations conducted for paramagnetic states of differently ordered complexes stayed at the sigma-phase’s crystal structure for Fe-Cr system at 0 K. Respective algorithm and computer program have allowed to calculate an atom distribution of components upon the sub-lattices of s-phase at 300 - 1100 K. There is satisfactory agreement between calculated results and the experimental data obtained by neutron and structural research methods. Obtained results demonstrate satisfactory agreement between calculated and experimental data of BCC solutions and sigma - phase of the Fe-Cr system stayed at an equilibrium state.

  18. Singlet exciton condensation and bond-order-wave phase in the extended Hubbard model (United States)

    Hafez-Torbati, Mohsen; Uhrig, Götz S.


    The competition of interactions implies the compensation of standard mechanisms, which leads to the emergence of exotic phases between conventional phases. The extended Hubbard model (EHM) is a fundamental example for the competition of the local Hubbard interaction and the nearest-neighbor density-density interaction, which at half-filling and in one dimension leads to a bond-order wave (BOW) between a charge-density wave (CDW) and a quasi-long-range order Mott insulator. We study the full momentum-resolved excitation spectrum of the one-dimensional EHM in the CDW phase, and we clarify the relation between different elementary energy gaps. We show that the CDW-to-BOW transition is driven by the softening of a singlet exciton at momentum π . The BOW is realized as the condensate of this singlet exciton.

  19. Isomorphs in the phase diagram of a model liquid without inverse power law repulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhorst, Arnold Adriaan; Bøhling, Lasse; Dyre, J. C.


    the dynamics of the viscous Buckingham liquid is mimicked by a corresponding model with purely repulsive inverse-power-law interactions. The results presented here closely resemble earlier results for Lennard-Jones type liquids, demonstrating that the existence of strong correlations and isomorphs does......It is demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations that liquids interacting via the Buckingham potential are strongly correlating, i.e., have regions of their phase diagram where constant-volume equilibrium fluctuations in the virial and potential energy are strongly correlated. A binary...... Buckingham liquid is cooled to a viscous phase and shown to have isomorphs, which are curves in the phase diagram along which structure and dynamics in appropriate units are invariant to a good approximation. To test this, the radial distribution function, and both the incoherent and coherent intermediate...

  20. Phase coexistence and Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model (United States)

    Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid; Satpathy, Sashi


    Motivated by recent progress in the understanding of the Mott insulators away from half filling [?], often observed in the oxide materials, we study the role of the electron-lattice interaction vis-à-vis the electron correlations by studying the one-band Hubbard-Holstein model using the Gutzwiller variational method. Our theory predicts phase separation for sufficiently strong electron-lattice interaction, which however is frustrated in the solid due to the long-range Coulomb interaction of the dopant atoms, resulting in puddles of metallic phases embedded in the insulating matrix. Metallic state occurs when the volume fraction of the metallic phase exceeds the percolation threshold, as the dopant concentration is increased. Connection is made with the experimentally observed metal-insulator transition in the complex oxides.