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Sample records for vp6 protein possess

  1. Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV

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    Matsuo, Eiko [Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe-City 657-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leon, Esther; Matthews, Steve J. [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Structural Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roy, Polly, E-mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • NMR analysis on BTV VP6 reveals two large loop regions. • The loss of a loop (aa 34–130) does not affect the overall fold of the protein. • A region of VP6 (aa 34–92) is not required for BTV replication. • A region of VP6 (aa 93–130) plays an essential role in the virus replication. - Abstract: Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of VP6 within the viral capsid and its structure remain unclear. To investigate the requirement of VP6 in BTV replication, we initiated a structural and biological study. Multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were assigned on his-tagged full-length VP6 (329 amino acid residues) as well as several truncated VP6 variants. The analysis revealed a large structured domain with two large loop regions that exhibit significant conformational exchange. One of the loops (amino acid position 34–130) could be removed without affecting the overall fold of the protein. Moreover, using a BTV reverse genetics system, it was possible to demonstrate that the VP6-truncated BTV was viable in BHK cells in the absence of any helper VP6 protein, suggesting that a large portion of this loop region is not absolutely required for BTV replication.

  2. A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the a...

  3. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Rotavirus VP6 Protein Expressed on the Surface of Lactococcus lactis

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    L. E. Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Group A rotaviruses are the major etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in children and young animals. Among its structural proteins, VP6 is the most immunogenic and is highly conserved within this group. Lactococcus lactis is a food-grade, Gram-positive, and nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria that has already been explored as a mucosal delivery system of heterologous antigens. In this work, the nisin-controlled expression system was used to display the VP6 protein at the cell surface of L. lactis. Conditions for optimal gene expression were established by testing different nisin concentrations, cell density at induction, and incubation times after induction. Cytoplasmic and cell wall protein extracts were analyzed by Western blot and surface expression was confirmed by flow cytometry. Both analysis provided evidence that VP6 was efficiently expressed and displayed on the cell surface of L. lactis. Furthermore, the humoral response of mice immunized with recombinant L. lactis was evaluated and the displayed recombinant VP6 protein proved to be immunogenic. In conclusion, this is the first report of displaying VP6 protein on the surface of L. lactis to induce a specific immune response against rotavirus. These results provide the basis for further evaluation of this VP6-displaying L. lactis as a mucosal delivery vector in a mouse model of rotavirus infection.

  4. [Immunoreactivity of chimeric proteins carrying poliovirus epitopes on the VP6 of rotavirus as a vector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X-X; Zhao, B-X; Teng, Y-M; Xia, W-Y; Wang, J; Li, X-F; Liao, G-Y; Yang, С; Chen, Y-D

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus and poliovirus continue to present significant risks and burden of disease to children in developing countries. Developing a combined vaccine may effectively prevent both illnesses and may be advantageous in terms of maximizing compliance and vaccine coverage at the same visit. Recently, we sought to generate a vaccine vector by incorporating multiple epitopes into the rotavirus group antigenic protein, VP6. In the present study, a foreign epitope presenting a system using VP6 as a vector was created with six sites on the outer surface of the vector that could be used for insertion of foreign epitopes, and three VP6-based PV1 epitope chimeric proteins were constructed. The chimeric proteins were confirmed by immunoblot, immunofluorescence assay, and injected into guinea pigs to analyze the epitope-specific humoral response. Results showed that these chimeric proteins reacted with anti-VP6F and -PV1 antibodies, and elicited antibodies against both proteins in guinea pigs. Antibodies against the chimeric proteins carrying PV1 epitopes neutralized rotavirus Wa and PV1 infection in vitro. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the use of VP6-based vectors as multiple-epitope delivery vehicles and the epitopes displayed in this form could be considered for development of epitope-based vaccines against rotavirus and poliovirus.

  5. A new rotavirus VP6-based foreign epitope presenting vector and immunoreactivity of VP4 epitope chimeric proteins.

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    Teng, Yumei; Zhao, Bingxin; Pan, Xiaoxia; Wen, Yuling; Chen, Yuanding

    2014-04-01

    The VP6, the group antigenic rotavirus (RV), is highly conserved and the most abundant, constituting about 39% of the viral structure proteins by weight. The high degree of identity (>87%-99%) in the primary amino acid sequences suggests VP6-based vaccines could potentially provide heterotypic protection. Although some efforts have been made toward producing recombinant rotavirus VP6 vaccines, the native VP6 is still unsatisfactory as an optimal vaccine. The major neutralizing antigenic epitopes that exist on VP4 or VP7 are not on the native VP6, and as a vector the native VP6 lacks insertion sites that can be used for insertion of foreign epitopes. In this study, a new foreign epitope presenting system using VP6 as a vector (VP6F) was constructed on the outer surface of the vector six sites that could be used for insertion of the foreign epitopes created. Using this system, three VP6-based VP4 epitope chimeric proteins were constructed. Results showed that these chimeric proteins reacted with anti-VP6 and -VP4 antibodies, and elicited antibodies against VP6 and VP4 in guinea pigs. Antibodies against VP6F or antibodies against the chimeric proteins neutralized RV Wa and SA11 infection in vitro. It is optimistic that the limitation for using the native VP6 as a vaccine candidate or vector will be solved with our proposed approach. It is expected that this VP6-based epitope presenting system and the VP6-based VP4 epitope chimeric proteins will be valuable for and contribute to the development of novel RV vaccines and vaccine vectors.

  6. A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K

    2013-04-01

    The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the assay to detect a ≥2 fold rise in IgG level in a panel of serum samples from a longitudinal study was compared to a gold standard virus-capture ELISA. A strong association was observed between the assays (pcorrelate of protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequences within the VP6 molecule of bluetongue virus that determine cytoplasmic and nuclear targeting of the protein.

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    Yi, C K; Bansal, O B; Hong, M L; Chatterjee, S; Roy, P

    1996-07-01

    Genome segment 9 of bluetongue virus serotype 10 encodes the minor protein VP6. The protein is abundant with basic residues particularly in two regions of the carboxy half of the molecule. A series of amino- and carboxy-terminal deletion mutants was expressed in mammalian cells by using a vaccinia virus T7 polymerase-driven transient expression system, and the intracellular fate of the products was monitored by both immunofluorescence staining and cell fractionation techniques. Data obtained indicated clearly that VP6 has nuclear transportation signals which may be correlated with positively charged domains of the molecule. In the intact molecule, though, these signals are masked and the protein is retained in the cytoplasm. The biochemical and immunofluorescence data obtained indicate that sequences in the region of residues 33 to 80 of the 328-amino acid protein are required for the retention of VP6 within the cell cytoplasm while amino acids 303 to 308 in the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule appear to possess nuclear localization capabilities.

  8. Immune responses elicited against rotavirus middle layer protein VP6 inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo

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    Lappalainen, Suvi; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Tamminen, Kirsi; López-Guerrero, Vanessa; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Palomares, Laura A; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is a common cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children worldwide. Live oral RV vaccines protect against severe RVGE, but the immune correlates of protection are not yet clearly defined. Inner capsid VP6 protein is a highly conserved, abundant, and immunogenic RV protein, and VP6-specific mucosal antibodies, especially IgA, have been implicated to protect against viral challenge in mice. In the present study systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses were induced by immunizing BALB/c mice intranasally with a combination of recombinant RV VP6 protein (subgroup II [SGII]) and norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) used in a candidate vaccine. Following immunization mice were challenged orally with murine RV strain EDIMwt (SG non-I-non-II, G3P10[16]). In order to determine neutralizing activity of fecal samples, sera, and vaginal washes (VW) against human Wa RV (SGII, G1P1A[8]) and rhesus RV (SGI, G3P5B[3]), the RV antigen production was measured with an ELISA-based antigen reduction neutralization assay. Only VWs of immunized mice inhibited replication of both RVs, indicating heterotypic protection of induced antibodies. IgA antibody depletion and blocking experiments using recombinant VP6 confirmed that neutralization was mediated by anti-VP6 IgA antibodies. Most importantly, after the RV challenge significant reduction in viral shedding was observed in feces of immunized mice. These results suggest a significant role for mucosal RV VP6-specific IgA for the inhibition of RV replication in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these results underline the importance of non-serotype-specific immunity induced by the conserved subgroup-specific RV antigen VP6 in clearance of RV infection. PMID:25424814

  9. Sequences within the VP6 molecule of bluetongue virus that determine cytoplasmic and nuclear targeting of the protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, C K; Bansal, O B; Hong, M L; Chatterjee, S.; Roy, P

    1996-01-01

    Genome segment 9 of bluetongue virus serotype 10 encodes the minor protein VP6. The protein is abundant with basic residues particularly in two regions of the carboxy half of the molecule. A series of amino- and carboxy-terminal deletion mutants was expressed in mammalian cells by using a vaccinia virus T7 polymerase-driven transient expression system, and the intracellular fate of the products was monitored by both immunofluorescence staining and cell fractionation techniques. Data obtained ...

  10. Peptide-Recombinant VP6 Protein Based Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of Group A Rotaviruses in Multiple Host Species.

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    Naveen Kumar

    Full Text Available We developed a novel enzyme immunoassay for the detection of group A rotavirus (RVA antigen in fecal samples of multiple host species. The assay is based on the detection of conserved VP6 protein using anti-recombinant VP6 antibodies as capture antibodies and anti-multiple antigenic peptide (identified and constructed from highly immunodominant epitopes within VP6 protein antibodies as detector antibodies. The clinical utility of the assay was evaluated using a panel of 914 diarrhoeic fecal samples from four different host species (bovine, porcine, poultry and human collected from diverse geographical locations in India. Using VP6- based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR as the gold standard, we found that the diagnostic sensitivity (DSn and specificity (DSp of the new assay was high [bovine (DSn = 94.2% & DSp = 100%; porcine (DSn = 94.6% & DSp = 93.3%; poultry (DSn = 74.2% & DSp = 97.7% and human (DSn = 82.1% & DSp = 98.7%]. The concordance with RT-PCR was also high [weighted kappa (k = 0.831-0.956 at 95% CI = 0.711-1.0] as compared to RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE. The performance characteristics of the new immunoassay were comparable to those of the two commercially available ELISA kits. Our results suggest that this peptide-recombinant protein based assay may serve as a preliminary assay for epidemiological surveillance of RVA antigen and for evaluation of vaccine effectiveness especially in low and middle income settings.

  11. LA PROTEÍNA VIRAL VP6 DE ROTAVIRUS COINMUNOPRECIPITA CON HSC70 EN CÉLULAS MA104 The viral protein VP6 of rotavirus coinmunoprecipated with HSC70 in cels MA104

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    Luz Stella Rodríguez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los rotavirus son la principal causa de gastroenteritis en niños menores de cinco años. Hasta el momento se desconoce cómo entran estos virus a la célula huésped. La proteína de choque térmico, HSC70 se ha visto involucrada en la entrada del virus, sin embargo no se han relacionado bien todos los sitios de unión entre las proteínas virales del rotavirus y la HSC70. Objetivos: el propósito de este trabajo fue determinar cuáles proteínas virales del rotavirus son responsables de la unión de la proteína de choque térmico, HSC70. Material y métodos: se realizaron ensayos de coinmunoprecipitación utilizando lisados de células infectadas así como proteínas virales recombinantes. Estos ensayos se revelaron mediante SDS-PAGE y Western blot utilizando anticuerpos policlonales que reconocen las proteínas del rotavirus. Resultados. En los experimentos realizados se encontró que la proteína viral VP6 coinmunoprecipita con HSC70 en las células MA104 durante la infección con rotavirus. La VP6, producida con vaccinia recombinante en MA104, también coinmunoprecipitó con HSC70. Conclusión. La proteína VP6 de rotavirus interacciona con la proteína HSC70 en lisados de células MA104 infectadas con rotavirus. La unión de la VP6 recombinante a la HSC70 sugiere que la interacción de estas proteínas es independiente de otras proteínas virales.Introduction: Rotaviruses are the main cause of gastroenteritis in children under five years old. At this moment is unknown how these viruses entry to host cell. The heat shock cognate protein HSC70 has been involved in rotavirus cell entry. However, the relationship between rotavirus proteins and HSC70 has not been established. Objectives: the purpose of this work was to determine wich rotaviruses proteins interact with HSC70. Material and methods: coimmunoprecipitation assays were done on a rotavirus infected supernatant and recombinant viral proteins. These assays were revealed

  12. Comparison of two eukaryotic systems for the expression of VP6 protein of rotavirus specie A: transient gene expression in HEK293-T cells and insect cell-baculovirus system.

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    da Silva Junior, Haroldo Cid; da Silva E Mouta Junior, Sérgio; de Mendonça, Marcos César Lima; de Souza Pereira, Mirian Claudia; da Rocha Nogueira, Alanderson; de Azevedo, Maria Luiza Borges; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; de Moraes, Márcia Terezinha Baroni

    2012-09-01

    The VP6 protein of rotavirus A (RVA) is a target antigen used for diagnostic assays and also for the development of new RVA vaccines. We have compared the expression of VP6 protein in human embryonic kidney (HEK293-T) cells with results obtained using a well-established insect cell-baculovirus system. The recombinant VP6 (rVP6) expressed in HEK293-T cells did not present degradation and also retained the ability to form trimers. In the insect cell-baculovirus system, rVP6 was expressed at higher levels and with protein degradation as well as partial loss of ability to form trimers was observed. Therefore, HEK293-T cells represent a less laborious alternative system than insect cells for expression of rVP6 from human RVA.

  13. VP6: A candidate rotavirus vaccine.

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    Ward, Richard L; McNeal, Monica M

    2010-09-01

    Several nonliving rotavirus vaccine candidates have been evaluated in animal models. Among them is the VP6 protein that comprises the intermediate layer of the rotavirus particle. This protein was expressed as a chimera with maltose binding protein (MBP::VP6) and was administered intranasally to mice. When later challenged with rotavirus, vaccinated mice were nearly 100% protected from fecal shedding of rotavirus, a result strictly dependent on coadministration of an effective adjuvant. Protection was stimulated by only 1 dose of MBP::VP6, remained fully intact for at least 1 year, was effective in all strains of mice tested, and could also be effectively delivered orally or intrarectally. When VP6 was derived from a human rotavirus, it stimulated protection comparable to that found when derived from the challenge murine EDIM strain. In contrast to live rotavirus vaccines, CD4(+) T cells were found to be the only lymphocytes required for protection. If VP6 elicits comparable protection in humans, it would represent a potential second-generation vaccine candidate.

  14. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of VP6 gene of giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotavirus (family Reoviridae) is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in human and animals worldwide. The genome of rotavirus comprises of 11 segments of dsRNA and encodes six structural proteins (VP1 to VP4, VP6 and VP7) and six non structural proteins (NSP1 to NSP6). VP6 is a group of antigen of rotavirus ...

  15. Comparative immunogenicity in mice of rotavirus VP6 tubular structures and virus-like particles.

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    Lappalainen, Suvi; Tamminen, Kirsi; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Current live RV vaccines are efficacious but show lower efficacy in developing countries, as well as a low risk of intussusception. This has led to the development of parenteral non-live candidate vaccines against RV. RV capsid VP6 protein is highly conserved and the most abundant RV protein forming highly immunogenic oligomeric structures with multivalent antigen expression. Both recombinant VP6 (rVP6) or double-layered (dl) 2/6-virus-like particles (VLPs), might be considered as the simplest RV subunit vaccine candidates. Human rVP6 protein and dl2/6-VLPs were produced in Sf9 insect cells by baculovirus expression system. Formation of rVP6 tubules and VLPs were confirmed by electron microscopy. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly, and immune responses were analyzed. Both rVP6 and dl2/6-VLPs induced a balanced Th1-type and Th2-type response and high levels of serum IgG antibodies with cross-reactivity against different RV strains (Wa, SC2, BrB, 69M, L26, WC3, and RRV). In addition, mucosal VP6-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in feces and vaginal washes (VW) of immunized animals. Importantly, VWs of immunized mice inhibited RV Wa and RRV infection in vitro. Immunization with either protein preparation induced a similar level of VP6-specific, interferon-γ secreting CD4(+) T cells in response to different RVs or the 18-mer peptide (AA 242-259), a VP6-specific CD4(+) T cell epitope. RV rVP6 and dl2/6-VLPs induced equally strong humoral and cellular responses against RV in mice and therefore, may be considered as non-live vaccine candidates against RV.

  16. Rotavirus Recombinant VP6 Nanotubes Act as an Immunomodulator and Delivery Vehicle for Norovirus Virus-Like Particles

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    Maria Malm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that tubular form of rotavirus (RV recombinant VP6 protein has an in vivo adjuvant effect on the immunogenicity of norovirus (NoV virus-like particle (VLP vaccine candidate. In here, we investigated in vitro effect of VP6 on antigen presenting cell (APC activation and maturation and whether VP6 facilitates NoV VLP uptake by these APCs. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and dendritic cell line JAWSII were used as model APCs. Internalization of VP6, cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility class II molecules, and cytokine and chemokine production were analyzed. VP6 nanotubes were efficiently internalized by APCs. VP6 upregulated the expression of cell surface activation and maturation molecules and induced secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The mechanism of VP6 action was shown to be partially dependent on lipid raft-mediated endocytic pathway as shown by methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibition on tumor necrosis factor α secretion. These findings add to the understanding of mechanism by which VP6 exerts its immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory actions and further support its use as a part of nonlive RV-NoV combination vaccine.

  17. Rotavirus capsid VP6 tubular and spherical nanostructures act as local adjuvants when co-delivered with norovirus VLPs.

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    Malm, M; Heinimäki, S; Vesikari, T; Blazevic, V

    2017-09-01

    A subunit protein vaccine candidate based on norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) and rotavirus (RV) VP6 protein against acute childhood gastroenteritis has been proposed recently. RV VP6 forms different oligomeric nanostructures, including tubes and spheres when expressed in vitro, which are highly immunogenic in different animal models. We have shown recently that recombinant VP6 nanotubes have an adjuvant effect on immunogenicity of NoV VLPs in mice. In this study, we investigated if the adjuvant effect is dependent upon a VP6 dose or different VP6 structural assemblies. In addition, local and systemic adjuvant effects as well as requirements for antigen co-delivery and co-localization were studied. The magnitude and functionality of NoV GII.4-specific antibodies and T cell responses were tested in mice immunized with GII.4 VLPs alone or different combinations of VLPs and VP6. A VP6 dose-dependent adjuvant effect on GII.4-specific antibody responses was observed. The adjuvant effect was found to be strictly dependent upon co-administration of NoV GII.4 VLPs and VP6 at the same anatomic site and at the same time. However, the adjuvant effect was not dependent on the types of oligomers used, as both nanotubes and nanospheres exerted adjuvant effect on GII.4-specific antibody generation and, for the first time, T cell immunity. These findings elucidate the mechanisms of VP6 adjuvant effect in vivo and support its use as an adjuvant in a combination NoV and RV vaccine. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Immunology.

  18. VP6-SUMO Self-Assembly as Nanocarriers for Gastrointestinal Delivery

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    V. Palmieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High proteolytic degradation and poor absorption through epithelial barriers are major challenges to successful oral delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticle platforms can enhance drug stability and extend the residence time in gastrointestinal (GI tract. However, drug delivery systems are often inactivated in acidic environment of stomach or suffer poor absorption from intestinal cells due to the mucus layer. To overcome these issues we developed a drug delivery system constituted by a protein construct made by a Rotavirus capsid protein (VP6 and the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO. This chimeric construct allows specificity towards intestinal cells, the Rotavirus natural target, combined by an enhanced stability given by the eukaryotic protein transporter SUMO. Furthermore SUMO can act as a molecular switch that facilitates import/export of its ligand to the nucleus, the hypersensitive subcellular site target of many cell killing therapies. In this paper we show that SUMO-VP6 constructs self-assembly into stable nanocarriers. SUMO-VP6 nanocarriers display ideal features for drug delivery: a small size and high monodispersity, a high stability in different pH conditions and a high uptake in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartment of intestinal cells. These features make SUMO-VP6 nanocarriers a promising novel system for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs.

  19. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that the Orbivirus VP6 cistron encodes an overlapping gene

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    Firth Andrew E

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Orbivirus includes several species that infect livestock – including Bluetongue virus (BTV and African horse sickness virus (AHSV. These viruses have linear dsRNA genomes divided into ten segments, all of which have previously been assumed to be monocistronic. Results Bioinformatic evidence is presented for a short overlapping coding sequence (CDS in the Orbivirus genome segment 9, overlapping the VP6 cistron in the +1 reading frame. In BTV, a 77–79 codon AUG-initiated open reading frame (hereafter ORFX is present in all 48 segment 9 sequences analysed. The pattern of base variations across the 48-sequence alignment indicates that ORFX is subject to functional constraints at the amino acid level (even when the constraints due to coding in the overlapping VP6 reading frame are taken into account; MLOGD software. In fact the translated ORFX shows greater amino acid conservation than the overlapping region of VP6. The ORFX AUG codon has a strong Kozak context in all 48 sequences. Each has only one or two upstream AUG codons, always in the VP6 reading frame, and (with a single exception always with weak or medium Kozak context. Thus, in BTV, ORFX may be translated via leaky scanning. A long (83–169 codon ORF is present in a corresponding location and reading frame in all other Orbivirus species analysed except Saint Croix River virus (SCRV; the most divergent. Again, the pattern of base variations across sequence alignments indicates multiple coding in the VP6 and ORFX reading frames. Conclusion At ~9.5 kDa, the putative ORFX product in BTV is too small to appear on most published protein gels. Nonetheless, a review of past literature reveals a number of possible detections. We hope that presentation of this bioinformatic analysis will stimulate an attempt to experimentally verify the expression and functional role of ORFX, and hence lead to a greater understanding of the molecular biology of these important

  20. Rotavirus VP6 preparations as a non-replicating vaccine candidates.

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    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Shoja, Zabihollah

    2015-06-26

    Rotavirus (RV) structural proteins VP4 and VP7, located on the surface of viral particles, elicit neutralizing antibodies (Abs) and are therefore considered to be important components of RV vaccines. However, despite inducing neutralizing Abs, limits of cross-neutralizing activity and lack of full correlation with protection limit the usefulness of these proteins as protective agents against RV disease. VP6 protein, which forms the middle layer of RV particles, is discussed as an alternative vaccine candidate since it can induce cross-protective immune responses against different RV strains although the Ab raised is not neutralizing. This report reviews different functions of VP6 that can lead to considering it as an alternative vaccine against RV disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expresión en cultivo celular de la proteína VP6 de rotavirus mediante el uso de vectores virales basados en HSV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Palacios; Claus, Juan; Mattion, Nora

    2016-01-01

    HSV-1 vectors were developed for the expression of several rotavirus genes. Genes from other pathogens were also expressed, thus generating a set of tools to be tested as new vaccine candidates against In this section, we show two different HSV-1 vectors that express the VP6 protein from different rotavirus strains. Figure 1 shows a defective recombinant virus expressing simultaneously EGFP and VP6 from murine rotavirus strain EC, In Figure 2, an amplicon vector overexpressing VP6 from a Wa s...

  2. Identification of Rotavirus VP6-Specific CD4+ T Cell Epitopes in a G1P[8] Human Rotavirus-Infected Rhesus Macaque

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    Wei Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-human primate model was used to evaluate its potential for identification of rotavirus viral protein 6 (VP6 CD4+ T cell epitopes. Four juvenile rhesus macaques were inoculated with a mixed inoculum (G1P[8] and G9P[8] of human rotaviruses. Infection accompanied by G1P[8] shedding was achieved in the two macaques that had no rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA in plasma. To measure the interferon gamma (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF anti-viral cytokines produced by peripheral CD4+ cells that recognize VP6 epitopes, whole blood cells from one infected macaque were stimulated in vitro with VP6 peptides. Stimulation with peptide pools derived from the simian rotavirus VP6 161–395 region revealed reactivity of CD4+ T cells with the VP6 281–331 domain. A VP6 301–315 region was identified as the epitope responsible for IFN-γ production while a broader VP6 293–327 domain was linked to TNF production. These results suggest that human rotavirus-infected macaques can be used for identification of additional epitopes and domains to address specific questions related to the development of pediatric vaccines.

  3. Evaluation of a bovine rotavirus VP6 vaccine efficacy in the calf model of infection and disease.

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    Gonzalez, Diego Daniel; Mozgovoj, Marina Valeria; Bellido, Demian; Rodriguez, Daniela Vanesa; Fernandez, Fernando María; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Parreño, Viviana Gladys; Dus Santos, María José

    2010-09-15

    Group A bovine rotavirus (BRV) is the major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in neonatal calves worldwide. Due to the early susceptibility to the infection prevention strategies are based on the improvement of passive immunity levels through cow vaccination in the last third of gestation. The major capsid antigen (VP6) of BRV is the most immunogenic viral protein and it is highly conserved among group A BRV. In this work, VP6 protein from BRV C-486 strain (P[1]G6) was expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system. Recombinant VP6 was used to immunize cows and vaccine's efficacy was assessed in a colostrum-deprived calf model of BRV infection and disease. Immune colostrum pool was generated using first and second milking of the immunized cows. Calves receiving one dose of immune colostrum within the first 6h of life, or colostrum-deprived calves were orally inoculated with virulent BRV at 2 days of age. The animals were monitored for diarrhea, virus shedding and isotype-specific antibodies responses to BRV in both feces and serum. Calves receiving VP6-immune colostrum showed a reduction of both diarrhea and virus shedding (in terms of viral titer and excretion period) in comparison with the colostrum-deprived calves. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

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    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ( 377 FEALMRMLDWLGYRT 391 ) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  5. Use of recombinant rotavirus VP6 nanotubes as a multifunctional template for the synthesis of nanobiomaterials functionalized with metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Saniger, José M; Ascencio, Jorge A; Palomares, Laura A; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2009-12-01

    The structural characteristics and predefined constant size and shape of viral assemblies make them useful tools for nanobiotechnology, in particular as scaffolds for constructing highly organized novel nanomaterials. In this work it is shown for the first time that nanotubes formed by recombinant rotavirus VP6 protein can be used as scaffolds for the synthesis of hybrid nanocomposites. Rotavirus VP6 was produced by the insect cell-baculovirus expression vector system. Nanotubes of several micrometers in length and various diameters in the nanometer range were functionalized with Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd through strong (sodium borohydride) or mild (sodium citrate) chemical reduction. The nanocomposites obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), dynamic light scattering, and their characteristic plasmon resonance. The outer surface of VP6 nanotubes had intrinsic affinity to metal deposition that allowed in situ synthesis of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the use of preassembled recombinant protein structures resulted in highly ordered integrated materials. It was possible to obtain different extents and characteristics of the metal coverage by manipulating the reaction conditions. TEM revealed either a continuous coverage with an electrodense thin film when using sodium citrate as reductant or a discrete coverage with well-dispersed metal nanoparticles of diameters between 2 and 9 nm when using sodium borohydride and short reaction times. At long reaction times and using sodium borohydride, the metal nanoparticles coalesced and resulted in a thick metal layer. HRTEM-EDS confirmed the identity of the metal nanoparticles. Compared to other non-recombinant viral scaffolds used until now, the recombinant VP6 nanotubes employed here have important advantages, including a longer axial dimension, a dynamic multifunctional hollow structure, and the possibility of producing them

  6. Novel fluorescent protein from Hydnophora rigida possesses green emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, M; Thangavelu, K; Sikaroodi, M; Smith, C; Sivaraman, J; Gillevet, P M; Bokhari, H

    2014-05-23

    Fluorescent proteins are a family of proteins capable of producing fluorescence at various specific wavelengths of ultra violet light. We have previously reported the identification and characterization of a novel cyan fluorescent protein (HriCFP) from a reef coral species, Hydnophora rigida. In search of new members of the diverse family of fluorescent proteins, here we report a new green fluorescent protein (HriGFP) from H. rigida. HriGFP was identified, cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by metal affinity and size exclusion chromatography. The dynamic light scattering and gel filtration experiments suggested the presence of monomers in solution. The peptide mass fingerprint on the purified protein established the identity of HriGFP. HriGFP had excitation peak at 507 nm and emission peak at 527 nm. HriGFP was similar to HriCFP except the last 16 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal; however, they have shown least similarity with other known fluorescent proteins. Moreover the computational model suggests that HriGFP is a globular protein which consists of 6 α-helices and 3 β-sheets. Taken together our results suggested that HriGFP is a novel naturally occurring fluorescent protein that exists as a monomer in solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Background The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. Methods To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD prot...

  8. Oral Administration of a Seed-based Bivalent Rotavirus Vaccine Containing VP6 and NSP4 Induces Specific Immune Responses in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrheal disease among newborns. Plant-based rotavirus vaccines have been developed in recent years and have been proven to be effective in animal models. In the present study, we report a bivalent vaccine candidate expressing rotavirus subunits VP6 and NSP4 fused with the adjuvant subunit B of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB in maize seeds. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed that VP6 and LTB-NSP4 antigens were expressed and accumulated in maize seeds. The expression levels were as high as 0.35 and 0.20% of the total soluble protein for VP6 and LTB-NSP4, respectively. Oral administration of transgenic maize seeds successfully stimulated systemic and mucosal responses, with high titers of serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies, even after long-term storage. This study is the first to use maize seeds as efficient generators for the development of a bivalent vaccine against rotavirus.

  9. Oral Administration of a Seed-based Bivalent Rotavirus Vaccine Containing VP6 and NSP4 Induces Specific Immune Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Li, Xin; Song, Weibin; Duan, Mei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Tao; Dong, Jiangli

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrheal disease among newborns. Plant-based rotavirus vaccines have been developed in recent years and have been proven to be effective in animal models. In the present study, we report a bivalent vaccine candidate expressing rotavirus subunits VP6 and NSP4 fused with the adjuvant subunit B of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) in maize seeds. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed that VP6 and LTB-NSP4 antigens were expressed and accumulated in maize seeds. The expression levels were as high as 0.35 and 0.20% of the total soluble protein for VP6 and LTB-NSP4, respectively. Oral administration of transgenic maize seeds successfully stimulated systemic and mucosal responses, with high titers of serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies, even after long-term storage. This study is the first to use maize seeds as efficient generators for the development of a bivalent vaccine against rotavirus. PMID:28620404

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies possess proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenman, W M; Meuser, R U

    1986-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis proteins were electrophoresed and then transferred to nitrocellulose paper to detect chlamydial proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes. Resolved polypeptides of C. trachomatis serovars J and L2 were reacted with iodinated HeLa cell membranes and autoradiographed. Infectious elementary bodies of both serovars possess 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins which bind to HeLa cells. In contrast, noninfectious reticulate bodies do not possess eucaryotic cell-binding proteins. Both proteins are antigenic when reacted with hyperimmune rabbit antisera in immunoblots and antisera raised against the 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins are inhibitory to chlamydia-host cell association. In addition, these antisera exhibit neutralizing activity. Our data suggest that these putative chlamydial adhesins play a key role in the early steps of chlamydia-host cell interaction and that antibody directed against them may be protective. Images PMID:3511037

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies possess proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenman, W.M.; Meuser, R.U.

    1986-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis proteins were electrophoresed and then transferred to nitrocellulose paper to detect chlamydial proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes. Resolved polypeptides of C. trachomatis serovars J and L/sub 2/ were reacted with iodinated HeLa cell membranes and autoradiographed. Infectious elementary bodies of both serovars possess 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins which bind to HeLa cells. In contrast, noninfectious reticulate bodies do not possess eucaryotic cell-binding proteins. Both proteins are antigenic when reacted with hyperimmune rabbit antisera in immunoblots and antisera raised against the 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins are inhibitory to chlamydia-host cell association. In addition, these antisera exhibit neutralizing activity. These data suggest that these putative chlamydial adhesions play a key role in the early steps of chlamydia-host cell interaction and that antibody directed against them may be protective.

  12. An immunoreactive xanthine oxidase protein-possessing xanthinuria and her family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Suda, M; Takahashi, S; Hada, T; Nanahoshi, M; Agbedana, E O; Higashino, K

    1992-06-15

    The presence of immunoreactive xanthine oxidase protein was proven in a xanthinuric patient, using a polyclonal antibody against xanthine oxidase. The antibody was raised against purified human liver xanthine oxidase in a rabbit. Double immunodiffusion method demonstrated the existence of an immunologically reactive xanthine oxidase which did not possess xanthine oxidase activity. In addition, urinary excretion of oxypurines in the patient and her family was investigated. The results indicated that a brother and a sister had xanthinuria.

  13. Mice Develop Effective but Delayed Protective Immune Responses When Immunized as Neonates either Intranasally with Nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or Orally with Live Rhesus Rotavirus Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    VanCott, John L.; Prada, Anne E.; McNeal, Monica M.; Stone, Susan C.; Basu, Mitali; Huffer, Bert; Smiley, Kristi L.; Shao, Mingyuan; Bean, Judy A.; Clements, John D.; Choi, Anthony H.-C.; Ward, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are delivered early in life, when the immune system is immature. To determine the effects of immaturity on responses to candidate vaccines, neonatal (7 days old) and adult mice were immunized with single doses of either Escherichia coli-expressed rotavirus VP6 protein and the adjuvant LT(R192G) or live rhesus rotavirus (RRV), and protection against fecal rotavirus shedding following challenge with the murine rotavirus strain EDIM was determined. Neonatal mice immunized intr...

  14. Cytotoxic protein from the mushroom Coprinus comatus possesses a unique mode for glycan binding and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peilan; Li, Kunhua; Yang, Guang; Xia, Changqing; Polston, Jane E; Li, Gengnan; Li, Shiwu; Lin, Zhao; Yang, Li-Jun; Bruner, Steven D; Ding, Yousong

    2017-08-22

    Glycans possess significant chemical diversity; glycan binding proteins (GBPs) recognize specific glycans to translate their structures to functions in various physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, the discovery and characterization of novel GBPs and characterization of glycan-GBP interactions are significant to provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention of many diseases. Here, we report the biochemical, functional, and structural characterization of a 130-amino-acid protein, Y3, from the mushroom Coprinus comatus Biochemical studies of recombinant Y3 from a yeast expression system demonstrated the protein is a unique GBP. Additionally, we show that Y3 exhibits selective and potent cytotoxicity toward human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells compared with a panel of cancer cell lines via inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Screening of a glycan array demonstrated GalNAcβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LDNF) as a specific Y3-binding ligand. To provide a structural basis for function, the crystal structure was solved to a resolution of 1.2 Å, revealing a single-domain αβα-sandwich motif. Two monomers were dimerized to form a large 10-stranded, antiparallel β-sheet flanked by α-helices on each side, representing a unique oligomerization mode among GBPs. A large glycan binding pocket extends into the dimeric interface, and docking of LDNF identified key residues for glycan interactions. Disruption of residues predicted to be involved in LDNF/Y3 interactions resulted in the significant loss of binding to Jurkat T-cells and severely impaired their cytotoxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate Y3 to be a GBP with selective cytotoxicity toward human T-cell leukemia cells and indicate its potential use in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Development of primers for sequencing the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes of the group A porcine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dornelas Florentino Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the causative pathogen of diarrhea in humans and in several animal species. Eight pairs of primers were developed and used for Sanger sequencing of the coding region of the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes based on the conserved regions of the genome of the group A porcine rotavirus. Three samples previously screened as positive for group A rotaviruses were subjected to gene amplification and sequencing to characterize the pathogen. The information generated from this study is crucial for the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease.

  16. Mice develop effective but delayed protective immune responses when immunized as neonates either intranasally with nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or orally with live rhesus rotavirus vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCott, John L; Prada, Anne E; McNeal, Monica M; Stone, Susan C; Basu, Mitali; Huffer, Bert; Smiley, Kristi L; Shao, Mingyuan; Bean, Judy A; Clements, John D; Choi, Anthony H-C; Ward, Richard L

    2006-05-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are delivered early in life, when the immune system is immature. To determine the effects of immaturity on responses to candidate vaccines, neonatal (7 days old) and adult mice were immunized with single doses of either Escherichia coli-expressed rotavirus VP6 protein and the adjuvant LT(R192G) or live rhesus rotavirus (RRV), and protection against fecal rotavirus shedding following challenge with the murine rotavirus strain EDIM was determined. Neonatal mice immunized intranasally with VP6/LT(R192G) were unprotected at 10 days postimmunization (dpi) and had no detectable rotavirus B-cell (antibody) or CD4(+) CD8(+) T-cell (rotavirus-inducible, Th1 [gamma interferon and interleukin-2 {IL-2}]-, Th2 [IL-5 and IL-4]-, or ThIL-17 [IL-17]-producing spleen cells) responses. However, by 28 and 42 dpi, these mice were significantly (P >or= 0.003) protected and contained memory rotavirus-specific T cells but produced no rotavirus antibody. In contrast, adult mice were nearly fully protected by 10 dpi and contained both rotavirus immunoglobulin G and memory T cells. Neonates immunized orally with RRV were also less protected (P=0.01) than adult mice by 10 dpi and produced correspondingly less rotavirus antibody. Both groups contained few rotavirus-specific memory T cells. Protection levels by 28 dpi for neonates or adults were equal, as were rotavirus antibody levels. This report introduces a neonatal mouse model for active protection studies with rotavirus vaccines. It indicates that, with time, neonatal mice develop full protection after intranasal immunization with VP6/LT(R192G) or oral immunization with a live heterologous rotavirus and supports reports that protection depends on CD4(+) T cells or antibody, respectively.

  17. Viral disorder or disordered viruses: do viral proteins possess unique features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Williams, Robert W; Oldfield, Christopher J; Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A K; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2010-08-01

    Many proteins or their regions are disordered in their native, biologically active states. Bioinformatics has revealed that these proteins/regions are highly abundant in different proteomes and carry out mostly regulatory functions related to molecular recognition, signal transduction, protein-protein, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. Viruses, these "organisms at the edge of life", have uniquely evolved to be highly adaptive for fast change in their biological and physical environment. To sustain these fast environmental changes, viral proteins elaborated multiple measures, from relatively low van der Waals contact densities, to inclusion of a large fraction of residues that are not arranged in well-defined secondary structural elements, to heavy use of short disordered regions, and to high resistance to mutations. On the other hand, viral proteins are rich in intrinsic disorder. Some of the intrinsically disordered regions are heavily used in the functioning of viral proteins. Others likely have evolved to help viruses accommodate to their hostile habitats. Still others evolved to help viruses in managing their economic usage of genetic material via alternative splicing, overlapping genes, and anti-sense transcription. In this review, we focus on structural peculiarities of viral proteins and on the role of intrinsic disorder in their functions.

  18. Video coding standards AVS China, H.264/MPEG-4 PART 10, HEVC, VP6, DIRAC and VC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K R; Hwang, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Review by Ashraf A. Kassim, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, and Associate Dean, School of Engineering, National University of Singapore.     The book consists of eight chapters of which the first two provide an overview of various video & image coding standards, and video formats. The next four chapters present in detail the Audio & video standard (AVS) of China, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced video coding (AVC) standard, High efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard and the VP6 video coding standard (now VP10) respectively. The performance of the wavelet based Dirac video codec is compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC in chapter 7. Finally in chapter 8, the VC-1 video coding standard is presented together with VC-2 which is based on the intra frame coding of Dirac and an outline of a H.264/AVC to VC-1 transcoder.   The authors also present and discuss relevant research literature such as those which document improved methods & techniques, and also point to other related reso...

  19. DLBS1033, A Protein Extract from Lumbricus rubellus, Possesses Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Trisina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal value of earthworm has been widely known since the history of Asian ancient medicine. This present study aims to determine the mechanism of action and effect of a standardized extract of Lumbricus rubellus named as DLBS1033. The fibrinogen degradation, antiplatelet aggregation, and ex vivo antithrombotic assay using human blood were performed to study antithrombotic activity. Fibrin plate and clot lysis assay were also done to examine thrombolytic properties. DLBS1033 was found to possess fibrinogenolytic activity on α-, β-, and γ-chain of fibrinogen. It also induced antiplatelet aggregation and prolonged blood clotting time, which further confirmed its antithrombotic properties. In addition, thrombolytic properties of DLBS1033 were shown with its fast and long-acting fibrinolytic activity, as well as its effective blood clot lysis activities. In conclusion, DLBS1033 conferred antithrombotic and thrombolytic action which could be used as a safe and promising oral thrombolytic drug.

  20. Drosophila proteins involved in metabolism of uracil-DNA possess different types of nuclear localization signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merényi, Gábor; Kónya, Emese; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2010-05-01

    Adequate transport of large proteins that function in the nucleus is indispensable for cognate molecular events within this organelle. Selective protein import into the nucleus requires nuclear localization signals (NLS) that are recognized by importin receptors in the cytoplasm. Here we investigated the sequence requirements for nuclear targeting of Drosophila proteins involved in the metabolism of uracil-substituted DNA: the recently identified uracil-DNA degrading factor, dUTPase, and the two uracil-DNA glycosylases present in Drosophila. For the uracil-DNA degrading factor, NLS prediction identified two putative NLS sequences [PEKRKQE(320-326) and PKRKKKR(347-353)]. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis using YFP reporter constructs showed that only one of these basic stretches is critically required for efficient nuclear localization in insect cells. This segment corresponds to the well-known prototypic NLS of SV40 T-antigen. An almost identical NLS segment is also present in the Drosophila thymine-DNA glycosylase, but no NLS elements were predicted in the single-strand-specific monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase homolog protein. This latter protein has a molecular mass of 31 kDa, which may allow NLS-independent transport. For Drosophila dUTPase, two isoforms with distinct features regarding molecular mass and subcellular distribution were recently described. In this study, we characterized the basic PAAKKMKID(10-18) segment of dUTPase, which has been predicted to be a putative NLS by in silico analysis. Deletion studies, using YFP reporter constructs expressed in insect cells, revealed the importance of the PAA(10-12) tripeptide and the ID(17-18) dipeptide, as well as the role of the PAAK(10-13) segment in nuclear localization of dUTPase. We constructed a structural model that shows the molecular basis of such recognition in three dimensions.

  1. [Use of the recombinant baculovirus BacVP6C for the construction of an internal positive control of rotavirus C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid-Ayadi, I; Guix, S; Pintó, R M; Bosch, A

    2011-06-01

    Unlike group A, a few studies have interested other groups of the rotavirus, especially in Tunisia. The role of rotavirus C (RVC) infection is underestimated because of its sporadic nature. The aim of our study was to develop rapid diagnostic procedures of RVC by using an internal positive control of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The internal positive control (386pb) was designed from the recombinant baculovirus BacVP6C containing the full length cDNA of the Cowden strain gene 5 (1353pb). A fragment of 596pb was amplified by PCR using the BacVP6C DNA ds as template. Then, a central part of 210pb was deleted and the remaining fragment (386pb) was cloned into pGEM-3Zf(+) plasmid between SP6 and T7 RNA polymerase promoters. The obtained recombinant plasmid "pIAM1" was then used for the generation of the internal positive control by in vitro transcription. The sensibility of the RT-PCR was about 3.66×10(5) molecules of RNA/μl. The use of a shorter positive control, as compared to the wild type, allows increased specificity of the RT-PCR reaction, and could be used for efficient diagnostic and surveillance of RVC-caused diseases. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein A-mouse acidic mammalian chitinase-V5-His expressed in periplasmic space of Escherichia coli possesses chitinase functions comparable to CHO-expressed protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Kashimura

    Full Text Available Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase has been shown to be associated with asthma in mouse models, allergic inflammation and food processing. Here, we describe an E. coli-expression system that allows for the periplasmic production of active AMCase fused to Protein A at the N-terminus and V5 epitope and (His6 tag (V5-His at the C-terminus (Protein A-AMCase-V5-His in E. coli. The mouse AMCase cDNA was cloned into the vector pEZZ18, which is an expression vector containing the Staphylococcus Protein A promoter, with the signal sequence and truncated form of Protein A for extracellular expression in E. coli. Most of the Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was present in the periplasmic space with chitinolytic activity, which was measured using a chromogenic substrate, 4-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside. The Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was purified from periplasmic fractions using an IgG Sepharose column followed by a Ni Sepharose chromatography. The recombinant protein showed a robust peak of activity with a maximum observed activity at pH 2.0, where an optimal temperature was 54°C. When this protein was preincubated between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0 on ice for 1 h, full chitinolytic activity was retained. This protein was also heat-stable till 54°C, both at pH 2.0 and 7.0. The chitinolytic activity of the recombinant AMCase against 4-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside was comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. Furthermore, the recombinant AMCase bound to chitin beads, cleaved colloidal chitin and released mainly N,N'-diacetylchitobiose fragments. Thus, the E. coli-expressed Protein A-mouse AMCase-V5-His fusion protein possesses chitinase functions comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. This recombinant protein can be used to elucidate detailed biomedical functions of the mouse AMCase.

  3. Protein A-Mouse Acidic Mammalian Chitinase-V5-His Expressed in Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli Possesses Chitinase Functions Comparable to CHO-Expressed Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yuta; Iwabuchi, Kokoro; Matsushima, Yudai; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2013-01-01

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has been shown to be associated with asthma in mouse models, allergic inflammation and food processing. Here, we describe an E. coli-expression system that allows for the periplasmic production of active AMCase fused to Protein A at the N-terminus and V5 epitope and (His)6 tag (V5-His) at the C-terminus (Protein A-AMCase-V5-His) in E. coli. The mouse AMCase cDNA was cloned into the vector pEZZ18, which is an expression vector containing the Staphylococcus Protein A promoter, with the signal sequence and truncated form of Protein A for extracellular expression in E. coli. Most of the Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was present in the periplasmic space with chitinolytic activity, which was measured using a chromogenic substrate, 4-nitrophenyl N,N′-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside. The Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was purified from periplasmic fractions using an IgG Sepharose column followed by a Ni Sepharose chromatography. The recombinant protein showed a robust peak of activity with a maximum observed activity at pH 2.0, where an optimal temperature was 54°C. When this protein was preincubated between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0 on ice for 1 h, full chitinolytic activity was retained. This protein was also heat-stable till 54°C, both at pH 2.0 and 7.0. The chitinolytic activity of the recombinant AMCase against 4-nitrophenyl N,N′-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside was comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. Furthermore, the recombinant AMCase bound to chitin beads, cleaved colloidal chitin and released mainly N,N′-diacetylchitobiose fragments. Thus, the E. coli-expressed Protein A-mouse AMCase-V5-His fusion protein possesses chitinase functions comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. This recombinant protein can be used to elucidate detailed biomedical functions of the mouse AMCase. PMID:24244337

  4. Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 16 Is a Cap-0 Binding Enzyme Possessing (Nucleoside-2′O)-Methyltransferase Activity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Imbert, Isabelle; Coutard, Bruno; Bouvet, Mickaël; Selisko, Barbara; Alvarez, Karine; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The coronavirus family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes important pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and humans, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that was responsible for a worldwide outbreak in 2003. The unusually complex coronavirus replicase/transcriptase is comprised of 15 or 16 virus-specific subunits that are autoproteolytically derived from two large polyproteins. In line with bioinformatics predictions, we now show that feline coronavirus (FCoV) nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) possesses an S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent RNA (nucleoside-2′O)-methyltransferase (2′O-MTase) activity that is capable of cap-1 formation. Purified recombinant FCoV nsp16 selectively binds to short capped RNAs. Remarkably, an N7-methyl guanosine cap (7MeGpppAC3-6) is a prerequisite for binding. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that nsp16 mediates methyl transfer from AdoMet to the 2′O position of the first transcribed nucleotide, thus converting 7MeGpppAC3-6 into 7MeGpppA2′OMeC3-6. The characterization of 11 nsp16 mutants supported the previous identification of residues K45, D129, K169, and E202 as the putative K-D-K-E catalytic tetrad of the enzyme. Furthermore, residues Y29 and F173 of FCoV nsp16, which may be the functional counterparts of aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition by the vaccinia virus MTase VP39, were found to be essential for both substrate binding and 2′O-MTase activity. Finally, the weak inhibition profile of different AdoMet analogues indicates that nsp16 has evolved an atypical AdoMet binding site. Our results suggest that coronavirus mRNA carries a cap-1, onto which 2′O methylation follows an order of events in which 2′O-methyl transfer must be preceded by guanine N7 methylation, with the latter step being performed by a yet-unknown N7-specific MTase. PMID:18417574

  5. Coronavirus nonstructural protein 16 is a cap-0 binding enzyme possessing (nucleoside-2'O)-methyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Imbert, Isabelle; Coutard, Bruno; Bouvet, Mickaël; Selisko, Barbara; Alvarez, Karine; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno

    2008-08-01

    The coronavirus family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes important pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and humans, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that was responsible for a worldwide outbreak in 2003. The unusually complex coronavirus replicase/transcriptase is comprised of 15 or 16 virus-specific subunits that are autoproteolytically derived from two large polyproteins. In line with bioinformatics predictions, we now show that feline coronavirus (FCoV) nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) possesses an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent RNA (nucleoside-2'O)-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) activity that is capable of cap-1 formation. Purified recombinant FCoV nsp16 selectively binds to short capped RNAs. Remarkably, an N7-methyl guanosine cap ((7Me)GpppAC(3-6)) is a prerequisite for binding. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that nsp16 mediates methyl transfer from AdoMet to the 2'O position of the first transcribed nucleotide, thus converting (7Me)GpppAC(3-6) into (7Me)GpppA(2')(O)(Me)C(3-6). The characterization of 11 nsp16 mutants supported the previous identification of residues K45, D129, K169, and E202 as the putative K-D-K-E catalytic tetrad of the enzyme. Furthermore, residues Y29 and F173 of FCoV nsp16, which may be the functional counterparts of aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition by the vaccinia virus MTase VP39, were found to be essential for both substrate binding and 2'O-MTase activity. Finally, the weak inhibition profile of different AdoMet analogues indicates that nsp16 has evolved an atypical AdoMet binding site. Our results suggest that coronavirus mRNA carries a cap-1, onto which 2'O methylation follows an order of events in which 2'O-methyl transfer must be preceded by guanine N7 methylation, with the latter step being performed by a yet-unknown N7-specific MTase.

  6. Dendrite-derived supernumerary axons on adult axotomized motor neurons possess proteins that are essential for the initiation and propagation of action potentials and synaptic vesicle release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; MacDermid, Victoria E; Montague, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    on these processes matches the arrangement of these channels that is necessary for the initiation and conduction of action potentials. At terminal bouton-like structures they possess key proteins necessary for the release of synaptic vesicles (SV2 and synaptophysin). Thus, axon-like processes emanating from the tips...

  7. Autotaxin (ATX): a multi-functional and multi-modular protein possessing enzymatic lysoPLD activity and matricellular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuelling, Larra M; Fuss, Babette

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies have established that autotaxin (ATX), also known as phosphodiesterase Ialpha/autotaxin (PD-Ialpha/ATX) or (ecto)nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 [(E)NPP2], represents a multi-functional and multi-modular protein. ATX was initially thought to function exclusively as a phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase. However, it has become apparent that this enzymatically active site, which is ultimately responsible for ATX's originally discovered property of tumor cell motility stimulation, mediates the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, a separate functionally active domain, here referred to as the Modulator of Oligodendrocyte Remodeling and Focal adhesion Organization (MORFO) domain, was discovered in studies analyzing the role of ATX during the differentiation of myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), namely oligodendrocytes. This novel domain was found to mediate anti-adhesive, i.e. matricellular, properties and to promote morphological maturation of oligodendrocytes. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of ATX's structure-function domains and discuss their contribution to the presently known main functional roles of ATX.

  8. Isolated Potato Virus A coat protein possesses unusual properties and forms different short virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksenofontov, Alexander L; Dobrov, Eugeny N; Fedorova, Natalia V; Serebryakova, Marina V; Prusov, Andrei N; Baratova, Ludmila A; Paalme, Viiu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Shtykova, Eleonora V

    2017-06-08

    In our previous study, we have observed that the isolated coat proteins (CP) of the Potyvirus Potato Virus A (PVA) virions exhibit an intrinsic tendency to self-associate into various multimeric forms containing some fractions of cross-β-structure. In this report, we studied the effect of solution conditions on the structure and dissociation of isolated PVA CP using a number of complementary physicochemical methods. Analysis of the structure of PVA CP in solution was performed by limited proteolysis with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Overall structural characteristics of PVA CP obtained by combination of these methods and ab initio shape reconstruction by SAXS show that PVA CP forms large multi-subunit particles. We demonstrate that a mixture of compact virus-like particles (VLP) longer than 30 nm is assembled on dialysis of isolated CP into neutral pH buffer (at low ionic strength). Under conditions of high ionic strength (0.5 M NaCl) and high pH (pH 10.5), PVA dissociates into low compactness oval-shaped particles of approximately 30 subunits (20-30 nm). The results of limited trypsinolysis of these particles (enzyme/substrate ratio 1:100, 30 min) showed the existence of non-cleavable core-fragment, consisting of 137 amino acid residues. Trypsin treatment removed only a short N-terminal fragment in the intact virions. These particles are readily reassembled into regular VLPs by changing pH back to neutral. It is possible that these particles may represent some kind of intermediate in PVA assembly in vitro and in vivo.

  9. The water extract of Liuwei dihuang possesses multi-protective properties on neurons and muscle tissue against deficiency of survival motor neuron protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Liang, Wei-Fang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2017-10-15

    Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurodegeneration and muscle weakness. The effects of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurotoxicity and muscle atrophy were examined by using SMN-deficient NSC34 motor neuron-like cells and SMA-like mice, respectively. Inducible SMN-knockdown NSC34 motor neuron-like cells were used to mimic SMN-deficient condition. Doxycycline (1 µg/ml) was used to induce SMN deficiency in stable NSC34 cell line carrying SMN-specific shRNA. SMAΔ7 mice were used as a severe type of SMA mouse model. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Apoptotic cells and neurite length were observed by inverted microscope. Protein expressions were examined by western blots. Muscle strength of animals was evaluated by hind-limb suspension test. LWDH-WE significantly increased SMN protein level, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability of SMN-deficient NSC34 cells. LWDH-WE attenuated SMN deficiency-induced down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and up-regulation of cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, LWDH-WE prevented SMN deficiency-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth and activation of Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/ Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK2)/ phospho

  10. Comparative Genomics Identifies a Novel Conserved Protein, HpaT, in Proteobacterial Type III Secretion Systems that Do Not Possess the Putative Translocon Protein HrpF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Pesce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas translucens is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, the most common bacterial disease of wheat and barley. To cause disease, most xanthomonads depend on a highly conserved type III secretion system, which translocates type III effectors into host plant cells. Mutagenesis of the conserved type III secretion gene hrcT confirmed that the X. translucens type III secretion system is required to cause disease on the host plant barley and to trigger a non-host hypersensitive response (HR in pepper leaves. Type III effectors are delivered to the host cell by a surface appendage, the Hrp pilus, and a translocon protein complex that inserts into the plant cell plasma membrane. Homologs of the Xanthomonas HrpF protein, including PopF from Ralstonia solanacearum and NolX from rhizobia, are thought to act as a translocon protein. Comparative genomics revealed that X. translucens strains harbor a noncanonical hrp gene cluster, which rather shares features with type III secretion systems from Ralstonia solanacearum, Paraburkholderia andropogonis, Collimonas fungivorans, and Uliginosibacterium gangwonense than other Xanthomonas spp. Surprisingly, none of these bacteria, except R. solanacearum, encode a homolog of the HrpF translocon. Here, we aimed at identifying a candidate translocon from X. translucens. Notably, genomes from strains that lacked hrpF/popF/nolX instead encode another gene, called hpaT, adjacent to and co-regulated with the type III secretion system gene cluster. An insertional mutant in the X. translucens hpaT gene, which is the first gene of a two-gene operon, hpaT-hpaH, was non-pathogenic on barley and did not cause the HR or programmed cell death in non-host pepper similar to the hrcT mutant. The hpaT mutant phenotypes were partially complemented by either hpaT or the downstream gene, hpaH, which has been described as a facilitator of translocation in Xanthomonas oryzae. Interestingly, the hpaT mutant was also complemented

  11. The hoarding of possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R O; Gross, R C

    1993-05-01

    Three studies of nonfood hoarding are reported. Findings support the reliability and validity of a Hoarding Scale. Furthermore, the findings indicate a number of features of hoarding behavior. Hoarding was associated with indecisiveness, perfectionism (especially maladaptive evaluative concern) and obsessive compulsive symptoms among college students and community volunteers. Hoarders tended to buy extra things in order not to be caught without a needed item, and they carried more 'just-in-case' items in purses, pockets and cars. Onset of hoarding was childhood and adolescence. Hoarders had more first degree relatives who engaged in excessive saving than nonhoarders, and hoarders were less likely to be married. There was no evidence to suggest that hoarding was related to material deprivation. A model was suggested which conceptualizes hoarding as an avoidance behavior tied to indecisiveness and perfectionism. Saving allows the hoarder to avoid the decision required to throw something away, and the worry which accompanies that decision (worry that a mistake has been made). Also, it allows hoarders to avoid emotional reactions which accompany parting with cherished possessions, and results in increased perception of control.

  12. CpLEA5, the Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Gene from Chimonanthus praecox, Possesses Low Temperature and Osmotic Resistances in Prokaryote and Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiling Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize and accumulate a series of stress-resistance proteins to protect normal physiological activities under adverse conditions. Chimonanthus praecox which blooms in freezing weather accumulates late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEAs in flowers, but C. praecox LEAs are little reported. Here, we report a group of five LEA genes of C. praecox (CpLEA5, KT727031. Prokaryotic-expressed CpLEA5 was employed in Escherichia coli to investigate bioactivities and membrane permeability at low-temperature. In comparison with the vacant strains, CpLEA5-containing strains survived in a 20% higher rate; and the degree of cell membrane damage in CpLEA5-containing strains was 55% of that of the vacant strains according to a conductivity test, revealing the low-temperature resistance of CpLEA5 in bacteria. CpLEA5 was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Interestingly, besides low-temperature resistance, CpLEA5 conferred high resistance to salt and alkali in CpLEA5 overexpressing yeast. The CpLEA5 gene was transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana to also demonstrate CpLEA5 actions in plants. As expected, the transgenic lines were more resistant against low-temperature and drought while compared with the wild type. Taken together, CpLEA5-conferred resistances to several conditions in prokaryote and eukaryotes could have great value as a genetic technology to enhance osmotic stress and low-temperature tolerance.

  13. The Tail Associated Protein of Acinetobacter baumannii Phage ΦAB6 Is the Host Specificity Determinant Possessing Exopolysaccharide Depolymerase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jiun Lai

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a non-fermenting, gram-negative bacterium. In recent years, the frequency of A. baumannii infections has continued to increase, and multidrug-resistant strains are emerging in hospitalized patients. Therefore, as therapeutic options become limited, the potential of phages as natural antimicrobial agents to control infections is worth reconsidering. In our previous study, we isolated ten virulent double-stranded DNA A. baumannii phages, ϕAB1-9 and ϕAB11, and found that each has a narrow host range. Many reports indicate that receptor-binding protein of phage mediates host recognition; however, understanding of the specific interactions between A. baumannii and phages remains very limited. In this study, host determinants of A. baumannii phages were investigated. Sequence comparison of ϕAB6 and ϕAB1 revealed high degrees of conservation among their genes except the tail fiber protein (ORF41 in ϕAB1 and ORF40 in ϕAB6. Furthermore, we found that ORF40ϕAB6 has polysaccharide depolymerase activity capable of hydrolyzing the A. baumannii exopolysaccharide and is a component of the phage tail apparatus determining host specificity. Thus, the lytic phages and their associated depolymerase not only have potential as alternative therapeutic agents for treating A. baumannii infections but also provide useful and highly specific tools for studying host strain exopolysaccharides and producing glycoconjugate vaccines.

  14. The Tail Associated Protein of Acinetobacter baumannii Phage ΦAB6 Is the Host Specificity Determinant Possessing Exopolysaccharide Depolymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Jiun; Chang, Kai-Chih; Huang, Shiuan-Wen; Luo, Cheng-Hung; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Wu, Chao-Chuan; Lin, Nien-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a non-fermenting, gram-negative bacterium. In recent years, the frequency of A. baumannii infections has continued to increase, and multidrug-resistant strains are emerging in hospitalized patients. Therefore, as therapeutic options become limited, the potential of phages as natural antimicrobial agents to control infections is worth reconsidering. In our previous study, we isolated ten virulent double-stranded DNA A. baumannii phages, ϕAB1-9 and ϕAB11, and found that each has a narrow host range. Many reports indicate that receptor-binding protein of phage mediates host recognition; however, understanding of the specific interactions between A. baumannii and phages remains very limited. In this study, host determinants of A. baumannii phages were investigated. Sequence comparison of ϕAB6 and ϕAB1 revealed high degrees of conservation among their genes except the tail fiber protein (ORF41 in ϕAB1 and ORF40 in ϕAB6). Furthermore, we found that ORF40ϕAB6 has polysaccharide depolymerase activity capable of hydrolyzing the A. baumannii exopolysaccharide and is a component of the phage tail apparatus determining host specificity. Thus, the lytic phages and their associated depolymerase not only have potential as alternative therapeutic agents for treating A. baumannii infections but also provide useful and highly specific tools for studying host strain exopolysaccharides and producing glycoconjugate vaccines.

  15. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  16. Triple layered rotavirus VLP production: kinetics of vector replication, mRNA stability and recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Helena L A; Estêvão, Catarina; Roldão, António; Peixoto, Cristina C; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Cruz, Pedro E; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2005-10-17

    Rotavirus infection causes diarrhoeal disease in infants, killing more than half million children each year. Virus-like particles (VLP) seem to be excellent vaccine candidates, since they are cheaper to produce than attenuated viral vaccines and safer, as they do not contain genetic material. The present work focus on a triple layered particle composed by three rotavirus structural proteins: VP2, VP6 and VP7, produced in an insect cell/baculovirus expressing system. Two strategies were evaluated for 2/6/7 VLP production: co-infection with three monocistronic baculovirus vectors or single-infection with a tricistronic multi-gene baculovirus vector; these strategies were followed at different levels: baculovirus DNA replication kinetics, mRNA stability, protein production and VLP formation. This study highlights some of the reasons why the tricistronic baculovirus strategy is more efficient for production of triple layered rotavirus 2/6/7 VLP than monocistronic co-infection, in particular: (i) the tricistronic vector presents higher DNA replication rates than the monocistronic vectors, (ii) the mRNA stability is invariant for all mRNAs corresponding to VP2, VP6 and VP7 and (iii) the tricistronic baculovirus strategy produces an excess of VP7 over VP6 when compared to the VP7/VP6 stoichiometric ratio in the native rotavirus. Although the co-infection strategy leads to protein production akin to the rotavirus VP7/VP6 stoichiometric ratio, the tricistronic vector strategy yields higher amounts of rotavirus-like particles.

  17. The qualified possession turn into ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.

  18. Possession Divestment by Sales in Later Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerdt, David J.; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers’ capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential r...

  19. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rob and Jean

    note Nigerian influence in at least some Ugandan expressions of the experience of spirit possession. ... This paper records observations and interviews made in Uganda about spirit possession and witchcraft. ..... Horton makes the point that talk of spirits in African religion is usually about adding a theoretical level of.

  20. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  1. Student award for outstanding research winner in the Ph.D. category for the 2017 society for biomaterials annual meeting and exposition, april 5-8, 2017, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Characterization of protein interactions with molecularly imprinted hydrogels that possess engineered affinity for high isoelectric point biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, John R; Zhong, Justin X; Irani, Afshan S; Gu, Joann; Spencer, David S; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2017-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with selective affinity for protein biomarkers could find extensive utility as environmentally robust, cost-efficient biomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In order to develop recognitive, synthetic biomaterials for prohibitively expensive protein biomarkers, we have developed a molecular imprinting technique that utilizes structurally similar, analogue proteins. Hydrogel microparticles synthesized by molecular imprinting with trypsin, lysozyme, and cytochrome c possessed an increased affinity for alternate high isoelectric point biomarkers both in isolation and plasma-mimicking adsorption conditions. Imprinted and non-imprinted P(MAA-co-AAm-co-DEAEMA) microgels containing PMAO-PEGMA functionalized polycaprolactone nanoparticles were net-anionic, polydisperse, and irregularly shaped. MIPs and control non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) exhibited regions of Freundlich and BET isotherm adsorption behavior in a range of non-competitive protein solutions, where MIPs exhibited enhanced adsorption capacity in the Freundlich isotherm regions. In a competitive condition, imprinting with analogue templates (trypsin, lysozyme) increased the adsorption capacity of microgels for cytochrome c by 162% and 219%, respectively, as compared to a 122% increase provided by traditional bulk imprinting with cytochrome c. Our results suggest that molecular imprinting with analogue protein templates is a viable synthetic strategy for enhancing hydrogel-biomarker affinity and promoting specific protein adsorption behavior in biological fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1565-1574, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reduced amide pseudopeptide analogues of a malaria peptide possess secondary structural elements responsible for induction of functional antibodies which react with native proteins expressed in Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J M; Espejo, F; Diaz, D; Salazar, L M; Rodriguez, J; Pinzón, C; Calvo, J C; Guzmán, F; Patarroyo, M E

    1998-12-01

    A psi[CH2NH] isoster bond was introduced by replacing one peptide bond at a time within the 1513 malaria peptide KEKMV motif to obtain a set of five pseudopeptides. The motif belongs to a Plasmodium falciparum malarial peptide coded 1513, derived from the MSP-1 protein. This high-binding motif included in the 1513 peptide is involved in the attachment of the malarial parasite to human erythrocytes. The novel malaria 1513 psi[CH2NH] surrogates were analyzed using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry techniques. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments allowed definition of the five pseudopeptide analogues' secondary structural features. Such structures are present in only a very few molecules in the 1513 parent peptide. A molecular model demonstrating the solution of the three-dimensional structure of the 1 513 peptide Pse-437 analogue was constructed on the basis of 1H-NMR spectral parameters. Monoclonal antibodies were generated to the five 1513 malaria peptide pseudopeptide analogues. These antibodies not only recognize the native MSP-1 (195 kDa) and its 83 kDa and 42 kDa proteolytic processing proteins but also different SPf(66)n malaria vaccine batches containing the native sequence. In addition, the mAbs were able to modify the kinetics of Plasmodium falciparum parasites' intraerythrocytic development and their ability to invade new RBCs. The presented evidence suggests that peptide bond-modified peptides could reproduce a transient state in 1513's native sequence and represent useful candidates in the development of a second generation of effective malarial vaccines.

  3. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  5. Possessives and relevance | Taylor | Stellenbosch Papers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 26 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Possessives and relevance. J R Taylor. Abstract. No abstract.

  6. POSSESSION VERSUS POSITION: STRATEGIC EVALUATION IN AFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. O'Shaughnessy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005. By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity" of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get" is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success

  7. Les possessions d’Athéna

    OpenAIRE

    Patera, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    L’ensemble des possessions d’Athéna Polias, comprenant objets précieux et monnaies ainsi que terrains et bâtiments, constitue une fortune exceptionnelle au ve s. av. J.-C. En reprenant les aléas de la fortune de la déesse au cours du temps, cet article s’attache à interroger le statut de ces biens que révèlent leur dénomination et l’utilisation qu’en font les magistrats de la cité responsables de leur gestion. The possessions of Athena Polias include precious objects and currencies as well...

  8. Cost Comparison Among Provable Data Possession Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    one more than the total number of blocks or one more than `, whichever is less. min ( f s/bs, `) + 1 (4.10) 4.3.1 MAC-PDP For local data experiments, we...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS COST COMPARISON AMONG PROVABLE DATA POSSESSION SCHEMES by Stephen J. Bremer March 2016 Thesis...response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  9. SUMO-1 possesses DNA binding activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieruszeski Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs is a frequent post-translational modification of proteins. SUMOs can also temporally associate with protein-targets via SUMO binding motifs (SBMs. Protein sumoylation has been identified as an important regulatory mechanism especially in the regulation of transcription and the maintenance of genome stability. The precise molecular mechanisms by which SUMO conjugation and association act are, however, not understood. Findings Using NMR spectroscopy and protein-DNA cross-linking experiments, we demonstrate here that SUMO-1 can specifically interact with dsDNA in a sequence-independent fashion. We also show that SUMO-1 binding to DNA can compete with other protein-DNA interactions at the example of the regulatory domain of Thymine-DNA Glycosylase and, based on these competition studies, estimate the DNA binding constant of SUMO1 in the range 1 mM. Conclusion This finding provides an important insight into how SUMO-1 might exert its activity. SUMO-1 might play a general role in destabilizing DNA bound protein complexes thereby operating in a bottle-opener way of fashion, explaining its pivotal role in regulating the activity of many central transcription and DNA repair complexes.

  10. RNautophagy/DNautophagy possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Aizawa, Shu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2015-07-27

    Lysosomes can degrade various biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Recently, we identified novel nucleic acid-degradation systems termed RNautophagy/DNautophagy (abbreviated as RDA), in which RNA and DNA are directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. We also found that a lysosomal membrane protein, LAMP2C, the cytoplasmic region of which binds to RNA and DNA, functions, at least in part, as an RNA/DNA receptor in the process of RDA. However, it has been unclear whether RDA possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and the RNA/DNA sequences that are recognized by LAMP2C have not been determined. In the present study, we found that the cytosolic region of LAMP2C binds to poly-G/dG, but not to poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT or poly-U. Consistent with this binding activity, poly-G/dG was transported into isolated lysosomes via RDA, while poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT and poly-U were not. GGGGGG or d(GGGG) sequences are essential for the interaction between poly-G/dG and LAMP2C. In addition to poly-G/dG, G/dG-rich sequences, such as a repeated GGGGCC sequence, interacted with the cytosolic region of LAMP2C. Our findings indicate that RDA does possess selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and that at least some consecutive G/dG sequence(s) can mediate RDA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every... transport live migratory game birds taken under authority of this part. ...

  12. Sea anemones possess dynamic mitogenome structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emblem, Åse; Okkenhaug, Siri; Weiss, Emily S; Denver, Dee R; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar D

    2014-06-01

    A notable feature of hexacoral mitogenomes is the presence of complex self-catalytic group I introns. We investigated mitogenome structural variations and evolutionary mechanisms in actiniarian sea anemones based on the complete mitogenome sequence of the cold-water sea anemone species Urticina eques, Bolocera tuediae, Hormathia digitata and Metridium senile, and two isolates of the sub-tropical Aiptasia pulchella. Whole genome sequencing at 50 times coverage of B. tuediae and H. digitata indicated low mtDNA copy number of per haploid nuclear genome and presence of rare haplotypes. A group I intron inserted in ND5 was found to host essential mitochondrial protein genes in all species, and an additional truncated copy of ND5 in B. tuediae. A second group I intron (inserted in COI) that contained a homing endonuclease gene (HEG) was present in all mtDNA examined. Different variants of HEGs were observed, and included expressed elements fused in-frame with upstream exons and free-standing HEGs embedded within the intron. A notable hallmark of HEGs was a high extent of overlap with ribozyme structural elements; the U. eques HEG overlapped with the entire intron. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of the COI intron from insertion at unoccupied cognate sites, through HEG degradation, to intron loss. We also identified a novel insertion element in U. eques that contained two expressed protein-coding genes. An evolutionary analysis of the sea anemone mtDNA genes revealed higher substitution rates in the HEG and the insertion sequence as compared to the other loci, indicating relaxed selective pressures in these elements. We conclude that sea anemone mitogenomes are surprisingly dynamic in structure despite the economical organization and low sequence mutation rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 19 CFR 123.62 - Baggage in possession of traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage in possession of traveler. 123.62 Section 123.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.62 Baggage in possession of...

  14. 24 CFR 27.45 - Transfer of title and possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of title and possession... Foreclosure of Multifamily Mortgages § 27.45 Transfer of title and possession. (a) If the Secretary is the... deed to the purchaser upon receipt of the entire purchase price and execution by the Secretary and the...

  15. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  16. Criminalization of 'Possession of Unexplained Property' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite countervailing arguments, there is a growing national and global trend of criminalization of 'possession of unexplained property'. Since the end of the 20th century, many national, regional and global instruments that deal with corruption have criminalized possession of unexplained property (illicit enrichment).

  17. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  18. Must an inventor "possess" an invention to patent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Warren D; Chadwick, Robin A

    2014-09-18

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Suffering and Healing, Subordination and Power: Women and Possession Trance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erika Bourguignon

    2004-01-01

    This article is an argument that for women, possession trance constitutes a psychodynamic response to powerlessness by providing them a means for the gratification of wishes ordinarily denied to them...

  20. The epistemological significance of possession entering the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig

    2015-09-01

    The discourse of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM reflects the inherently dialogic or contradictory nature of its stated mandate to demonstrate both 'nosological completeness' and cultural 'inclusiveness'. Psychiatry employs the dialogic discourse of the DSM in a one-sided, positivistic manner by identifying what it considers universal mental disease entities stripped of their cultural context. In 1992 the editors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders proposed to introduce possession into their revisions. A survey of the discussions about introducing 'possession' as a dissociative disorder to be listed in the DSM-IV indicates a missed epistemological break. Subsequently the editors of the DSM-5 politically 'recuperated' possession into its official discourse, without acknowledging the anarchic challenges that possession presents to psychiatry as a cultural practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Hexane extract of Dacryodes edulis fruits possesses anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexane extract of Dacryodes edulis fruits possesses anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic potentials in alloxan diabetes of rats. Chidinma A Okolo, Vincent C Ejere, Christian O Chukwuka, Ihechiluru I Ezeigbo, Daniel D Nwibo, Augustine N Okorie ...

  2. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ...

  3. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of possessive disorder in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Rafat S; Shunaigat, Walid M

    2002-01-01

    To study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of possessive disorder in Jordan. This study was carried out prospectively at Prince Rashid Ben Al-Hassan Hospital, Irbid, Jordan between January 1997 and December 2000. It included all psychiatric patients who presented to the psychiatric outpatient clinic with a mono-symptom of being possessed or influenced by the Jinn, a total of 179 patients were studied. Possessive disorder is more common among males (111) than females (68) with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1. With a mean age of 23.15 years and standard deviation of 6.93, the majority (82.1%) of patients were young of low educational attainment from rural areas (67.6%). The mean duration of illness was 24.61 months (standard deviation of 10.64) and the most common site of possession was head and neck (19.6%) followed by chest (11.7%) and upper limbs (11.7%). The most common mode of perception was somatic both visual and auditory (25.7%) and the most common behavioral changes induced by the possessing agent were loss of control (17.3%) followed by abnormal movement (16.6%), pseudo seizure (15.6%), loss of consciousness (14%) and change in tone of voice (14%). Sixty-eight (38%) of the patients had history of sexual intercourse with the possessing agent, more males (53) than females (15) had such experience. Two thirds of the patients had single possessing agent and almost all patients had been treated by native healers and about 2 thirds of the patients had reported psychosocial stresses prior to the onset of their illness. Possessive disorder is a common condition in clinical practice that poses a diagnostic problem, it affects young males of low educational attainment from rural areas. Education and awareness is needed to prevent improper traditional therapy that may negatively affect the prognosis of this disorder.

  4. The possessions at Loudun: tracking the discourse of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig E

    2017-09-01

    Embedded in the history of dissociation is the best known case of possession in European history, the 17 th century possessions at Loudun, France (1632-1638). The exorcisms and the trial drew crowds from all over Europe, the outcome prefiguring the direction in which the Western science of mind would be carried. The published debate about the possessed and obsessed Ursuline nuns of Loudun spans four centuries. One can track how theorizing about dissociation changed over time, with psychological contributions by Jean Martin Charcot, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Pierre Janet, Michel Foucault and Michel de Certeau. Freud's psychoanalytic notion of demonological neurosis emphasized defensive strategies and a diabolic parody of adulthood. Jung's concepts of demonism and possession highlighted dissociated complexes that assimilate the ego and unseat the self, rendering a life 'provisional'. Dissociation as possession provides a through-line in Jung's Collected Works, from his 1902 dissertation to one of the last essays he wrote, in 1961. Within the context of psychotherapy, therapists and patients work towards psychological containment, consciously reorienting themselves to the presence of unconscious factors, personifying, embodying and thereby incorporating images of dissociated Otherness into the experience of selfhood. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  5. Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

    1981-01-01

    This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome.

  6. The Relationship Between Underage Alcohol Possession and Future Criminal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barnum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between underage alcohol possession and criminal behavior through a cohort, age, and period analysis. Utilizing the Age–Period Cohort Characteristic (APCC models method and national arrest data, while controlling for age and period effects, this study examined single-year age cohorts and determines that strict enforcement of PULA (Possession Under Legal Age laws decreases the likelihood of strongly correlated vandalism and assaults as young adults. The analysis indicates an increase in assaults and vandalism as cohort size increases, but little effect from single parent, resource deprivation.

  7. 45 CFR 670.6 - Prior possession exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Prohibited Acts, Exceptions § 670.6 Prior possession exception. (a... captivity on or before October 28, 1978; or (2) Any offspring of such mammal, bird, or plant. (b... such act was not held in captivity on or before October 28, 1978, or was not an offspring referred to...

  8. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pectoral fin and the tail remain attached. (b) Billfish. Any person that possesses a blue marlin or a white marlin taken from its management unit or a sailfish taken shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ or lands a blue marlin or a white marlin in an Atlantic coastal port must maintain such billfish with its...

  9. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  10. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings | du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the ...

  11. SCHIZOPHRENIA - THE SPIRIT POSSESSED 23 YEAR OLD MALE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Possession disorders(2) have been described during the course of schizophrenic and other acute psychoses with hallucinations or delusions. Differential diagnosis had been considered to be multiple personality. Indigenous practices in psychiatry in Ghana are flavoured by the traditional understanding of life and illness ...

  12. Burdens and Standards of Proof in Possession of Unexplained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While possession of unexplained property (illicit enrichment) is expressly criminalized under Article 419 of the 2004 Criminal Code of Ethiopia, there are practical problems in its prosecution, inter alia, regarding burden and standards of proof. Cases such as Workineh Kenbato & Amelework Dalie demonstrate the confusion ...

  13. The Rule and its Exceptions: Spirit Possession in Two African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rule and its Exceptions: Spirit Possession in Two African Societies. JG Platvoet. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  14. 32 CFR 552.128 - Requirements for possession and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., ammunition, pellet and BB guns, knives, bows and arrows, and crossbows under the following conditions: (a) Privately-owned firearms, crossbows, pellet and BB guns possessed or stored on the installation must be... local law enforcement personnel when in the performance of official law enforcement duties. (b...

  15. [Nursing stance in the face of Jinn possession in Mayotte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard-Berthod, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Caregivers and nursing students practising in Mayotte can find themselves in a difficult position when faced with patients believing themselves to be possessed by spirits called Jinn. Through a multidisciplinary roundtable, different perspectives and practices can be shared leading to a more enlightened treatment of patients which respects their beliefs, blending traditional and modern medicine.

  16. 50 CFR 648.86 - NE Multispecies possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subject to the most restrictive applicable cod trip limit. (c) Atlantic halibut. A vessel issued a NE... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NE Multispecies possession restrictions. 648.86 Section 648.86 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  17. 75 FR 57413 - Migratory Bird Permits; Possession and Educational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... which the bird is induced to perform tricks or imitate human or other behavior unnatural for the species... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 10, 13, 21, and 22 RIN 1018-AI97 Migratory Bird Permits... authorize the possession and use of migratory birds in educational programs and exhibits. The proposed rule...

  18. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  19. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  20. Possession and Immoveable Property: The History of Two Connected Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Carranza-Álvarez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Possession and property are two different sides of the same coin. The two institutions have the same axis: the benefit, mainly economic, of a good. In countries like Colombia and Peru, important reforms have been introduced whose main effect has been the following one: the approach to these two institutions. In this article we will speak of these two institutions, today more than ever, connected.

  1. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Wild Manihot Species Do Not Possess C4 Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALATAYUD, P.‐A.; BARÓN, C. H.; VELÁSQUEZ, H.; ARROYAVE, J. A.; LAMAZE, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta) has a higher rate of photosynthesis than is usual for C3 plants and photosynthesis is not light saturated. For these reasons it has been suggested that cultivated cassava could be derived from wild species possessing C4 photosynthesis. The natural abundance of 13C and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoglycolate phosphatase were measured in leaves of 20 wild cassava species to test this hypothesis. All the species studied, including M. flabellifolia the potential wild progenitor of cultivated cassava, clearly exhibited C3 not C4 characteristics. PMID:12096814

  3. Sequence analysis and structural implications of rotavirus capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbhoo, N; Dewar, J B; Gildenhuys, S

    Rotavirus is the major cause of severe virus-associated gastroenteritis worldwide in children aged 5 and younger. Many children lose their lives annually due to this infection and the impact is particularly pronounced in developing countries. The mature rotavirus is a non-enveloped triple-layered nucleocapsid containing 11 double stranded RNA segments. Here a global view on the sequence and structure of the three main capsid proteins, VP2, VP6 and VP7 is shown by generating a consensus sequence for each of these rotavirus proteins, for each species obtained from published data of representative rotavirus genotypes from across the world and across species. Degree of conservation between species was represented on homology models for each of the proteins. VP7 shows the highest level of variation with 14-45 amino acids showing conservation of less than 60%. These changes are localised to the outer surface alluding to a possible mechanism in evading the immune system. The middle layer, VP6 shows lower variability with only 14-32 sites having lower than 70% conservation. The inner structural layer made up of VP2 showed the lowest variability with only 1-16 sites having less than 70% conservation across species. The results correlate with each protein's multiple structural roles in the infection cycle. Thus, although the nucleotide sequences vary due to the error-prone nature of replication and lack of proof reading, the corresponding amino acid sequence of VP2, 6 and 7 remain relatively conserved. Benefits of this knowledge about the conservation include the ability to target proteins at sites that cannot undergo mutational changes without influencing viral fitness; as well as possibility to study systems that are highly evolved for structure and function in order to determine how to generate and manipulate such systems for use in various biotechnological applications.

  4. Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María; Campos, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing controls matched for chronological age, and 2 experienced musicians with AP completed a pitch-identification task. Although the task was a classical assessment of AP, it required participants to have musical knowledge, and the availability and accessibility of musically trained individuals with WS is very low. In Study 2, a paradigm suitable for evaluating AP in individuals without musical training was used, which made it possible to evaluate a larger group of participants with WS. A pitch memory test for isolated tones was presented to 27 individuals with WS, 54 typically developing peers matched for chronological age, and the 2 musicians with AP. Both individuals with WS and their controls obtained low results in the two studies. They showed an arbitrary pattern of response, and their performance was far from that of musicians with AP. Therefore, participants with WS did not appear to possess AP. Unlike what is usually claimed, results suggest that AP is not a remarkable ability in WS and that, as in the typically developing population, this musical ability is also rare in individuals with WS.

  5. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  6. A village possessed by "witches": a mixed-methods case-control study of possession and common mental disorders in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Ram P; Gurung, Dristy; Neupane, Deepa; Shah, Santosh K; Kienzler, Hanna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2014-12-01

    In Nepal, spirit possession is a common phenomenon occurring both in individuals and in groups. To identify the cultural contexts and psychosocial correlates of spirit possession, we conducted a mixed-method study in a village in central Nepal experiencing a cluster of spirit possession events. The study was carried out in three stages: (1) a pilot study consisting of informal interviews with possessed individuals, observations of the possession spells, and video recording of possession events; (2) a case-control study comparing the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders in women who had and had not experienced possession; and (3) a follow-up study with focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with possessed and non-possessed men and women, and key informants. Quantitative results indicated that possessed women reported higher rates of traumatic events and higher levels of symptoms of mental disorder compared to non-possessed women (Anxiety 68 vs. 18 %, Depression 41 vs. 19 %, and PTSD 27 vs. 0 %). However, qualitative interviews with possessed individuals, family members, and traditional healers indicated that they did not associate possession states with mental illness. Spirit possession was viewed as an affliction that provided a unique mode of communication between humans and spirits. As such, it functioned as an idiom of distress that allowed individuals to express suffering related to mental illness, socio-political violence, traumatic events, and the oppression of women. The study results clearly indicate that spirit possession is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that cannot be mapped onto any single psychiatric or psychological diagnostic category or construct. Clinical and public health efforts to address spirit possession must take the socio-cultural context and systemic dynamics into account to avoid creating iatrogenic illness, undermining coping strategies, and exacerbating underlying social problems.

  7. Property Acquired Through the Adverse Possession in Relation to Environmental Protection in Permanent Preservation Areas: Civil Liability of Adverser Possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Nacur Rezende

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the liability for repairing damage in Permanent Preservation Area (PPA. Seeks to answer the question of liability of the possessor "ad usucapionem" due to the removal of vegetation in area. The objective was to present the response of the possibility of acquisition of property by way of adverse possession and reparation and indemnity liability of degrading. The article was used social science and technology as a methodological approach, since the research aims to seek ownership of the liability of repair the area. At the end it was realized that the possessor has responsibility to repair the area.

  8. Bifidobacteria possess inhibitory activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z; Luo, J Y; Zuo, F L; Yu, R; Zhang, Y; Ma, H Q; Chen, S W

    2016-03-01

    The incretin hormones are extremely rapidly metabolized by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Therefore, DPP-IV inhibitors which can prolong the incretin effect are the newest and promising drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated whether Bifidobacteria colonizing the human gut possess DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Cell-free intracellular extracts of 13 Bifidobacterium strains isolated from breast-fed infant faecal samples were prepared and screened for DPP-IV inhibitory activity, and two Bifidobacterium strains-Bif. longum BBMN68 and Bif. lactis Bb12-were used as reference strains. Most of the strains showed varying levels of DPP-IV inhibitory property (7-27%). Strains of Bifidobacterium adolescentis IF1-11 and Bifidobacterium bifidum IF3-211 showed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity (27 and 25%) as well as good in vitro probiotic properties. This initial finding suggested that new beneficial function of Bifidobacteria is strain-dependent and the strains or their components may have the potential application for management of type 2 diabetes via inhibiting gastrointestinal DPP-IV activity. Further investigations into the isolation and identification of the bioactive components of Bifidobacteria are warranted. Our results show that Bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants' faecal samples possess DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum IF3-211 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis IF1-11, which showed excellent DPP-IV inhibitory properties as well as good in vitro probiotic properties, are expected to be beneficial for application as anti-diabetic probiotics. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. The possession law suit, caused by forbidden immissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. The real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being impoded through the immission of execive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat noise, tremors etc. The property ownership whose is affected by immission exceeding the set limits, has the right to request a stop of immisions which exceeded the allowed volume of immissions. In article author describes various kinds of immissions. The general feature of this law suit is that there is only discussion on the facts and not for a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the disputes itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action of disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  10. The current situation in regard to the delusion of possession in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, J

    1989-03-01

    A study of possession was made on 1,029 inpatients (male 562, female 467) in Japanese mental hospitals. The results were: (1) The incidence of delusion of possession in the sample was 20.7% for the sample as a whole. (2) As to the contents of delusion of possession, possession by a god was most common. In regard to the difference between the sexes, females were significantly more likely to be possessed by a god than were males. (3) As to the difference between the possession group and the non-possession group, religion, fortuneteller contact, age and diagnosis were significant. (4) As to the characteristics by district in regard to the incidence of delusion of possession, cases of possession were very few in Tokyo and many in Okinawa.

  11. Periodontal ligament stem cells possess the characteristics of pericytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kengo; Komaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuichi; Taki, Atsuko; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2013-10-01

    Periodontal ligament (PDL) contributes to maintaining homeostasis in periodontal tissues by supplying stem/progenitor cells. It has long been suggested that PDL stem cells/progenitors are located around blood vessels. Recently mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and cultured from PDL in vitro, although the location of the stem cells in PDL is unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the characteristics of human PDL stem cells (PDLSCs) and examine their similarity to related vascular cell types, such as pericytes and endothelial cells. PDLSCs were obtained from healthy extracted teeth using the collagenase/dispase enzyme digestion method. MSC and pericyte characteristics of PDLSCs were examined by cell surface marker expression using flow cytometry. The expression of pericyte markers was tested using immunohistochemistry. Pericyte-like functions of PDLSCs were examined in co-culture of PDLSCs and umbilical vein endothelial cells on a gel matrix. Cultured PDLSCs were positive for both MSC markers and pericyte markers, including cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146), neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), and CD140b. When pericyte marker expression was explored in rat periodontal tissue sections, CD146- and NG2-positive signals were observed in the perivascular area of the PDL. Further, when the cells were cultured with human umbilical cord endothelial cells under conditions for forming capillary-like structures in vitro, PDLSCs localized adjacent to endothelial cells and contributed to the stability of the capillary-like structure. PDLSCs possess pericyte-like characteristics and may localize as pericytes in the PDL. These data provide useful information for stem cell biology in periodontal research and stem cell-based periodontal therapy.

  12. Medication Possession Ratio Predicts Antiretroviral Regimens Persistence in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Andrew O.; Paz, Jorge; Moran, Fiorella; Carbajal-Gonzalez, Danny; Callacondo, David; Avalos, Odalie; Rodriguez, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; Willig, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. Design And Methods Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. Results 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99). Conclusions The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes. PMID:24098475

  13. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    Full Text Available In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru.Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010. Three OPs were defined: 1 Medication possession ratio (MPR: days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2 Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3 Clinic visit constancy (CVC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH models (one per OP were fit for (1 time of first-line ART persistence and (2 time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables.856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%. In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71 and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96 were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99.The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  14. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Kleyn, W.; de Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aims As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the

  15. Ferritin M of Paralichthys olivaceus possesses antimicrobial and antioxidative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li

    2015-08-01

    Ferritin is an evolutionarily conserved protein that plays a vital role in maintaining iron homeostasis. In this study, we identified a ferritin M (PoFerM) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and analyzed its biological property. PoFerM is composed of 176 amino acid residues and contains the conserved ferroxidase diiron center and the ferrihydrite nucleation center typical of M ferritins. Expression of PoFerM occurred in multiple tissues and was most abundant in blood. Bacterial infection upregulated PoFerM expression in head kidney, spleen, and liver in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant PoFerM (rPoFerM) purified from Escherichia coli exhibited iron-chelating activity and inhibited bacterial growth, whereas rPoFerMM, the mutant protein that bears alanine substitution at two conserved residues of the ferroxidase center and the ferrihydrite nucleation center, failed to do so. Oxidative protection analysis showed that rPoFerM, but not rPoFerMM, was able to alleviate the deleterious effect of H2O2-induced free radicals on plasmid DNA and primary flounder cells. Together these results indicate that PoFerM is an iron chelator with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties, all which depend on the conserved ferroxidase center and the ferrihydrite nucleation site.

  16. Complex evolutionary patterns of two rare human G3P[9] rotavirus strains possessing a feline/canine-like H6 genotype on an AU-1-like genotype constellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Hong; Pang, Bei-Bei; Zhou, Xuan; Ghosh, Souvik; Tang, Wei-Feng; Peng, Jin-Song; Hu, Quan; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-06-01

    The group A rotavirus (RVA) G3P[9] is a rare VP7-VP4 genotype combination, detected occasionally in humans and cats. Other than the prototype G3P[9] strain, RVA/Human- tc/JPN/AU-l/1982/G3P3[9], the whole genomes of only two human G3P[9] RVA strains and two feline G3P[9] RVA strains have been analyzed so far, revealing complex evolutionary patterns, distinct from that of AU-1. We report here the whole genomic analyses of two human G3P[9] RVA strains, RVA/Human-tc/CHN/L621/2006/G3P[9] and RVA/Human-wt/CHN/E2451/2011/G3P[9], detected in patients with diarrhea in China. Strains L621 and E2451 possessed a H6 NSP5 genotype on an AU-1-like genotype constellation, not reported previously. However, not all the genes of L621 and E2451 were closely related to those of AU-1, or to each other, revealing different evolutionary patterns among the AU-1-like RVAs. The VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4 genes of E2451 and L621 were found to cluster together with human G3P[9] RVA strains believed to be of possible feline/canine origin, and feline or raccoon dog RVA strains. The VP1, VP3, NSP2 and NSP5 genes of E2451 and L621 formed distinct clusters in genotypes typically found in feline/canine RVA strains or RVA strains from other host species which are believed to be of feline/canine RVA origin. The VP2 genes of E2451 and L621, and NSP3 gene of L621 clustered among RVA strains from different host species which are believed to have a complete or partial feline/canine RVA origin. The NSP1 genes of E2451 and L621, and NSP3 gene of E2451 clustered with AU-1 and several other strains possessing a complete or partial feline RVA strain BA222-05-like genotype constellation. Taken together, these observations suggest that nearly all the eleven gene segments of G3P[9] RVA strains L621 and E2451 might have originated from feline/canine RVAs, and that reassortments may have occurred among these feline/canine RVA strains, before being transmitted to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. 27 CFR 478.36 - Transfer or possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 478.36 Section 478.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.36 Transfer or possession of machine guns. No person shall transfer or possess a machine gun except: (a) A transfer to or by, or possession by or under the authority...

  18. The Secret Prover : Proving Possession of Arbitrary Files While not Giving Them Away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    The Secret Prover is a Java application which allows a user (A) to prove to another user (B), that A possesses a file. If B also possesses this file B will get convinced, and if B does not possess this file B will gain no information on (the contents of) this file. This is the first implementation

  19. 46 CFR 350.6 - Unauthorized sale, manufacture, possession or display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unauthorized sale, manufacture, possession or display... SEAMEN'S SERVICE AWARDS § 350.6 Unauthorized sale, manufacture, possession or display. The sale, manufacture, possession or display of any Merchant Marine decoration, or colorable imitations thereof, by...

  20. Does fermented milk possess antihypertensive effect in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Jensen, Lars T

    2009-01-01

    The putative antihypertensive effect of milk after fermentation by lactic bacteria has attracted attention over the past 20 years. Research on fermented milk and hypertension has mainly focused on the content of peptides with in-vitro angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor effect. However......, fermented milk products contain several proteins, peptides and minerals, all with possible different antihypertensive modes of actions. The burden of cardiovascular events in industrialized countries caused by hypertension is considerable. Diet modifications are one way to lower blood pressure......, and fermented milk could be a feasible way. In this review, interventional human studies of the possible antihypertensive effect of fermented milk are evaluated. The results are diverging, and the antihypertensive effect is still debatable. Additionally, present knowledge of bioavailability and in-vivo actions...

  1. Criteria for the diagnosis and recognition of possession: a multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Jacek Soiński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many symptoms of possession described by exorcists correspond to the symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Before helping a person who feels that they are possessed by an evil spirit, one should answer this question: when is therapy necessary, and when is an exorcism required? The article points out that psychiatrists have different attitudes to theological explanations of possession and exorcism. According to the author, it is best to adopt a complementary attitude, such as leaves room for the thought that there exist two causes for the symptoms of possession - the natural and the supernatural one. This may then furnish a common approach for medicine, psychology and religion. The article presents the theological criteria for determining possession by an evil spirit, and the psychological criteria for diagnosing pathological possession, as given by the World Health Organisation (ICD-10 and the American Psychiatric Association (DSM 5. The author discusses similarities and differences between the theological criteria for diagnosing demonic possession and the criteria involved in a medical diagnosis. On the basis of both psychological and theological criteria, it is possible to recognize psychopathological states and demonic possession in multidimensional terms. This allows the author to distinguish four situations: (1 health, (2 psychopathological possession, (3 demonic possession of a mentally healthy person, and (4 coexistence of demonic possession with psychiatric disorders. Practical experience shows that the largest number of patients seeking help in health centres belongs to the fourth group, which is why there is a need for close cooperation between exorcists and psychologists or psychiatrists.

  2. Gut bacterium of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida: Oligochaeta) possesses antimycobacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiołka, Marta J; Zagaja, Mirosław P; Piersiak, Tomasz D; Wróbel, Marek; Pawelec, Jarosław

    2010-09-01

    The new bacterial strain with antimycobacterial activity has been isolated from the midgut of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida). Biochemical and molecular characterization of isolates from 18 individuals identified all as Raoultella ornithinolytica genus with 99% similarity. The bacterium is a possible symbiont of the earthworm D. veneta. The isolated microorganism has shown the activity against four strains of fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium butiricum, Mycobacterium jucho, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei. The multiplication of the gut bacterium on plates with Sauton medium containing mycobacteria has caused a lytic effect. After the incubation of the cell free extract prepared from the gut bacterium with four strains of mycobacteria in liquid Sauton medium, the cells of all tested strains were deformed and divided to small oval forms and sometimes created long filaments. The effect was observed by the use of light, transmission and scanning microscopy. Viability of all examined species of mycobacteria was significantly decreased. The antimycobacterial effect was probably the result of the antibiotic action produced by the gut bacterium of the earthworm. The application of ultrafiltration procedure allowed to demonstrate that antimicrobial substance with strong antimycobacterial activity from bacterial culture supernatant, is a protein with the molecular mass above 100 kDa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silver nanoparticles inhibit fish gill cell proliferation in protein-free culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    While short-term exposures of vertebrate cells, such as from fish, can be performed in defined, serum-free media, long-term cultures generally require addition of growth factors and proteins, normally supplied with a serum supplement. However, proteins are known to alter nanoparticle properties by binding to nanoparticles. Therefore, in order to be able to study nanoparticle-cell interactions for extended periods, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill cell line, RTgill-W1, was adapted to proliferate in a commercial, serum-free medium, InVitrus VP-6. The newly adapted cell strain was named RTgill-W1-pf (protein free). These cells proliferate at a speed similar to the RTgill-W1 cells cultured in a fully supplemented medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum. As well, they were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and fully recovered after thawing. Yet, senescence set in after about 10 passages in InVitrus VP-6 medium, revealing that this medium cannot fully support long-term culture of the RTgill-W1 strain. The RTgill-W1-pf cell line was subsequently applied to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on cell proliferation over a period of 12 days. Indeed, cell proliferation was inhibited by 10 μM AgNP. This effect correlated with high levels of silver being associated with the cells. The new cell line, RTgill-W1-pf, can serve as a unique representation of the gill cell-environment interface, offering novel opportunities to study nanoparticle-cell interactions without serum protein interference.

  4. Firearm possession among adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department for assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M; Walton, Maureen A; Newton, Manya F; Clery, Michael; Whiteside, Lauren K; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2013-08-01

    Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among youth. The objectives of this study were (1) determine firearm possession rates and associated correlates among youth seeking care for assault in an emergency department (ED); (2) understand differences in risk factors for youth with firearm possession; and (3) identify firearm possession characteristics in this population: type, reason for possession, and source of firearms. Youth (14 to 24 years old) presenting to a Level 1 ED with assault were administered a computerized screening survey. Validated instruments were administered, measuring demographics, firearm rates and characteristics, attitudes toward aggression, substance use, and previous violence history. Among 689 assault-injured youth, 23% reported firearm possession in the past 6 months. Only 17% of those reporting firearm possession obtained the gun from a legal source; 22% reported ownership of highly lethal automatic/semiautomatic weapons and 37.1% reported having a firearm for protection. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlates of firearm possession, including male gender, higher socioeconomic status, illicit drug use, recent serious fight, and retaliatory attitudes. ED assault-injured youth had high rates of firearm possession (23.1%), most of which were not obtained from legal sources. Youth with firearm possession were more likely to have been in a recent serious fight, and to endorse aggressive attitudes that increase their risk for retaliatory violence. Future prevention efforts should focus on minimizing illegal firearm access among high-risk youth, nonviolent alternatives to retaliatory violence, and substance use prevention.

  5. Characterising Non-Structural Protein NS4 of African Horse Sickness Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizahn Zwart

    Full Text Available African horse sickness is a serious equid disease caused by the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV. The virus has ten double-stranded RNA genome segments encoding seven structural and three non-structural proteins. Recently, an additional protein was predicted to be encoded by genome segment 9 (Seg-9, which also encodes VP6, of most orbiviruses. This has since been confirmed in bluetongue virus and Great Island virus, and the non-structural protein was named NS4. In this study, in silico analysis of AHSV Seg-9 sequences revealed the existence of two main types of AHSV NS4, designated NS4-I and NS4-II, with different lengths and amino acid sequences. The AHSV NS4 coding sequences were in the +1 reading frame relative to that of VP6. Both types of AHSV NS4 were expressed in cultured mammalian cells, with sizes close to the predicted 17-20 kDa. Fluorescence microscopy of these cells revealed a dual cytoplasmic and nuclear, but not nucleolar, distribution that was very similar for NS4-I and NS4-II. Immunohistochemistry on heart, spleen, and lung tissues from AHSV-infected horses showed that NS4 occurs in microvascular endothelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in all of these tissues, localising to the both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Interestingly, NS4 was also detected in stellate-shaped dendritic macrophage-like cells with long cytoplasmic processes in the red pulp of the spleen. Finally, nucleic acid protection assays using bacterially expressed recombinant AHSV NS4 showed that both types of AHSV NS4 bind dsDNA, but not dsRNA. Further studies will be required to determine the exact function of AHSV NS4 during viral replication.

  6. Exosomes carring gag/env of ALV-J possess negative effect on immunocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhuang, Pingping; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-11-01

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an exogenous retrovirus of avian. A key feature of ALV-J infection is leading to severe immunosuppressive characteristic of diseases. Viral components of retrovirus were reported closely associated with immunosuppression, and several similarities between exosomes and retrovirus preparations have lead to the hypotheses of retrovirus hijacker exosomes pathway. In this study, we purified exosomes from DF-1 cells infected and uninfected by ALV-J. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that ALV-J not only increased the production of exosomes from ALV-J infected DF-1 cells (Exo-J) but also stimulated some proteins expression, especially ALV-J components secreted in exosomes. Immunosuppressive domain peptide (ISD) of envelope subunit transmembrane (TM) and gag of ALV-J were secreted in Exo-J. It has been reported that HIV gag was budded from endosome-like domains of the T cell plasma membrane. But env protein was first detected in exosomes from retrovirus infected cells. We found that Exo-J caused negative effects on splenocytes in a dose-dependant manner by flow cytometric analysis. And low dose of Exo-J activated immune activity of splenocytes, while high dose possessed immunosuppressive properties. Interestingly, Exo-J has no significant effects on the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J, and the immunosuppressive effects induced by Exo-J lower than that by ALV-J. Taken together, our data indicated that Exo-J supplied a microenvironment for the replication and transformation of ALV-J. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Possession Zone as a Performance Indicator in Football. The Game of the Best Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Casal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Possession time in football has been widely discussed in research but few studies have analyzed the importance of the field area in which possession occurs. The objective of this study was to identify the existence of significant differences in the field zone of ball possession between successful and unsuccessful teams and to acknowledge if the match status modulates the possession model. To this end, 2,284 attacks were analyzed corresponding to the matches in the final phase of the UEFA Euro 2016 France, recording possession time and field zone in which possession occurred. Video recordings of matches were analyzed and coded post-event using notational analysis. We have found that successful offensive game patterns are different from unsuccessful ones. Specifically, field zone in which major possession occurs changes significantly between successful and unsuccessful teams (x2 = 15.72, p < 0.05 and through Welch’s T significant differences were detected in possession time between successful and unsuccessful teams (H = 24.289, p < 0.001. The former are characterized by longer possession times, preferably in the middle offensive zone, on the other hand, unsuccessful teams have shorter possession times and preferably on the middle defensive zone. Logistic regression also allowed us to identify that greater possession in the middle offensive zone is a good indicator of success in the offensive game, allowing us to predict a greater chance of victory in the match. Specifically, every time the teams achieve possession in the middle offensive zone, the chance of winning the match will increase 1.72 times and, the probability of winning the match making longer possessions in the middle offensive zone is 44.25%. Applying the Kruskal–Wallis test we have also been able to verify how match status modulates the teams possession time, specifically, when teams are winning they have longer possessions x2 = 92.628, p = 0.011. Results obtained are expected to

  8. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  9. The renouncement of possessions according to Matthew 19:16–30 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The renouncement of their possessions could have been part of their initiation into the Matthean community and have been motivated by the promise of an incomparable eschatological reward. It further appears that while not all who were considered to be followers of Jesus had surrendered their possessions, all would ...

  10. The expected value of possession in professional rugby league match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Kennedy, Nicholas; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the expected point value for starting possessions in different field locations during rugby league match-play and calculated the mean expected points for each subsequent play during the possession. It also examined the origin of tries scored according to the method of gaining possession. Play-by-play data were taken from all 768 regular-season National Rugby League (NRL) matches during 2010-2013. A probabilistic model estimated the expected point outcome based on the net difference in points scored by a team in possession in a given situation. An iterative method was used to approximate the value of each situation based on actual scoring outcomes. Possessions commencing close to the opposition's goal-line had the highest expected point equity, which decreased as the location of the possession moved towards the team's own goal-line. Possessions following an opposition error, penalty or goal-line dropout had the highest likelihood of a try being scored on the set subsequent to their occurrence. In contrast, possessions that follow an opposition completed set or a restart were least likely to result in a try. The expected point values framework from our model has applications for informing playing strategy and assessing individual and team performance in professional rugby league.

  11. 19 CFR 7.2 - Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... than Puerto Rico. 7.2 Section 7.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... NAVAL STATION § 7.2 Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico. (a) Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico are also American territory but, because those insular...

  12. 50 CFR 648.322 - Skate allocation, possession, and landing provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skate allocation, possession, and landing... Management Measures for the NE Skate Complex Fisheries § 648.322 Skate allocation, possession, and landing provisions. (a) Allocation of TAL. (1) A total of 66.5 percent of the annual skate complex TAL shall be...

  13. 19 CFR 191.5 - Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.5 Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories. Guantanamo Bay Naval Station shall be considered foreign territory...

  14. 19 CFR 7.4 - Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions. 7.4 Section 7.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL...

  15. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF... transport. (a) A general license is issued to any person to possess formula quantities of strategic special...

  16. Cultural variations in interpretation of postnatal illness: Jinn possession amongst Muslim communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Jane; Brown, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Maternal experience of emotional and physical disturbance during the postnatal period is a worldwide occurrence but may be interpreted differently according to cultural background. Little is known about different expressions and treatment of cultural phenomena during the postnatal period such as the affliction of Jinn possession in Arabic cultures. Jinn are considered to be evil spirits, which cause emotional and physical distress at times of vulnerability such as the postnatal period. The aim of this paper was to explore maternal experience of Jinn possession and draw parallels with Western interpretations of postnatal illness. Ten women in an Arabian Gulf state who had recently given birth and identified themselves as having Jinn possession were interviewed as to their experiences of Jinn possession. Mothers described the Jinn as evil spirits who cause symptoms such as sadness, anxiety and physical malaise during the postnatal period. Numerous risk factors for possession emerged such as lack of familial support, poverty and a traumatic birth. Clear parallels emerged between Western concepts of postnatal illness and Jinn possession. Mothers in Muslim cultures may experience Jinn possession during the postnatal period, which reflects similar symptoms and aetiology to Western concepts of postnatal illness. With increasing multiculturalism in the UK, understanding the origins and perception of Jinn possession is important for health professionals working in Muslim communities here.

  17. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1) No...

  18. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Kleijn, Wim; de Jong, Joop

    2013-09-01

    As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the DSM-5, PTD is subsumed under dissociative identity disorder (DID) and DTD under dissociative disorders not elsewhere classified. Evaluation of these criteria is currently urgently required. This study explores the match between local symptoms of spirit possession in Uganda and experimental research criteria for PTD in the DSM-IV and proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. A mixed-method approach was used combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local symptoms were explored of 119 spirit possessed patients, using illness narratives and a cultural dissociative symptoms' checklist. Possible meaningful clusters of symptoms were inventoried through multiple correspondence analysis. Finally, local symptoms were compared with experimental criteria for PTD in the DSM-IV and proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. Illness narratives revealed different phases of spirit possession, with passive-influence experiences preceding the actual possession states. Multiple correspondence analysis of symptoms revealed two dimensions: 'passive' and 'active' symptoms. Local symptoms, such as changes in consciousness, shaking movements, and talking in a voice attributed to spirits, match with DSM-IV-PTD and DSM-5-DID criteria. Passive-influence experiences, such as feeling influenced or held by powers from outside, strange dreams, and hearing voices, deserve to be more explicitly described in the proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. The suggested incorporation of PTD in DID in the DSM-5 and the envisioned separation of DTD and PTD in two distinctive categories have disputable aspects.

  19. Demotic possession

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, B.

    2005-01-01

    As Allan Brown reports, Robin Hardy regarded The Wicker Man (1973) as an anti-fascist film. As such it fits into the classical liberal political schema, based on Enlightenment thinking that freedom and the democratic distribution of power is a product of reason. The obverse is that irrationality and superstition lead to authoritarian forms of government. In this sense Hardy’s film coheres with then contemporary orthodox fears that the counter-culture, with its rejection of traditional sexual ...

  20. Possession Obsession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In one recent national survey of teenagers who had been in relationships, 29 percent reported experiencing sexual or physical abuse or receiving threats of physical violence from partners. About 10 percent of students in grades nine to 12 consistently say they've been physically hurt on purpose by a dating partner during the past year, according…

  1. "Satan has afflicted me!" Jinn-possession and mental illness in the Qur'an.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, F; Campbell, R A

    2014-02-01

    Mental health stigma in Muslim communities may be partly due to a commonly held belief among some Muslims about the supernatural causes of mental illness (i.e. jinn-possession brought on by one's sinful life). A thematic analysis was carried out on four English translations and the Arabic text of the Qur'an to explore whether the connection between jinn-possession and insanity exists within the Muslim holy book. No connection between spirit-possession and madness or mental illness was found. Pagans taunted and labelled people as jinn-possessed only to ostracize and scapegoat. Linking the labelling of people as jinn-possession to a pagan practice may be used to educate Muslims, so they can reassess their community's stigma towards the mentally ill.

  2. Optimal Scheduling of Railway Track Possessions in Large-Scale Projects with Multiple Construction Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Roberti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the railway track possession scheduling problem (RTPSP), where a large-scale railway infrastructure project consisting of multiple construction works is to be planned. The RTPSP is to determine when to perform the construction works and in which track possessions while.......37% of the optimal one for six different blocking proposals and two alternative construction providers, so it can be used as an effective support tool in the primary planning stage to suggest preferable track possessions within the existing railway services. (C) 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  3. 'My husband is possessed by a jinn': a case study in transcultural mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kylie

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to discuss jinn possession in Muslim culture, and the importance of understanding cultural differences in mental health. Conclusion It is important to understand cultural and religious differences in psychiatry, as it affects the way patients perceive and attribute symptoms. It also helps clinicians to reach an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatments. Beliefs about jinn possession should not automatically be regarded as delusional. In alleged cases of jinn possession, clinicians should consider all the biopsychosocial, cultural and spiritual factors that are unique to the individual. Further research is still needed in this area.

  4. Aeromonas spp. possess at least two distinct type IV pilus families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T C; Kirov, S M; Strom, M S; Sanderson, K

    1997-10-01

    Type IV pili have been purified from strains of most of the Aeromonas species associated with gastroenteritis (A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila, A. trota and A. caviae). They appear to be a related family (molecular mass of pilin 19 to 23 kDa) with a tendency to bundle-formation. Hence, we have designated them 'bundle-forming pili' (Bfp). A type IV pilus biogenesis gene cluster (tapABCD) recently cloned from a strain of A. hydrophila, however, encoded a 17 kDa pilin which differed significantly in its N-terminal amino acid sequence from the Bfp pilins. This paper describes the cloning of part (tapA and approximately 20% of tapB) of a homologous pilin gene cluster from a Bfp-positive strain of A. veronii biovar sobria, and presents evidence that the entire pilin gene cluster (tapABCD) is present in this strain. The predicted N-terminal amino acid sequence of the pilin encoded by the A. veronii biovar sobria tapA differed markedly from the corresponding sequence of its Bfp pilin, and those of the Bfp purified from other Aeromonas strains and species. Probing with tapA and tapD genes showed that these Bfp-positive Aeromonas strains also possessed the Tap gene cluster. TapA proteins of A. veronii biovar sobria and A. hydrophila shared 53% identity and 63% homology. We conclude that Aeromonas species are potentially able to express at least two distinct families of type IV pili (Bfp and Tap). Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  5. Effects of Offense, Defense, and Ball Possession on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements during team offense/defense and individual ball possession was compared in 56 elite wheelchair basketball players. A two-way analysis of variance indicated that during offense, the guards and forwards performed longer driving forward than during defense. Overall, centers stood still longer during offense than during defense. Without ball, centers performed driving forward longer than with ball possession. It is concluded that offense, defense, and ball possession influenced mobility performance for the different field positions. These differences can be used to design specific training protocols. Furthermore, field positions require potentially different specific wheelchair configurations to improve performance.

  6. Dual drug release from hydrogels covalently containing polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Mari; Uchida, Yusuke; Takami, Taku; Ito, Tomoki; Anzai, Ryosuke; Sonotaki, Seiichi; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we designed hydrogels for dual drug release: the hydrogels that covalently contained the polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties. The hydrogels that were formed from polymeric micelles possessing a tightly packed (i.e., well-entangled) inner core exhibited a higher storage modulus than the hydrogels that were formed from the polymeric micelles possessing a loosely packed structure. Furthermore, we conducted release experiments and fluorescent observations to evaluate the profiles depicting the release of two compounds, rhodamine B and auramine O, from either polymeric micelles or hydrogels. According to our results, (1) hydrogels that covalently contains polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties successfully exhibit the independent release behaviors of the two compounds and (2) fluorescence microscopy can greatly facilitate efforts to evaluate drug release properties of materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Schizophrenia-The spirit possessed 23 year old male from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a twenty-three year old rural Ghanaian male suffering from schizophrenia and presenting as “possessed by spirits” is reported. Treatment, and outcome by physical means with chlorpromazine; and implications for further research are discussed.

  8. The '2+1' construction of homooxacalix[3]arenes possessing different substituents on their upper rims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, K; Mukoyoshi, K; Otsubo, T; Fuji, K

    2000-06-01

    Several homooxacalix[3]arenes possessing different substituents on their upper rims were synthesized in yields of 7-20% by a condensation reaction between the p-substituted-phenol dimer and monomer under acidic high-dilution conditions.

  9. Feature interpretability and the positions of 2nd person possessives in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Karla Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretability and valuation of φ-features (Chomsky, 2001; Pesetsky and Torrego, 2007 have played a central role in the investigation of language universals. With regard to that, in standard Brazilian Portuguese (BP, as well as in other Romance languages, possessives have uninterpretable number features, which are valued via nominal agreement. However, dialects of BP, especially the one spoken in Minas Gerais, have shown that 2nd person possessives, in postnominal position, do not have number agreement with the noun. In order to account for these facts, I will argue that, in this grammar, number features on 2nd person possessives are reanalyzed as being: (i associated with the person (rather than the noun and (ii interpretable. From the first postulation, ‘seu’ is expected to be the possessive for 2nd person singular, and ‘seus’ for 2nd person plural. From the second postulation, no number concord is expected to be triggered on the possessive. In addition, based on Danon (2011 and Norris (2014, I will argue that cardinals divide BP DPs into two domains in that phrases located above NumP are marked with the plural morpheme, while phrases below it are unmarked. In this sense, because prenominal possessives precede cardinals (NumP, they must be marked with the plural morpheme for nominal agreement; whereas postnominal possessives, which follow NumP, must be unmarked. Free from the plural marking associated with nominal agreement, postnominal 2nd person possessives favor the reanalysis of the morpheme ‘-s’ as indicating the number associated with person features.

  10. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Sonali Rajan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio cal...

  11. Transmission Easement and Adverse Possession of Transmission Easement in the Polish Law

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The object of analysis in the text are the issues concerned with the transmission easement and the adverse possession thereof on the grounds of the Polish law. The text features: (1) a historical outline of the solutions concerned with easements in the Polish law following 1945, (2) the institution of transmission easement introduced in 2008 and the solutions concerned with the claims for the establishment thereof at court, (3) the institution of adverse possession of transmission easement pu...

  12. O olhar dos psiquiatras brasileiros sobre os fenômenos de transe e possessão Brazilian psychiatrists’ approaches on trance and possession phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica A. Silva de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os fenômenos de transe e possessão despertaram o interesse da comunidade psiquiátrica brasileira, gerando posturas diversificadas. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar como os fenômenos de transe e possessão foram tratados pelos psiquiatras brasileiros: seu impacto na teoria, na pesquisa e na prática clínica entre 1900 e 1950. MÉTODO: Análise de artigos científicos e leigos, teses e livros sobre transes e possessões produzidos pelos psiquiatras brasileiros entre 1900 e 1950. RESULTADOS: Identificam-se duas correntes de pensamento entre os psiquiatras. A primeira, vinculada às Faculdades de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, sob forte influência de autores franceses, deteve-se mais na periculosidade do espiritismo para a saúde mental. Defendia a adoção de medidas repressivas com o poder público. O segundo grupo de psiquiatras, ligado às Faculdades de Medicina da Bahia e Pernambuco, embora não desconsiderasse o caráter patológico ou "primitivo" dos fenômenos de transe e possessão, apresentou uma visão mais antropológica e culturalista. Considerando tais fenômenos como manifestações étnicas ou culturais, alguns defenderam o controle médico e a educação do povo para o abandono dessas práticas "primitivas". Outros não consideravam os fenômenos mediúnicos como desencadeadores da loucura, mas manifestações não-patológicas de um universo cultural, além de não vinculá-los ao atraso cultural da população. CONCLUSÕES: As religiões mediúnicas foram objeto de estudo por longo período, resultando hipóteses e práticas diferenciadas por parte da comunidade psiquiátrica brasileira, constituindo-se oportunidade privilegiada para o estudo do impacto dos fatores socioculturais na atividade psiquiátrica.BACKGROUND: Trance and possession experiences have raised interest among Brazilian psychiatrists resulting in a variety of approaches. OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze how Brazilian psychiatrists

  13. Spheroid body-forming cells in the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 possess cancer stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Ma, Lilin; Xu, Junfei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Jie; Chen, Ruixin; Zhou, Youlang

    2013-02-01

    The cancer stem cell theory hypothesizes that cancer stem cells (CSCs), which possess self-renewal and other stem cell properties, are regarded as the cause of tumor formation, recurrence and metastasis. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. In this study, we enriched gastric cancer stem cells through spheroid body formation by cultivating the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 in defined serum-free medium. The stemness characteristics of spheroid body-forming cells, including self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the MKN-45 spheroid body-forming cells were evaluated, and the expression levels of stemness genes and related proteins in the MKN-45 spheroid body-forming cells were assessed. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining for the stem cell markers on spheroid body-forming cells was examined to evaluate the association between stemness factors (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog) and the proposed CSC marker CD44. Our data demonstrated that non-adherent spheroid body-forming cells from the gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 cultured in stem cell-conditioned medium possessed gastric CSC properties, such as persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, high tumorigenic capacity and overexpression of CSC-related genes and proteins (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44), compared with the parental cells. More importantly, CD44-positive cells co-expressing the pluripotency genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog may represent gastric CSCs. Further experiments using more refined selection criteria such as a combination of two or multiple markers would be useful to specifically identify and purify CSCs.

  14. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  15. Investigating the Impact of Possession-Way of a Smartphone on Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zae Myung Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few decades, action recognition has been attracting many researchers due to its wide use in a variety of applications. Especially with the increasing number of smartphone users, many studies have been conducted using sensors within a smartphone. However, a lot of these studies assume that the users carry the device in specific ways such as by hand, in a pocket, in a bag, etc. This paper investigates the impact of providing an action recognition system with the information of the possession-way of a smartphone, and vice versa. The experimental dataset consists of five possession-ways (hand, backpack, upper-pocket, lower-pocket, and shoulder-bag and two actions (walking and running gathered by seven users separately. Various machine learning models including recurrent neural network architectures are employed to explore the relationship between the action recognition and the possession-way recognition. The experimental results show that the assumption of possession-ways of smartphones do affect the performance of action recognition, and vice versa. The results also reveal that a good performance is achieved when both actions and possession-ways are recognized simultaneously.

  16. Necessary for possession: how people reason about the acquisition of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori

    2010-09-01

    For property rights to be upheld, people need to be able to judge how ownership is established. Previous research suggests that people may judge that the first person to possess an object establishes ownership over it. This article proposes and tests an alternative account, which claims that people decide who owns an object by judging who was probably necessary for the object to be possessed. Participants read stories in which one character pursues an object (e.g., an animal being hunted, a gem jutting out of a high cliff), which a second character then captures. Judgments about which character owns the object depended on which character was plausibly necessary for capturing the object. The findings support the "necessary for possession" account and suggest that people's judgments about ownership likely depend on counterfactual reasoning or on processes akin to those used to make judgments about causality.

  17. Possession as a clinical phenomenon: a critique of the medical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Wikström

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the individual's specific experience of his personality being possessed, either partially or completely, momentarily or for an extended period of time, by evil spirits. It must be seen as necessary to supplement the narrow medical model for interpreting states of possession. The clinically interested psychologist of religion, in particular, needs consider aspects of the phenomenology of religion and clinical psychology in order to gain a broader understanding of this phenomenon. To declare that possession experiences are "nothing but psychosis, mania, epilepsy or schizophrenia, are examples of this type of over-simplification. The structure of possession can above all be understood as an interaction between a cognitive, linguistic level, and an emotional, affective level. Only if one unites these two levels can one attain a deeper understanding of the individual's possession experience. It is, in other words, important to remember that to increase understanding of the structure of possession, we must relate the individual's (bio-chemically conditioned intensive feeling experience to the surrounding subculture's way of defining these intensive feelings. Religious language provides one way of dealing verbally with the unstructured and terrifying aspects of a developing psychosis. It is, for example, possible to describe the personal transformation as a dynamic relationship between the verbal representatives for evil or the Evil One in the world of mythological language, and the intrapsychic, anxiety-filled emotive state, regardless of whether this inner state is considered to be the result of neurosis, psycho-sis, or the consequence of intensive suggestion.

  18. Furniture and Possessions in A House for Mr. Biswas by V.S. Naipaul

    OpenAIRE

    Lind Bonnier, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    In V.S. Naipaul’s novel A House for Mr. Biswas furniture and possessions are consistently present and their path can be clearly traced, but they are rarely brought to the fore as the central image in the unfolding events of the novel. To borrow a metaphor from movies: the furniture is not the leading actor; the house is. The furniture has a supporting role in the story. This essay explores how the furniture and other possessions in A House for Mr. Biswas underline and illustrate various aspec...

  19. Psychopathology and shamanism in rural Mexico: a case study of spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, M

    1980-03-01

    The so-called mystical possession of Juan Jose Fong, a socially marginal Chinese-Mexican of hysterical personality is directly related to the subject's psychological conflicts and emotional complexes and familial and social standing within the immediate cultural context. The subject is seen as suffering from conflicting emotions and cognitions centering around guilt, inferiority and non-acceptance by his peer group. The personification of his personal problems in the motif of spirit possessions enables the subject to maintain a measure of self-esteem, social status and personality integration.

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-7 - Products as ships' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products as ships' stores or in the possession of...' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew. (a) In the possession of passengers or crew members.... (b) As ships' stores or decorations. Fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and...

  1. Object Conflict and Sharing in the Preschool: Further Evidence for a Prior Possession Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Lucien T.; Renninger, K. Ann

    In a study of the social ecology of preschool peer interaction, independent measures of agonism and object conflict were employed to investigate relations between dominance, competition, and prior possession of object. In addition, independent measures of affiliation and object exchanges were employed to investigate further possible relations…

  2. The moss dwelling testacean fauna of Île de la Possession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Beyens, L.; Van de Vijver, B.

    2004-01-01

    An ecological study of the moss dwelling testacean fauna (Protozoa, Rhizopoda) on Île de la Possession (Crozet Archipelago, sub-Antarctica) revealed 83 taxa, belonging to 21 genera. The moss flora was dominated by cosmopolitan and ubiquitous taxa, such as Trinema lineare, T. enchelys, Euglypha

  3. Effects of offense, defense, and ball possession on mobility performance in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Annemarie M.H.; Berger, Monique A.M.; Hoozemans, Marco J.M.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, Lucas H.V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements

  4. Effects of offense, defense, and ball possession on mobility performance in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Annemarie M.H.; Berger, Monique A.M.; Hoozemans, Marco J.M.; Veeger, Dirkjan H.E.J.; van der Woude, Lucas H.V.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Human Kinetics, Inc. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the

  5. Effects of Offense, Defense, and Ball Possession on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Berger, Monique A. M.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements

  6. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture, transfer, and... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.40 Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture...

  7. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  8. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  9. The renouncement of possessions according to Matthew 19:16–30

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-13

    Jul 13, 2015 ... Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device to read online. Introduction. This article focuses on the renouncement of possessions in the Gospel ... investigate if the disciples and the intended readers of the first Gospel are understood by Matthew ..... considered to be part of one movement.

  10. Cognitive Fictions of Classroom Teachers about the Values They Possess: A Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine cognitive fictions of classroom teachers about the values they possess. The study was designed with a phenomenological pattern, which is a qualitative research pattern. It was conducted with 20 classroom teachers who work in the central Yakutiye district of Erzurum who were chosen via criterion…

  11. 26 CFR 1.937-2 - Income from sources within a possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sales of inventory property, see § 1.863-3(f). (e) Service in the Armed Forces. In the case of a member... possession holding period. (B) In the case of property other than marketable securities, the portion of gain... copy, and liner notes, together with copyrights and other intellectual property in those works, are the...

  12. Required and Possessed University Graduates Employability Skills: Perceptions of the Nigerian Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebakin, Azeez B.; Ajadi, O. Timothy; Subair, S. 'Tayo

    2015-01-01

    University is a place where skilled labour is produced for societal and global consumption. This is premised on the fact that education provided at this level enhances human capital development, which widens employment opportunities. However, there seems to be a disparity between the skills required and those possessed by graduates from Nigerian…

  13. The Impact of World Knowledge on the Processing of Mandarin Possessive Reflexive "Zijide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Ni, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    It has long been considered that the Mandarin possessive reflexive "zijide" can be either locally bound or long distance bound, leading to ambiguity where it fails to exclusively refer back to either long distance binding NP or the local NP. In addition to syntactic factors such as the local versus long distance division, the present…

  14. How Risky Is Marijuana Possession? Considering the Role of Age, Race, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Holly; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for…

  15. On the Mandarin Possessive and Existential Verb "You" and Its Idiomatic Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, One-Soon

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the possessive, existential, and locational usages of the Mandarin Chinese verb "you3," arguing for the formulation of a single lexical entry of the verb within lexical-functional grammar and demonstrating the similarities between English idiom chunks and you3 expressions. (20 references) (Author/CB)

  16. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... The visible growth in possession and exorcism in Southern Africa can, amongst others, be attributed to the general impression in Christianity that, since Jesus was a successful exorcist, his followers should follow his example. Historical Jesus research generally endorses a view of Jesus as exorcist, which ...

  17. First Possession, History, and Young Children's Ownership Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Vondervoort, Julia W.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Neary, Karen R.

    2013-01-01

    It is impossible to perceive who owns an object; this must be inferred. One way that children make such inferences is through a first possession bias--when two agents each use an object, children judge the object belongs to the one who used it first. Two experiments show that this bias does not result from children directly inferring ownership…

  18. Dissociative symptoms and reported trauma among patients with spirit possession and matched healthy controls in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Nijenhuis, E.; Komproe, I.; Gernaat, H.B.P.E; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among

  19. 27 CFR 479.105 - Transfer and possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transfer or possess a machine gun except as provided in the law, any qualified manufacturer, importer, or... machine guns. 479.105 Section 479.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  20. Cognition and Phonology in Acquisition of Plurals and Possessives by Luo Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ben G.

    1988-01-01

    Luo-speaking children in Kenya responded to a test using nonce forms in morphophonology. Morphophonological processes in the acquisition of Luo plurals and possessives presented different degrees of difficulty for the subjects, with the type of morphophonological alteration in a language likely to affect the rate and order of acquisition.…

  1. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee in possession of any sealed source or brachytherapy source shall follow... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual physical...

  2. 19 CFR 134.12 - Foreign articles reshipped from a U.S. possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.12 Foreign... requirements applicable to like articles of foreign origin imported directly from a foreign country to the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign articles reshipped from a U.S. possession...

  3. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The visible growth in possession and exorcism in Southern Africa can, amongst others, be attributed to the general impression in Christianity that, since Jesus was a successful exorcist, his followers should follow his example. Historical Jesus research generally endorses a view of Jesus as exorcist, which probably also ...

  4. Passing Success Percentages and Ball Possession Rates of Successful Teams in 2014 FIFA World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal GÖRAL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the ball possession and passing success percentage of successful teams in 2014 FIFA World Cup. The data were obtained from international TV channels publishing competitions and the database of the website of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association - FIFA through official overviews of the games. So the parameters such as ball possession percentages, passing attempted, passing success percentages, accurate and non-accurate passes of successful teams in matches were analyzed. These performance indicators were analyzed by e-Analyze Soccer computer program. The data obtained in this study was recorded in SPSS 16.0 program and interpreted by calculating frequency and percentage values. Ball possession percentages of the successful teams vary between 50.32% and 56.71%. Among 17102 passing attempts of successful teams, it was determined that 133378 were successful having a high rate of passing success such as 78.22%. As a result, in the organizations such as World Cup which elite athletes participated, while successful teams had high rates of the ball possession it can be said that having the ball in midfield and offensive region and passing attempt, successful passing scores, passing success percent at a high level are the most basic principles that bring success.

  5. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly V Ruggles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  6. Influence on the scoreboard first possession partial and final World Championship 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manuel Argudo Iturriaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence to take the first ball on the partial and final score in male water polo. The 48 matches disputed by the team’s participant in the 2003 Water Polo World Championship, celebrated in Barcelona in 2003, were recorded. In particular, the samples were 192 actions of beginning of every game period. The observational methodology was applied. Statistically significant relation was not obtained, between to take the first ball possession and the partial score (p > .05. Were found statistically significant differences in the influence to take the first ball on the partial score in the fourth period (÷2 = 6,906, g.l. = 2; p = ,032. Were found a significant association between the numbers of periods started with ball possession and the final score result.

  7. Three Approaches toward Historiography: The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Possession, and Waterland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba NoorBakhsh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics have widely explored John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Graham Swift’s Waterland, and A. S. Byatt’s Possession. These novels are generally treated as outstanding historiographic metafictions since they self-consciously adopt the notion of history and simultaneously problematize historical understanding. For Hayden White, the historian is inevitably impositional and every narrativized history is relative. Following White, Linda Hutcheon defines postmodern historical fiction as the type of fiction that self-reflexively and paradoxically makes use of the notion of history and simultaneously denies its truthfulness. The present article attempts to analyze, compare, and contrast John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Graham Swift’s Waterland and A. S. Byatt’s Possession: A Romance in light of the theories of White and Hutcheon to show that in spite of problematization of the possibility of recovering the past as it actually was, these novels treat the concept of history differently.

  8. Grammatical priming of inflected nouns by the gender of possessive adjectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, M; Lukatela, G; Lukatela, K; Savić, M; Turvey, M T

    1985-10-01

    Two experiments examined the effect on lexical decision times for inflected Serbo-Croatian nouns when the nouns were preceded by possessive adjectives (my, your, our). For any given pairing the possessive adjective and the noun agreed always in number (singular) and case (nominative) but only agreed half of the time in gender (masculine or feminine). Lexical decisions were faster when the noun targets were of the same gender as their primes. This gender congruency/incongruency effect was shown to hold whether the inflections of the adjective and noun were the same (as is the case for typical Serbo-Croatian nouns) or different (as is the case for atypical Serbo-Croatian nouns). The results are discussed in terms of a postlexical influence of grammatical processing on the recognition of individual words.

  9. [A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the 'possessed' brain in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.

  10. Detection of a fourth orbivirus non-structural protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Belhouchet

    Full Text Available The genus Orbivirus includes both insect and tick-borne viruses. The orbivirus genome, composed of 10 segments of dsRNA, encodes 7 structural proteins (VP1-VP7 and 3 non-structural proteins (NS1-NS3. An open reading frame (ORF that spans almost the entire length of genome segment-9 (Seg-9 encodes VP6 (the viral helicase. However, bioinformatic analysis recently identified an overlapping ORF (ORFX in Seg-9. We show that ORFX encodes a new non-structural protein, identified here as NS4. Western blotting and confocal fluorescence microscopy, using antibodies raised against recombinant NS4 from Bluetongue virus (BTV, which is insect-borne, or Great Island virus (GIV, which is tick-borne, demonstrate that these proteins are synthesised in BTV or GIV infected mammalian cells, respectively. BTV NS4 is also expressed in Culicoides insect cells. NS4 forms aggregates throughout the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, consistent with identification of nuclear localisation signals within the NS4 sequence. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that NS4 contains coiled-coils, is related to proteins that bind nucleic acids, or are associated with membranes and shows similarities to nucleolar protein UTP20 (a processome subunit. Recombinant NS4 of GIV protects dsRNA from degradation by endoribonucleases of the RNAse III family, indicating that it interacts with dsRNA. However, BTV NS4, which is only half the putative size of the GIV NS4, did not protect dsRNA from RNAse III cleavage. NS4 of both GIV and BTV protect DNA from degradation by DNAse. NS4 was found to associate with lipid droplets in cells infected with BTV or GIV or transfected with a plasmid expressing NS4.

  11. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some phenomenological insights from neuro-anthropological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter F. Craffert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The visible growth in possession and exorcism in Southern Africa can, amongst others, be attributed to the general impression in Christianity that, since Jesus was a successful exorcist, his followers should follow his example. Historical Jesus research generally endorses a view of Jesus as exorcist, which probably also contributes to this idea, yet there is no or very little reflection about either exorcism or possession as cultural practices. This article offers a critical reflection on possession based on insights from cross-cultural and neuro-scientific research. The first insight is that possession is not a single thing, but a collective term for what is a wide range of phenomena. At least two distinct meanings are identified: possession as a label for illness or misfortune, and possession as an indication of forms of human dissociative phenomena. In the latter instance, an impression of possession as a mode of being a Self, together with insights about the inherent potential for dissociative phenomena, provides the background to the view of possession as a cultural technique with a variety of functions. A second insight is that the term possession refers to complex neuro-cultural processes that can be described by means of both cultural and neurological mechanisms. A third insight is that in most ethnographic examples possession is the response or solution to other underlying problems. Against this background the role of exorcism should be reconsidered as clear-cut and worthy of emulation.

  12. Position, possession or process? Understanding objective and subjective employability during university-to-work transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability: position (based on social background), possession (of human capital) and process (of career self-management (CSM)). Findings support the process vie...

  13. Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS.

  14. Teachers’ Perception Towards School Administrators’ Levels of Possession of Postmodern Leadership Values

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Aytac

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perception of teachers in primary schools towards school administrators’ levels of postmodern leadership values possession. The sample of this study covers 415 teachers applied postmodern leadership value scale and 42 teachers interviewed in 21 primary schools. The related data were collected and analyzed through mixed method. During the analysis of quantitative data, arithmetic average, independent t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe tests ...

  15. Lost property? The role of the police in returning personal possessions after disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Easthope [writing as Payne], Lucy; Eyre, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Within the police service and elsewhere, great emphasis is placed today on respecting the rights of the bereaved in the aftermath of disaster and other circumstances of sudden violent death. When it comes to the specific details relating to the recovery, processing and return of personal possessions to the bereaved, however, there are still varying degrees of understanding about the meaning and significance of personal property and a lack of clarity within and across the various responding or...

  16. Possession by 'Jinn' as a cause of epilepsy (Saraa): a study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Tahir; Abulaban, Ahmad; Al-Ghatani, Fawazia; Al-Malki, Abdul Rahman; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulaziz

    2012-05-01

    Epilepsy has been linked to divine, demonic and supernatural powers throughout its long history. This study was conducted to explore if misconceptions such as possession by demons (Jinns) are still believed to be a cause of epilepsy among educated Saudis today. This study was conducted among university-educated school teachers and undergraduate students. The findings are based on a structured questionnaire enquiring about familiarity with epilepsy, sources of knowledge, and depth of knowledge about specific aspects of epilepsy. Responses from 398 participants were included in the analysis of the results. Most participants had witnessed epileptic seizures. 2/3 of the participants reported that they had learned about epilepsy from friends and relatives. 172 (43.1%) members believed that epilepsy is a psychiatric disease. 62 (40.3%) of the school teachers and 123 (50.4%) of the students in the study considered possession as a cause of epilepsy. The majority of the cohort believed medical treatment for the condition exists despite the fact that a significant number believed that faith healers and traditional medicine can be of help in the treatment of epilepsy. Jinn possession is still believed to be a cause of epilepsy in Saudi society, even among fairly well-educated people. This finding emphasizes the urgent need for public education campaigns at all levels of education. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Possession of weapon and hunting license: the role of the physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Giboulet, Nicolas; Jardé, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In France, the physician can inform the prefect that a patient, detaining weapon and followed for a pathology (psychiatric notably), is dangerous. Then, it comes back to the prefect to appreciate the appropriate measurements to take, notably to order the delivery of weapon and ammunitions. In France, the doctor can be solicited to establish the necessary medical certficates during requests of approval or acquisition and having guns for hunting and sports shooting, or to obtain the licence of hunting. The acquisition and the possession of certain weapon cannot be granted if the applicant is a protected person over 18, was or is hospitalized, without his consent, owing to mental disturbances or, is in a physical or psychical state apparently incompatible with the possession of weapon. But it appears that the access to this information by the prefects is made difficult by the absence of files centralizing these data. Question settles to institute an automated national file of hospitalizations under pressure, which could be consulted prior to the deliverance or the approval of possession of weapon for hunting and as sports shooting. In our opinion, this should be made, in a strictly supervised manner, through a sworn doctor, systematically solicited as part of the licence of hunting and licence of shooting, to liberate the family practitioners of an expertise role.

  18. Hydrocodone and morphine possess similar rewarding effects and reduce ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenayuca, John M; Nazarian, Arbi

    2012-10-01

    The number of prescriptions for hydrocodone-containing opioid analgesics has greatly increased over the past decade. This increase has led to an associated enhancement in the nonmedical use of hydrocodone products. There is a lack of evidence to determine the extent of the rewarding effects and signal transduction properties of hydrocodone. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the rewarding properties of hydrocodone (1 and 5 mg/kg) and morphine (1 and 5 mg/kg) using the conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP) in rats. Both hydrocodone and morphine produced a CPP at the 5 mg/kg dose, but not the lower 1 mg/kg dose, suggesting that both drugs possess similar rewarding properties in the CPP paradigm. Moreover, hydrocodone and morphine equally reduced phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB proteins in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting that both drugs exert their effects through signal transduction pathways known to be involved in drug reward and reinforcement. These findings suggest that hydrocodone should be viewed as similarly capable of producing rewarding and euphoric properties as morphine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Power, slavery, and spirit possession in East Africa: A few reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nicolini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirit possession and its relationship with power aims to offer here a better understanding not only of East African societies, but, most of all, of their historical role in numerous political and military conflicts and also within peace-building processes that represent a continuation of a topic of longstanding concern in East African history. The relationships between religions, local cultures and institutional powers throughout contemporary East African history will be re-read through regional and transnational, as well as international dynamics.

  20. [Jinn possession as an explanation of mental illness influences the treatment-seeking behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amna; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-07-04

    Jinn possession is used as an explanation of mental symptoms among Muslims around the world. Very few studies have examined the use of jinn as a religious explanation model for mental health problems and treatment-seeking behaviour. The majority of studies show a positive association between jinn explanations and preferred treatment by religious healers, but due to methodological limitations, results should be taken with precaution. There is a need for longitudinal studies focusing on improving cultural competence and exploring possible cooperation with healers.

  1. Synthesis of 3-aryl-5-decapentyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles possessing antiinflammatory and antitumor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Natércia M Miranda; De Oliveira, Shalom P; Srivastava, Rajendra M; Da Silva, Joel R

    2005-01-01

    A simple, convenient and straightforward synthesis of 3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles 4a-f from arylamidoximes 1a-f and palmitic acid 2 is described. Compounds 4a-f are non-lethal in mice at four times the therapeutic dose (i.p., LD50>1 g kg(-1) of the animals' body weight). These heterocycles have been found to possess antiinflammatory property similar to aspirin and ibuprofen. Three compounds, viz., 4a, d, e have also been evaluated for antitumor activity, where 4d exhibited an excellent activity comparable to lapachol.

  2. Assessment of Management Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2015-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant management competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the management competencies possessed by the university…

  3. Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2014-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university…

  4. 41 CFR 109-1.5113 - Loss, damage, or destruction of personal property in possession of designated contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... property in its possession or control, including property in the possession or control of subcontractors, to the property administrator as soon as it becomes known. (b) When physical inventories, consumption...

  5. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who, with...

  6. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...

  7. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...

  8. Phthalocyanine derivatives possessing 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy groups as potential agents for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Szczolko, Wojciech; Sobotta, Lukasz; Sciepura, Mateusz; Tykarska, Ewa; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Teubert, Anna; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Gdaniec, Maria; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Goslinski, Tomasz; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Murias, Marek

    2015-03-12

    Three 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituted phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized. Phthalocyanine derivatives revealed moderate to high quantum yields of singlet oxygen production depending on the solvent applied (e.g., in DMF ranging from 0.25 to 0.53). Their photosensitizing potential for photodynamic therapy was investigated in an in vitro model using cancer cell lines. Biological test results were found particularly encouraging for the zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivative possessing two 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituents in nonperipheral positions. Cells irradiated for 20 min at 2 mW/cm(2) revealed the lowest IC50 value at 0.25 μM for prostate cell line (PC3), whereas 1.47 μM was observed for human malignant melanoma (A375) cells. The cytotoxic activity in nonirradiated cells of novel phthalocyanine was found to be very low. Moreover, the cellular uptake, localization, cell cycle, apoptosis through an ELISA assay, and immunochemistry method were investigated in LNCaP cells. Our results showed that the tested photosensitizer possesses very interesting biological activity, depending on experimental conditions.

  9. Hierarchical remote data possession checking method based on massive cloud files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Haifeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage service enables users to migrate their data and applications to the cloud, which saves the local data maintenance and brings great convenience to the users. But in cloud storage, the storage servers may not be fully trustworthy. How to verify the integrity of cloud data with lower overhead for users has become an increasingly concerned problem. Many remote data integrity protection methods have been proposed, but these methods authenticated cloud files one by one when verifying multiple files. Therefore, the computation and communication overhead are still high. Aiming at this problem, a hierarchical remote data possession checking (hierarchical-remote data possession checking (H-RDPC method is proposed, which can provide efficient and secure remote data integrity protection and can support dynamic data operations. This paper gives the algorithm descriptions, security, and false negative rate analysis of H-RDPC. The security analysis and experimental performance evaluation results show that the proposed H-RDPC is efficient and reliable in verifying massive cloud files, and it has 32–81% improvement in performance compared with RDPC.

  10. Genetic characterization of G3 rotaviruses detected in Italian children in the years 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Simona; Martella, Vito; Colomba, Claudia; Cascio, Antonio; Arista, Serenella; Giammanco, Giovanni M

    2009-12-01

    In recent years an apparent increase in the frequency of detection of G3P[8] rotaviruses has been observed worldwide. Similarly, in Italy G3P[8] strains have been detected sporadically and in a scattered fashion over 20 years, whereas in 2003 and 2005 G3P[8] rotavirus activity increased markedly. By analysis of the VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4 genes of a selection of G3P[8] rotaviruses detected between 1993 and 2005, a remarkable sequence conservation was observed in the VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes. By converse, after 2002 the Italian G3P[8] strains were found to possess unique mutations in significant regions of the NSP4 protein. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. From Powerlessness to Control: Psychosis, Spirit Possession and Recovery in the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rashed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores an aspect of the cultural modulation of recovery in psychosis. It begins with the idea that recovery hinges on the ability of subjects to relate to their distressing experiences in ways that expand rather than diminish agency.  Based on fieldwork in the Dakhla oasis of Egypt and subsequent analysis, it is argued that interpretations of psychosis as spirit possession offer a broader range of intentionality than biomedical interpretations and therefore broader possibilities of relating to psychotic states. Modes of relating to spirits may take active or passive forms, the former consistent with the recovery goal of symptom control. Factors constitutive of the active, agency-expanding mode of relating include: the nature of spirits; the values and beliefs of the subject; the broader cultural/religious discourses which may make it either more or less likely for the subject to achieve the desired state of control over symptoms.

  12. Health App Possession Among Smartphone or Tablet Owners in Hong Kong: Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wang, Man Ping; Chu, Joanna Tw; Wan, Alice; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-06-05

    Health apps are increasingly used with important implications for health. Hong Kong is one of the most technologically advanced and connected cities-smartphone ownership and Internet access rates are among the highest in the world. We investigated the prevalence of health app possession and related sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among smartphone or tablet owners in Hong Kong. A territory-wide population-based dual (landline and mobile) telephone survey was conducted in 2016. Respondents were asked whether they had health-related apps on their smartphones or tablets and what functions were available on the apps (eg, tracking physical activity and logging health records). Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% CI of health app possession for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (education, employment, and income), health behaviors (smoking, alcohol, and physical activity) and health (body mass index and chronic diseases). Of the 4129 smartphone or tablet owners (81.28%, 4129/5080 respondents), 995 (24.10%) had a health app. Tracking physical activity (67.0% of 995) and logging health records (43.0% of 995) were the most common functions of the health apps. Overall, younger age, higher education, and household income were associated with having health apps (all Plower prevalence of use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in respondents with lower education and income in the most developed Chinese city. This could be seen as a confirmation of the "Inverse information law," which suggests that those most in need have less use of services and hence receive less benefits from advancements in medicine and health related ICTs.

  13. Modelling psychiatric and cultural possession phenomena with suggestion and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Walsh, Eamonn; Bell, Vaughan; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Involuntary movements occur in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g., delusions of alien control and attributions of spirit possession). However, the underlying brain processes are poorly understood. We combined suggestion and fMRI in 15 highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers to investigate changes in brain activity accompanying different experiences of loss of self-control of movement. Suggestions of external personal control and internal personal control over involuntary movements modelled delusions of control and spirit possession respectively. A suggestion of impersonal control by a malfunctioning machine modelled technical delusions of control, where involuntary movements are attributed to the influence of machines. We found that (i) brain activity and/or connectivity significantly varied with different experiences and attributions of loss of agency; (ii) compared to the impersonal control condition, both external and internal personal alien control were associated with increased connectivity between primary motor cortex (M1) and brain regions involved in attribution of mental states and representing the self in relation to others; (iii) compared to both personal alien control conditions, impersonal control of movement was associated with increased activity in brain regions involved in error detection and object imagery; (iv) there were no significant differences in brain activity, and minor differences in M1 connectivity, between the external and internal personal alien control conditions. Brain networks supporting error detection and object imagery, together with representation of self and others, are differentially recruited to support experiences of impersonal and personal control of involuntary movements. However, similar brain systems underpin attributions and experiences of external and internal alien control of movement. Loss of self-agency for movement can therefore accompany different kinds of

  14. On the co-variation between form and function of adnominal possessive modifiers in Dutch and English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is concerned with Dutch and to a lesser extent English possessive modifiers introduced by the preposition of (Dutch van), as in a woman OF INFLUENCE or (Dutch) de auto VAN MIJN BROER (the car OF MY BROTHER) ‘my brother’s car’. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate...... generalizations can be made about members of different form classes (e.g. adjectives and possessives) if modifiers are characterized in functional rather than formal terms. This paper is restricted to possessive modifiers of nouns that denote concrete objects....

  15. Review: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011 Buchbesprechung: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigal Beez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 Seiten

  16. Copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands: Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Noah R; Khatib, Raneen M; Jenkins, Julia; Smith, Michelle; Rubalcava, Justin M; Le, Brian Khoa; Lussier, Daniel; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Tham, Fook S; Wilson, Emma H; Eichler, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to find alternatives to the antitumor drug cisplatin, a series of copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands have been synthesized. Eight new complexes are reported herein: μ-dichloro-bis{2,9-di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinechlorocopper(II)} {[((di-sec-butyl)phen)ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((di-sec-butyl)phen)]}(1), 2-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {([mono-sec-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (2), 2,9-di-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(di-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2}(3), 2-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(mono-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (4), 2,9-di-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolineaquadichlorocopper(II) {[(di-methyl)phen) Cu(H2O)Cl2}(5), μ-dichloro-bis{6-sec-butyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II)} {((mono-sec-butyl)bipy) ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((mono-sec-butyl)bipy)} (6), 6,6'-di-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(6,6'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (7), and 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(4,4'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (8). These complexes have been characterized via elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments revealed the complexes synthesized with the (di-sec-butyl)phen ligand (1) and (mono-sec-butyl)bipy ligand (6) crystallized as dimers in which two copper(II) centers are bridged by two chloride ligands. Conversely, complexes 2, 7, and 8 were isolated as monomeric species possessing distorted tetrahedral geometries, and the [((di-methyl)phen)Cu(H2O)Cl2] (5) complex was isolated as a distorted square pyramidal monomer possessing a coordinating aqua ligand. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor efficacy. Compounds 1, 5, and 7 in particular were found to exhibit remarkable activity against human derived lung cancer cells, yet this class of copper(II) compounds had minimal cytotoxic effect on non-cancerous cells. In vitro control experiments indicate the activity of the copper(II) complexes most likely does not arise from the

  17. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods: Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results: The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions: More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this

  18. The Institute of Legitimation of Possession in The New Pará Lands Law N ° 7289/2009

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Flavio Ricardo Albuquerque; da Fonseca, Luciana Costa

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the Institute of Legitimation of Possession, as a form of public land acquisition in the State of Pará and investigates the applicable regulations, since the State Law of Para n. 7.289 / 2009 established the legitimacy as a mean of public land alienation, without expressly mentioning the State Decree no. 1054/1996, which declared the forfeiture of the possession of records made before the state land agencies, whose areas were not legitimized.

  19. The Institute of Legitimation of Possession in The New Pará Lands Law N ° 7289/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Ricardo Albuquerque Azevedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Institute of Legitimation of Possession, as a form of public land acquisition in the State of Pará and investigates the applicable regulations, since the State Law of Para n. 7.289 / 2009 established the legitimacy as a mean of public land alienation, without expressly mentioning the State Decree no. 1054/1996, which declared the forfeiture of the possession of records made before the state land agencies, whose areas were not legitimized.

  20. To do, to have, or to share? Valuing experiences over material possessions depends on the involvement of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprariello, Peter A; Reis, Harry T

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that spending discretionary money with the intention of acquiring life experiences-events that one lives through-makes people happier than spending money with the intention of acquiring material possessions-tangible objects that one obtains and possesses. We propose and show that experiences are more likely to be shared with others, whereas material possessions are more prone to solitary use and that this distinction may account for their differential effects on happiness. In 4 studies, we present evidence demonstrating that the inclusion of others is a key dimension of how people derive happiness from discretionary spending. These studies showed that when the social-solitary and experiential-material dimensions were considered simultaneously, social discretionary spending was favored over solitary discretionary spending, whereas experiences showed no happiness-producing advantage relative to possessions. Furthermore, whereas spending money on socially shared experiences was valued more than spending money on either experiences enacted alone or material possessions, solitary experiences were no more valued than material possessions. Together, these results extend and clarify the basic findings of prior research and add to growing evidence that the social context of experiences is critical for their effects on happiness. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

  2. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihuan; Cheang, Wai San; Wang, Xiaobo; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Ma, Ka Ying; Zheng, Fangrui; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-08-20

    Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2.6 mmol of capsinoids (OH), respectively. Results showed capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC), reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and relax the aortic artery. This was accompanied by a 28-175% increase in fecal excretion of acidic sterols in hamsters fed the diets containing capsaicinoids. Similarly, capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease the pad weights of epididymal and prerenal adipose tissues. It was concluded that capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could favorably modulate plasma lipids and possess beneficial vascular activity.

  3. The meaning of illness in nursing practice: a philosophical model of communication and concept possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-04-01

    It is fundamental assumption in nursing theory that it is important for nurses to understand how patients experience states of ill health. This assumption is often related to aims of empathic understanding, but normative principles of social interpretation can have an important action-guiding role whenever nurses seek to understand patients' subjective horizons on the basis of active or passive expressions of meaning. The aim of this article is to present a philosophical theory of concept possession and to argue that it can shed light on how nurses should seek to understand patients' subjective perspectives on the meaning of illness. The two basic ideas in the theory are that patients' beliefs and thoughts about their experiences involve concepts and that concepts can be communicated on the basis of shared implicit conceptions of what they mean. These conditions of understanding have a striking application: nurse-patient communication is limited by many contextual factors, but it is often possible for nurses to detect shared implicit conceptions of the meaning of concepts of disease and illness. Furthermore, by acting as sympathetic linguistic experts and creating an atmosphere for dialogue, nurses can make patients feel comfortable about deferring to medical explanations of meaning that can constitute a communicative platform. The last part of the article uses a number of cases studies to show how these implications can be implemented as conceptual tools for securing meaningful communication about illness experiences in patient dialogue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Stereotypes possess heterogeneous directionality: a theoretical and empirical exploration of stereotype structure and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-01-01

    We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal), our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute) and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay). We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817), assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

  6. How Likable Are Personality Disorder and General Personality Traits to Those Who Possess Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Joanna; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D

    2017-01-25

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether having higher scores on maladaptive personality traits was related to rating these traits as more likable. Two studies were conducted, one with personality disorder traits (N = 219; Mage  = 19.4; 63.8% female; 76.6% Caucasian) and one with general personality traits (N = 198; Mage  = 19.5; 69.7% female; 77.3% Caucasian). In each study, participants self-rated their own personality and separately provided ratings of how "likable" they considered those personality traits. As expected, participants rated maladaptive traits more favorably if they considered themselves to possess those traits as well. Also as expected, individuals with higher Antagonism scores (including self-rated Dark Triad constructs of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) rated Antagonism and its related facets as "tolerable"-not necessarily likable, but as less unlikable than the average participant. These findings have implications for the ways that individuals with personality pathology perceive the people around them, which may in turn impact their expectations and behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A genetically engineered Pseudomonas fluorescens strain possesses the dual activity against phytopathogenic fungi and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenwei; Zhang, Weiqiong; Bai, Yan; Fu, Yingying; Chen, Jun; Geng, Xiaolu; Wang, Yujing; Xiao, Ming

    2010-02-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was isolated and showed antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi and found to possess a gene responsible for production of antibiotic 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol. For the extension of biocontrol range, a gene for an Androctonus australis Hector insect toxin 1 (AaHIT1), one of the most toxic known insect-selective peptides, was designed and synthesized according to the preferred codon usage of Pseudomonas fluorescens, cloned and transformed into the strain by pSUP106 vector, a broad-host-range plasmid. Bioassays indicated that the engineered strain was able to produce AaHIT1 with insecticidal activity, in the same time retained the activity against plant pathogen. The experiments for nonplanted soil and rhizosphere colonization showed that, similar to the population of the wild-type strain, that of the engineered strain remained relatively constant in the first 10 d, and the subsequent 50 d, suggesting that AaHIT expression in the bacterial cell does not substantially impair its long-term colonization. It is first reported that a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain expressing an active scorpion neurotoxin has dual activity against phytopathogenic fungi and insects, attractive for agronomic applications.

  8. Highly tilted liquid crystalline materials possessing a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewska, K.; Drzewiński, W. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Czerwiński, M., E-mail: mczerwinski@wat.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dąbrowski, R. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Piecek, W. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-01

    Pure compounds and multicomponent mixtures with a broad temperature range of high tilted liquid crystalline antiferroelectric phase and a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase, were obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms these kinds of materials form a high tilted anticlinic phase, with a fixed layer spacing and very weak dependency upon temperature, after the transition from the isotropic phase. Due to this, not only pure orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystals but also those with a moderate tilt should generate a good dark state. Furthermore, due to the increased potential for forming anticlinic forces, such materials could minimize a commonly observed asymmetry of a rise and fall switching times at a surface stabilized geometry. - Highlights: • The new class of liquid crystalline materials with the direct SmC{sub A}*. • Iso phase transition were obtained. • Materials possess the layer spacing fixed and very weak dependent upon temperature. • Smectic layers without shrinkage are observed. • A good dark state can be generate in SSAFLC.

  9. Stereotypes Possess Heterogeneous Directionality: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration of Stereotype Structure and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T. L.; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal), our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute) and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay). We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817), assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. PMID:25811181

  10. Stereotypes possess heterogeneous directionality: a theoretical and empirical exploration of stereotype structure and content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T L Cox

    Full Text Available We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal, our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay. We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817, assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

  11. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Poly-γ-glutamate-based Materials for Multiple Infection Prophylaxis Possessing Versatile Coating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ashiuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA possesses a nylon-like backbone and polyacrylate-like carboxyl groups, and shows an extraordinary solubility in water. In this study, the effective synthesis and structural analysis of some water-insoluble PGA ion-complexes (PGAICs using cationic surfactants, hexadecylpyridinium (HDP, dodecylpyridinium, benzalkonium and benzetonium, were examined. We demonstrated their spontaneous coating performance to the surfaces of different materials (i.e., plastics, metals, and ceramics as potent anti-staphylococcal and anti-Candida agents. The tests against Staphylococcus aureus revealed that, regardless of a variety of materials, PGAICs maintained surface antimicrobial activity, even after the water-soaking treatment, whereas those against Candida albicans indicated that, among PGAICs, PGA/HDP complex is most useful as an anti-fungal agent because of its coating stability. Moreover, the log reduction values against Influenza A and B viruses of PGA/HDP-coated surfaces were estimated to be 5.4 and 3.2, respectively, suggesting that it can be dramatically suppressed the infection of influenza. This is to our knowledge the first observation of PGA-based antiviral coatings.

  13. Curdlan-Conjugated PLGA Nanoparticles Possess Macrophage Stimulant Activity and Drug Delivery Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukulula, Matshawandile; Hayeshi, Rose; Fonteh, Pascaline; Meyer, Debra; Ndamase, Abongile; Madziva, Michael T; Khumalo, Vincent; Labuschagne, Philip; Lubuschagne, Philip; Naicker, Brendon; Swai, Hulda; Dube, Admire

    2015-08-01

    There is significant interest in the application of nanoparticles to deliver immunostimulatory signals to cells. We hypothesized that curdlan (immune stimulating polymer) could be conjugated to PLGA and nanoparticles from this copolymer would possess immunostimulatory activity, be non-cytotoxic and function as an effective sustained drug release system. Carbodiimide chemistry was employed to conjugate curdlan to PLGA. The conjugate (C-PLGA) was characterized using (1)H and (13)C NMR, FTIR, DSC and TGA. Nanoparticles were synthesized using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Immunostimulatory activity was characterized in THP-1 derived macrophages. MTT assay and real-time impedance measurements were used to characterize polymer and nanoparticle toxicity and uptake in macrophages. Drug delivery capability was assessed across Caco-2 cells using rifampicin as a model drug. Spectral characterization confirmed successful synthesis of C-PLGA. C-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced phosphorylated ERK production in macrophages indicating cell stimulation. Nanoparticles provided slow release of rifampicin across Caco-2 cells. Polymers but not nanoparticles altered the adhesion profiles of the macrophages. Impedance measurements suggested Ca(2+) dependent uptake of nanoparticles by the macrophages. PLGA nanoparticles with macrophage stimulating and sustained drug delivery capabilities have been prepared. These nanoparticles can be used to stimulate macrophages and concurrently deliver drug in infectious disease therapy.

  14. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle D. Tchamgoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed. All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer.

  15. Structure-Activity Relationships of Diverse Oxazolidinones for Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Possessing the cfr Methyltransferase Gene or Ribosomal Mutations▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jeffrey B.; Finn, John; Hilgers, Mark; Morales, Gracia; Rahawi, Shahad; G. C., Kedar; Picazo, Juan José; Im, Weonbin; Shaw, Karen Joy; Stein, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal resistance to linezolid (LZD) is mediated through ribosomal mutations (23S rRNA or ribosomal proteins L3 and L4) or through methylation of 23S rRNA by the horizontally transferred Cfr methyltransferase. To investigate the structural basis for oxazolidinone activity against LZD-resistant (LZDr) strains, we compared structurally diverse, clinically relevant oxazolidinones, including LZD, radezolid (RX-1741), TR-700 (torezolid), and a set of TR-700 analogs (including novel CD-rings and various A-ring C-5 substituents), against a panel of laboratory-derived and clinical LZDr Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing a variety of resistance mechanisms. Potency against all strains was correlated with optimization of C- and D-rings, which interact with more highly conserved regions of the peptidyl transferase center binding site. Activity against cfr strains was retained with either hydroxymethyl or 1,2,3-triazole C-5 groups but was reduced by 2- to 8-fold in compounds with acetamide substituents. LZD, which possesses a C-5 acetamide group and lacks a D-ring substituent, demonstrated the lowest potency against all strains tested, particularly against cfr strains. These data reveal key features contributing to oxazolidinone activity and highlight structural tradeoffs between potency against susceptible strains and potency against strains with various resistance mechanisms. PMID:20837751

  16. Preferential inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis by a new thiosemicarbazone possessing antibacterial and antiparasitic properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R E; Stancato, F A; Wolfe, A D

    1981-01-01

    We determined the influence of the azacycloheptane derivative (H) of a 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone on growth and macromolecular synthesis in Escherichia coli AT-9. Thiosemicarbazone H caused bacteriostasis and a primary inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis; secondary effects included inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid and protein synthesis. Addition of cooper or other transition elements was not necessary for these inhibitions.

  17. An ABC-type multidrug transporter of Lactococcus lactis possesses an exceptionally broad substrate specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, GJ; Mazurkiewicz, P; Putman, M; Cool, RH; van Veen, HW; Konings, WN

    2000-01-01

    LmrA is a 590-amino acid membrane protein which confers multidrug resistance on Lactococcus lactis cells by extruding amphiphilic compounds from the inner leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Its structural and functional characteristics place it in the

  18. A mosaic adenovirus possessing serotype Ad5 and serotype Ad3 knobs exhibits expanded tropism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K; Reynolds, PN; Short, JS; Kawakami, Y; Adachi, Y; Glasgow, JN; Rots, MG; Krasnykh, VN; Douglas, JT; Curiel, DT

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of cancer gene therapy with recombinant adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (Ad5) has been limited partly because of variable, and often low, expression by human primary cancer cells of the primary cellular-receptor which recognizes the knob domain of the fiber protein, the coxsackie and

  19. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions....... The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed...

  20. Mycobacterium avium Possesses Extracellular DNA that Contributes to Biofilm Formation, Structural Integrity, and Tolerance to Antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha J Rose

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic pathogen that is associated with biofilm-related infections of the respiratory tract and is difficult to treat. In recent years, extracellular DNA (eDNA has been found to be a major component of bacterial biofilms, including many pathogens involved in biofilm-associated infections. To date, eDNA has not been described as a component of mycobacterial biofilms. In this study, we identified and characterized eDNA in a high biofilm-producing strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH. In addition, we surveyed for presence of eDNA in various MAH strains and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. Biofilms of MAH A5 (high biofilm-producing strain and MAH 104 (reference strain were established at 22°C and 37°C on abiotic surfaces. Acellular biofilm matrix and supernatant from MAH A5 7 day-old biofilms both possess abundant eDNA, however very little eDNA was found in MAH 104 biofilms. A survey of MAH clinical isolates and other clinically relevant nontuberculous mycobacterial species revealed many species and strains that also produce eDNA. RAPD analysis demonstrated that eDNA resembles genomic DNA. Treatment with DNase I reduced the biomass of MAH A5 biofilms when added upon biofilm formation or to an already established biofilm both on abiotic surfaces and on top of human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of an established biofilm with DNase 1 and either moxifloxacin or clarithromycin significantly increased the susceptibility of the bacteria within the biofilm to these clinically used antimicrobials. Collectively, our results describe an additional matrix component of mycobacterial biofilms and a potential new target to help treat biofilm-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.

  1. To have and to hold: possessing the sacred in the late renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Benay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Private devotional art of the early 17th century often found its place in the galleries of noblemen and women whose diverse collections were symbols not only of stylistic taste, but of their owners’ exhaustive curiosity. In these domestic settings, boundaries between sacred and secular were permeable, as the unprecedented physical intimacy portrayed in popular religious subjects such as St Matthew and the Angel, the Stigmatisation of St Francis, or Christ’s Agony in the Garden reveal. Representations of the latter reminded viewers of Christ’s human, corporal suffering and suggested a model of resolve strengthened by prayer. The Agony in the Garden appears on the interior of Jacopo Ligozzi’s virtuosic Portable Altar with Carrying Case (1608, likely a Medici gift presented to the Austrian court in anticipation of the marriage of archduchess Maria Maddalena to soon-to-be grand duke Cosimo II. Adorned with lavish botanical motifs on its exterior, the Altar’s potency as a sacred possession was redoubled by the owner’s tactile revelation of the portrayal of Christ supported by an Angel contained inside the case. Comprised of wood, oil on copper, and pietre dure inlay, it is an object intended to be held, opened, and experienced. This paper suggests that Ligozzi’s selective combination of sumptuous materials and choice of subject matter – botanical illustration and Christological iconography – allowed the object to appeal to the full sensorium, and therefore to function as efficaciously as a devotional aid as it did as a curiosity among other rare collectibles.

  2. The first identified cathelicidin from tree frogs possesses anti-inflammatory and partial LPS neutralization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lixian; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Juanjuan; Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jing; Liu, Tong; Wu, Jing; Yang, Hailong

    2017-06-07

    As of February 2017, approximately 7639 amphibian species have been described in the AmphibiaWeb database. However, only 20 cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptides have been identified to date from 10 amphibian species. Half of these peptides were identified from genome sequences and have not yet been functionally characterized. In this study, a novel cathelicidin-like peptide designated cathelicidin-PP was purified from the skin of tree frog Polypedates puerensis. Cathelicidin-PP is a 32 residue peptide of sequence ASENGKCNLLCLVKKKLRAVGNVIKTVVGKIA. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that cathelicidin-PP mainly adopts a β-sheet structure in membrane-mimetic solutions. Cathelicidin-PP exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi, especially Gram-negative bacteria. Meanwhile, it shows low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that cathelicidin-PP kills bacteria through the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, cathelicidin-PP exerts significant anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated generation of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. The MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) and NF-κB signaling pathways are involved in the anti-inflammatory effect. Cathelicidin-PP caused partial neutralization of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative PCR indicated that infection of tree frogs with bacteria causes increased expression of cathelicidin-PP in immune-related tissues. Taken together, cathelicidin-PP is the first identified cathelicidin-like peptide from tree frogs. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to direct bactericidal capacity, cathelicidin-PP also possesses immunomodulatory properties, including partial neutralization of LPS, and inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt, fruits (WSFEt and leaves (WSLEt. Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition, whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi.

  4. Expression of mucin 1 possessing a 3'-sulfated core1 in recurrent and metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideo, Hiroko; Hinoda, Yuji; Sakai, Kohei; Hoshi, Ikue; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Oka, Masaaki; Maeda, Kazunari; Maeda, Noriko; Hazama, Shoichi; Amano, Junko; Yamashita, Katsuko

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer threatening the lives of women between the ages of 30 and 64. The cancer antigen 15-3 assay (CA15-3) has been widely used for the detection of breast cancer recurrence; however, its sensitivity and specificity are inadequate. We previously found that the breast cancer cell line YMBS secretes mucin 1 possessing 3'-sulfated core1 (3Score1-MUC1) into the medium. Therefore, we here evaluated whether 3Score1-MUC1 is secreted into the blood streams of breast cancer patients, and whether it can serve as an improved breast cancer marker. We developed a lectin-sandwich immunoassay, called Gal4/MUC1, using a 3'-sulfated core1-specific galectin-4 and a MUC1 monoclonal antibody. Using the Gal4/MUC1 assay method, we found that 3Score1-MUC1 was profoundly expressed in the blood streams of patients with recurrent and/or metastatic breast cancer. The positive ratio of the Gal4/MUC1 assay was higher than that of the CA15-3 assay in both primary (n = 240) and relapsed (n = 43) patients, especially in the latter of which the positive ratio of Gal4/MUC1 was 86%. whereas that of CA15-3 was 47%. Furthermore, serum Gal4/MUC1 levels could more sensitively reflect the recurrence of primary breast cancer patients after surgery. Therefore, the Gal4/MUC1 assay should be an excellent alternative to the CA15-3 tumor marker for tracking the recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Blake, Randolph; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP) are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts the salience of a

  6. Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts

  7. Rheum turkestanicum rhizomes possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in experimental diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rheum turkestanicum (R. turkestanicum rhizomes have been used in Iranain traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of R. turkestanicum rhizome extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats received the decoction extract of R. turkestanicum rhizomes at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg daily by gavage for 3 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were measured in all groups before diabetes induction and at the end of week 3. Oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver by measurement of malondialdehyde levels and total thiol concentration at the end of the experiment.Results: A significant increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels was observed in diabetic rats, which was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and decreased total thiol concentration in the liver after 3 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with R. turkestanicum rhizome extract at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg over a 3-week period did not change serum glucose, hepatic malondialdehyde and total thiol levels in diabetic rats. However, treatment with R. turkestanicum extract significantly decreased serum triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent manner at the end of the experiment.Conclusion: R. turkestanicum rhizome extract possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. Therefore, R. turkestanicum rhizome should be consumed with more caution by diabetic patients.

  8. Tomato cystine-knot miniproteins possessing anti-angiogenic activity exhibit in vitro gastrointestinal stability, intestinal absorption and resistance to food industrial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treggiari, Davide; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Chignola, Roberto; Molesini, Barbara; Minuz, Pietro; Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2017-04-15

    The cystine-knot miniproteins present in tomato fruit (TCMPs) have been shown to exert anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting endothelial cell migration and to display resistance to gastrointestinal proteolytic attack. To better define the pharmacological potential of TCMPs, their oral bioavailability and their resistance to industrial processing must be assessed. To explore the intestinal transport of TCMPs we used the differentiated Caco-2 cells model. After 24h incubation, 37.73±9.34% of TCMPs crossed the epithelium, without altering the integrity of the cell layer. To assess the effects of the industrial processing on the biochemical features and the biological activity of TCMPs, we developed a method for purifying the proteins from tomato paste. The tomato-paste purified TCMPs retained the resistance to gastrointestinal digestion and the inhibitory activity towards endothelial cell migration. Our previous and present results collectively demonstrate that TCMPs possess interesting features for drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dendritic silica nanomaterials (KCC-1) with fibrous pore structure possess high DNA adsorption capacity and effectively deliver genes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxi; Tao, Zhimin; Praskavich, John C; Goswami, Anandarup; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Minko, Tamara; Polshettiwar, Vivek; Asefa, Tewodros

    2014-09-16

    The pore size and pore structure of nanoporous materials can affect the materials' physical properties, as well as potential applications in different areas, including catalysis, drug delivery, and biomolecular therapeutics. KCC-1, one of the newest members of silica nanomaterials, possesses fibrous, large pore, dendritic pore networks with wide pore entrances, large pore size distribution, spacious pore volume and large surface area--structural features that are conducive for adsorption and release of large guest molecules and biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and DNAs). Here, we report the results of our comparative studies of adsorption of salmon DNA in a series of KCC-1-based nanomaterials that are functionalized with different organoamine groups on different parts of their surfaces (channel walls, external surfaces or both). For comparison the results of our studies of adsorption of salmon DNA in similarly functionalized, MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanomaterials with cylindrical pores, some of the most studied silica nanomaterials for drug/gene delivery, are also included. Our results indicate that, despite their relatively lower specific surface area, the KCC-1-based nanomaterials show high adsorption capacity for DNA than the corresponding MCM-41-based nanomaterials, most likely because of KCC-1's large pores, wide pore mouths, fibrous pore network, and thereby more accessible and amenable structure for DNA molecules to diffuse through. Conversely, the MCM-41-based nanomaterials adsorb much less DNA, presumably because their outer surfaces/cylindrical channel pore entrances can get blocked by the DNA molecules, making the inner parts of the materials inaccessible. Moreover, experiments involving fluorescent dye-tagged DNAs suggest that the amine-grafted KCC-1 materials are better suited for delivering the DNAs adsorbed on their surfaces into cellular environments than their MCM-41 counterparts. Finally, cellular toxicity tests show that the KCC-1-based

  10. Packing in protein cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  11. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, James

    2016-05-15

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. © 2016 Shorter. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Medicinal Mushroom Extracts Possess Differential Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbatrawy, Eman Nasr; Ghonimy, Eglal AbdAllah; Alassar, Mahomud Mohammed; Wu, Fang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Many species of edible mushrooms are known to contain a wide array of compounds with high nutritional and medicinal values. However, these values vary widely among mushroom species because of the wide diversity of compounds with different solubilities to solvents used in extraction. We report here the comparison of antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against cancer cells in extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Agaricus campestris, and A. bisporus from 7 different solvents, including water, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, hexane, and petroleum ether. The extracts were analyzed for their antioxidant activities using the % DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate) scavenging activity method. Our results revealed that the water extracts exhibited the highest % DPPH scavenging activity in comparison to all other solvent extracts. The highest value was obtained from the water extract of P. sajor-caju (78.1%), and the lowest one was from the hexane extract of A. bisporus (0.8%). In general, extracts from nonpolar solvents exhibited much lower antioxidant activities than those from polar solvents. The cytotoxic effects of these extracts were evaluated using 2 cancer cell lines of larynx carcinoma (HEp-2) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7). When added into Hep-2 cells, the hexane extracts from P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, A. bisporus, and A. campestris yielded the highest IC50 values of 1.7 ± 1.56, 2.1 ± 2.82, 4.4 ± 1.71, and 2.2 ± 1.34 μg/mL, respectively, in comparison to all other solvent extracts. Similar IC50 values were obtained when the MCF-2 cancer cells were tested, suggesting that hexane is the preferred solvent to extract the anticancer compounds from these mushrooms. Our results also indicated that extracts from solvents with nonpolar or intermediate polarity were more potent than those with high polarity in their cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and extracts from different mushrooms by the same solvent possessed varied degrees of

  13. The impact of possession on legality of mortgage registered on a building under construction: With case law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicković Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the subject of a mortgage to buildings under construction is a considerable step forward in regulating mortgages. It is not possible to register ownership rights on buildings under construction. A person acquiring ownership does not have the possibility to protect his rights. Acquiring ownership rights to a building under construction is tied to possession. This is detrimental to the principle of publicity which in turn erodes the principle of reliance. Validity of the mortgage is tied to the possession over the mortgaged real estate at the time of its registration. Such position of the courts challenges the very essence of mortgage.

  14. Protein - Which is Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  15. PROTEIN - WHICH IS BEST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Falvo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids, whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function are also reviewed

  16. Biochemical and cellular investigation of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) variants possessing efficient peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Tansila, Natta; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Bülow, Leif; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2010-03-01

    Peroxidase-like activity of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has been recently disclosed. To maximize such activity, two catalytically conserved residues (histidine and arginine) found in distal pocket of peroxidases have successfully been introduced into that of the VHb. Fifteen-fold increase in catalytic constant (k(cat)) was obtained in P54R variant, which was presumably attributable to the lower rigidity and higher hydrophilicity of distal cavity arising from substitution of proline to arginine. None of the modifications altered the affinity towards either H(2)O(2) or ABTS substrate. Spectroscopic studies revealed that VHb variants harboring T29H mutation apparently demonstrated the spectral shift in both ferric and ferrous forms (406-408 to 411 nm and 432 to 424-425 nm, respectively). All VHb proteins in ferrous state had lambda(soret) peak at approximately 419 nm following the carbon monoxide (CO) binding. Expression of P54R mutant mediated the down-regulation of iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) as identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). According to the high peroxidase activity of P54R, it could effectively eliminate autoxidation-derived H2O2, which is a cause of heme degradation and iron release. This decreased the iron availability and consequently reduced the formation of Fe(2+)-ferric uptake regulator protein (Fe(2+)-Fur), an inducer of FeSOD expression.

  17. Protein folding and wring resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The polypeptide chain of a protein is shown to obey topological contraints which enable long range excitations in the form of wring modes of the protein backbone. Wring modes of proteins of specific lengths can therefore resonate with molecular modes present in the cell. It is suggested...... that protein folding takes place when the amplitude of a wring excitation becomes so large that it is energetically favorable to bend the protein backbone. The condition under which such structural transformations can occur is found, and it is shown that both cold and hot denaturation (the unfolding...... of proteins) are natural consequences of the suggested wring mode model. Native (folded) proteins are found to possess an intrinsic standing wring mode....

  18. Advantages of proteins being disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(B)-1 - Remuneration for services performed in possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico) by citizen of the United States. 31.3401(a)(8)(B)-1... performed in possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico) by citizen of the United States. (a... by a citizen of the United States within a possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico...

  20. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  1. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  2. The attributive possessive in Moroccan Arabic spoken by young bilinguals in the Netherlands and their peers in Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, L.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative evidence shows that the use of the SG in MA depends on the lexical item that heads the possessive, while it is more frequent with pronominal dependents. The AG is used more in Tangier than in Casablanca, Rabat or Oujda, and this is true for both pronominal and NP dependents. Immigrants'

  3. 26 CFR 1.937-3 - Income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in a possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....937-2(b), because Corporation A passes the rights, title, and interest to the copyrighted articles in... 864(c)(3) as applied pursuant to § 1.937-3(b). Corporation A's income is not from sources within the... and Possession X effectively connected income under section 937(b)(1). Example 5. (i) Corporation B, a...

  4. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... selection. Taking of migratory birds is prohibited unless specifically provided for by annual regulations...

  5. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and...

  6. Love and Art Strike Back: A.S. Byatt’s Possession: A Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Tine Engel

    2004-01-01

    Possession can be seen as an enactment of the conflicts between a number of powerful - and quite classic - extremes (anatomy-romance, intellectual experience-sensuous experience, theory-art, reason-love, irony-pathos), which, in the aesthetic experience of the reader, it overcomes and transcends....

  7. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as

  8. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  9. Methods and Models for Life Cycle Costing (Methodes et Modeles D’Evaluation du cout de Possession)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    comporte des risques. Le traitement de cette incertitude et de ce risque dans le contexte du développement de l’estimation du coût de possession est...souhaitables. Si vous souhaitez recevoir une notification électronique de la disponibilité des rapports de la RTO au fur et à mesure de leur publication, vous

  10. The Importance of Personal Possessions for the Development of a Sense of Home of Nursing Home Residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; M.L. Janssen; C.M.C. Heesakkers; L.A.G. Willems; B.M. Janssen; H.R. Marston; W. van Kersbergen; M.E. Nieboer; L.E.J. Severijns

    2016-01-01

    Personal possessions of nursing home residents can contribute to their sense of home. This study investigated which of the personal belongings were considered most important, and if these items indeed contributed to a sense of home. A qualitative research was conducted with 27 nursing home

  11. Susceptibility of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes ...

  12. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, M.; Ng, E.-P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ali Ahmad, H.; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F.; de Vries, M.; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and

  13. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, Mehran; Ng, E. -P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Rostami, F. Bakhshandeh; de Vries, Marcel; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and

  14. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rahimi (Mehran); E.-P. Ng; K. Bakhtiari (Kamran); M. Vinciguerra (Manlio); H.A. Ahmad (H. Ali); H. Awala; S. Mintova; M. Daghighi (Mojtaba); F. Bakhshandeh Rostami; M. de Vries (Marieke); M.M. Motazacker (Mohammad); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); M. Mahmoudi; F. Rezaee (Farhad)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein

  15. Paracoccus denitrificans possesses two BioR homologs having a role in regulation of biotin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Kumar, Ritesh; Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Zhang, Huimin

    2015-08-01

    Recently, we determined that BioR, the GntR family of transcription factor, acts as a repressor for biotin metabolism exclusively distributed in certain species of α-proteobacteria, including the zoonotic agent Brucella melitensis and the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, the scenario is unusual in Paracoccus denitrificans, another closely related member of the same phylum α-proteobacteria featuring with denitrification. Not only does it encode two BioR homologs Pden_1431 and Pden_2922 (designated as BioR1 and BioR2, respectively), but also has six predictive BioR-recognizable sites (the two bioR homolog each has one site, whereas the two bio operons (bioBFDAGC and bioYB) each contains two tandem BioR boxes). It raised the possibility that unexpected complexity is present in BioR-mediated biotin regulation. Here we report that this is the case. The identity of the purified BioR proteins (BioR1 and BioR2) was confirmed with LC-QToF-MS. Phylogenetic analyses combined with GC percentage raised a possibility that the bioR2 gene might be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Gel shift assays revealed that the predicted BioR-binding sites are functional for the two BioR homologs, in much similarity to the scenario seen with the BioR site of A. tumefaciens bioBFDAZ. Using the A. tumefaciens reporter system carrying a plasmid-borne LacZ fusion, we revealed that the two homologs of P. denitrificans BioR are functional repressors for biotin metabolism. As anticipated, not only does the addition of exogenous biotin stimulate efficiently the expression of bioYB operon encoding biotin transport/uptake system BioY, but also inhibits the transcription of the bioBFDAGC operon resembling the de novo biotin synthetic pathway. EMSA-based screening failed to demonstrate that the biotin-related metabolite is involved in BioR-DNA interplay, which is consistent with our former observation with Brucella BioR. Our finding defined a complex regulatory network for biotin

  16. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Non-Structural Protein of Bluetongue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinier, Maxime; Caporale, Marco; Golder, Matthew; Franzoni, Giulia; Allan, Kathryn; Nunes, Sandro Filipe; Armezzani, Alessia; Bayoumy, Amr; Rixon, Frazer; Shaw, Andrew; Palmarini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of a major disease of livestock (bluetongue). For over two decades, it has been widely accepted that the 10 segments of the dsRNA genome of BTV encode for 7 structural and 3 non-structural proteins. The non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/NS3a) play different key roles during the viral replication cycle. In this study we show that BTV expresses a fourth non-structural protein (that we designated NS4) encoded by an open reading frame in segment 9 overlapping the open reading frame encoding VP6. NS4 is 77–79 amino acid residues in length and highly conserved among several BTV serotypes/strains. NS4 was expressed early post-infection and localized in the nucleoli of BTV infected cells. By reverse genetics, we showed that NS4 is dispensable for BTV replication in vitro, both in mammalian and insect cells, and does not affect viral virulence in murine models of bluetongue infection. Interestingly, NS4 conferred a replication advantage to BTV-8, but not to BTV-1, in cells in an interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral state. However, the BTV-1 NS4 conferred a replication advantage both to a BTV-8 reassortant containing the entire segment 9 of BTV-1 and to a BTV-8 mutant with the NS4 identical to the homologous BTV-1 protein. Collectively, this study suggests that NS4 plays an important role in virus-host interaction and is one of the mechanisms played, at least by BTV-8, to counteract the antiviral response of the host. In addition, the distinct nucleolar localization of NS4, being expressed by a virus that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm, offers new avenues to investigate the multiple roles played by the nucleolus in the biology of the cell. PMID:22241985

  17. DCPP1 is the mouse ortholog of human PAUF that possesses functional analogy in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayne; Song, Jinhoi; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Jeong, Hyeon Hee; Min, Hye Jin; Koh, Sang Seok

    2017-12-02

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) plays a major role in tumor progression and metastasis by autocrine and paracrine manners. However, underlying molecular mechanism of PAUF functioning in pancreatic cancer are not fully understood yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of demilune cell and parotid protein 1 (DCPP1) as a putative mouse ortholog of human PAUF by sequence alignment and functional studies. Overexpression of mouse DCPP1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or pancreatic cancer cells increased cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion ability in vitro. Treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells with recombinant mouse DCPP1 elevated cell growth, motility, invasiveness, and adhesiveness. Mouse DCPP1 exerted its function on pancreatic cancer cells by activating intracellular signaling pathways involved in aggressive cancer phenotype of human pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of mice with DCPP1-overexpressing CHO cells increased tumor sizes. Taken together, we conclude that mouse DCPP1 is a multifunctional promoter of tumor growth through functional activation of pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting it to be an ortholog of human PAUF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Three Phoma spp. synthesised novel silver nanoparticles that possess excellent antimicrobial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket K; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Duran, Nelson

    2015-10-01

    The authors report extracellular mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Phoma capsulatum, Phoma putaminum and Phoma citri. The AgNPs thus synthesised were characterised by UV-visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Nanosight LM20 and transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the synthesis of mostly spherical and polydisperse nanoparticles capped with proteins. The size of AgNPs was found in the range of 10-80 , 5-80 and 5-90 nm with an average size of 31.85, 25.43 and 23.29 nm by P. capsulatum, P. putaminum and P. citri, respectively. Further, potential antimicrobial activity was reported against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Salmonella choleraesuis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.85 µg/ml) was reported for AgNPs synthesised from P. citri against S. choleraesuis. However, AgNPs synthesised from P. capsulatum showed the highest MIC (10.62 µg/ml) against S. choleraesuis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli (clinical isolate). The same MIC values (10.62 µg/ml) were also reported against P. aeruginosa and both clinical and standard isolates of E. coli for AgNPs synthesised from P. citri. It was also observed that all the silver nanoparticles showed remarkable antifungal and antibacterial activity against these tested pathogens as compared with the commercially available antifungal and antibacterial agents.

  19. Recloned transgenic pigs possess normal reproductive performance and stable genetic transmission capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zubing; Li, Yan; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Mi, Changsheng; Zhang, Zaihu; Li, Ning; Li, Qiuyan

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated whether a recloning procedure would affect the reproductive performance or the germline transmission capacity of recloned transgenic pigs. This study has also laid the foundation for the development of elite transgenic swine breeds in the future. Recloned transgenic pigs were developed from ear tissue fibroblasts of primary transgenic cloned pigs using a recloning procedure, and their reproductive performance and exogenous gene transmission were analyzed. Two transgenic cell lines with different genetic backgrounds (derived from a female miniature pig and a male Landrace pig) with stable expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were established successfully. Furthermore, recloned transgenic embryos were developed to full term successfully. One female Chinese experimental miniature piglet (CEMP) (GFP+) and three male Landrace piglets (GFP+) were delivered naturally. Furthermore, the index values for the reproductive characteristics of the recloned transgenic pigs, such as puberty, gestation period, sperm volume and sperm concentration, were not significantly different from those of conventionally bred pigs. In addition, 53% of the F1 offspring of the recloned transgenic pigs were GFP positive. These results demonstrate that ear tissue fibroblasts from primary transgenic cloned pigs efficiently support the full-term development of recloned transgenic embryos. Furthermore, recloned transgenic pigs maintain normal reproductive performance and stable germline (genetic) transmission capacities.

  20. Estimating railway infrastructure project cost from transferring nominal price to real price by considering the working time possessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Salling, Kim Bang

    and 2) railway construction work costs are not transparent in the market. This paper suggests separating the costs into 3 sub-categories: materials, labour and machinery. Evidently, the materials are further broke-down into subcomponents which then remains fixed whereas the cost of labour and machinery......The purpose of the paper is to estimate railway project construction cost based on the nominal market price. Currently, estimation of project costs within railway infrastructure procurement is particularly challenging due to; 1) construction costs highly depend on possession timeframes and duration...... are varying depending on the working time possessions presented through the closure of the railway line. The effective working hours, type of construction work and construction speed are used as constraints to ensure the track closure plan remains feasible. To demonstrate the approach a Danish railway...

  1. The effect of internal possession laws on underage drinking among high school students: a 12-state analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Lynn D; LaVallee, Robin A; Yi, Hsiao-Ye

    2013-06-01

    We assessed the effect of internal possession (IP) laws, which allow law enforcement to charge underage drinkers with alcohol possession if they have ingested alcohol, on underage drinking behaviors. We examined Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from 12 states with IP laws and with YRBS data before and after each law's implementation. We used logistic regression models with fixed effects for state to assess the effects of IP laws on drinking and binge drinking among high school students. Implementation of IP laws is associated with reductions in the odds of past-month drinking. This reduction was bigger among male than among female adolescents (27% vs 15%) and only significant among younger students aged 14 and 15 years (15% and 11%, respectively). Male adolescents also reported a significant reduction (24%) in the odds of past-month binge drinking under IP laws. These findings suggest that IP laws are effective in reducing underage drinking, particularly among younger adolescents.

  2. Identification of Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 maltose phosphorylase possessing synthetic ability for branched α-D-glucosyl trisaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Otsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    We discovered an inverting maltose phosphorylase (Bsel2056) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 65 from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10, which possesses synthetic ability for α-D-glucosyl disaccharides and trisaccharides through the reverse phosphorolysis with β-D-glucose 1-phosphate as the donor. Bsel2056 showed the flexibility for monosaccharide acceptors with alternative C2 substituent (2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-mannose), resulting in production of 1,4-α-D-glucosyl disaccharides with strict regioselectivity. In addition, Bsel2056 synthesized two maltose derivatives possessing additional D-glucosyl residue bound to C2 position of the D-glucose residue at the reducing end, 1,4-α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,2-α-D-glucopyranosyl]-D-glucose and 1,4-α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-D-glucose, from 1,2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose (kojibiose) and 1,2-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose (sophorose), respectively, as the acceptors. These results suggested that Bsel2056 possessed a binding space to accommodate the bulky C2 substituent of D-glucose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Awareness, Possession, and Use of Take-Home Naloxone Among Illicit Drug Users, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Seonaid; Buxton, Jane; Dobrer, Sabina; Dong, Huiru; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M J; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    Although take-home naloxone (THN) programs are integral in strategies to prevent overdose deaths among opioid users, the uptake of THN among people who use drugs (PWUD) (including non-opioid users) is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine awareness, possession, and use of THN among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, and identify barriers to adopting this strategy. From December 1, 2014, to May 29, 2015, participants in 2 prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver completed a standardized questionnaire, which asked about awareness, possession, and use of THN; sociodemographic characteristics; and drug use patterns. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine factors independently associated with awareness and possession of THN. Of 1137 PWUD, 727 (64%) reported at least 1 previous overdose ever, and 220 (19%) had witnessed an overdose in the previous 6 months. Although 769 (68%) participants overall reported awareness of THN, only 88 of 392 (22%) opioid users had a THN kit, 18 (20%) of whom had previously administered naloxone. Factors that were positively associated with awareness of THN included witnessing an overdose in the previous 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-3.34; P Vancouver's Downtown Eastside neighborhood (aOR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.47-2.53; P Vancouver.

  4. The law on the streets: Evaluating the impact of mexico's drug decriminalization reform on drug possession arrests in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Gaines, T; Manian, S; Vilalta, C; Bañuelos, A; Strathdee, S A; Beletsky, L

    2018-01-04

    In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. Using a dataset of municipal police incident reports, we examined patterns of drug possession, and violent and non-violent crime arrests between January 2009 and December 2014. A hierarchical panel data analysis with random effects was conducted to assess the impact of narcomenudeo's drug decriminalization provision. The reforms had no significant impact on the number of drug possession or violent crime arrests, after controlling for other variables (e.g. time trends, electoral cycles, and precinct-level socioeconomic factors). Time periods directly preceding local elections were observed to be statistically associated with elevated arrest volume. Analysis of police statistics parallel prior findings that Mexico's reform decriminalizing small amounts of drugs does not appear to have significantly shifted drug law enforcement in Tijuana. More research is required to fully understand the policy transformation process for drug decriminalization and other structural interventions in Mexico and similar regional and international efforts. Observed relationship between policing and political cycles echo associations in other settings whereby law-and-order activities increase during mayoral electoral campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Functionalization of DNA nanostructures with proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccà, Barbara; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2011-12-01

    Proteins possess intrinsic functionalities, which have been optimized in billions of years of natural evolution. The conjugation of proteins with artificial nucleic acids allows one to further functionalize proteins with a synthetically accessible, physicochemically robust tag, which is addressable in a highly specific manner by Watson-Crick hybridization. The resulting DNA-protein conjugates can be advantageously used in a variety of applications, ranging from biomedical diagnostics to DNA-based nanofabrication. This critical review provides an overview on chemical approaches to the synthesis of DNA-protein conjugates and their applications in biomolecular nanosciences (96 references).

  6. The SI Strain of Measles Virus Derived from a Patient with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Possesses Typical Genome Alterations and Unique Amino Acid Changes That Modulate Receptor Specificity and Reduce Membrane Fusion Activity ▿ ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Fumio; Yamada, Kentaro; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Okamura, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV). The SI strain was isolated in 1976 from a patient with SSPE and shows neurovirulence in animals. Genome nucleotide sequence analyses showed that the SI strain genome possesses typical genome alterations for SSPE-derived strains, namely, accumulated amino acid substitutions in the M protein and cytoplasmic tail truncation of the F protein. Through the establishment of an efficient reverse genetics system, a recombinant SI strain expressing a green fluorescent protein (rSI-AcGFP) was generated. The infection of various cell types with rSI-AcGFP was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. rSI-AcGFP exhibited limited syncytium-forming activity and spread poorly in cells. Analyses using a recombinant MV possessing a chimeric genome between those of the SI strain and a wild-type MV strain indicated that the membrane-associated protein genes (M, F, and H) were responsible for the altered growth phenotype of the SI strain. Functional analyses of viral glycoproteins showed that the F protein of the SI strain exhibited reduced fusion activity because of an E300G substitution and that the H protein of the SI strain used CD46 efficiently but used the original MV receptors on immune and epithelial cells poorly because of L482F, S546G, and F555L substitutions. The data obtained in the present study provide a new platform for analyses of SSPE-derived strains as well as a clear example of an SSPE-derived strain that exhibits altered receptor specificity and limited fusion activity. PMID:21917959

  7. An intestinal parasitic protist, Entamoeba histolytica, possesses a non-redundant nitrogen fixation-like system for iron-sulfur cluster assembly under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Vahab; Shigeta, Yasuo; Tokumoto, Umechiyo; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2004-04-16

    We have characterized the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster formation in an anaerobic amitochondrial protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, in which Fe-S proteins play an important role in energy metabolism and electron transfer. A genomewide search showed that E. histolytica apparently possesses a simplified and non-redundant NIF (nitrogen fixation)-like system for the Fe-S cluster formation, composed of only a catalytic component, NifS, and a scaffold component, NifU. Amino acid alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that both amebic NifS and NifU (EhNifS and EhNifU, respectively) showed a close kinship to orthologs from epsilon-proteobacteria, suggesting that both of these genes were likely transferred by lateral gene transfer from an ancestor of epsilon-proteobacteria to E. histolytica. The EhNifS protein expressed in E. coli was present as a homodimer, showing cysteine desulfurase activity with a very basic optimum pH compared with NifS from other organisms. Eh-NifU protein existed as a tetramer and contained one stable [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster per monomer, revealed by spectroscopic and iron analyses. Fractionation of the whole parasite lysate by anion exchange chromatography revealed three major cysteine desulfurase activities, one of which corresponded to the EhNifS protein, verified by immunoblot analysis using the specific EhNifS antibody; the other two peaks corresponded to methionine gamma-lyase and cysteine synthase. Finally, ectopic expression of the EhNifS and EhNifU genes successfully complemented, under anaerobic but not aerobic conditions, the growth defect of an Escherichia coli strain, in which both the isc and suf operons were deleted, suggesting that EhNifS and EhNifU are necessary and sufficient for Fe-S clusters of non-nitrogenase Fe-S proteins to form under anaerobic conditions. This is the first demonstration of the presence and biological significance of the NIF-like system in eukaryotes.

  8. Protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byron, Olwyn; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Responsive formation of protein:protein interaction (PPI) upon diverse stimuli is a fundament of cellular function. As a consequence, PPIs are complex, adaptive entities, and exist in structurally heterogeneous interplays defined by the energetic states of the free and complexed protomers. The bi...

  9. Haunted by ghosts : Prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N ...

  10. Evaluation of serum antibody responses against the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 in children after rhesus rotavirus tetravalent vaccination or natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzi, Esmeralda; Calviño, Eva; González, Rosabel; Pérez-Schael, Irene; Ciarlet, Max; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E

    2005-10-01

    The immune response elicited by the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 and its potential role in protection against rotavirus disease are not well understood. We investigated the serological response to NSP4 and its correlation with disease protection in sera from 110 children suffering acute diarrhea, associated or not with rotavirus, and from 26 children who were recipients of the rhesus rotavirus tetravalent (RRV-TV) vaccine. We used, as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), affinity-purified recombinant NSP4 (residues 85 to 175) from strains SA11, Wa, and RRV (genotypes A, B, and C, respectively) fused to glutathione S-transferase. Seroconversion to NSP4 was observed in 54% (42/78) of the children who suffered from natural rotavirus infection and in 8% (2/26) of the RRV-TV vaccine recipients. Our findings indicate that NSP4 evokes significantly (P rotavirus-infected children with a detectable response to NSP4. Following natural infection or RRV-TV vaccination, NSP4 was significantly less immunogenic than the VP6 protein when these responses were independently measured by ELISA. A significant (P rotavirus had antibodies to NSP4 in acute-phase serum, suggesting that serum antibodies against NSP4 might correlate with protection from rotavirus diarrhea. In addition, previous exposures to rotavirus did not affect the NSP4 seroconversion rate.

  11. Spread and predominance in Japan of novel G1P[8] double-reassortant rotavirus strains possessing a DS-1-like genotype constellation typical of G2P[4] strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nishimura, Naoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Miura, Sinobu; Ito, Hisato; Doan, Yen Hai; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Ozaki, Takao; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children constellation. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the whole genotype constellation of circulating rotavirus strains in three widely-separated locations in Japan during the 2012 rotavirus season when rotavirus vaccines became available in the country for the first time. Of 107 rotavirus-positive specimens, 50 (46.7%) strains collected from all three locations possessed an unusual G1-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 constellation in which a typical G2P[4] strain appeared to have acquired its two surface protein genes from the most common G1P[8] strain. These G1P[8] double-reassortant strains were shown to possess the 11 genome segments virtually indistinguishable from each other in their nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic lineages except for two strains that underwent further intra-genotype reassortment. Successful spread to and predominance in broad locations across Japan of novel rotavirus strains possessing a genotype constellation that was previously thought not to be preferred suggests unexpected genomic flexibility of the genotype constellation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Les Differences dans l'emploi de la construction possessive "N1"+"DE"+"N2" entre le XIX et le XX s. dans la prose litteraire francaise (Differences in the Use of the Possessive Construction "N1"+"de"+"N2" between 19th and 20th Century French Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roglic, Vera

    1991-01-01

    Study looks at frequency of noun1 + de + noun2 possessive in French prose. Researchers used chi-square and Pearson test to analyze results of syntagmatic possessive construction in works by Hugo, Stendahl, Balzac, Zola, Gide, Malraux, St. Exupery, and Sartre. Findings indicate that syntagmatic genitive possessive is more commonly found in…

  13. 2-O-α-D-glucosylglycerol phosphorylase from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 possessing hydrolytic activity on β-D-glucose 1-phosphate.

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    Takanori Nihira

    Full Text Available The glycoside hydrolase family (GH 65 is a family of inverting phosphorylases that act on α-glucosides. A GH65 protein (Bsel_2816 from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 exhibited inorganic phosphate (Pi-dependent hydrolysis of kojibiose at the rate of 0.43 s(-1. No carbohydrate acted as acceptor for the reverse phosphorolysis using β-D-glucose 1-phosphate (βGlc1P as donor. During the search for a suitable acceptor, we found that Bsel_2816 possessed hydrolytic activity on βGlc1P with a k cat of 2.8 s(-1; moreover, such significant hydrolytic activity on sugar 1-phosphate had not been reported for any inverting phosphorylase. The H2 (18O incorporation experiment and the anomeric analysis during the hydrolysis of βGlc1P revealed that the hydrolysis was due to the glucosyl-transferring reaction to a water molecule and not a phosphatase-type reaction. Glycerol was found to be the best acceptor to generate 2-O-α-D-glucosylglycerol (GG at the rate of 180 s(-1. Bsel_2816 phosphorolyzed GG through sequential Bi-Bi mechanism with a k cat of 95 s(-1. We propose 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosylglycerol: phosphate β-D-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and 2-O-α-D-glucosylglycerol phosphorylase as the short name for Bsel_2816. This is the first report describing a phosphorylase that utilizes polyols, and not carbohydrates, as suitable acceptor substrates.

  14. 2-O-α-D-glucosylglycerol phosphorylase from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 possessing hydrolytic activity on β-D-glucose 1-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2014-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 65 is a family of inverting phosphorylases that act on α-glucosides. A GH65 protein (Bsel_2816) from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 exhibited inorganic phosphate (Pi)-dependent hydrolysis of kojibiose at the rate of 0.43 s(-1). No carbohydrate acted as acceptor for the reverse phosphorolysis using β-D-glucose 1-phosphate (βGlc1P) as donor. During the search for a suitable acceptor, we found that Bsel_2816 possessed hydrolytic activity on βGlc1P with a k cat of 2.8 s(-1); moreover, such significant hydrolytic activity on sugar 1-phosphate had not been reported for any inverting phosphorylase. The H2 (18)O incorporation experiment and the anomeric analysis during the hydrolysis of βGlc1P revealed that the hydrolysis was due to the glucosyl-transferring reaction to a water molecule and not a phosphatase-type reaction. Glycerol was found to be the best acceptor to generate 2-O-α-D-glucosylglycerol (GG) at the rate of 180 s(-1). Bsel_2816 phosphorolyzed GG through sequential Bi-Bi mechanism with a k cat of 95 s(-1). We propose 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosylglycerol: phosphate β-D-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and 2-O-α-D-glucosylglycerol phosphorylase as the short name for Bsel_2816. This is the first report describing a phosphorylase that utilizes polyols, and not carbohydrates, as suitable acceptor substrates.

  15. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

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    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  16. Spirit-possession in theory and practice: séances with Tibetan spirit-mediums in Nepal

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    Per-Arne Berglie

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a short study of the séances and trance-performances of three Tibetan spirit-mediums (dpa' bo from a refugee-community in Nepal. The field-work on which this study is based was carried out in a Tibetan refugee-village in Nepal during 1970 and 1971. For each dpa' bo: dBang phyug, Sri gcod, and Nyi ma don grub, a summary of personal thoughts and beliefs concerning possession is provided, followed by an example of how a séance was structured. A common feature is that when all the gods summoned have arrived, possession took place by the god most suited to carry out the task of the evening. The actual change of the ritual status of the spirit-medium is marked by the putting on of the headdress. From now on, until it falls off at the end of the séance, it is the god who speaks and acts through the medium, who afterwards claims that he has no recollection whatsoever of what then passes. A necessary condition for the activity of a spirit-medium is, of course, the conviction that their possession is genuine. Theoretically, when a dpa' bo has passed the period of calling and has been tested and has received the necessary training, this genuineness is proved. Of an established dpa' bo no further proofs are therefore required in addition to the satisfactory solution of the problems put to him at the séances. If, after all, someone has doubts about a dpa' bo, he can call a lama.

  17. Bioinformatic Prediction of WSSV-Host Protein-Protein Interaction

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    Zheng Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WSSV is one of the most dangerous pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanism of how WSSV interacts with shrimp is still not very clear. In the present study, bioinformatic approaches were used to predict interactions between proteins from WSSV and shrimp. The genome data of WSSV (NC_003225.1 and the constructed transcriptome data of F. chinensis were used to screen potentially interacting proteins by searching in protein interaction databases, including STRING, Reactome, and DIP. Forty-four pairs of proteins were suggested to have interactions between WSSV and the shrimp. Gene ontology analysis revealed that 6 pairs of these interacting proteins were classified into “extracellular region” or “receptor complex” GO-terms. KEGG pathway analysis showed that they were involved in the “ECM-receptor interaction pathway.” In the 6 pairs of interacting proteins, an envelope protein called “collagen-like protein” (WSSV-CLP encoded by an early virus gene “wsv001” in WSSV interacted with 6 deduced proteins from the shrimp, including three integrin alpha (ITGA, two integrin beta (ITGB, and one syndecan (SDC. Sequence analysis on WSSV-CLP, ITGA, ITGB, and SDC revealed that they possessed the sequence features for protein-protein interactions. This study might provide new insights into the interaction mechanisms between WSSV and shrimp.

  18. Synthetic cyclohexenyl chalcone natural products possess cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer cells and inhibit cysteine cathepsins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Majumdar, Ishita; Devanabanda, Arvind; Fox, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Jacob; Cong, Huan; Porco, John A; Weber, Horst C

    2011-12-16

    A number of cyclohexenyl chalcone Diels-Alder natural products possess promising biological properties including strong cytotoxicity in various human cancer cells. Herein, we show that natural products in this class including panduratin A and nicolaioidesin C inhibit cysteine cathepsins as indicated by protease profiling assays and cell-free cathepsin L enzyme assays. Owing to the critical roles of cathepsins in the biology of human tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis, these findings should pave the way for development of novel antitumor agents for use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pipecolic acid: a new type of alpha-amino acid possessing bicuculline-sensitive action in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, K; Miyata, T; Hashimoto, T; Okano, Y; Hitoshi, T; Kasé, Y

    1982-05-06

    Using unit recording and electrophoretic techniques, pharmacological properties of pipecolic acid (PA) were studied in the brain neurons of rats. PA response was blocked by bicuculline more effectively than GABA response but not blocked by strychnine. Stereochemical findings obtained using the HGS-model demonstrated that PA structure is almost the same as a part of bicuculline structure. The present results suggest that PA might be a new type of substance possessing bicuculline-sensitive action. The site of the action of PA was also discussed.

  20. Pseudo-citations : présence/absence de l’hypotexte dans Possession de A.S. Byatt

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    Nathalie MARTINIÈRE

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Le roman de A.S. Byatt, Possession, peut être lu comme une variation, un exercice de style et de brio sur la notion de citation, puisqu’une partie essentielle consiste en pastiches de poèmes, lettres, biographie de deux personnages-écrivains de la période victorienne, qui sont censés être lus et cités au cours d’un processus universitaire de découverte et d’identification de leur relation par d’autres personnages contemporains. Mais le statut fictif de Ash et LaMotte est presque brouillé par ...

  1. Positions on the politics of porn : debate on Government plans to criminalise the possession of extreme pornography.

    OpenAIRE

    Westmarland, N.; Rackley, E.; McGlynn, C.

    2007-01-01

    In March 2007 we organised a seminar at Durham University on the Government’s plans to criminalise the possession of extreme pornography (Home Office, 2005; Home Office, 2006; Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill, 2007).1 These proposals reignite not only the debate regarding the legitimate scope and role of the criminal law in proscribing private adult behaviour but also the so-called ‘porn wars’ of the 1980s. Our aim was to bring together speakers and participants from a variety of ideolog...

  2. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Herceg; Anet Režek

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fract...

  3. MSC from fetal and adult lungs possess lung-specific properties compared to bone marrow-derived MSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolandsson Enes, Sara; Andersson Sjöland, Annika; Skog, Ingrid; Hansson, Lennart; Larsson, Hillevi; Le Blanc, Katarina; Eriksson, Leif; Bjermer, Leif; Scheding, Stefan; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2016-07-06

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells with regenerative and immune-modulatory properties. Therefore, MSC have been proposed as a potential cell-therapy for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). On the other hand, there are publications demonstrating that MSC might be involved in the development of BOS. Despite limited knowledge regarding the functional role of tissue-resident lung-MSC, several clinical trials have been performed using MSC, particularly bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC, for various lung diseases. We aimed to compare lung-MSC with the well-characterized BM-MSC. Furthermore, MSC isolated from lung-transplanted patients with BOS were compared to patients without BOS. Our study show that lung-MSCs are smaller, possess a higher colony-forming capacity and have a different cytokine profile compared to BM-MSC. Utilizing gene expression profiling, 89 genes including lung-specific FOXF1 and HOXB5 were found to be significantly different between BM-MSC and lung-MSC. No significant differences in cytokine secretion or gene expression were found between MSC isolated from BOS patients compared recipients without BOS. These data demonstrate that lung-resident MSC possess lung-specific properties. Furthermore, these results show that MSC isolated from lung-transplanted patients with BOS do not have an altered phenotype compared to MSC isolated from good outcome recipients.

  4. Analyze of the ball possession during the offensive process in indoor soccer. Contribute to determine the Collective Efficiency

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    R. Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study has create a joint of parameters to analyze the ball possession in attack, characterizing the first and the last action, the number of passes and the time of ball possession with finalization or non finalization, the total number of shoots, the number of shoots on goal and the goals. Starting by these parameters, we propose the utilization of Offensive Coefficient Production (CPO and the Finalization Coefficient Efficiency (CEF, to measure the collective efficiency in indoor soccer. So that, we were utilize the first time of the final world championship at China-Taipei, disputed between Spain and Italy, by the sample. In according with the refers coefficients, Italy is the more efficient team in the match, given that it makes a more elevated percentage of situations with finalization and has more percentage of shoots on goal, that the opposite. The final score is conditioned by the efficacy of team finalization, but we think to be pertinent utilization coefficients, with view to comprehension the team processes in the match. The future goes by the coach access to this information during the game.

  5. An extreme-halophile archaebacterium possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase characteristic of the Gram-positive eubacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. A.; d'Amato, T. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1988-01-01

    The focal point of phenylalanine biosynthesis is a dehydratase reaction which in different organisms may be prephenate dehydratase, arogenate dehydratase, or cyclohexadienyl dehydratase. Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and cyanobacterial divisions of the eubacterial kingdom exhibit different dehydratase patterns. A new extreme-halophile isolate, which grows on defined medium and is tentatively designated as Halobacterium vallismortis CH-1, possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase present in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the conventional sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine, the phenomenon of metabolic interlock was exemplified by the sensitivity of prephenate dehydratase to allosteric effects produced by extra-pathway (remote) effectors. Thus, L-tryptophan inhibited activity while L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine activated the enzyme. L-Isoleucine and L-phenylalanine were effective at micromolar levels; other effectors operated at mM levels. A regulatory mutant selected for resistance to growth inhibition caused by beta-2-thienylalanine possessed an altered prephenate dehydratase in which a phenomenon of disproportionately low activity at low enzyme concentration was abolished. Inhibition by L-tryptophan was also lost, and activation by allosteric activators was diminished. Not only was sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine lost, but the mutant enzyme was now activated by this amino acid (a mutation type previously observed in Bacillus subtilis). It remains to be seen whether this type of prephenate dehydratase will prove to be characteristic of all archaebacteria or of some archaebacterial subgroup cluster.

  6. The effects of ball possession status on physical and technical indicators during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Finals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Thiengo, Carlos Rogério; Gimenes, Samuel Valencia; Bradley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of high- (HPBPT) and low-percentage ball possession (LPBPT) on physical and technical indicators during 2014 FIFA World Cup matches. This would enable a regression model to be constructed to further understand the impact of different ball possession (BP) strategies on match performance. Data were collected from 346 international soccer players using a multiple-camera computerised tracking system. Although players in HPBPT covered lower distances (P 0.05) at medium and high speeds. Players in LPBPT covered more distance without BP but less with BP than HPBPT (P < 0.01; ES large). All positions in LPBPT spent less time in the opposing half and attacking third than the players in HPBPT (P < 0.01; ES small-moderate), but all positions in HPBPT completed more short and medium passes than LPBPT (P < 0.01; ES moderate). Players in HPBPT produced more solo runs into the attacking third and penalty area than LPBPT (P < 0.05, ES small). The equation to predict BP from physical and technical indicators highlighted the importance of distances covered (total, with and without BP), time spent in the attacking third and successful short passes during matches. In practical terms, high or low BP does not influence the activity patterns of international matches although HPBPT spend more time in offensive areas of the pitch.

  7. Variability of sexual organ possession rates and phylogenetic analyses of a parthenogenetic Japanese earthworm, Amynthas vittatus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiya, Yukio; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Ohga, Kyohei; Shimano, Satoshi; Ito, Masamichi T; Fukuda, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    Although earthworms are hermaphroditic animals with biparental sexual reproduction, some parthenogenetic species have been found. Evolutionary trends in parthenogenetic earthworms revealed a reduction in the reproductive organs. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of parthenogenetic earthworms with different degree of degraded reproductive organs, we conducted a morphological analysis of the reproductive organs and molecular phylogenetic analyses of Amynthas vittatus which usually degraded a part of reproductive organs. Morphological analysis revealed that almost all individuals collected around Mt. Aobayama, Sendai city of northeastern Japan, possessed male pores, while individuals collected from areas located across Hirose River did not. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences of 48 individuals representing 20 populations indicated that almost all individuals collected around Mt. Aobayama belonged to a different lineage from the other populations collected around Sendai, and that almost all individuals collected from across Japan belonged to the latter lineage. We suggest that the difference in the male pore possession rate was caused by histories of each population, but the A. vittatus population found on Mt. Aobayama belongs to a different lineage as compared to the other Japanese populations and not the primitive population. Thus, the parthenogenetic earthworm A. vittatus has undergone at least two morphological evolutionary processes.

  8. Gabriel's Other Possessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    Gabriel's Horn is a solid of revolution commonly featured in calculus textbooks as a counter-intuitive example of a solid having finite volume but infinite surface area. Other examples of solids with surprising geometrical finitude relationships have also appeared in the literature. This article cites several intriguing examples (some of fractal…

  9. Milk Protein Polymer and Its Application in Environmentally Safe Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingruo Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk proteins (caseins and whey proteins are important protein sources for human nutrition; in addition, they possess important natural polymers. These protein molecules can be modified by physical, chemical, and/or enzymatic means. Casein is one of the oldest natural polymers, used for adhesives, dating back to thousands years ago. Research on milk-protein-based adhesives is still ongoing. This article deals with the chemistry and structure of milk protein polymers, and examples of uses in environmentally-safe adhesives. These are promising routes in the exploration of the broad application of milk proteins.

  10. Ruminococcus albus 8 Mutants Defective in Cellulose Degradation Are Deficient in Two Processive Endocellulases, Cel48A and Cel9B, Both of Which Possess a Novel Modular Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillard, Estelle; Goodheart, Dara B.; Karnati, Sanjay K. R.; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Miron, Joshua; Nelson, Karen E.; Morrison, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 adheres tightly to cellulose, but the molecular biology underpinning this process is not well characterized. Subtractive enrichment procedures were used to isolate mutants of R. albus 8 that are defective in adhesion to cellulose. Adhesion of the mutant strains was reduced 50% compared to that observed with the wild-type strain, and cellulose solubilization was also shown to be slower in these mutant strains, suggesting that bacterial adhesion and cellulose solubilization are inextricably linked. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that all three mutants studied were impaired in the production of two high-molecular-mass, cell-bound polypeptides when they were cultured with either cellobiose or cellulose. The identities of these proteins were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry methods and genome sequence data for R. albus 8. One of the polypeptides is a family 9 glycoside hydrolase (Cel9B), and the other is a family 48 glycoside hydrolase (Cel48A). Both Cel9B and Cel48A possess a modular architecture, Cel9B possesses features characteristic of the B2 (or theme D) group of family 9 glycoside hydrolases, and Cel48A is structurally similar to the processive endocellulases CelF and CelS from Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum, respectively. Both Cel9B and Cel48A could be recovered by cellulose affinity procedures, but neither Cel9B nor Cel48A contains a dockerin, suggesting that these polypeptides are retained on the bacterial cell surface, and recovery by cellulose affinity procedures did not involve a clostridium-like cellulosome complex. Instead, both proteins possess a single copy of a novel X module with an unknown function at the C terminus. Such X modules are also present in several other R. albus glycoside hydrolases and are phylogentically distinct from the fibronectin III-like and X modules identified so far in other cellulolytic bacteria. PMID:14679233

  11. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning bi...

  12. Pedagogy of the Possessed: re-thinking the Dancer-Researcher-Performer (BPI method in dance curricula in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Höfling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls into question the central tenets of the Dancer-Researcher-Performer (BPI method taught at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp in Brazil. The analysis problematizes the underlying assumption that students lack an awareness of their own Brazilianness, which they must find through BPI, and questions a choreographic methodology where students are coached to be possessed by the dance. The paper draws attention to the power imbalances inherent in BPI’s co-habitation experience, where students research marginal others who are understood as the source of authentic Brazilian culture. The paper invites BPI students and teachers to reconsider the ethics of this research methodology, and to consider the possibility of choreographic research that engages both mind and body critically and consciously.

  13. SCA1+ Cells from the Heart Possess a Molecular Circadian Clock and Display Circadian Oscillations in Cellular Functions

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    Bastiaan C. Du Pré

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell antigen 1-positive (SCA1+ cells (SPCs have been investigated in cell-based cardiac repair and pharmacological research, although improved cardiac function after injection has been variable and the mode of action remains unclear. Circadian (24-hr rhythms are biorhythms regulated by molecular clocks that play an important role in (pathophysiology. Here, we describe (1 the presence of a molecular circadian clock in SPCs and (2 circadian rhythmicity in SPC function. We isolated SPCs from human fetal heart and found that these cells possess a molecular clock based on typical oscillations in core clock components BMAL1 and CRY1. Functional analyses revealed that circadian rhythmicity also governs SPC proliferation, stress tolerance, and growth factor release, with large differences between peaks and troughs. We conclude that SPCs contain a circadian molecular clock that controls crucial cellular functions. Taking circadian rhythms into account may improve reproducibility and outcome of research and therapies using SPCs.

  14. Can the DSM-5 differentiate between nonpathological possession and dissociative identity disorder? A case study from an Afro-Brazilian religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Romara; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Farias, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine whether the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are able to differentiate between nonpathological religious possession and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We use the case study of an individual who leads an Afro-Brazilian religious group (Umbanda), focusing on her personal development and possession experiences from early childhood to the present, spanning a period of more than 40 years, and examine these data following DSM-5 criteria for DID (300.14). Her experiences of possession can be broken into 2 distinct stages. In the 1st stage (childhood and early adulthood), she displayed intrusive thoughts and a lack of control over possession states, which were associated with a heightened state of anxiety, loneliness, amnesia, and family conflict (meeting all 5 criteria for DID). In the 2nd stage (late 20s up to the present), she regularly experienced possession states but felt in control of their onset and found them religiously meaningful. In this 2nd stage, she only fulfilled 3 criteria for DID. We question the accuracy of diagnosing this individual with DID in her earlier life and suggest that the DSM-5 criteria fail to address the ambiguity of affect surrounding possession experiences (positive at the individual level, negative at the interpersonal level) and lack a clearer acknowledgment of the prevalence of possession and other unusual experiences in general populations.

  15. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

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    Kenji Michiue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl, after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenylzirconium dichloride (1, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-methyl-4,5-benzoindenyl] zirconium dichloride (2, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-methyl -4-phenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (3, rac-dimethy1si1y1- bis(2-ethyl-4-phenylindenyl zirconium dichloride (4, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl -4-(1-naphthylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (5, rac-dimethylsilyl-[1-(2-ethyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [a]naphthalenylindenyl][1-(2-n-propyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] naphthalenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (6, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-ethyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (7, and rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (8. We found that the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes is strongly affected by the bulkiness of the substituent on the complexes examined. The vinyl content increased linearly in the following order, 8 > 7 > 6 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Notably, complex 8/DMAO formed ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers possessing predominant vinyl groups, which can be crucial precursors for functionalized polyolefins. Likewise, complex 8/DMAO afforded propylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers with predominant vinyl groups.

  16. Vascular progenitors from cord blood-derived induced pluripotent stem cells possess augmented capacity for regenerating ischemic retinal vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tea Soon; Bhutto, Imran; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Huo, Jeffrey S; Nagaria, Pratik; Miller, Diana; Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Talbot, Connie; Aguilar, Jack; Grebe, Rhonda; Merges, Carol; Reijo-Pera, Renee; Feldman, Ricardo A; Rassool, Feyruz; Cooke, John; Lutty, Gerard; Zambidis, Elias T

    2014-01-21

    The generation of vascular progenitors (VPs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has great potential for treating vascular disorders such as ischemic retinopathies. However, long-term in vivo engraftment of hiPSC-derived VPs into the retina has not yet been reported. This goal may be limited by the low differentiation yield, greater senescence, and poor proliferation of hiPSC-derived vascular cells. To evaluate the potential of hiPSCs for treating ischemic retinopathies, we generated VPs from a repertoire of viral-integrated and nonintegrated fibroblast and cord blood (CB)-derived hiPSC lines and tested their capacity for homing and engrafting into murine retina in an ischemia-reperfusion model. VPs from human embryonic stem cells and hiPSCs were generated with an optimized vascular differentiation system. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting purification of human embryoid body cells differentially expressing endothelial/pericytic markers identified a CD31(+)CD146(+) VP population with high vascular potency. Episomal CB-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated these VPs with higher efficiencies than fibroblast-iPSC. Moreover, in contrast to fibroblast-iPSC-VPs, CB-iPSC-VPs maintained expression signatures more comparable to human embryonic stem cell VPs, expressed higher levels of immature vascular markers, demonstrated less culture senescence and sensitivity to DNA damage, and possessed fewer transmitted reprogramming errors. Luciferase transgene-marked VPs from human embryonic stem cells, CB-iPSCs, and fibroblast-iPSCs were injected systemically or directly into the vitreous of retinal ischemia-reperfusion-injured adult nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient mice. Only human embryonic stem cell- and CB-iPSC-derived VPs reliably homed and engrafted into injured retinal capillaries, with incorporation into damaged vessels for up to 45 days. VPs generated from CB-iPSCs possessed augmented capacity to home, integrate into, and repair

  17. Circulant preconditioners with unbounded inverses: Why non-optimal preconditioners may possess a better quality than optimal ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrtyshnikov, E.E. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    There exist several preconditioning strategies for systems of linear equations with Toeplitz coefficient matrices. The most popular of them are based on the Strang circulants and the Chan optimal circulants. Let A-n be an n-by-n Toeplitz matrix. Then the Strang preconditioner S-n copies the central n/2 diagonals of A-n while other diagonals are determined by the circulant properties of S-n. The Chan circulant C-n coincides with the minimizer of the deviation A-n - C-n in the sense of the matrix Frobenius norm. At the first glance the Chan circulant should provide a faster convergence rate since it exploits more information on the coefficient matrix. The preconditioning quality is heavily dependent on clusterization of the preconditioned eigenvalues. According to recent results by R. Chan it is known that both considered circulants possess the clustering property if the coefficient Toeplitz matrices A-n are generated by a function which first belongs to the Wiener class and second is separated from zero. Both circulants provide approximately the same clustering rate, and therefore both should possess the same preconditioning quality. However, the most interesting case is the one when the generating function may take the zero value, and hence the circulants have unbounded in n inverses. In these cases the Strang preconditioners may appear to be singular and we recommend to use the so called improved Strang preconditioners (in which a zero eigenvalue of the Strang circulant is replaced by some positive value).

  18. Ultra-thin films of polysilsesquioxanes possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as gate insulator for organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshio; Kawa, Haruna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Yoshiki, Jun [Division of Information and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kumei, Maki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Oi, Fumio [Konishi Chemical IND. Co., LTD., 3-4-77 Kozaika, Wakayama 641-0007 (Japan); Yamakado, Hideo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Fukuda, Hisashi [Division of Engineering for Composite Functions, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kimura, Keiichi, E-mail: kkimura@center.wakayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as an organic moiety of the side chain were synthesized by sol-gel condensation copolymerization of the corresponding trialkoxysilanes. The ultra-thin PSQ film with a radical initiator and a cross-linking agent was prepared by a spin-coating method, and the film was cured integrally at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C through two different kinds of polymeric reactions, which were radical polymerization of vinyl groups and sol-gel condensation polymerization of terminated silanol and alkoxy groups. The obtained PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to acetone, which is a good solvent of PSQ before polymerization. It became clear by atomic force microscopy observation that the surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with the PSQ film as a gate insulator showed typical p-channel enhancement mode operation characteristics and therefore the ultra-thin PSQ film has the potential to be applicable for solution-processed OFET systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin PSQ film could be cured at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to organic solvent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with the PSQ film was fabricated.

  19. Modeling rotavirus-like particles production in a baculovirus expression vector system: Infection kinetics, baculovirus DNA replication, mRNA synthesis and protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldão, António; Vieira, Helena L A; Charpilienne, Annie; Poncet, Didier; Roy, Polly; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Oliveira, R

    2007-03-10

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide, responsible for more than half a million deaths in children per year. Rotavirus-like particles (Rota VLPs) are excellent vaccine candidates against rotavirus infection, since they are non-infectious, highly immunogenic, amenable to large-scale production and safer to produce than those based on attenuated viruses. This work focuses on the analysis and modeling of the major events taking place inside Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells infected by recombinant baculovirus that may be critical for the expression of rotavirus viral proteins (VPs). For model validation, experiments were performed adopting either a co-infection strategy, using three monocistronic recombinant baculovirus each one coding for viral proteins VP(2), VP(6) and VP(7), or single-infection strategies using a multigene baculovirus coding for the three proteins of interest. A characteristic viral DNA (vDNA) replication rate of 0.19+/-0.01 h(-1) was obtained irrespective of the monocistronic or multigene vector employed, and synthesis of progeny virus was found to be negligible in comparison to intracellular vDNA concentrations. The timeframe for vDNA, mRNA and VP synthesis tends to decrease with increasing multiplicity of infection (MOI) due to the metabolic burden effect. The protein synthesis rates could be ranked according to the gene size in the multigene experiments but not in the co-infection experiments. The model exhibits acceptable prediction power of the dynamics of intracellular vDNA replication, mRNA synthesis and VP production for the three proteins involved. This model is intended to be the basis for future Rota VLPs process optimisation and also a means to evaluating different baculovirus constructs for Rota VLPs production.

  20. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  1. A unique Ni2+ -dependent and methylglyoxal-inducible rice glyoxalase I possesses a single active site and functions in abiotic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafiz, Ananda; Ghosh, Ajit; Tripathi, Amit K; Kaur, Charanpreet; Ganguly, Akshay K; Bhavesh, Neel S; Tripathi, Jayant K; Pareek, Ashwani; Sopory, Sudhir K; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L

    2014-06-01

    The glyoxalase system constitutes the major pathway for the detoxification of metabolically produced cytotoxin methylglyoxal (MG) into a non-toxic metabolite D-lactate. Glyoxalase I (GLY I) is an evolutionarily conserved metalloenzyme requiring divalent metal ions for its activity: Zn(2+) in the case of eukaryotes or Ni(2+) for enzymes of prokaryotic origin. Plant GLY I proteins are part of a multimember family; however, not much is known about their physiological function, structure and metal dependency. In this study, we report a unique GLY I (OsGLYI-11.2) from Oryza sativa (rice) that requires Ni(2+) for its activity. Its biochemical, structural and functional characterization revealed it to be a monomeric enzyme, possessing a single Ni(2+) coordination site despite containing two GLY I domains. The requirement of Ni(2+) as a cofactor by an enzyme involved in cellular detoxification suggests an essential role for this otherwise toxic heavy metal in the stress response. Intriguingly, the expression of OsGLYI-11.2 was found to be highly substrate inducible, suggesting an important mode of regulation for its cellular levels. Heterologous expression of OsGLYI-11.2 in Escherichia coli and model plant Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) resulted in improved adaptation to various abiotic stresses caused by increased scavenging of MG, lower Na(+) /K(+) ratio and maintenance of reduced glutathione levels. Together, our results suggest interesting links between MG cellular levels, its detoxification by GLY I, and Ni(2+) - the heavy metal cofactor of OsGLYI-11.2, in relation to stress response and adaptation in plants. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of Mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. The mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). The Southern-blot analysis of MspI digested DNAs of mutants probed with centromeric and 5S and 18S rDNA probes indicated that, in comparison to wild type, the mutants were extensively demethylated at cytosine sites. Among the 126 genes investigated for transcriptional expression, 85 were upregulated and 41 were downregulated in mutants. All of the five genes known to be stress responsive had increased expression in mutants. Several miRNA genes showed either increased or decreased expression in mutants. The C. roseus counterparts of CMT3, DRM2 and RDR2 were downregulated in mutants. Among the cell, organ and plant size, photosynthesis and metabolism related traits studied, 28 traits were similarly affected in mutants as compared to wild type. Each of the mutants also expressed some traits distinctively. The egd mutant possessed superior photosynthesis and water retention abilities. Biomass was hyperaccumulated in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the lli mutant. The ill mutant was richest in the pharmaceutical alkaloids catharanthine, vindoline, vincristine and vinblastine. The nature of mutations, origins of mutant phenotypes and evolutionary importance of these mutants are discussed.

  3. Hevea brasiliensis prohevein possesses a conserved C-terminal domain with amyloid-like properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Peruch, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Prohevein is a wound-induced protein and a main allergen from latex of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). This 187 amino-acid protein is cleaved in two fragments: a N-terminal 43 amino-acids called hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties and a C-terminal domain (C-ter) far less characterized. We provide here new insights on the characteristics of prohevein, hevein and C-terminal domain. Using complementary biochemical (ThT/CR/chitin binding, agglutination) and structural (modeling, ATR-FTIR, TEM, WAXS) approaches, we show that this domain clearly displays all the characteristics of an amyloid-like proteins in vitro, that could confer agglutination activity in synergy with its chitin-binding activity. Additionally, this C-ter domain is highly conserved and present in numerous plant prohevein-like proteins or pathogenesis-related (PR and WIN) proteins. This could be the hallmark of the eventual presence of proteins with amyloid properties in plants, that could potentially play a role in defense through aggregation properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fractionation techniques, it is possible to produce various whey - protein based products. The most important products based on the whey proteins are whey protein concentrates (WPC and whey protein isolates (WPI. The aim of this paper was to give comprehensive review of nutritional and functional properties of the most common used whey proteins (whey protein concentrate - WPC and whey protein isolate - WPI in the food industry.

  5. Unravelling the spirits’ message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries. PMID:24940355

  6. Number of players who gain ball possession as a function of basketball mass among 9-11-year-old male players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, José L; Argudo, Francisco M; Alonso, José I

    2011-10-01

    This study analyzed whether a ball with a higher (540-g) or lower (440-g) mass than the regulation ball (485-g) resulted in a larger number of participants gaining ball possession during games. Prior studies have indicated that ball handling is facilitated by decreasing the mass of the ball. It was assumed that a greater number of children gaining possession of the ball indicated greater ease of use and more control. Thus, the hypothesis was that the number of participants who gained ball possession would increase when using a ball of lower mass. The participants were 54 boys from six youth basketball teams. Participants played four games with each one of the three different balls and the number of possessions was calculated using videos of each game. The hypothesis was only partially supported: the number of participants who gained possession with the regular ball was similar to that with the 440-g ball and with the 540-g ball, but a greater number of participants gained possession with the 440-g ball in comparison to the 540-g ball. This result suggests balls that differ by more than 65 g may affect actual game outcomes.

  7. Haunted by ghosts: prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena

    2012-08-01

    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and synthesis of artificial phospholipid for selective cleavage of integral membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takumi; Sakai, Minatsu; Hayashi, Hiroyasu; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Fumi; Fujii, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Fishkin, Nathan; Nakanishi, Koji

    2005-09-28

    An artificial phospholipid, possessing saturated alkyl chains as a membrane anchor and protein recognition site as well as an Fe(III)-EDTA moiety as a protein cleavable polar head group, was designed and synthesized based on the amidite method for the purpose of examination of cleavage of integral membrane proteins.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+) signaling in neurons induced by the S100A4 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiryushko, Darya; Novitskaya, Vera; Soroka, Vladislav

    2006-01-01

    The S100A4 protein belongs to the S100 family of vertebrate-specific proteins possessing both intra- and extracellular functions. In the nervous system, high levels of S100A4 expression are observed at sites of neurogenesis and lesions, suggesting a role of the protein in neuronal plasticity. Ext...

  10. Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed protein profiling is the most promising tool in determining the molecular polymorphism and genetic homology. Seed storage proteins help in cultivar identification by avoiding the external environmental influences. Electrophoretically detectable proteins in rice grains possess the potential of characterizing the ...

  11. Biotechnological Production of Dimethoxyflavonoids Using a Fusion Flavonoid O-Methyltransferase Possessing Both 3'- and 7-O-Methyltransferase Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danbi; Park, Hye Lin; Lee, Sang-Won; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Cho, Man-Ho

    2017-05-26

    Although they are less abundant in nature, methoxyflavonoids have distinct physicochemical and pharmacological properties compared to common nonmethylated flavonoids. Thus, enzymatic conversion and biotransformation using genetically engineered microorganisms of flavonoids have been attempted for the efficient production of methoxyflavonoids. Because of their regiospecificity, more than two flavonoid O-methyltransferases (FOMTs) and enzyme reactions are required to biosynthesize di(or poly)-methoxyflavonoids. For the one-step biotechnological production of bioactive di-O-methylflavonoids, we generated a multifunctional FOMT fusing a 3'-OMT (SlOMT3) and a 7-OMT (OsNOMT). The SlOMT3/OsNOMT fusion enzyme possessed both 3'- and 7-OMT activities to diverse flavonoid substrates, which were comparable to those of individual SlOMT3 and OsNOMT. The SlOMT3/OsNOMT enzyme also showed 3'- and 7-OMT activity for 7- or 3'-O-methylflavonoids, respectively, suggesting that the fusion enzyme can sequentially methylate flavonoids into di-O-methylflavonoids. The biotransformation of the flavonoids quercetin, luteolin, eriodictyol, and taxifolin using SlOMT3/OsNOMT-transformed Escherichia coli generated corresponding di-O-methylflavonoids, rhamnazin, velutin, 3',7-di-O-methyleriodictyol, and 3',7-di-O-methyltaxifolin, respectively. These results indicate that dimethoxyflavonoids may be efficiently produced from nonmethylated flavonoid precursors through a one-step biotransformation using the engineered E. coli harboring the SlOMT3/OsNOMT fusion gene.

  12. NSAID zaltoprofen possesses novel anti-nociceptive mechanism through blockage of B2-type bradykinin receptor in nerve endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Misaki; Inoue, Makoto; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2006-04-24

    Zaltoprofen, a propionic acid derivative of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was shown to have more powerful inhibitory effects to bradykinin (BK)-nociception than other NSAIDs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this potent analgesia are not yet fully understood. Here we attempted to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying zaltoprofen-induced analgesia on BK-induced nociception by a novel algogenic-induced paw flexion (APF) test in mice. The intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of zaltoprofen at 1nmol showed strong analgesic action on BK (i.pl.)-induced nociceptive flexor responses, whereas loxoprofen or its active metabolite loxoprofen-SRS did not. Zaltoprofen also inhibited the nociception induced by [Tyr8]-BK, a specific agonist of B2-type BK receptor, but did not affect the nociception by [Lys-des-Arg9]-BK, a specific agonist of B1-type BK receptor. However, zaltoprofen did not affect the substance P-induced nociception, which is mediated by common post-receptor signaling through nociceptive fibers with BK-ones. All these results suggest that NSAID zaltoprofen possesses novel anti-nociceptive mechanism, which inhibits B2-type BK receptor function in nerve endings.

  13. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

    2013-01-01

    Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy. PMID:23576913

  14. The kiwifruit emerging pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae does not produce AHLs but possesses three luxR solos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitendra Kumar Patel

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa is an emerging phytopathogen causing bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit plants worldwide. Quorum sensing (QS gene regulation plays important roles in many different bacterial plant pathogens. In this study we analyzed the presence and possible role of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL quorum sensing in Psa. It was established that Psa does not produce AHLs and that a typical complete LuxI/R QS system is absent in Psa strains. Psa however possesses three putative luxR solos designated here as PsaR1, PsaR2 and PsaR3. PsaR2 belongs to the sub-family of LuxR solos present in many plant associated bacteria (PAB that binds and responds to yet unknown plant signal molecules. PsaR1 and PsaR3 are highly similar to LuxRs which bind AHLs and are part of the canonical LuxI/R AHL QS systems. Mutation in all the three luxR solos of Psa showed reduction of in planta survival and also showed additive effect if more than one solo was inactivated in double mutants. Gene promoter analysis revealed that the three solos are not auto-regulated and investigated their possible role in several bacterial phenotypes.

  15. A pilot study of faith healers' views on evil eye, jinn possession, and magic in the kingdom of saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habeeb, Tariq A

    2003-09-01

    Faith healers usually offer unorthodox therapies to their clients who present with an array of physical and psychological symptoms suggestive of the evil eye, jinn possession, and magic. This exploratory pilot study aims to analyse the pattern of narrated symptoms and treatments given by faith healers practising in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Forty five faith healers who consented to this study were given a predesigned, self-administered, semistructured questionnaire to collect the relevant data. Notably, most faith healers have a poor repertoire of psychiatric symptoms, which could not specifically differentiate the three spiritual disorders. They tend to recommend an array of therapies rooted in religious concepts for the treatment of their clients who, they claim, show substantial improvement in their mental suffering. The revealed symptomatology of each disorder alone may not be specific but it certainly helps them not only to identify these disorders but also to prescribe unconventional therapies. Future research should look systematically into the diagnostic and treatment methods for these disorders.

  16. A PILOT STUDY OF FAITH HEALERS’ VIEWS ON EVIL EYE, JINN POSSESSION, AND MAGIC IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habeeb, Tariq A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Faith healers usually offer unorthodox therapies to their clients who present with an array of physical and psychological symptoms suggestive of the evil eye, jinn possession, and magic. Objective: This exploratory pilot study aims to analyse the pattern of narrated symptoms and treatments given by faith healers practising in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Method: Forty five faith healers who consented to this study were given a predesigned, self-administered, semistructured questionnaire to collect the relevant data. Results: Notably, most faith healers have a poor repertoire of psychiatric symptoms, which could not specifically differentiate the three spiritual disorders. They tend to recommend an array of therapies rooted in religious concepts for the treatment of their clients who, they claim, show substantial improvement in their mental suffering. Conclusion: The revealed symptomatology of each disorder alone may not be specific but it certainly helps them not only to identify these disorders but also to prescribe unconventional therapies. Future research should look systematically into the diagnostic and treatment methods for these disorders. PMID:23012035

  17. African Woman Rises from the Ashes: Alice Walker’s Mimicry of Classic Ethnography in Possessing the Secret of Joy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ramin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Before the advent of deconstructive schools of thought in the second half of the twentieth century, anthropology and ethnography were hailed as scientific disciplines whose major consideration was to provide an objective analysis of other cultures. However, the launch of such critical approaches as postcolonialism, feminism, and postmodernism has nullified the two disciplines’ claim to scientificity and objectivity by laying bare their sexist, racist backdrop. In the postist zeitgeist, new ethnographies have been promoted in an attempt to disrupt the hierarchical relationship between the researcher and the studied subject of classic ethnography through including first-hand marginalized voices. Moreover, they blur the long-held generic boundaries between science and fiction via establishing the “ethnographic novel” as a medium that committedly voices the subalterns. Alice Walker’s Possessing the Secret of Joy (1992 is one of these new ethnographic novels which has as its protagonist an oppressed African woman. What makes Walker’s work distinct and notable is that the feminist writer subversively employs the conventional mode of ethnographic writing to stand up to African patriarchy and its horrific ritual of female circumcision.

  18. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ria

    2013-10-01

    This article examines children's enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifestations of social crises and mass traumatic stress. On the other hand, such idioms also allow children to articulate, reflect upon, and communicate the complex feelings resulting from their precarious positions within families and communities under duress. With the help of Dow's transactional model of symbolic healing, this article explores obstacles to the effectivity of the rich variety of symbolic healing available for haunting spirits in Uganda and points to the generational gap between children and their families and communities. Elsewhere, witchcraft idioms may act as a healing resource at the group level, but at the expense of the accused child. The idioms of evil spirits and witchcraft speak of these children's navigation of the moral universe of their postconflict communities. Given that children's appraisal of their experiences through these notions may also exacerbate their anxiety, interdisciplinary research examining the microprocesses that lead to children being haunted or accused, including emotional and physiological levels effects, is urgently needed.

  19. Expression and Characterization of a Novel Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 That Possesses Lysophospholipase D Activity

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    Fanghua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GDPD are enzymes which degrade various glycerophosphodiesters to produce glycerol-3-phosphate and the corresponding alcohol moiety. Apart from this, a very interesting finding is that this enzyme could be used in the degradation of toxic organophosphorus esters, which has resulted in much attention on the biochemical and application research of GDPDs. In the present study, a novel GDPD from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 (pfGDPD was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. This enzyme hydrolyzed bis(p-nitrophenyl phosphate, one substrate analogue of organophosphorus diester, with an optimal reaction temperature 55 °C and pH 8.5. The activity of pfGDPD was strongly dependent on existing of bivalent cations. It was strongly stimulated by Mn2+ ions, next was Co2+ and Ni2+ ions. Further investigations were conducted on its substrate selectivity towards different phospholipids. The results indicated that except of glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC, this enzyme also possessed lysophospholipase D activity toward both sn1-lysophosphatidylcholine (1-LPC and sn2-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-LPC. Higher activity was found for 1-LPC than 2-LPC; however, no hydrolytic activity was found for phosphatidylcholine (PC. Molecular docking based on the 3D-modeled structure of pfGDPD was conducted in order to provide a structural foundation for the substrate selectivity.

  20. Characterization of a novel pro-coagulant metalloprotease (RVBCMP) possessing alpha-fibrinogenase and tissue haemorrhagic activity from venom of Daboia russelli russelli (Russell's viper): evidence of distinct coagulant and haemorrhagic sites in RVBCMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2008-04-01

    A novel, basic pro-coagulation metalloprotease (Russell's viper basic coagulant metalloprotease, RVBCMP) with an approximate molecular weight of 15kDa was purified from the venom of Daboia russelli russelli (Russell's viper) from eastern India. RVBCMP exerted dose-dependent coagulation of platelet-poor human plasma; however, RVBCMP possessed less coagulant activity as compared with the coagulant activity of crude Russell's viper venom (RVV). RVBCMP did not show oedema induction, direct haemolysis of washed erythrocytes, hydrolysis of human plasma albumin or globulin, and thrombin-like activity, but exhibited caseinolytic, alpha-fibrinogenolytic, and liver tissue haemorrhagic activities. Inhibition of coagulant and protease activities of RVBCMP by EDTA suggested a metalloprotease nature of this protein. RVBCMP showed antigenicity as was evident from the immunoblotting experiment. None of the tested plant extracts, except Leucus lavandulaefolia, inhibited the coagulant or haemorrhagic activity of RVBCMP. Interestingly, aqueous extracts of the tested plants as well as the commercial polyvalent antivenom raised against crude RVV differentially inhibited the coagulant and tissue haemorrhagic activity of RVBCMP. The current investigation provides a fairly good indication that RVBCMP possesses a distinct, perhaps overlapping, site for coagulant and tissue haemorrhagic activity.

  1. Synthetic Nanochaperones Facilitate Refolding of Denatured Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei-He; An, Yingli; Wang, Jianzu; Song, Yiqing; Liu, Yang; Shi, Linqi

    2017-10-24

    The folding process of a protein is inherently error-prone, owing to the large number of possible conformations that a protein chain can adopt. Partially folded or misfolded proteins typically expose hydrophobic surfaces and tend to form dysfunctional protein aggregates. Therefore, materials that can stabilize unfolded proteins and then efficiently assist them refolding to its bioactive form are of significant interest. Inspired by natural chaperonins, we have synthesized a series of polymeric nanochaperones that can facilitate the refolding of denatured proteins with a high recovery efficiency (up to 97%). Such nanochaperones possess phase-separated structure with hydrophobic microdomains on the surface. This structure allows nanochaperones to stabilize denatured proteins by binding them to the hydrophobic microdomains. We have also investigated the mechanism by which nanochaperones assist the protein refolding and established the design principles of nanochaperones in order to achieve effective recovery of a certain protein from their denatured forms. With a carefully designed composition of the microdomains according to the surface properties of the client proteins, the binding affinity between the hydrophobic microdomain and the denatured protein molecules can be tuned precisely, which enables the self-sorting of the polypeptides and the refolding of the proteins into their bioactive states. This work provides a feasible and effective strategy to recover inclusion bodies to their bioactive forms, which has potential to reduce the cost of the manufacture of recombinant proteins significantly.

  2. Compact Structure Patterns in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitturi, Bhadrachalam; Shi, Shuoyong; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-10-23

    Globular proteins typically fold into tightly packed arrays of regular secondary structures. We developed a model to approximate the compact parallel and antiparallel arrangement of α-helices and β-strands, enumerated all possible topologies formed by up to five secondary structural elements (SSEs), searched for their occurrence in spatial structures of proteins, and documented their frequencies of occurrence in the PDB. The enumeration model grows larger super-secondary structure patterns (SSPs) by combining pairs of smaller patterns, a process that approximates a potential path of protein fold evolution. The most prevalent SSPs are typically present in superfolds such as the Rossmann-like fold, the ferredoxin-like fold, and the Greek key motif, whereas the less frequent SSPs often possess uncommon structure features such as split β-sheets, left-handed connections, and crossing loops. This complete SSP enumeration model, for the first time, allows us to investigate which theoretically possible SSPs are not observed in available protein structures. All SSPs with up to four SSEs occurred in proteins. However, among the SSPs with five SSEs, approximately 20% (218) are absent from existing folds. Of these unobserved SSPs, 80% contain two or more uncommon structure features. To facilitate future efforts in protein structure classification, engineering, and design, we provide the resulting patterns and their frequency of occurrence in proteins at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/ssps/. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Chia-Chun; Ku, Jung-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Cho; Su, Sung-Chieh; Lu, Chung-An; Huang, Li-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed. PMID:23615467

  4. [Immune stimulative potency of milk proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroziak, Adam; Cichosz, Grazyna

    2014-02-01

    Milk proteins are characterized by the highest immune stimulative potency from among all the proteins present in human diet. Whey proteins and numerous growth factors that regulate insulin secretion, differentiation of intestine epithelium cells, and also tissue restoration, are priceless in stimulation the immune system. Lactoferrin shows the most comprehensive pro-health properties: antioxidative, anticancer, immune stimulative and even chemopreventive. Also peptides and amino acids formed from casein and whey proteins possess immune stimulative activity. The most valuable proteins, i.e. lactoferrin, immune globulins, lactoperoxidase and lisozyme, together with bioactive peptides, are resistant to pepsin and trypsin activity. This is why they maintain their exceptional biological activity within human organism. Properly high consumption of milk proteins conditions correct function of immune system, especially at children and elderly persons.

  5. Nanochemistry of protein-based delivery agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin R.C.K. Rajendran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties. A number of physical and chemical methods have been used for preparing protein nanoformulations, each based on different underlying protein chemistry. This review focuses on the chemistry of the reorganization and/or modification of proteins into functional nanostructures for delivery, from the perspective of their preparation, functionality, stability and physiological behavior.

  6. Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed.

  7. Soybeans inoculated with root zone soils of Canadian native legumes harbour diverse and novel Bradyrhizobium spp. that possess agricultural potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Eden S P; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T; Tran Thi, Thu Van

    2017-10-01

    An assessment was made of the evolutionary relationships of soybean nodulating bacteria associated with legumes native to eastern Canada to identify potential new sources of soybean inoculant strains. Short season soybeans were used to selectively trap bacteria from root zone soils of four native legume species. Screening of more than 800 bacterial isolates from soybean root nodules by analysis of recA gene sequences followed by analyses of selected genotypes using six core and two symbiosis (nodC and nifH) gene sequences permitted identification of diverse taxa that included eight novel and four named Bradyrhizobium species as well as lineages attributed to the genera Afipia and Tardiphaga. Plant tests showed that symbionts related to four named species as well as a novel Bradyrhizobium lineage were highly efficient with regard to nitrogen fixation on soybeans relative to an inoculant strain. A new symbiovar (sv. septentrionalis) is proposed based on a group of four novel Bradyrhizobium spp. that possess distinctive nodC and nifH gene sequences and symbiotic characteristics. Evidence is provided for horizontal transfer of sv. septentrionalis symbiosis genes between novel Bradyrhizobium spp., a process that rendered recipient bacteria ineffective on soybeans. Diverse lineages of non-symbiotic and symbiotic Bradyrhizobium spp. co-occured within monophyletic clusters in a phylogenetic tree of concatenated core genes, suggesting that loss and/or gain of symbiosis genes has occurred in the evolutionary history of the bacterial genus. Our data suggest that symbiont populations associated with legumes native to eastern Canada harbour elite strains of Bradyrhizobium for soybean inoculation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective analysis of the medicine possession ratio of antidepressants in the private health sector of South Africa, 2006 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Francois Naude; Harvey, Brian H; Brink, Christiaan Beyers; Lubbe, Martha Susanne

    2015-01-05

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mental illness with high morbidity and mortality rates. Inadequate treatment efficacy, unfavourable side-effect profiles and consequent shortfalls in compliance are major stumbling blocks in its treatment. Non-compliance data in low- to middle-income countries are lacking. To investigate the prevalence of antidepressant (AD) non-compliance in the private healthcare sector of South Africa (SA). We conducted a prospective cohort study analysing AD medicine claims (N=35 175) for 14 135 patients, obtained from a nationally representative pharmaceutical benefit management company, over a 6-year study period (1 January 2006 - 31 December 2011). The medicine possession ratio (MPR) was used as a proxy to determine compliance with AD medication. Only patients >18 years of age whose treatment had been initiated by a psychiatrist following an appropriate International Classification of Diseases (10th edition) (ICD-10) diagnosis of a mood disorder were included. A patient was considered compliant if the MPR was between ≥80% and ≤110% over a >4-month treatment period. After the first 4 months, only 34% of patients were compliant. A statistically significant association was found between active ingredient consumed and compliance (p<0.0001). Only 26.2% of patients who received amitriptyline-containing products were compliant, compared with 38.8% and 38.7% for venlafaxine and duloxetine, respectively. Compliance data collected from pharmacy claims provide a workable estimate of the broader clinical scenario they represent. Although differences between classes of AD were evident, non-compliance was found to be high in the private healthcare environment of SA, comparable with global trends.

  9. The principal conductance in Giardia lamblia trophozoites possesses functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G; Rodríguez-Elías, Julio C; Ramírez-Herrera, Mario A; Sánchez-Chapula, José A; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A

    2014-05-01

    The human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a flagellated unicellular protozoan with pronounced medical and biological relevance. However, the basic physiology of Giardia trophozoites has been sparsely studied, especially the electrical and ionic properties of their cellular membrane which are virtually unknown. In this study, we were able to record and characterize the macroscopic ionic currents of Giardia trophozoite membrane by electrophysiological methods of the patch clamp technique. Giardia trophozoites showed a high current density (∼600 pA/pF at -140 mV) that was activated upon hyperpolarization. This current was carried by a chloride-selective channel (I Cl-G) and it was the most important determinant of the membrane potential in Giardia trophozoites. Moreover, this conductance was able to carry other halide anions and the sequence of permeability was Br(-) > Cl(-) ≈ I(-) ≫ F(-). Besides the voltage-dependent inward-rectifying nature of I Cl-G, its activation and deactivation kinetics were comparable to those observed in ClC-2 channels. Extracellular pH modified the voltage-dependent properties of I Cl-G, shifting the activation curve from a V 1/2 = -79 ± 1 mV (pH 7.4) to -93 ± 2 mV (pH 8.4) and -112 ± 2 mV (pH 5.4). Furthermore, the maximal amplitude of I Cl-G measured at -100 mV showed dependence to external pH in a bell-shaped fashion reported only for ClC-2 channels. Therefore, our results suggest that I Cl-G possesses several functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 channels.

  10. Monocyte-macrophage membrane possesses free radicals scavenging activity: stimulation by polyphenols or by paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, M; Elias, A; Volkova, N; Aviram, M

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, we analysed free radicals scavenging activity of monocytes-macrophages in the absence or presence of antioxidants such as polyphenols or paraoxonase 1 (PON1). THP-1 human monocytic cell line, murine J774A.1 macrophages, as well as human primary monocytes have the capability to scavenge free radicals, as measured by the 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This effect (which could be attributed to the cell's membrane) was cell number and incubation time dependent. Upon incubation of J774A.1 macrophages with acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL), with VLDL, or with the radical generator, AAPH, the cells' lipid peroxides content, and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) activity were significantly increased. While non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 65%, the Ac-LDL-, VLDL- or AAPH-treated cells, decreased it by only 33%, 30%, or 45%, respectively. We next analysed the effect of J774A.1 macrophage enrichment with antioxidants, such as polyphenols or PON1 on the cells' free radicals scavenging activity. Non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 50%, whereas vitamin E-, punicalagin- or PJ-treated cells significantly further decreased it, by 75%. Similarly, in PON1-treated cells DPPH absorbance was further decreased by 63%, in association with 23% increment in PON1 catalytic activity. In cells under oxidative stress [treated with AAPH-, or with oxidized LDL], PON1 activity was decreased by 31% or 40%, as compared to the activity observed in PON1 incubated with non-treated cells. We conclude that monocytes-macrophages possess free radicals scavenging activity, which is decreased under atherogenic conditions, and increased upon cell enrichment with potent antioxidants such as nutritional polyphenols, or PON1.

  11. Medication possession ratio associated with short-term virologic response in individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Y Hong

    Full Text Available The visual-analogue scale (VAS, Likert item (rating scale, pills identification test (PIT, and medication possession ratio (MPR provide estimates of antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence which correlate with HIV viral suppression. These simple adherence measures are inexpensive and easy to administer; however, require validation and adjustment prior to implementation. The objective of this study was to define the optimal adherence assessment measure in Namibia to identify patients at risk for sub-optimal adherence and poor virologic response 6 months after ART initiation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in HIV-infected adults receiving ART for 6-12 months prior to the adherence assessment. Adherence measures included 30-day VAS, 30-day Likert item, self-reported treatment interruptions, PIT, and MPR. Association of adherence measures with 6-month HIV-1 RNA level was assessed using two thresholds (1000 copies/mL and 5000 copies/mL. Adherence was assessed in 236 patients, mean age 37.3 years, 54% female. Mean adherence was 98.1% by 30-day VAS, 84.7% by 30-day Likert item, 97.0% by self-reported treatment interruptions, 90.6% by PIT, and 98.8% by MPR. Agreement between adherence measures was poor using kappa statistic. 76% had HIV-1 RNA <1000 copies/ml, and 88% had HIV-1 RNA <5000 copies/ml. MPR (continuous was associated with viral suppression <5000 copies/ml (p = 0.036. MPR <75% was associated with virologic failure at ≥5000 copies/ml with OR 3.89 (1.24, 12.21, p = 0.013. Adherence was high with all measures. Only MPR, was associated with short-term virologic response, suggesting its cross-culturally utility for early identification of patients at high risk for virologic failure.

  12. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few recent outbreaks in Europe and the US involving Campylobacter and Salmonella were linked to the consumption of chicken livers. Studies investigating Staphylococcus aureus in chicken livers and gizzards are very limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of S. aureus and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail chicken livers and gizzards in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In this study, 156 chicken livers and 39 chicken gizzards samples of two brands were collected. While one of the brands showed very low prevalence of 1% (1/100 for S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards, the second brand showed prevalence of 37% (31/95. No MRSA was detected since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. Eighty seven S. aureus isolates from livers and 28 from gizzards were screened for antimicrobial resistance to 16 antimicrobials and the possession of 18 toxin genes. Resistance to most of the antimicrobials screened including cefoxitin and oxacillin was higher in the chicken gizzards isolates. While the prevalence of enterotoxin genes seg and sei was higher in the gizzards isolates, the prevalence of hemolysin genes hla, hlb, and hld was higher in the livers ones. The lucocidin genes lukE-lukD was equally prevalent in chicken livers and gizzards isolates. Using spa typing, a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are not known to be livestock associated and, hence, may be of a human origin. In conclusion, this study stresses the importance of thorough cooking of chicken livers and gizzards since it might contain multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic S. aureus. To our knowledge this is the first study to specifically investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards in the US.

  13. The Principle of Symmetry from the Respondents' Perspective: Possessions, Apparitions and Mental Illnesses in Research Interviews with Clerics

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    Zdeněk Konopásek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In our current research project, we study how experiences such as hearing the voice of the Lord or having a vision of Virgin Mary are dealt with in psychiatry and Catholic pastoral practice. How is the status of these phenomena negotiated by the participants? Under what conditions do they become instances of legitimate religious experience or, alternatively, symptoms of mental illness? We approach the study of these issues "symmetrically"—we do not prefer a priori medical or spiritual explanations. Some time ago, we demonstrated and explained such an approach (which is common, e.g., in contemporary sociology of science, and its relevance for our research, in an analytic paper on the movie "The Exorcism of Emily Rose" (released in 2005. The paper discusses a highly ambiguous relationship, pictured in the film, between medical and spiritual interpretation of the story of a young girl who was considered possessed by demons and who died after unsuccessful exorcism (KONOPÁSEK & PALEČEK, 2006. The question that has inspired this paper is: can such a symmetrical approach be of any relevance also for people we are studying? In an attempt to get an answer, we have interviewed four Catholic priests on this particular issue. The priests had been asked to watch the movie on Emily Rose and read our paper on it in preparation for the interview. Based on the subsequent discussions (and also on some other empirical data of our current research, we wanted to shed some light on whether and in what ways our specific epistemic perspective coheres with the views and positions of our respondents. It turned out that this reflexive research experiment not only helped to clarify points of mis/understanding between us and our respondents, but also contributed to our own appreciation of the role of symmetry in our current research project as well as in the studied social practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101129

  14. The standardized extract of Loeselia mexicana possesses anxiolytic activity through the γ-amino butyric acid mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; González-Carranza, Adolfo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Navarro-García, Víctor M

    2011-11-18

    Loeselia mexicana (Lam.) Brand has been used in Mexican Traditional Medicine to treat "espanto" or "susto" (fear), which is a culturally affiliated syndrome whose symptomatology comprises loss of appetite, difficulty in sleeping, and also nausea and fatigue, with a sensation of fear or risk - real or imagined - to external stimuli. The anxiolytic effect of the standardized methanol extract of Loeselia mexicana, with regard to its content of coumarin daphnoretin, was researched utilizing the elevated plus maze (EPM) in order to demonstrate whether the biological effect produced by the plant is antagonized by drugs that block γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission. The methanolic extract of Loeselia mexicana (LmMeOH) was tested at different doses on the EPM and then the interaction of this extract was evaluated in the same model with different GABAergic drugs, such as flumazenil (FLU) 10mg/kg, bicuculline (BIC) 5mg/kg, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 10mg/kg, and picrotoxin (PTX) 2mg/kg. The effect of all of these treatments was evaluated by means of the open field test (OFT). Coumarin content was measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The 200- and 400-mg/kg doses of methanolic extract containing 3.14 and 6.28 mg of daphnoretin, respectively, induced an anxiolytic effect in the EPM without modification of the spontaneous motor activity. The anxiolytic activity of 200mg/kg of methanolic extract in EPM-exposed mice was antagonized by PTX, BIC, and FLU, but not by PTZ. The data presented here indicate that the Loeselia mexicana Brand methanolic extract possesses a significant anxiolytic effect that appears to be mediated in part by activation of the GABAergic system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A 'new lease of life': FnCpf1 possesses DNA cleavage activity for genome editing in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Mengjun; Lin, Li; Cheng, Yilu; He, Xiubin; Sun, Huihui; Xie, Haihua; Fu, Junhao; Liu, Changbao; Li, Jin; Chen, Ding; Xi, Haitao; Xue, Dongyu; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Junzhao; Gao, Caixia; Song, Zongming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2017-11-02

    Cpf1 nucleases were recently reported to be highly specific and programmable nucleases with efficiencies comparable to those of SpCas9. AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 require a single crRNA and recognize a 5'-TTTN-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) at the 5' end of the protospacer for genome editing. For widespread application in precision site-specific human genome editing, the range of sequences that AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 can recognize is limited due to the size of this PAM. To address this limitation, we sought to identify a novel Cpf1 nuclease with simpler PAM requirements. Specifically, here we sought to test and engineer FnCpf1, one reported Cpf1 nuclease (FnCpf1) only requires 5'-TTN-3' as a PAM but does not exhibit detectable levels of nuclease-induced indels at certain locus in human cells. Surprisingly, we found that FnCpf1 possesses DNA cleavage activity in human cells at multiple loci. We also comprehensively and quantitatively examined various FnCpf1 parameters in human cells, including spacer sequence, direct repeat sequence and the PAM sequence. Our study identifies FnCpf1 as a new member of the Cpf1 family for human genome editing with distinctive characteristics, which shows promise as a genome editing tool with the potential for both research and therapeutic applications. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Plant Actin-Depolymerizing Factors Possess Opposing Biochemical Properties Arising from Key Amino Acid Changes throughout Evolution[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Qiong; Niu, Yue; He, Yongxing; Tong, Shaofei; Niu, Zhimin; Ma, Jianchao; Yang, Yang; An, Lizhe; Wan, Dongshi

    2017-01-01

    Functional divergence in paralogs is an important genetic source of evolutionary innovation. Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are among the most important actin binding proteins and are involved in generating and remodeling actin cytoskeletal architecture via their conserved F-actin severing or depolymerizing activity. In plants, ADFs coevolved with actin, but their biochemical properties are diverse. Unfortunately, the biochemical function of most plant ADFs and the potential mechanisms of their functional divergence remain unclear. Here, in vitro biochemical analyses demonstrated that all 11 ADF genes in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit opposing biochemical properties. Subclass III ADFs evolved F-actin bundling (B-type) function from conserved F-actin depolymerizing (D-type) function, and subclass I ADFs have enhanced D-type function. By tracking historical mutation sites on ancestral proteins, several fundamental amino acid residues affecting the biochemical functions of these proteins were identified in Arabidopsis and various plants, suggesting that the biochemical divergence of ADFs has been conserved during the evolution of angiosperm plants. Importantly, N-terminal extensions on subclass III ADFs that arose from intron-sliding events are indispensable for the alteration of D-type to B-type function. We conclude that the evolution of these N-terminal extensions and several conserved mutations produced the diverse biochemical functions of plant ADFs from a putative ancestor. PMID:28123105

  17. Plant Actin-Depolymerizing Factors Possess Opposing Biochemical Properties Arising from Key Amino Acid Changes throughout Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Qiong; Qian, Dong; Niu, Yue; He, Yongxing; Tong, Shaofei; Niu, Zhimin; Ma, Jianchao; Yang, Yang; An, Lizhe; Wan, Dongshi; Xiang, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Functional divergence in paralogs is an important genetic source of evolutionary innovation. Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are among the most important actin binding proteins and are involved in generating and remodeling actin cytoskeletal architecture via their conserved F-actin severing or depolymerizing activity. In plants, ADFs coevolved with actin, but their biochemical properties are diverse. Unfortunately, the biochemical function of most plant ADFs and the potential mechanisms of their functional divergence remain unclear. Here, in vitro biochemical analyses demonstrated that all 11 ADF genes in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit opposing biochemical properties. Subclass III ADFs evolved F-actin bundling (B-type) function from conserved F-actin depolymerizing (D-type) function, and subclass I ADFs have enhanced D-type function. By tracking historical mutation sites on ancestral proteins, several fundamental amino acid residues affecting the biochemical functions of these proteins were identified in Arabidopsis and various plants, suggesting that the biochemical divergence of ADFs has been conserved during the evolution of angiosperm plants. Importantly, N-terminal extensions on subclass III ADFs that arose from intron-sliding events are indispensable for the alteration of D-type to B-type function. We conclude that the evolution of these N-terminal extensions and several conserved mutations produced the diverse biochemical functions of plant ADFs from a putative ancestor. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  19. Protein Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  20. Structure-activity relationship study of BACE1 inhibitors possessing a chelidonic or 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic scaffold at the P(2) position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakanishi, Tomoya; Sarma, Diganta; Ohta, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Yamasaki, Moe; Hidaka, Koushi; Ishiura, Shoichi; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-15

    We have previously reported potent substrate-based pentapeptidic BACE1 inhibitors possessing a hydroxymethylcarbonyl isostere as a substrate transition-state mimic. While these inhibitors exhibited potent activities in enzymatic and cellular assays (KMI-429 in particular inhibited Aβ production in vivo), these inhibitors contained some natural amino acids that seemed to be required to improve enzymatic stability in vivo and permeability across the blood-brain barrier, so as to be practical drug. Recently, we synthesized non-peptidic and small-sized BACE1 inhibitors possessing a heterocyclic scaffold at the P2 position. Herein we report the SAR study of BACE1 inhibitors possessing this heterocyclic scaffold, a chelidonic or 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic moiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the history of dissociative identity disorders in Germany: the doctor Justinus Kerner and the girl from Orlach, or possession as an "exchange of the self".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    The history of hypnosis is closely linked to the theme of possession; one such link is that the forerunner of hypnosis, animal magnetism, replaced exorcism in 1775 when Franz Anton Mesmer testified against Father Johann Joseph Gassner's exorcism. Modern authors have noted remarkable similarities between states of possession and dissociation. The treatment of possession by animal magnetism and exorcism represents the special romantic-magnetic therapy of the German medical doctor Justinus Kerner in the early 19th century. This article describes the man, his methods, and his thinking and presents one of his most famous case studies, the girl from Orlach, which, by today's standards, was a true case of dissociative identity disorder (DID). This article describes how contemporary principles of treatment were used and controversial issues about the nature and causes of DID were discussed 175 years ago.

  2. A new protein superfamily: TPPP-like proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Orosz

    Full Text Available The introduction of the term 'Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP-like proteins' is suggested. They constitute a eukaryotic protein superfamily, characterized by the presence of the p25alpha domain (Pfam05517, IPR008907, and named after the first identified member, TPPP/p25, exhibiting microtubule stabilizing function. TPPP-like proteins can be grouped on the basis of two characteristics: the length of their p25alpha domain, which can be long, short, truncated or partial, and the presence or absence of additional domain(s. TPPPs, in the strict sense, contain no other domains but one long or short p25alpha one (long- and short-type TPPPs, respectively. Proteins possessing truncated p25alpha domain are first described in this paper. They evolved from the long-type TPPPs and can be considered as arthropod-specific paralogs of long-type TPPPs. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the two groups (long-type and truncated TPPPs split in the common ancestor of arthropods. Incomplete p25alpha domains can be found in multidomain TPPP-like proteins as well. The various subfamilies occur with a characteristic phyletic distribution: e. g., animal genomes/proteomes contain almost without exception long-type TPPPs; the multidomain apicortins occur almost exclusively in apicomplexan parasites. There are no data about the physiological function of these proteins except two human long-type TPPP paralogs which are involved in developmental processes of the brain and the musculoskeletal system, respectively. I predict that the superfamily members containing long or partial p25alpha domain are often intrinsically disordered proteins, while those with short or truncated domain(s are structurally ordered. Interestingly, members of this superfamily connected or maybe connected to diseases are intrinsically disordered proteins.

  3. The light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri possesses a homolog of the Vibrio cholerae transmembrane transcriptional activator ToxR.

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, K A; Schoolnik, G K

    1994-01-01

    A cross-hybridizing DNA fragment to Vibrio cholerae toxR was cloned from the nonpathogenic light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri, and three proteins homologous to V. cholerae ToxR, ToxS, and HtpG were deduced from its DNA sequence. V. fischeri ToxR was found to activate a V. cholerae ToxR-regulated promoter, and an antiserum raised against the amino-terminal domain of V. cholerae ToxR cross-reacts V. fischeri ToxR.

  4. Dissociative mechanism for irreversible thermal denaturation of oligomeric proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotareva, Natalia A; Roman, Svetlana G; Kurganov, Boris I

    2016-12-01

    Protein stability is a fundamental characteristic essential for understanding conformational transformations of the proteins in the cell. When using protein preparations in biotechnology and biomedicine, the problem of protein stability is of great importance. The kinetics of denaturation of oligomeric proteins may have characteristic properties determined by the quaternary structure. The kinetic schemes of denaturation can include the multiple stages of conformational transitions in the protein oligomer and stages of reversible dissociation of the oligomer. In this case, the shape of the kinetic curve of denaturation or the shape of the melting curve registered by differential scanning calorimetry can vary with varying the protein concentration. The experimental data illustrating dissociative mechanism for irreversible thermal denaturation of oligomeric proteins have been summarized in the present review. The use of test systems based on thermal aggregation of oligomeric proteins for screening of agents possessing anti-aggregation activity is discussed.

  5. Stress proteins are induced by space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences such as space radiations and microgravity. Almost all organisms possess essential recognition and response systems for environmental changes. The famous one of cellular stress responses is the gene induction of heat shock protein (HSP). HSP expression is increased under elevated temperatures, and also increased by other sources of cellular stress, including ionizing radiation, oxidative injury, osmotic stress and the unfolded protein response. HSPs assist in the folding and maintenance of newly translated proteins, the refolding of denatured proteins and the further unfolding of misfolded or destabilized proteins to protect the cell from crisis. Based on our space experiment, we report the results and discussion from the viewpoint of HSP expression after exposure to space environment.

  6. Thioredoxin binding protein (TBP)-2/Txnip and α-arrestin proteins in cancer and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutani, Hiroshi; Yoshihara, Eiji; Masaki, So; Chen, Zhe; Yodoi, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxin binding protein −2/ thioredoxin interacting protein is an α-arrestin protein that has attracted much attention as a multifunctional regulator. Thioredoxin binding protein −2 expression is downregulated in tumor cells and the level of thioredoxin binding protein is correlated with clinical stage of cancer. Mice with mutations or knockout of the thioredoxin binding protein −2 gene are much more susceptible to carcinogenesis than wild-type mice, indicating a role for thioredoxin binding protein −2 in cancer suppression. Studies have also revealed roles for thioredoxin binding protein −2 in metabolic control. Enhancement of thioredoxin binding protein −2 expression causes impairment of insulin sensitivity and glucose-induced insulin secretion, and β-cell apoptosis. These changes are important characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thioredoxin binding protein −2 regulates transcription of metabolic regulating genes. Thioredoxin binding protein −2-like inducible membrane protein/ arrestin domain containing 3 regulates endocytosis of receptors such as the β2-adrenergic receptor. The α-arrestin family possesses PPXY motifs and may function as an adaptor/scaffold for NEDD family ubiquitin ligases. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of α-arrestin proteins would provide a new pharmacological basis for developing approaches against cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22247597

  7. Retinoid-binding proteins: similar protein architectures bind similar ligands via completely different ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoids are a class of compounds that are chemically related to vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in vision, cell growth and differentiation. In vivo, retinoids must bind with specific proteins to perform their necessary functions. Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and epididymal retinoic acid binding protein (ERABP carry retinoids in bodily fluids, while cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs carry retinoids within cells. Interestingly, although all of these transport proteins possess similar structures, the modes of binding for the different retinoid ligands with their carrier proteins are different. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we analyzed the various retinoid transport mechanisms using structure and sequence comparisons, binding site analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that in the same family of proteins and subcellular location, the orientation of a retinoid molecule within a binding protein is same, whereas when different families of proteins are considered, the orientation of the bound retinoid is completely different. In addition, none of the amino acid residues involved in ligand binding is conserved between the transport proteins. However, for each specific binding protein, the amino acids involved in the ligand binding are conserved. The results of this study allow us to propose a possible transport model for retinoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the differences in the binding modes between the different retinoid-binding proteins.

  8. Essential multimeric enzymes in kinetoplastid parasites: A host of potentially druggable protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Leah M; Johnson, Meredith G; Gavenonis, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Parasitic diseases caused by kinetoplastid parasites of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania are an urgent public health crisis in the developing world. These closely related species possess a number of multimeric enzymes in highly conserved pathways involved in vital functions, such as redox homeostasis and nucleotide synthesis. Computational alanine scanning of these protein-protein interfaces has revealed a host of potentially ligandable sites on several established and emerging anti-parasitic drug targets. Analysis of interfaces with multiple clustered hotspots has suggested several potentially inhibitable protein-protein interactions that may have been overlooked by previous large-scale analyses focusing solely on secondary structure. These protein-protein interactions provide a promising lead for the development of new peptide and macrocycle inhibitors of these enzymes.

  9. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Figueroa-Angulo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  10. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_005125 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005125 gi|37520491 >1vp6A 12 129 11 134 4e-08 ... ref|NP_923868.1| nitrogen assimilation... regulatory protein [Gloeobacter violaceus PCC ... 7421] dbj|BAC88863.1| nitrogen assimilation

  12. A neutral branched platinum-acetylide complex possessing a tetraphenylethylene core: preparation of a luminescent organometallic gelator and its unexpected spectroscopic behaviour during sol-to-gel transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Nai-Wei; Huang, Junhai; Xu, Zheng; Sun, Dan-Dan; Wang, Cui-Hong; Xu, Lin

    2015-10-21

    A neutral branched platinum-acetylide complex TPA possessing a tetraphenylethylene core was successfully prepared, which was found to form luminescent organometallic gels in ethyl acetate. Stimulated by temperature or F(-), the reversible gel-sol transition was realized. More interestingly, TPA exhibited an unexpected blue shift of the emission during the sol-to-gel transition.

  13. 43 CFR 2.25 - How will a bureau handle a request for Federally-funded research data in the possession of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federally-funded research data in the possession of a private entity? 2.25 Section 2.25 Public Lands... findings are used by a bureau in developing an agency action, e.g., a policy or regulation, research data... for such research data, the bureau will require the recipient to provide the information to it within...

  14. Abrupt emergence and predominance in Vietnam of rotavirus A strains possessing a bovine-like G8 on a DS-1-like background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa-Tran, T N; Nakagomi, T; Vu, H M; Do, L P; Gauchan, P; Agbemabiese, C A; Nguyen, T T T; Nakagomi, O; Thanh, N T H

    2016-02-01

    An apparently single rotavirus A strain possessing a genotype constellation of G8-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 abruptly emerged, caused diarrhoea in children requiring hospitalisation, and increased to reach 27 % of strains detected during the first half of 2015 in Vietnam.

  15. The presence of two S-layer-protein-encoding genes is conserved among species related to Lactobacillus acidophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Kolen, C.P.A.M.; Pot, B.; Kersters, K.; Pouwels, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Previously we have shown that the type strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus possesses two S-protein-encoding genes, one of which is silent, on a chromosomal segment of 6 kb. The S-protein-encoding gene in the expression site can be exchanged for the silent S-protein-encoding gene by inversion of this

  16. The Protein Kingdom Extended: Ordered and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Their Folding, Supramolecular Complex Formation, and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    The native state of a protein is usually associated with a compact globular conformation possessing a rigid and highly ordered structure. At the turn of the last century certain studies arose which concluded that many proteins cannot, in principle, form a rigid globular structure in an aqueous environment, but they are still able to fulfill their specific functions — i.e., they are native. The existence of the disordered regions allows these proteins to interact with their numerous binding partners. Such interactions are often accompanied by the formation of complexes that possess a more ordered structure than the original components. The functional diversity of these proteins, combined with the variability of signals related to the various intra-and intercellular processes handled by these proteins and their capability to produce multi-variant and multi-directional responses allow them to form a unique regulatory net in a cell. The abundance of disordered proteins inside the cell is precisely controlled at the synthesis and clearance levels as well as via interaction with specific binding partners and posttranslational modifications. Another recently recognized biologically active state of proteins is the functional amyloid. The formation of such functional amyloids is tightly controlled and therefore differs from the uncontrolled formation of pathogenic amyloids which are associated with the pathogenesis of several conformational diseases, the development of which is likely to be determined by the failures of the cellular regulatory systems rather than by the formation of the proteinaceous deposits and/or by the protofibril toxicity. PMID:20097220

  17. THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE PROTEIN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ogur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, edible films from isolated or concentrated protein sources and from proteins of two different fish species were produced. The texture properties, light transmission (LT and oxygen permeability (OP of producing films were determined. The CL film settled in the second range according to both tension test parameters, thus outclassing the other tested films. The WG film possessed the lowest LT, so making it more effective in protecting of food products from light than the other tested films. The SPI film with the lowest OP value can be used for the purpose of protecting of food products from harmful effects of oxidation.

  18. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein daily for 2 years does not improve bone density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Weight loss. Most research suggests that taking whey protein alone, along with diet modifications, or while following an exercise plan does not seem to reduce weight for ...

  19. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  20. A new cotton SDR family gene encodes a polypeptide possessing aldehyde reductase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Song, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Qin, Yong-Mei

    2010-03-01

    To understand regulatory mechanisms of cotton fiber development, microarray analysis has been performed for upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Based on this, a cDNA (GhKCR3) encoding a polypeptide belonging to short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase family was isolated and cloned. It contains an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding a polypeptide of 328 amino acid residues. Following its overexpression in bacterial cells, the purified recombinant protein specifically uses NADPH to reduce a variety of short-chain aldehydes. A fragment between Gly180 and Gly191 was found to be essential for its catalytic activity. Though the GhKCR3 gene shares low sequence similarities to the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YBR159w that encodes 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR) catalyzing the second step of fatty acid elongation, it was surprisingly able to complement the yeast ybr159wDelta mutant. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that very long-chain fatty acids, especially C26:0, were produced in the ybr159wDelta mutant cells expressing GhKCR3. Applying palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates, GhKCR3 showed KCR activity in vitro. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis indicated GhKCR3 transcripts accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers, roots, and stems. Our results suggest that GhKCR3 is probably a novel KCR contributing to very long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in plants.

  1. Characterization of a novel Entamoeba histolytica strain from Burkina Faso, Africa, possessing a unique hexokinase-2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, J; Kobayashi, S; Imada, M; Tolba, M E; Takeuchi, T

    2011-11-01

    An Entamoeba histolytica strain (BF-841 cl1) that originated from Burkina Faso, Africa presented with novel, polymorphic genotypes of the serine-rich E. histolytica protein and the anodic hexokinase‑2 (HXK-2) isoenzyme band, which showed less electrophoretic mobility than that of an E. histolytica reference strain [HM-1:IMSS cl6 (zymodeme (Z)-II)] by starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF). The HXK-2 gene of BF-841 cl1 had amino acid variations at four positions compared to the sequence of HM-1:IMSS cl6. These variations were absent from the sequences of four other E. histolytica strains with different zymodemes [KU27 (Z-II), SAW1627 (Z-IIa-), SAW755CR clB (Z-XIV), and KU2 (Z-XIX)]. The results of IEF showed no difference in the substrate specificity of HXK (HXK-1 and HXK-2) between BF-841 cl1 and the three reference E. histolytica strains (HM-1:IMSS cl6, SAW755 clB, and KU27). It was also confirmed that BF-841 cl1 was able to form liver abscesses in Syrian hamsters.

  2. Protocatechualdehyde possesses anti-cancer activity through downregulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Boo [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Lee, Seong-Ho, E-mail: slee2000@umd.edu [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA enhanced transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA suppressed HDAC2 expression and activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that anti-cancer activity of PCA may be mediated by reducing HDAC2-derived cyclin D1 expression. -- Abstract: Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in barley, green cavendish bananas, and grapevine leaves. Although a few studies reported growth-inhibitory activity of PCA in breast and leukemia cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells and define potential mechanisms by which PCA mediates growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. Exposure of PCA to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 and SW480 cells) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. PCA decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level and suppressed luciferase activity of cyclin D1 promoter, indicating transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene by PCA. We also observed that PCA treatment attenuated enzyme activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and reduced expression of HDAC2, but not HDAC1. These findings suggest that cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by PCA may be a result of HDAC2-mediated cyclin D1 suppression.

  3. Aeromonas trota strains, which agglutinate with Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal antiserum, possess a serologically distinct fimbrial colonization factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, N; Iwanaga, M; Yamashiro, T; Nakashima, K; Albert, M J

    1996-02-01

    Pili of Aeromonas trota strain 1220, which agglutinates with Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal antiserum, were purified and characterized. The molecular mass of the subunit protein was estimated to be 20 kDa and the pl was 5 center dot 4. The pili were immunologically unrelated to the other Aeromonas pili reported so far. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the subunit pilin was similar to those of the pilins from other Aeromonas pili reported previously. Neither A. trota cells nor pili purified from strain 1220 agglutinated human and rabbit erythrocytes, but both adhered to the rabbit intestine. Bacterial cells pretreated with antipilus antibody (Fab portion) failed to adhere to the rabbit intestine. Moreover, bacteria did not adhere to the rabbit intestine pretreated with the purified pili. This pilus antigen was not detected in V. cholerae O139 Bengal and other Aeromonas spp. These findings suggest that the pilus of the A. trota strain is a novel colonization factor of Aeromonas spp.

  4. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  5. Concentration-dependent protein adsorption at the nano-bio interfaces of polymeric nanoparticles and serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Xu; Zhu, Guan-Yin; Lu, Bo-Yao; Zhang, Chao-Liang; Peng, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    A comprehensive understanding of nanoparticle (NP)-protein interaction (protein corona formation) is required. So far, many factors influencing this interaction have been investigated, like size and ζ potential. However, NPs exposure concentration has always been ignored. Herein, we aim to disclose the correlation of NPs exposure concentration with protein adsorption. Four polymeric NPs systems possessing similar sizes (230 ± 20 nm) but varied ζ potentials (-30 ∼ +40 mv) were prepared. Physicochemical properties and protein adsorption upon NP-protein interaction were characterized. Protein adsorption capacity and adsorbed protein types were NPs concentration-dependent. Considering the critical impacts of protein adsorption on NPs delivery, our work could be an urgent warning about the possible risks of dosage adjustment of nanoformulations.

  6. Identification of polycystic ovary syndrome potential drug targets based on pathobiological similarity in the protein-protein interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hao; He, Yuehan; Li, Wan; Wei, Wenqing; Li, Yiran; Xie, Ruiqiang; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Binbin; Lv, Junjie; Zhang, Nana; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinological disorders in reproductive aged women. PCOS and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are closely linked in multiple levels and possess high pathobiological similarity. Here, we put forward a new computational approach based on the pathobiological similarity to identify PCOS potential drug target modules (PPDT-Modules) and PCOS potential drug targets in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). From the systems level and biologi...

  7. Degradation of amyloid beta protein by purified myelin basic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei-Chen; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Smith, Steven O; Van Nostrand, William E

    2009-10-16

    The progressive accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in senile plaques and in the cerebral vasculature is the hallmark of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Impaired clearance of Abeta from the brain likely contributes to the prevalent sporadic form of Alzheimer disease. Several major pathways for Abeta clearance include receptor-mediated cellular uptake, blood-brain barrier transport, and direct proteolytic degradation. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is the major structural protein component of myelin and plays a functional role in the formation and maintenance of the myelin sheath. MBP possesses endogenous serine proteinase activity and can undergo autocatalytic cleavage liberating distinct fragments. Recently, we showed that MBP binds Abeta and inhibits Abeta fibril formation (Hoos, M. D., Ahmed, M., Smith, S. O., and Van Nostrand, W. E. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 9952-9961; Hoos, M. D., Ahmed, M., Smith, S. O., and Van Nostrand, W. E. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 4720-4727). Here we show that Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides are degraded by purified human brain MBP and recombinant human MBP, but not an MBP fragment that lacks autolytic activity. MBP-mediated Abeta degradation is inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors. Similarly, Cos-1 cells expressing MBP degrade exogenous Abeta40 and Abeta42. In addition, we demonstrate that purified MBP also degrades assembled fibrillar Abeta in vitro. Mass spectrometry analysis identified distinct degradation products generated from Abeta digestion by MBP. Lastly, we demonstrate in situ that purified MBP can degrade parenchymal amyloid plaques as well as cerebral vascular amyloid that form in brain tissue of Abeta precursor protein transgenic mice. Together, these findings indicate that purified MBP possesses Abeta degrading activity in vitro.

  8. A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinidi Mohan

    Full Text Available When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L. lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM, a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC(50 values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins.

  9. 3-Amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives: small molecules possessing antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M C; Paul, S; Gupta, P; Tribedi, P; Sarkar, S; Manna, D; Bhattacharjee, S

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic treatment of microbial infections involving biofilm becomes quite challenging because of its increasing antibiotic resistance capacities. Towards this direction, in the present study we have evaluated the antibiofilm property of synthesized 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan compounds having polyamine skeleton. These derivatives were synthesized by incorporating furazan and biguanide moieties. Different 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives (PI1-4) were synthesized via protic acid catalysis and subsequently characterized by (1) H NMR and (13) C NMR spectra, recorded at 400 and 100 MHz respectively. We have tested the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of these synthetic derivatives (PI1-4) against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compounds so tested were also compared with standard antibiotics namely Tobramycin (Ps. aeruginosa) and Azithromycin (Staph. aureus) which were used as a positive control in all experimental sets. All these compounds (PI1-4) exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial activities against both micro-organisms wherein compound PI3 showed maximum activity. Biofilm inhibition of both micro-organisms was then evaluated by crystal violet and safranin staining, estimation of biofilm total protein and microscopy methods using sub-MIC dose of these compounds. Results showed that all compounds executed anti biofilm activity against both Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa wherein compound PI3 exhibited maximum activity. In relation with microbial biofilm inhibition, we have observed reduction in bacterial motility, proteolytic activity and secreted exo-polysaccharide (EPS) from both Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa when they were grown in presence of these compounds. While addressing the issue of toxicity on host, we have observed that these molecules exhibited minimum level of R.B.C degradation. These findings establish the antibacterial and anti biofilm properties of 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan

  10. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  11. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    of research are explored. Here we present an overview of the most widely used protein-protein interaction databases and the methods they employ to gather, combine, and predict interactions. We also point out the trade-off between comprehensiveness and accuracy and the main pitfall scientists have to be aware...

  12. [Structural and Functional Studies on Photoactive Retinal Proteins: Light Becomes Drugs with Proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Retinal proteins possess vitamin A aldehyde (retinal) as a chromophore within seven transmembrane α-helices. Visible light absorption of them triggers trans-cis photoisomerization of the retinal chromophore and induces structural changes in the protein moiety, resulting in a variety of biological functions such as vision, ion transportation, and photosensing. Environmental genomics revealed that retinal proteins are widely distributed through all three biological kingdoms, eukarya, bacteria, and archaea, indicating the biological significance of their light energy conversion. In addition to their biological aspect, retinal proteins have become a focus of interest in part because of applications for optogenetics. On the basis of our results and other findings, we highlight the recent progress in structural and functional studies on retinal proteins.

  13. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Mianji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  14. Process of determining the value of belief about jinn possession and whether or not they are a result of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Elspeth; Abraham, Seri; Nawaz, Shahzada

    2016-02-02

    We present the case of a 28-year-old Afghan woman who presented perinatally with concerns of being possessed by jinns. She was noted to have third person auditory hallucinations, delusions of control and somatic passivity. She was diagnosed with schizophrenia and was treated with antipsychotic medications with a positive outcome. Her husband also believed that his wife was possessed and believed that her jinns talked through his wife on occasions. He did not experience any psychotic symptoms himself. In the Muslim faith, beliefs about jinns are widely held by people with and without any signs of mental illness. We feel that the patient's interpretation of her symptoms was influenced by her and her husband's religious and cultural beliefs, leading to a delay in receiving appropriate treatment. Awareness among mental health professionals about widely held religious and cultural beliefs will enhance the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of similar presentations. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Reversible Albumin-Binding GH Possesses a Potential Once-Weekly Treatment Profile in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Klose, Marianne; Marina, Djordje; Tanvig, Mette; Nielsen, Lene F.; Höybye, Charlotte; Andersen, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2016-01-01

    Context: NNC0195-0092 is a reversible, albumin-binding GH derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate safety, local tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of multiple, once-weekly doses of NNC0195-0092, compared with daily GH. Design and Setting: This was a phase 1, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, multiple-dose, dose-escalation trial. Patients: Thirty-four GH-treated adult subjects (male, n = 25) with GH deficiency participated in the study. Interventions and Main Outcome Measures: Subjects were sequentially assigned into four cohorts of eight subjects, randomized within each cohort (3:1) to once-weekly NNC0195-0092 (n = 6) for 4 weeks (0.02, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg/kg) or daily injections of Norditropin NordiFlex (n = 2) for 4 weeks with a dose replicating the pretrial dose of somatropin. A safety assessment was performed prior to initiating treatment at the next dose level of NNC0195-0092. Daily GH treatment was discontinued 14 days before the trial start. Blood samples were drawn for assessment of safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3) profiles, and immunogenicity studies. Results: Numbers of adverse events were similar at the dose levels of 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 mg/kg NNC0195-0092 vs daily injections of Norditropin NordiFlex, whereas the number of adverse events was greater at the highest dose level of NNC0195-0092 (0.12 mg/kg). NNC0195-0092 (area under the curve[0–168h]) and peak plasma concentration) increased in a dose-dependent manner, and a dose-dependent increase in IGF-1 levels was observed. IGF-1 profiles were elevated for at least 1 week, and for the 0.02-mg/kg and 0.04-mg/kg NNC0195-0092 doses, the observed IGF-1 levels were similar to the levels for the active control group. Conclusion: Four once-weekly doses of NNC0195-0092 (dose range 0.02–0.12 mg/kg) administered to adult patients with GH deficiency were well tolerated

  16. Identification of an anti-lipopolysacchride factor possessing both antiviral and antibacterial activity from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Yu; Gao, Yan; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Qiu-Xia; Zeng, Chang-Lin; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-10-01

    It is well-known that anti-lipopolysacchride factors (ALFs) are involved in the recognition and elimination of invading pathogens. In this study, the full-length ALF cDNA sequence of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (termed CqALF) was cloned from a suppression subtractive hybridization library constructed using red claw crayfish hematopoietic tissue cell (Hpt cell) cultures following challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The full-length cDNA sequence of CqALF was 863 bp, and the open reading frame encoded 123 amino acids with a signal peptide in the N-terminus and a conserved LPS-binding domain. Unlike most ALFs, which are highly expressed in haemocytes, high expression levels of CqALF were detected in epithelium, the stomach and eyestalks, while lower expression was detected in Hpt, nerves, the heart, muscle tissue, gonads, haemocytes, intestines, gills and the hepatopancreas. To further explore the biological activities of CqALF, mature recombinant CqALF protein (rCqALF) was expressed and purified using a eukaryotic expression system, and an antimicrobial activity test was carried out. rCqALF clearly exerted antiviral activity, as evidenced by the severe disruption of the envelope of intact WSSV virions following co-incubation of virions with rCqALF. Additionally, pre-incubation of WSSV with rCqALF resulted in both a significant reduction in WSSV replication in red claw crayfish Hpt cell cultures and an increased survival rate among animals. Furthermore, rCqALF was effective against both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus. A membrane integrity assay suggested that rCqALF was unlikely to disrupt bacterial membrane integrity compared to cecropin P1. Taken together, these data suggest that CqALF may play an important role in immune defence in the crustacean C. quadricarinatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The flavonol-enriched Cistus albidus chloroform extract possesses in vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Ouahiba; Atmani-Kilani, Dina; Sanchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Atmani, Djebbar

    2017-09-14

    Cistus albidus L. (Cistaceae) has been traditionally used to treat various inflammatory diseases, but no systematic studies on the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive actions of C. albidus and its putative mechanism have been reported. We aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of this plant and to characterize its polyphenolic composition by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). A chloroform extract derived from C. albidus leaves was obtained by solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction. The tail immersion test and acetic-acid-induced writhing test were used to evaluate the anti-nociceptive action, while the experimental λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model was used to test the anti-inflammatory action. Changes in cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, as well as the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kB) signaling pathways on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages were analyzed by western blotting. HPLC with diode array detection coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) was performed to determine the phytochemical profile of the extract. Significant anti-nociceptive activity was observed both in the tail immersion (59.63% reduction at 120min) and in the acetic acid (65.94% inhibition) tests at 100mg/kg. The extract (50mg/kg) exhibited a substantial reduction in paw edema (51.6%) and significantly inhibited nitrite generation (72.62%) without affecting cell viability of LPS-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. These results were concomitant with a down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and iNOS in extract-treated macrophages and a decrease in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed that flavonols such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were potentially responsible for such effects

  18. Marsupials and monotremes possess a novel family of MHC class I genes that is lost from the eutherian lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Anthony T; Feng, Zhi-Ping; Krasnec, Katina; Deakin, Janine E; Baker, Michelle L; Miller, Robert D

    2015-07-22

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes are found in the genomes of all jawed vertebrates. The evolution of this gene family is closely tied to the evolution of the vertebrate genome. Family members are frequently found in four paralogous regions, which were formed in two rounds of genome duplication in the early vertebrates, but in some species class Is have been subject to additional duplication or translocation, creating additional clusters. The gene family is traditionally grouped into two subtypes: classical MHC class I genes that are usually MHC-linked, highly polymorphic, expressed in a broad range of tissues and present endogenously-derived peptides to cytotoxic T-cells; and non-classical MHC class I genes generally have lower polymorphism, may have tissue-specific expression and have evolved to perform immune-related or non-immune functions. As immune genes can evolve rapidly and are subject to different selection pressure, we hypothesised that there may be divergent, as yet unannotated or uncharacterised class I genes. Application of a novel method of sensitive genome searching of available vertebrate genome sequences revealed a new, extensive sub-family of divergent MHC class I genes, denoted as UT, which has not previously been characterized. These class I genes are found in both American and Australian marsupials, and in monotremes, at an evolutionary chromosomal breakpoint, but are not present in non-mammalian genomes and have been lost from the eutherian lineage. We show that UT family members are expressed in the thymus of the gray short-tailed opossum and in other immune tissues of several Australian marsupials. Structural homology modelling shows that the proteins encoded by this family are predicted to have an open, though short, antigen-binding groove. We have identified a novel sub-family of putatively non-classical MHC class I genes that are specific to marsupials and monotremes. This family was present in the ancestral mammal and

  19. Mass spectrometric identification of pEGFYSQRYamide: a crustacean peptide hormone possessing a vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like carboxy-terminus

    OpenAIRE

    Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Gardner, Noah P.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Andrew E Christie

    2007-01-01

    In invertebrates, peptides possessing the carboxy (C)-terminal motif -RXRFamide have been proposed as the homologs of vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, in combination with sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation and chemical and enzymatic reactions, we have identified the peptide pEGFYSQRYamide from the neuroendocrine pericardial organ (PO) of the crab Pugettia producta. This peptide is likely the s...

  20. The Agrarian Regularization for Social Interest in the law 11.977 the Seven of July, 2009: The Excess Demanded in the Legitimacy of Possession Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Edimur Ferreira de; Matosinhos, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the institute of agrarian regularization for social interest provided for the Law 11.977/2009, as innovative and important instrument of public policy in the urban reordering of urban spaces and consequent social inclusion mainly the low-income population. This study will be addressed phases, focusing the legitimacy of possession. It shall be verified that the agrarian regularization for social interest actually has a relevance in the organization of ...

  1. How do user experiences with different transport modes affect the risk of traffic accidents? From the viewpoint of licence possession status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2017-02-01

    Road accidents between different modes of transport-such as between automobiles and pedestrians, automobiles and bicycles, or automobiles and motorcycles-are frequent. In such cases, it is important to consider the other side's perspective. This involves the ability to correctly judge, for every given situation, how other people on the road perceive their surroundings and what they intend to do next. In this paper, we conduct two types of studies assuming that this kind of ability to consider perspectives is higher when the person is licenced to drive the mode of transport used by the other party. For Study 1, we analysed accidents involving senior citizens between the ages of 65 and 74 years, who collided with automobiles as pedestrians or cyclists (1656 and 3192 cases respectively), in terms of the accident category and type of road at the accident spot. The results indicate that possession or non-possession of a licence was irrelevant for accidents involving cyclists, but for accidents with pedestrians, senior citizens who did not possess a licence are likely to be involved in a greater number of accidents in places that require interaction with automobiles, such as while crossing at crosswalks or at intersections. For Study 2, we reviewed 875 ordinary first-class licence practical test examinees, categorised them according to their licence possession status (motorcycle licence, moped licence, or no licence), and made a category-wise comparison of the test instructor's assessment of their ability to make a left turn. The results showed that those who had a motorcycle or moped licence tended to make a left turn more safely. Thus, the results indicate that experience with different modes of transport is likely to reduce the risk of accidents. These findings may be used to popularise educational interventions encouraging users of various transport modes to consider the perspective of others (i.e. via perspective-taking). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Vapaatalo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure.

  3. Dietary Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because your body doesn't store it the way it stores fats or carbohydrates. How much you need depends on your age, sex, health, and level of physical activity. Most Americans eat enough protein in their diet.

  4. PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY STUDY OF A CANDIDATE VACCINE AGAINST ROTAVIRUS INFECTION BASED ON RECOMBINANT PROTEIN FliCVP6VP8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dukhovlinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus infection is among leading causes of severe diarrhea which often leads to severe dehydration, especially, in children under 5 years old. In Russia, the incidence of rotavirus infection is constantly increased, due to higher rates of actual rotavirus infection cases and improved diagnostics of the disease. Immunity to rotavirus is unstable, thus causing repeated infections intra vitam. Anti-infectious resistance in reconvalescents is explained by induction of specific IgM, IgG, and, notably, IgA antibodies. Due to absence of market drugs with direct action against rotavirus, a rational vaccination is considered the most effective way to control the disease. Currently available vaccines for prevention of rotavirus infection are based on live attenuated rotavirus strains, human and/or animal origin, which replicate in human gut. Their implementation may result into different complications. Meanwhile, usage of vaccines based on recombinant proteins is aimed to avoid risks associated with introduction of a complete virus into humans. In this paper, we studied protective activity of candidate vaccines against rotavirus.In this work we studied protective activity of a candidate vaccine against rotavirus infection based on recombinant FliCVP6VP8 protein which includes VP6 and VP8, as well as components of Salmonella typhimurium flagellin (FliC as an adjuvant. Different components are joined by flexible bridges. Efficiency of the candidate vaccine was studied in animal model using Balb/c mice. We have shown high level of protection which occurs when the candidate vaccine is administered twice intramuscularly. Complete protection of animals against mouse rotavirus EDC after intramuscular immunization with a candidate vaccine was associated with arising rotavirus-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and intestine of immunized animals. The efficacy of candidate vaccine based on recombinant protein FliCVP6VP8 against rotavirus infection was

  5. Appearance of Myelin proteins during vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehneldt, T V; Matthieu, J M; Jeserich, G

    1986-01-01

    Myelin, defined as an arrangement of spirally fused unit membranes, is an acquisition of vertebrates and first appeared during evolution in Gnathostomata. In all species studied PNS and CNS myelins contain the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the myelin basic protein (MBP). Throughout phylogeny PNS myelin is characterized by the major P(0) glycoprotein which is called IP in fishes. The PNS myelin proteins did not evolve further except for the addition of P(2) protein from reptiles onward. In Elasmobranchii and Chondrostei, PNS and CNS myelin proteins are similar. CNS myelin of actinopterygian fishes possesses a 36,000 Da protein (36K) in addition to P(0)-like IP glycoproteins. In tetrapod CNS myelin, P(0) is replaced by the proteolipid protein (PLP) and the Wolfgram protein (WP). Of particular interest in a transitional phylogenetic sense are the lungfish Protopterus, carrying glycosylated PLP (g-PLP) but no P(0), 36K or WP, and the bichir Polypterus, showing simultaneous presence of P(0), 36K and PLP. These results indicate that myelin proteins could be valuable molecular markers in establishing vertebrate phylogenetic relationships and in reconstructing the fish-tetrapod transition.

  6. Charcot-Leyden Crystal Protein (Galectin-10) Is Not a Dual Function Galectin with Lysophospholipase Activity but Binds a Lysophospholipase Inhibitor in a Novel Structural Fashion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steven J. Ackerman; Li Liu; Mark A. Kwatia; Michael P. Savage; Demetres D. Leonidas; G. Jawahar Swaminathan; K. Ravi Acharya

    2002-01-01

    Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein, initially reported to possess weak lysophospholipase activity, is still considered to be the eosinophil's lysophospholipase, but it shows no sequence similarities to any known lysophospholipases...

  7. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  8. Cloning and characterization of a beta-1,4-mannanase 5C possessing a family 27 carbohydrate-binding module from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain MA-138.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Megumi; Umemoto, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hidenori; Nakano, Daiichirou; Tamaru, Yutaka; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The beta-1,4-mannanase 5C gene (man5C) of Vibrio sp. strain MA-138 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The man5C gene consisted of 2,010 bp nucleotides encoding a protein of 669 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 76,309. beta-1,4-Mannanase (Man5C) is a modular enzyme composed of a catalytic module belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5, a linker region, and a putative carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) belonging to family 27. Recombinant Man5C exhibited maximal activity at 50 degrees C at pH 7.0, and it had a K(m) of 0.6 mg ml(-1) and a V(max) of 556.2 micromol min(-1) mumol(-1) for glucomannan. Binding studies revealed that the C-terminal putative CBM27 had the ability to bind soluble beta-mannans and contributed to increasing the rate of depolymerization by binding to the polymeric substrate. Man5C of Vibrio sp. MA-138 is the first non-extremophile enzyme to be identified as a beta-mannanase possessing CBM27.

  9. Protein Similarity Networks Reveal Relationships among Sequence, Structure, and Function within the Cupin Superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Uberto; Moomaw, Ellen W.

    2013-01-01

    The cupin superfamily is extremely diverse and includes catalytically inactive seed storage proteins, sugar-binding metal-independent epimerases, and metal-dependent enzymes possessing dioxygenase, decarboxylase, and other activities. Although numerous proteins of this superfamily have been structurally characterized, the functions of many of them have not been experimentally determined. We report the first use of protein similarity networks (PSNs) to visualize trends of sequence and structur...

  10. TAK1-binding protein 1 is a pseudophosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Sarah H; Kular, Gursant; Peggie, Mark; Shepherd, Sharon; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W; Cohen, Philip; van Aalten, Daan M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract TAB1 (TAK1-binding protein 1) is one of the regulatory subunits of TGF{beta}-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a protein kinase that lies at the head of three pro-inflammatory kinase cascades. Here we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of TAB1. Surprisingly, TAB1 possesses a fold closely related to that of the PPM phosphatase family as demonstrated by the close structural similarity with protein phosphatase 2C{alpha}. However, we were unable to detect any phosp...

  11. [Quaternion-based Characterization of Protein α Helix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong; Chu, Zefei

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a method based on quaternion for characterization a helix of proteins. The method defines the parameter called Quaternion Helix Axis Spherical Distance (QHASD) on the basis of mapping protein Cα frames' helical axis onto a unit sphere, and uses QHASD to characterize the a helix of the protein secondary structure. Application of this method has been verified based on the PDBselect database, with an a helix characterization accuracy of 91.7%. This method possesses significant advantages of high detection accuracy, low computation and clear geometric significance.

  12. Semisynthesis of Ribonuclease A using Intein-Mediated Protein Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Arnold; Hinderaker, Matthew P.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of non-natural amino acid residues or modules into proteins provides a new means to explore the basis for conformational stability, folding/unfolding behavior, or biological function. We exploited intein-mediated protein ligation to produce a semisynthetic ribonuclease A. Of the 124 residues of RNase A, residues 1–94 were linked to an intein. After expression of the fusion protein and thiol-induced cleavage, the RNase A(1–94) fragment possessed a C-terminal thioester. A pepti...

  13. Clustering of protein structures using hydrophobic free energy and solvent accessibility of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z G; Anh, V V; Lau, K S; Zhou, L Q

    2006-03-01

    The hydrophobic free energy and solvent accessibility of amino acids are used to study the relationship between the primary structure and structural classification of large proteins. A measure representation and a Z curve representation of protein sequences are proposed. Fractal analysis of the measure and Z curve representations of proteins and multifractal analysis of their hydrophobic free energy and solvent accessibility sequences indicate that the protein sequences possess correlations and multifractal scaling. The parameters from the fractal and multifractal analyses on these sequences are used to construct some parameter spaces. Each protein is represented by a point in these spaces. A method is proposed to distinguish and cluster proteins from the alpha, beta, alpha + beta, and alpha/beta structural classes in these parameter spaces. Fisher's linear discriminant algorithm is used to give a quantitative assessment of our clustering on the selected proteins. Numerical results indicate that the discriminant accuracies are satisfactory. In particular, they reach 94.12% and 88.89% in separating proteins from {alpha, alpha + beta, alpha/beta} proteins in a three-dimensional space.

  14. Lymphotactin: How a protein can adopt two folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sutto, Ludovico

    2009-12-01

    Metamorphic proteins such as lymphotactin are a notable exception of the empirical principle that structured natural proteins possess a unique three-dimensional structure. In particular, the human chemokine lymphotactin protein exists in two distinct conformations (one monomeric and one dimeric) under physiological conditions. In this work, we use a Cα Go¯ model to show how this very peculiar behavior can be reproduced. From the study of the thermodynamics and of the kinetics, we characterize the interconversion mechanism. In particular, this takes place through the docking of the two chains living in a third monomeric, partially unfolded, state which shows a residual structure involving a set of local contacts common to the two native conformations. The main feature of two fold proteins appears to be the sharing of a common set of local contacts between the two distinct folds as confirmed by the study of two designed two fold proteins. Metamorphic proteins may be more common than expected.

  15. A phenazine-1-carboxylic acid producing polyextremophilic Pseudomonas chlororaphis (MCC2693) strain, isolated from mountain ecosystem, possesses biocontrol and plant growth promotion abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Pandey, Anita

    2016-09-01

    The genus Pseudomonas is known to comprise a huge diversity of species with the ability to thrive in different habitats, including those considered as extreme environments. In the present study, a psychrotolerant, wide pH tolerant and halotolerant strain of Pseudomonas chlororaphis GBPI_507 (MCC2693), isolated from the wheat rhizosphere growing in a mountain location in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), has been investigated for its antimicrobial potential with particular reference to phenazine production and plant growth promoting traits. GBPI_507 showed phenazine production at the temperatures ranged from 14 to 25°C. The benzene extracted compound identified as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) through GC-MS exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram positive bacteria and actinomycetes. The inhibition of phytopathogens in diffusible biocontrol assays was recorded in an order: Alternaria alternata>Phytophthora sp.>Fusarium solani>F. oxysporum. In volatile metabolite assays, all the pathogens, except Phytophthora sp. produced distorted colonies, characterized by restricted sporulation. The isolate also possessed other growth promoting and biocontrol traits including phosphate solubilization and production of siderophores, HCN, ammonia, and lytic enzymes (lipase and protease). Molecular studies confirmed production of PCA by the bacterium GBPI_507 through presence of phzCD and phzE genes in its genome. The polyextremophilic bacterial strain possesses various important characters to consider it as a potential agent for field applications, especially in mountain ecosystem, for sustainable and eco-friendly crop production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Possessed persons - useful ritual functonaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Danijel Sinani, Opsednutost i egzorcizam u Srbiji. Antropološki pristup (The Obsession and the Exorcism in Serbia. Anthropological Approach, Srpski genealoški centar i Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Beogradu, knj. 31, Beograd, 2007, str. 190.

  17. Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; Confalonieri, S; Doria, M

    1997-01-01

    EH is a recently identified protein-protein interaction domain found in the signal transducers Eps15 and Eps15R and several other proteins of yeast nematode. We show that EH domains from Eps15 and Eps15R bind in vitro to peptides containing an asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF) motif. Direct...... screening of expression libraries with EH domains yielded a number of putative EH interactors, all of which possessed NPF motifs that were shown to be responsible for the interaction. Among these interactors were the human homolog of NUMB, a developmentally reguated gene of Drosophila, and RAB, the cellular...... cofactor of the HIV REV protein. We demonstrated coimmunoprecipitation of Eps15 with NUMB and RAB. Finally, in vitro binding of NPF-containing peptides to cellular proteins and EST database screening established the existence of a family of EH-containing proteins in mammals. Based on the characteristics...

  18. Extraction of Escherichia coli proteins with organic solvents prior to two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, M P; Herbert, B R; Williams, K L; Gooley, A A

    1999-01-01

    Compared to soluble proteins, hydrophobic proteins, in particular membrane proteins, are an underrepresented protein species on two-dimensional (2-D) gels. One possibility is that many hydrophobic proteins are simply not extracted from the sample prior to 2-D gel separation. We attempted to isolate hydrophobic proteins from Escherichia coli by extracting with organic solvents, then reconstituting the extracted proteins in highly solubilising sample solution amenable to 2-D electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradients (IPGs). This was conducted by an extraction with a mixture of chloroform and methanol, followed by solubilisation using a combination of urea, thiourea, sulfobetaine detergents and tributyl phosphine. Peptide mass fingerprinting assisted in the identification of 13 proteins, 8 of which have not previously been reported on 2-D gels. Five of these new proteins possess a positive hydropathy plot. These results suggest that organic solvent extractions may be useful for selectively isolating some proteins that have previously been missing from proteome maps.

  19. Compartmentalization and Functionality of Nuclear Disorder: Intrinsic Disorder and Protein-Protein Interactions in Intra-Nuclear Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanchi; Na, Insung; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus contains a number of membrane-less organelles or intra-nuclear compartments. These compartments are dynamic structures representing liquid-droplet phases which are only slightly denser than the bulk intra-nuclear fluid. They possess different functions, have diverse morphologies, and are typically composed of RNA (or, in some cases, DNA) and proteins. We analyzed 3005 mouse proteins localized in specific intra-nuclear organelles, such as nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinuclear compartment and compared them with ~29,863 non-nuclear proteins from mouse proteome. Our analysis revealed that intrinsic disorder is enriched in the majority of intra-nuclear compartments, except for the nuclear pore and lamina. These compartments are depleted in proteins that lack disordered domains and enriched in proteins that have multiple disordered domains. Moonlighting proteins found in multiple intra-nuclear compartments are more likely to have multiple disordered domains. Protein-protein interaction networks in the intra-nuclear compartments are denser and include more hubs compared to the non-nuclear proteins. Hubs in the intra-nuclear compartments (except for the nuclear pore) are enriched in disorder compared with non-nuclear hubs and non-nuclear proteins. Therefore, our work provides support to the idea of the functional importance of intrinsic disorder in the cell nucleus and shows that many proteins associated with sub-nuclear organelles in nuclei of mouse cells are enriched in disorder. This high level of disorder in the mouse nuclear proteins defines their ability to serve as very promiscuous binders, possessing both large quantities of potential disorder-based interaction sites and the ability of a single such site to be involved in a large number of interactions. PMID:26712748

  20. Modularity in the evolution of yeast protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogishima, Soichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Protein interaction networks are known to exhibit remarkable structures: scale-free and small-world and modular structures. To explain the evolutionary processes of protein interaction networks possessing scale-free and small-world structures, preferential attachment and duplication-divergence models have been proposed as mathematical models. Protein interaction networks are also known to exhibit another remarkable structural characteristic, modular structure. How the protein interaction networks became to exhibit modularity in their evolution? Here, we propose a hypothesis of modularity in the evolution of yeast protein interaction network based on molecular evolutionary evidence. We assigned yeast proteins into six evolutionary ages by constructing a phylogenetic profile. We found that all the almost half of hub proteins are evolutionarily new. Examining the evolutionary processes of protein complexes, functional modules and topological modules, we also found that member proteins of these modules tend to appear in one or two evolutionary ages. Moreover, proteins in protein complexes and topological modules show significantly low evolutionary rates than those not in these modules. Our results suggest a hypothesis of modularity in the evolution of yeast protein interaction network as systems evolution.

  1. Unusual biophysics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-05-01

    Research of a past decade and a half leaves no doubt that complete understanding of protein functionality requires close consideration of the fact that many functional proteins do not have well-folded structures. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are highly abundant in nature and play a number of crucial roles in a living cell. Their functions, which are typically associated with a wide range of intermolecular interactions where IDPs possess remarkable binding promiscuity, complement functional repertoire of ordered proteins. All this requires a close attention to the peculiarities of biophysics of these proteins. In this review, some key biophysical features of IDPs are covered. In addition to the peculiar sequence characteristics of IDPs these biophysical features include sequential, structural, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity of IDPs; their rough and relatively flat energy landscapes; their ability to undergo both induced folding and induced unfolding; the ability to interact specifically with structurally unrelated partners; the ability to gain different structures at binding to different partners; and the ability to keep essential amount of disorder even in the bound form. IDPs are also characterized by the "turned-out" response to the changes in their environment, where they gain some structure under conditions resulting in denaturation or even unfolding of ordered proteins. It is proposed that the heterogeneous spatiotemporal structure of IDPs/IDPRs can be described as a set of foldons, inducible foldons, semi-foldons, non-foldons, and unfoldons. They may lose their function when folded, and activation of some IDPs is associated with the awaking of the dormant disorder. It is possible that IDPs represent the "edge of chaos" systems which operate in a region between order and complete randomness or chaos, where the complexity is maximal. This article is part of a Special Issue

  2. "Pistacia lentiscus L." reduces the infarct size in normal fed anesthetized rabbits and possess antiatheromatic and hypolipidemic activity in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadou, Ioanna; Mitakou, Sofia; Paraschos, Sotirios; Efentakis, Panagiotis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo the potential anti-ischemic and antiatheromatic activity of Chios Mastic gum, the resin of the trunk and branches of "Pistacia lentiscus var. chia", used since antiquity in traditional Greek medicine. The main compounds of mastic are triterpenes, possessing phytosterol-like structures. This led to the hypothesis that mastic and particularly its neutral fraction, enriched in phytosterol-like compounds, possess antiatheromatic activities. Total Mastic Extract without Polymer (TMEWP) and the neutral mastic fraction (NMF) were administered orally for 6 weeks to normal fed and to cholesterol fed rabbits in the form of sunflower oil solution. All the animals were randomly divided into 6 groups, anesthetized and subjected to 30min ischemia of the heart, followed by 3h reperfusion: At the end of the experiment the area at risk and the infarct zone were determined with the aid of fluorescent particles and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, and small segments of the ascending and descending aorta and the heart were taken for histologic examination. Blood samples were collected at different time points of ischemia and reperfusion, for malondialdehyde (MDA) evaluation as an index of lipid peroxidation, for total and LDL cholesterol determination and for evaluation of oxidized LDL. In the normal fed animals the NMF and the TMEWP reduced significantly the infarct size, while in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits both treatments were ineffective. Atherosclerosis was detected in all the animals fed cholesterol enriched diet in the form of subintimal accumulation of lipids and foamy macrophages. There was no detection of atherosclerosis in Groups treated with TMEWP and NMF, which both reduced the total cholesterol levels by 47 and 88% respectively, whilst had not effect on LDL oxidation. TMEWP and NMF reduced the MDA concentration in normal fed rabbits, but had no effect on MDA levels in cholesterol fed animals. TMEWP and

  3. Evolution of Respiratory Proteins across the Pancrustacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory proteins enhance the capacity of the blood for oxygen transport and support intracellular storage and delivery of oxygen. Hemocyanin and hemoglobin are the respiratory proteins that occur in the Pancrustacea. The copper-containing hemocyanins evolved from phenoloxidases in the stem lineage of arthropods. For a long time, hemocyanins had only been known from the malacostracan crustaceans but recent studies identified hemocyanin also in Remipedia, Ostracoda, and Branchiura. Hemoglobins are common in the Branchiopoda but have also been sporadically found in other crustacean classes (Malacostraca, Copepoda, Thecostraca). Respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary in the hexapods because of the tracheal system. Only chironomids, some backswimmers, and the horse botfly, which all live under hypoxic conditions, were known exceptions and possess hemoglobins. However, recent data suggest that hemocyanins occur in most ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects. Phylogenetic analysis showed the hemocyanins of insects and Remipedia to be similar, suggesting a close relationship of these taxa. Hemocyanin has been lost in dragonflies, mayflies, and Eumetabola (Hemiptera + Holometabola). In cockroaches and grasshoppers, hemocyanin expression is restricted to the developing embryo while in adults oxygen is supplied solely by the tracheal system. This pattern suggests that hemocyanin was the oxygen-transport protein in the hemolymph of the last common ancestor of the pancrustaceans. The loss was probably associated with miniaturization, a period of restricted availability of oxygen, a change in life-style, or morphological changes. Once lost, hemocyanin was not regained. Some pancrustaceans also possess cellular globin genes with uncertain functions, which are expressed at low levels. When a respiratory protein was again required, hemoglobins evolved several times independently from cellular globins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  4. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  5. Evolutionarily conserved herpesviral protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Even Fossum

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses constitute a family of large DNA viruses widely spread in vertebrates and causing a variety of different diseases. They possess dsDNA genomes ranging from 120 to 240 kbp encoding between 70 to 170 open reading frames. We previously reported the protein interaction networks of two herpesviruses, varicella-zoster virus (VZV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV. In this study, we systematically tested three additional herpesvirus species, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1, murine cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, for protein interactions in order to be able to perform a comparative analysis of all three herpesvirus subfamilies. We identified 735 interactions by genome-wide yeast-two-hybrid screens (Y2H, and, together with the interactomes of VZV and KSHV, included a total of 1,007 intraviral protein interactions in the analysis. Whereas a large number of interactions have not been reported previously, we were able to identify a core set of highly conserved protein interactions, like the interaction between HSV-1 UL33 with the nuclear egress proteins UL31/UL34. Interactions were conserved between orthologous proteins despite generally low sequence similarity, suggesting that function may be more conserved than sequence. By combining interactomes of different species we were able to systematically address the low coverage of the Y2H system and to extract biologically relevant interactions which were not evident from single species.

  6. New partner proteins containing novel internal recognition motif for human glutaminase interacting protein (hGIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencir, Sevil; Banerjee, Monimoy; Dobson, Melanie J; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Fodor, Elfrieda Ayaydin; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2013-03-01

    Regulation of gene expression in cells is mediated by protein-protein, DNA-protein and receptor-ligand interactions. PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domains are protein-protein interaction modules. PDZ-containing proteins function in the organization of multi-protein complexes controlling spatial and temporal fidelity of intracellular signaling pathways. In general, PDZ proteins possess multiple domains facilitating distinct interactions. The human glutaminase interacting protein (hGIP) is an unusual PDZ protein comprising entirely of a single PDZ domain and plays pivotal roles in many cellular processes through its interaction with the C-terminus of partner proteins. Here, we report the identification by yeast two-hybrid screening of two new hGIP-interacting partners, DTX1 and STAU1. Both proteins lack the typical C-terminal PDZ recognition motif but contain a novel internal hGIP recognition motif recently identified in a phage display library screen. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the in vivo association of hGIP with DTX1 and STAU1 in mammalian cells validating the previous discovery of S/T-X-V/L-D as a consensus internal motif for hGIP recognition. Similar to hGIP, DTX1 and STAU1 have been implicated in neuronal function. Identification of these new interacting partners furthers our understanding of GIP-regulated signaling cascades and these interactions may represent potential new drug targets in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MAP Tag: A Novel Tagging System for Protein Purification and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuki; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    Protein purification is an essential procedure in fields such as biochemistry, molecular biology, and biophysics. Acquiring target proteins with high quality and purity is still difficult, although several tag systems have been established for protein purification. Affinity tag systems are excellent because they possess high affinity and specificity for acquiring the target proteins. Nevertheless, further affinity tag systems are needed to compensate for several disadvantages of the presently available affinity tag systems. Herein, we developed a novel affinity tag system designated as the MAP tag system. This system is composed of a rat anti-mouse podoplanin monoclonal antibody (clone PMab-1) and MAP tag (GDGMVPPGIEDK) derived from the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of mouse podoplanin. PMab-1 possesses high affinity and specificity for the MAP tag, and the PMab-1/MAP tag complex dissociates in the presence of the epitope peptide, indicating that the MAP tag system is suitable for protein purification. We successfully purified several proteins, including a nuclear protein, soluble proteins, and a membrane protein using the MAP tag system. The MAP tag system is very useful not only for protein purification but also in protein detection systems such as western blot and flow cytometric analyses. Taken together, these findings indicate that the MAP tag system could be a powerful tool for protein purification and detection.

  8. Crystal growth and characterization studies of novel luminescent 2D coordination polymer of lead-benzilate possessing edge sharing PbO6 polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya Mol, U. S.; Drisya, R.; Satheesh Chandran, P. R.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.; Sudhadevi Antharjanam, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of a new coordination polymer of lead-benzilate, C28H21O6Pb·C2H5OH have been successfully grown by gel diffusion technique at room temperature. The colourless single crystals were obtained within a week. The crystal structure was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound possesses a polymeric structure constructed from edge sharing PbO6 polyhedra. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the compound crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1. The grown crystals were further characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Visible and thermogravimetric analysis. The photoluminescent properties of the complex and the ligand were also investigated.

  9. [Prospects for the use of cells possessing myogenic potential in the treatment of skeletal muscle diseases: a review of research. Part 1 - satellite cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, V L; Zorina, A I; Pulin, A A; Kopnin, P B; Eremin, I I

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal functions disorders may develop as a consequence of injuries and various types of congenital / acquired diseases, among which a special place belongs to muscular dystrophy. The technology with use of cells possessing myogenic potential is considered as one of the most promising approaches to solve the problem of effective restoration of skeletal muscles structure and function. In part I of the article the characteristic features, functions and phenotypic characteristics of satellite cells (SC) are reviewed as key factors of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. Presented analysis of research results (preclinical and clinical) concerning therapeutic possibilities of technology using SC. In the second part of review will be presented data of the therapeutic use of stem cells of muscle and non-muscle origin for the treatment of skeletal muscles diseases.

  10. Medical librarians supporting information systems project lifecycles toward improved patient safety. Medical librarians possess expertise to navigate various search resources and can investigate inquiries during IS project lifecycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimbert, Marie K; Zhang, Yingting; Pierce, Jenny; Moncrief, Erica S; O'Hagan, Keydi Boss; Cole, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) have progressed from being used to manage billing to impacting patient safety and health professionals' job satisfaction. Many decisions are made during project management and the information system lifecycle of a HIS. Medical librarians are underutilized in HIS lifecycles; it may not be clear to stakeholders what they can provide and where their services fit. Medical librarians possess expertise to navigate various search resources and can investigate inquiries during information systems project lifecycles. Librarians can market specific skills to project lifecycle teams such as those involved in computerized provider order entry (CPOE), electronic medication administration record (eMAR) and root cause analysis (RCA). HIS project personnel, including patient safety team members, should make use of medical librarians in phases of health information systems project management. This will help them meet institutional and global objectives for evidence-based use of technology towards improved patient safety.

  11. An RNA aptamer possessing a novel monovalent cation-mediated fold inhibits lysozyme catalysis by inhibiting the binding of long natural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padlan, Camille S; Malashkevich, Vladimir N; Almo, Steve C; Levy, Matthew; Brenowitz, Michael; Girvin, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    RNA aptamers are being developed as inhibitors of macromolecular and cellular function, diagnostic tools, and potential therapeutics. Our understanding of the physical nature of this emerging class of nucleic acid-protein complexes is limited; few atomic resolution structures have been reported for aptamers bound to their protein target. Guided by chemical mapping, we systematically minimized an RNA aptamer (Lys1) selected against hen egg white lysozyme. The resultant 59-nucleotide compact aptamer (Lys1.2minE) retains nanomolar binding affinity and the ability to inhibit lysozyme's catalytic activity. Our 2.0-Å crystal structure of the aptamer-protein complex reveals a helical stem stabilizing two loops to form a protein binding platform that binds lysozyme distal to the catalytic cleft. This structure along with complementary solution analyses illuminate a novel protein-nucleic acid interface; (1) only 410 Å(2) of solvent accessible surface are buried by aptamer binding; (2) an unusually small fraction (∼18%) of the RNA-protein interaction is electrostatic, consistent with the limited protein phosphate backbone contacts observed in the structure; (3) a single Na(+) stabilizes the loops that constitute the protein-binding platform, and consistent with this observation, Lys1.2minE-lysozyme complex formation takes up rather than displaces cations at low ionic strength; (4) Lys1.2minE inhibits catalysis of large cell wall substrates but not catalysis of small model substrates; and (5) the helical stem of Lys1.2minE can be shortened to four base pairs (Lys1.2minF) without compromising binding affinity, yielding a 45-nucleotide aptamer whose structure may be an adaptable protein binding platform.

  12. Biochemical and functional characterization of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Entamoeba histolytica, which possesses both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated serine metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Vahab; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular eukaryote that possesses both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated serine metabolic pathways. In the present study, we described enzymological and functional characterization of phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT) from E. histolytica. E. histolytica PSAT (EhPSAT) showed maximum activity for the forward reaction at basic pH, dissimilar to mammalian PSAT, which showed sharp neutral optimum pH. EhPSAT activity was significantly inhibited by substrate analogs, O-phospho-d-serine, O-phospho-l-threonine, and O-acetylserine, suggesting possible regulation of the amoebic PSAT by these metabolic intermediates. Fractionation of the whole parasite lysate and rEhPSAT by anion exchange chromatography verified that EhPSAT represents a dominant PSAT activity. EhPSAT showed a close kinship to PSAT from bacteroides based on amino acid alignment and phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that E. histolytica gained this gene from bacteroides by lateral gene transfer. Comparisons of kinetic properties of recombinant PSAT from E. histolytica and Arabidopsis thaliana showed that EhPSAT possesses significantly higher affinity toward glutamate than the A. thaliana counterpart, which may be explained by significant differences in the isoelectric point and the substitution of arginine, which is involved the binding to the gamma-carboxylate moiety of glutamate, in Escherichia coli PSAT, to serine or threonine in E. histolytica or A. thaliana PSAT, respectively. Heterologous expression of EhPSAT successfully rescued growth defect of a serine-auxotrophic E. coli strain KL282, where serC was deleted, confirming its in vivo role in serine biosynthesis. Together with our previous demonstration of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, the present study reinforces physiological significance of the phosphorylated pathway in amoeba.

  13. Human G3P[9] rotavirus strains possessing an identical genotype constellation to AU-1 isolated at high prevalence in Brazil, 1997–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) A is a very common cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Most human strains are classified into two major Wa-like and DS-1-like genotype constellations, whilst a minor third strain, AU-1, was described in 1989 among human RV isolates from Japan. AU-1 demonstrates a high degree of homology to a feline RV, FRV-1, which suggests interspecies transmission of feline RV. However, there has been no subsequent report of RVs possessing the AU-1 genotype throughout all 11 genes of the genome. Between March 1997 and December 1999, 157 RV-positive stool samples were collected from Brazilian children, and 16 of the RVs (10.2 %) were P[9] genotype. We analysed eight strains by almost full-genome sequencing. These eight strains were divided into two groups: five AU-1-like and three Wa-like strains. Four of the five AU-1-like strains had the AU-1-like genotype constellation throughout the 11 genes. The remaining AU-1-like strain was considered to be a reassortant strain comprosed of nine, two and one genes from the AU-1-like, Wa-like and G9 strains, respectively. The three Wa-like strains were considered to be reassortants comprising seven to eight genes and three to four genes from Wa-like and non-Wa-like strains, respectively. This report of human G3P[9] RV strains possessing the AU-1 genotype constellation throughout all genes demonstrates the stability and infectivity of the AU-1-like strain with its original genotype over distance and time. PMID:25467218

  14. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  15. Peroxin Puzzles and Folded Freight: Peroxisomal Protein Import in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Wendy J.; Olsen, Laura J.

    Peroxisomes are organelles that perform a variety of functions, including the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation of fatty acids. Peroxisomes do not possess organellar DNA; all peroxisomal matrix proteins are posttranslationally translocated into the organelle. The mechanism of peroxisomal protein translocation has been the subject of vigorous research in the past decade. Many of the proteins (peroxins, abbreviated Pex) that play critical roles in peroxisome biogenesis have been identified through functional complementation of yeast strains and of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Researchers are now turning towards biochemical and genetic analyses of these peroxins to define their roles in peroxisome biogenesis and to discover interacting protein partners. Evidence suggests that some of the interacting partners include molecular chaperones. Several current models for peroxisomal protein import are presented.

  16. Hourglass Model for a Protein-Based Circadian Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberly, Eldon; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2006-01-01

    Many organisms possess internal biochemical clocks, known as circadian oscillators, which allow them to regulate their biological activity with a 24-hour period. It was recently discovered that the circadian oscillator of photosynthetic cyanobacteria is able to function in a test tube with only three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, and ATP. Biochemical events are intrinsically stochastic, and this tends to desynchronize oscillating protein populations. We propose that stability of the Kai-protein oscillator relies on active synchronization by (i) monomer exchange between KaiC hexamers during the day, and (ii) formation of clusters of KaiC hexamers at night. Our results highlight the importance of collective assembly or disassembly of proteins in biochemical networks, and may help guide design of novel protein-based oscillators.

  17. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N.; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interaction entropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interaction entropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  18. Flexible Proteins at the Origin of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A; Shannon, Gareth

    2017-06-05

    Almost all modern proteins possess well-defined, relatively rigid scaffolds that provide structural preorganization for desired functions. Such scaffolds require the sufficient length of a polypeptide chain and extensive evolutionary optimization. How ancestral proteins attained functionality, even though they were most likely markedly smaller than their contemporary descendants, remains a major, unresolved question in the origin of life. On the basis of evidence from experiments and computer simulations, we argue that at least some of the earliest water-soluble and membrane proteins were markedly more flexible than their modern counterparts. As an example, we consider a small, evolved in vitro ligase, based on a novel architecture that may be the archetype of primordial enzymes. The protein does not contain a hydrophobic core or conventional elements of the secondary structure characteristic of modern water-soluble proteins, but instead is built of a flexible, catalytic loop supported by a small hydrophilic core containing zinc atoms. It appears that disorder in the polypeptide chain imparts robustness to mutations in the protein core. Simple ion channels, likely the earliest membrane protein assemblies, could also be quite flexible, but still retain their functionality, again in contrast to their modern descendants. This is demonstrated in the example of antiamoebin, which can serve as a useful model of small peptides forming ancestral ion channels. Common features of the earliest, functional protein architectures discussed here include not only their flexibility, but also a low level of evolutionary optimization and heterogeneity in amino acid composition and, possibly, the type of peptide bonds in the protein backbone.

  19. The role of whey acidic protein four-disulfide-core proteins in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Donna M; Doherty, Declan F; Dougan, Caoifa M; Weldon, Sinéad; Taggart, Clifford C

    2017-04-01

    Members of the whey acidic protein (WAP) or WAP four-disulfide-core (WFDC) family of proteins are a relatively under-explored family of low molecular weight proteins. The two most prominent WFDC proteins, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and elafin (or the precursor, trappin-2), have been shown to possess multiple functions including anti-protease, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. It is therefore of no surprise that both SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 have been developed as potential therapeutics. Given the abundance of SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 in the human lung, most work in the area of WFDC research has focused on the role of WFDC proteins in protecting the lung from proteolytic attack. In this review, we will outline the current evidence regarding the expanding role of WFDC protein function with a focus on WFDC activity in lung disease as well as emerging data regarding the function of some of the more recently described WFDC proteins.

  20. Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, D.

    1994-06-01

    Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein`s amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate.

  1. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ... from the foods you eat. Different Kinds of Protein Protein from animal sources, such as meat and ...

  2. Raman optical activity of proteins and glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, E

    2000-03-01

    may offer the potential to understand the mode of function of these proteins in the solution state. Proteins with irregular folds are the subjects of study in chapter seven. Model homopolypeptides are examined and used to help determine that certain proteins are composed of largely disordered regions of their polypeptide backbone structure in solution. Results from ROA suggest that there are two distinct types of disorder in these proteins. For example, phosvitin appears to possess 'unstructured' disorder similar to that of reduced or molten globule proteins; whereas other samples such as invertase and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor possess 'structured' disorder similar to that found in loops and turns. In chapter eight ROA studies on a set of miscellaneous proteins together with a few carbohydrates are presented. Samples such as aldolase and concanavalin A are potentially useful in revealing the differences found in proteins with differing {beta}-barrel structures. In future studies such comparisons may prove useful in a more general setting of solution structure studies of proteins that are not amenable to conventional structure elucidation techniques such as NMR (due to size constraints) and X-ray crystallography (due to difficult sample preparation). Also, some carbohydrate samples are examined to explore the conditions needed to determine the glycan structure of glycoproteins. Overall, past and present studies suggest that ROA offers an additional tool for the structure elucidation of biological samples that are difficult to study using standard techniques. Improvements in instrumentation and sample conditions together with numerical and analytical methods such as pattern recognition or regression analysis may provide substantial results in future studies. (author)

  3. Investigating neuronal function with optically controllable proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin X Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the nervous system, protein activities are highly regulated in space and time. This regulation allows for fine modulation of neuronal structure and function during development and adaptive responses. For example, neurite extension and synaptogenesis both involve localized and transient activation of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins, allowing changes in microarchitecture to occur rapidly and in a localized manner. To investigate the role of specific protein regulation events in these processes, scientists have been developing tools for optical control of the activity of specific proteins. In this review, we focus on how some recently developed optical control modules have been used in neuroscience applications. These tools have demonstrated impressive versatility in controlling various protein families and thereby cellular functions, and possess enormous potential for future applications in nervous systems. Just as optogenetic control of neuronal firings using rhodopsins has changed how we investigate circuitry function in vivo, optical control may yet yield another revolution in how we study intracellular signaling activities in the brain.

  4. Variation in the Subcellular Localization and Protein Folding Activity among Arabidopsis thaliana Homologs of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Y. L. Yuen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs catalyze the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds to properly fold nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Classical animal and yeast PDIs possess two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (a, a′ and two non-catalytic domains (b, b′, in the order a-b-b′-a′. The model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes 12 PDI-like proteins, six of which possess the classical PDI domain arrangement (AtPDI1 through AtPDI6. Three additional AtPDIs (AtPDI9, AtPDI10, AtPDI11 possess two thioredoxin domains, but without intervening b-b′ domains. C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusions to each of the nine dual-thioredoxin PDI homologs localized predominantly to the ER lumen when transiently expressed in protoplasts. Additionally, expression of AtPDI9:GFP-KDEL and AtPDI10: GFP-KDDL was associated with the formation of ER bodies. AtPDI9, AtPDI10, and AtPDI11 mediated the oxidative folding of alkaline phosphatase when heterologously expressed in the Escherichia coli protein folding mutant, dsbA−. However, only three classical AtPDIs (AtPDI2, AtPDI5, AtPDI6 functionally complemented dsbA−. Interestingly, chemical inducers of the ER unfolded protein response were previously shown to upregulate most of the AtPDIs that complemented dsbA−. The results indicate that Arabidopsis PDIs differ in their localization and protein folding activities to fulfill distinct molecular functions in the ER.

  5. Examining the association between possessing a regular source of healthcare and adherence with cancer screenings among Haitian households in Little Haiti, Miami-Dade County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hauchie; Cataldi, Mariel; Allseits, Emmanuelle; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; de la Vega, Pura Rodríguez; Castro, Grettel; Acuña, Juan Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Immigrant minorities regularly experience higher incidence and mortality rates of cancer. Frequently, a variety of social determinants create obstacles for those individuals to get the screenings they need. This is especially true for Haitian immigrants, a particularly vulnerable immigrant population in South Florida, who have been identified as having low cancer screening rates. While Haitian immigrants have some of the lowest cancer screening rates in the country, there is little existing literature that addresses barriers to cancer screenings among the population of Little Haiti in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between having a regular source of healthcare and adherence to recommended cancer screenings in the Little Haiti population of Miami.This secondary analysis utilized data collected from a random-sample, population-based household survey conducted from November 2011 to December 2012 among a geographic area approximating Little Haiti in Miami-Dade County, Florida. A total of 421 households identified as Haitian. The main exposure of interest was whether households possessed a regular source of care. Three separate outcomes were considered: adherence with colorectal cancer screening, mammogram adherence, and Pap smear adherence. Analysis was limited to households who met the age criteria for each outcome of interest. Bivariate associations were examined using the chi square test and Fisher exact test. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).After adjusting for the head of household's education and household insurance status, households without a regular source of care were significantly less likely to adhere with colorectal cancer screening (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14-0.80) or mammograms (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11-0.75). Households with insurance coverage gaps were significantly less likely to adhere with

  6. Hedgehog Protein Cholesterolysis: A New Therapeutic Target for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    provide proof of concept but do not possess the physico- chemical characteristics of drug-like molecules. B) Compounds to be screened in year 3 include...a sterol mole - cule.[15] To establish conjugation of A and G to the SHhN C ter- minus, molecular masses of the trypsin-digested proteins were

  7. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  8. Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases control antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Lieder, Sarah; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) possesses a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP),PtpA, that affects the production of undecylprodigionsin (RED) and actinorhodin (ACT). In this study we identifiedanother LMW-PTP called sco3700. Tyrosine phosphatase activity of the purified Sco...

  9. Immunoglobulin M and G antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, M; Rowe, P; Bennett, S

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe the age-related immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG response to part of a 220-kDa glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) from Plasmodium falciparum and to determine possible correlations of possession of these antibodies with malaria morbidity. IgM and IgG levels...

  10. Cysteine-rich mini-proteins in human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Vincent; Taft, Ryan J; Alewood, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between structure and function underpins both biochemistry and chemical biology, and has enabled the discovery of numerous agricultural and therapeutic agents. Small cysteine-rich proteins, which form a unique set of protein frameworks and folds, are found in all living organisms and often play crucial roles as hormones, growth factors, ion channel modulators and enzyme inhibitors in various biological pathways. Here we review secreted human cysteine-rich mini-proteins, classify them into broad families and briefly describe their structure and function. To systematically investigate this protein sub-class we designed a step-wise high throughput algorithm that is able to isolate the mature and active forms of human secreted cysteine-rich proteins (up to 200 amino acids in length) and extract their cysteine scaffolds. We limited our search to frameworks that contain an even number of cysteine residues (5% cysteine residues led to the identification of 22 cysteine-rich frameworks representing 21 protein families. Analysis of their molecular targets showed that these mini-proteins are frequently ligands for G protein- and enzyme-coupled receptors, transporters, extracellular enzyme inhibitors, and antimicrobial peptides. It is clear that these human secreted mini-proteins possess a wide diversity of frameworks and folds, some of which are conserved across the phylogenetic spectrum. Further study of these proteins will undoubtedly lead to insights into unresolved questions of basic biology, and the development of system-specific human therapeutics.

  11. Folded Proteins Occur Frequently in Libraries of Random Amino Acid Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Alan R.; Sauer, Robert T.

    1994-03-01

    A library of synthetic genes encoding 80- to 100-residue proteins composed mainly of random combinations of glutamine (Q), leucine (L), and arginine (R) has been expressed in Escherichia coli. These genes also encode an epitope tag and six carboxyl-terminal histidines. Screening of this library by immunoblotting showed that 5% of these QLR proteins are expressed at readily detectable levels. Three well-expressed QLR proteins were purified and characterized. Each of these proteins has significant α-helical content, is largely resistant to degradation by Pronase, and has a distinct oligomeric structure. In addition, one protein unfolds in a highly cooperative manner. These properties of the QLR proteins demonstrate that they possess folded structures with some native-like properties. The QLR proteins differ from most natural proteins, however, in being remarkably resistant to denaturant-induced and thermal-induced unfolding and in being relatively insoluble in the absence of denaturants.

  12. Pharmacokinetic scaling of SJ-8029, a novel anticancer agent possessing microtubule and topoisomerase inhibiting activities, by species-invariant time methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beom S; Kim, Dong H; Cho, Chang Y; Park, Si K; Chung, Sun G; Cho, Eui H; Lee, Sun H; Joo, Jeong H; Kwon, Ho S; Lee, Kang C; Yoo, Sun D

    2003-07-01

    This study examined the pharmacokinetic disposition of SJ-8029, a novel anticancer agent possessing microtubule and topoisomerase inhibiting activities, in mice, rats, rabbits and dogs after i.v. administration. The serum concentration-time curves of SJ-8029 were best described by tri-exponential equations in all these animal species. The mean Cl, V(ss) and t(1/2) were 0.3 l/h, 0.1 l and 63.2 min in mice, 1.5 l/h, 1.6 l and 247.7 min in rats, 13.8 l/h, 39.6 l and 245.9 min in rabbits, and 29.2 l/h, 44.6 l and 117.4 min in dogs, respectively. Based on animal data, the pharmacokinetics of SJ-8029 were predicted in humans using simple allometry and also by several species-invariant time transformations using kallynochron, apolysichron and dienetichron times. The human pharmacokinetic parameters of Cl, V(ss) and t(1/2) predicted by the simple allometry and various species-invariant time methods were 50.4-145.0 l/h, 369.0-579.8 l and 242.0-1448.3 min, respectively. These preliminary parameter values may be useful in designing early pharmacokinetic studies of SJ-8029 in humans. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possesses the antiviral activity necessary to fight against the hepatitis B virus replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jing-yao; Zhao, Kui-jun; Wang, Jia-bo; Ma, Zhi-jie; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2014-06-01

    Although several antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for use against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis caused by HBV remains a major public health problem worldwide, which has not yet been resolved, and new anti-HBV drugs are in great demand. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-HBV activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural-origin compound, in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The antiviral activity of EGCG was examined by detecting the levels of HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and extracellular HBV DNA. EGCG effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg from HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it showed stronger effects at the level of 0.11-0.44 μmol/ml (50-200 μg/ml) than lamivudine (3TC) at 0.87 μmol/ml (200 μg/ml). EGCG also suppressed the amount of extracellular HBV DNA. The data indicated that EGCG possessed anti-HBV activity and suggested the potential of EGCG as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity.

  14. Effects of the nonsugar fraction of brown sugar on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced photoaging in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Hayashi, Teruaki; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-04-01

    Brown sugar has been used traditionally for the treatment of skin trouble as a component of soaps or lotions. Symptoms of aging including wrinkles and pigmentation develop earlier in sun-exposed skin than unexposed skin, a phenomenon referred to as photoaging. Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is one of the most important environmental factors influencing photoaging. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the nonsugar fraction of brown sugar prevents chronic UVB-induced aging of the skin using melanin-possessing hairless mice. The nonsugar fraction (1% or 3% solution, 50 mul/mouse) was applied topically to the dorsal region every day for 19 weeks. Both solutions prevented an increase in skin thickness and reduction in skin elasticity caused by the UVB. The 3% solution also prevented wrinkles and melanin pigmentation as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels. Increases in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in UVB-irradiated skin was inhibited by the nonsugar fraction. Prevention of UVB-induced aging of the skin by topical application of the nonsugar fraction of brown sugar may be due to inhibition of increases in MMP-2 and VEGF expression.

  15. Cancer stem-like side population cells in the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line cne-2 possess epithelial mesenchymal transition properties in association with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Xu, Ben-Ling; Zhang, Xu-Hua; Dong, Ming-Min

    2012-07-01

    It has been recently reported that side population (SP) cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines display characteristics of cancer stem-like cells. However, the biological behavior and the significance of these cells for NPC progression remain unclear. In this study, we isolated SP cells from the NPC cell line CNE-2 by flow cytometry and investigated their biological characteristics. We discovered that SP cells had stronger colony forming abilities compared to the non-side population (NSP) cells, and observed that some SP cells looked more like the shape of mesenchymal cells when cultured in the common polyHEMA-coated flask. When checked by quantitative real-time PCR, the SP cells expressed higher levels of stemness-related genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, and mesenchymal cell-related genes N-cadherin, vimentin and Snail, while they expressed lower levels of the epithelial cell-related gene, E-cadherin. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining methods further verified that SP cells expressed higher vimentin and expressed lower E-cadherin levels. Finally, Transwell invasion assay results indicated that the SP cells had higher invasive potential compared to NSP cells. Collectively, our data reveal that SP cells in the CNE-2 cell line not only possess the properties of cancer stem cells, but also have more mesenchymal cell characteristics which are associated with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer cell invasion and metastasis. These findings are helpful for developing novel targets for effective clinical treatment of NPC.

  16. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.

  17. Synthesis of chitosan resin possessing a phenylarsonic acid moiety for collection/concentration of uranium and its determination by ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshita, Koji [Kibi International University, Department of International Conservation Studies for Cultural Properties, Faculty of Cultural Properties, Takahashi, Okayama (Japan); Seo, Kenji; Oshima, Mitsuko; Takayanagi, Toshio; Motomizu, Shoji [Okayama University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama (Japan); Sabarudin, Akhmad [Brawijaya University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Malang, East Java (Indonesia)

    2008-04-15

    A chitosan resin possessing a phenylarsonic acid moiety (phenylarsonic acid type chitosan resin) was developed for the collection and concentration of trace uranium prior to inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry (AES) measurement. The adsorption behavior of 52 elements was systematically examined by packing it in a minicolumn and measuring the elements in the effluent by ICP mass spectrometry. The resin could adsorb several cationic species by a chelating mechanism, and several oxo acids, such as Ti(IV), V(V), Mo(VI), and W(VI), by an anion-exchange mechanism and/or a chelating mechanism. Especially, U(VI) could be adsorbed almost 100% over a wide pH region from pH 4 to 8. Uranium adsorbed was easily eluted with 1 M nitric acid (10 mL), and the 25-fold preconcentration of uranium was achieved by using a proposed column procedure, which could be applied to the determination of trace uranium in seawater by ICP-AES. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng mL{sup -1} for measurement by ICP-AES coupled with 25-fold column preconcentration. (orig.)

  18. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K.; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredi...

  19. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of immobilized de novo designed heme proteins on metal electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, WW; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    configuration. The proteins possess different binding domains on the top surfaces of the bundles to allow for electrostatic, covalent, and hydrophobic binding to metal electrodes. Electrostatic immobilization was achieved for proteins with lysine-rich binding domains (MOP-P) that adsorb to electrodes covered...... methods. For all proteins, immobilization causes a decrease in protein stability and a loosening of the helix packing, as reflected by a partial dissociation of a histidine ligand in the ferrous state and very low redox potentials. For the covalently attached MOP-C, the overall interfacial redox process...

  20. Efficient protein alignment algorithm for protein search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zaixin; Zhao, Zhiyu; Fu, Bin

    2010-01-18

    Proteins show a great variety of 3D conformations, which can be used to infer their evolutionary relationship and to classify them into more general groups; therefore protein structure alignment algorithms are very helpful for protein biologists. However, an accurate alignment algorithm itself may be insufficient for effective discovering of structural relationships among tens of thousands of proteins. Due to the exponentially increasing amount of protein structural data, a fast and accurate structure alignment tool is necessary to access protein classification and protein similarity search; however, the complexity of current alignment algorithms are usually too high to make a fully alignment-based classification and search practical. We have developed an efficient protein pairwise alignment algorithm and applied it to our protein search tool, which aligns a query protein structure in the pairwise manner with all protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to output similar protein structures. The algorithm can align hundreds of pairs of protein structures in one second. Given a protein structure, the tool efficiently discovers similar structures from tens of thousands of structures stored in the PDB always in 2 minutes in a single machine and 20 seconds in our cluster of 6 machines. The algorithm has been fully implemented and is accessible online at our webserver, which is supported by a cluster of computers. Our algorithm can work out hundreds of pairs of protein alignments in one second. Therefore, it is very suitable for protein search. Our experimental results show that it is more accurate than other well known protein search systems in finding proteins which are structurally similar at SCOP family and superfamily levels, and its speed is also competitive with those systems. In terms of the pairwise alignment performance, it is as good as some well known alignment algorithms.

  1. Small heat shock proteins, protein degradation and protein aggregation diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Michel J.; Zijlstra, Marianne P.; Carra, Serena; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Kampinga, Harm H.

    Small heat shock proteins have been characterized in vitro as ATP-independent molecular chaperones that can prevent aggregation of un- or misfolded proteins and assist in their refolding with the help of ATP-dependent chaperone machines (e. g., the Hsp70 proteins). Comparison of the functionality of

  2. Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yong-Zhu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

  3. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  4. Protein-protein interaction network and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana ESCRT machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn eRichardson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT consists of several multi-protein subcomplexes which assemble sequentially at the endosomal surface and function in multivesicular body (MVB biogenesis. While ESCRT has been relatively well characterized in yeasts and mammals, comparably little is known about ESCRT in plants. Here we explored the yeast two-hybrid protein interaction network and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana ESCRT machinery. We show that Arabidopsis ESCRT interactome possess a number of protein-protein interactions that are either conserved in yeasts and mammals or distinct to plants. We show also that most of the Arabidopsis ESCRT proteins examined at least partially localize to MVBs in plant cells when ectopically expressed on their own or co-expressed with other interacting ESCRT proteins, and some also induce abnormal MVB phenotypes, consistent with their proposed functional roles in MVB biogenesis. Overall, our results help define the plant ESCRT machinery by highlighting both conserved and unique features when compared to ESCRT in other evolutionarily diverse organisms, providing a foundation for further exploration of ESCRT in plants.

  5. GK4, a G-protein-coupled receptor with a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase domain in Phytophthora infestans, is involved in sporangia development and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, C.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Keijzer, de J.; Zhao, W.; Wang, Y.; Govers, F.

    2013-01-01

    For dispersal and host infection plant pathogens largely depend on asexual spores. Pathogenesis and sporulation are complex processes that are governed by cellular signalling networks including G-protein and phospholipid signalling. Oomycetes possess a family of novel proteins called GPCR-PIPKs

  6. A novel nucleolar G-protein conserved in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Jensen, B C; Kifer, C T; Parsons, M

    2001-01-01

    We describe here a novel, evolutionarily conserved set of predicted G-proteins. The founding member of this family, TbNOG1, was identified in a two-hybrid screen as a protein that interacts with NOPP44/46, a nucleolar phosphoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei. The biological relevance of the interaction was verified by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation. TbNOG1 localized to the trypanosome nucleolus and interacted with domains of NOPP44/46 that are found in several other nucleolar proteins. Genes encoding proteins highly related to TbNOG1 are present in yeast and metazoa, and related G domains are found in bacteria. We show that NOG1 proteins in humans and Saccharomyces cerevisae are also nucleolar. The S. cerevisae NOG1 gene is essential for cell viability, and mutations in the predicted G motifs abrogate function. Together these data suggest that NOG1 may play an important role in nucleolar functions. The GTP-binding region of TbNOG1 is similar to those of Obg and DRG proteins, which, together with NOG, form a newly recognized family of G-proteins, herein named ODN. The ODN family differs significantly from other G-protein families, and shows several diagnostic sequence characteristics. All organisms appear to possess an ODN gene, pointing to the biological significance of this family of G-proteins.

  7. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  8. Melatonin and structural analogues do not possess antioxidant properties on Fe(2+)-initiated peroxidation of sonicated liposomes made of retinal lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagali, Natalia; Catalá, Angel

    2011-10-01

    Melatonin and its structural analogues display antioxidant activity in vivo but their activity in model membranes is not very well known. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity of melatonin and structural analogues on Fe(2+)-initiated peroxidation of sonicated liposomes made of retinal lipids. The indoleamines were evaluated against butylated hydroxitoluene (BHT) which was chosen as a reference standard because of its high antioxidant capacity. After the addition of Fe(2+) as initiator of lipid peroxidation, quick production of conjugated dienes was observed. With addition of increasing concentrations of BHT the start of the reaction was delayed and initial reaction rates were lower. However, this reduction was not proportional to the increase in concentration. The start of the reaction and initial reaction rates were not modified in the presence of melatonin and its structural analogues. The formation of TBARS started immediately after the addition of Fe(2+). The increase in the concentration of BHT avoided the emergence of TBARS. Changes were not observed in the presence of melatonin or structural analogues. Retinal lipids showed a high content of docosahexaenoic (22: 6 (Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) acid, characteristic of this tissue. A little bit of that fatty acid was lost when sonicated liposomes were prepared with these retinal lipids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) diminished significantly after incubation of liposomes with Fe(2+) during 1h. BHT preserved PUFAs whereas melatonin and its related indoleamines did not. These data reinforce the hypothesis that melatonin and structural analogues do not possess antioxidant properties per se in this liposomal model system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. nNOS(+ striatal neurons, a subpopulation spared in Huntington Disease, possess functional NMDA receptors but fail to generate mitochondrial ROS in response to an excitotoxic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorella M.T. Canzoniero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hungtinton’s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by severe neuronal loss in the cortex and striatum that leads to motor and behavioral deficits. Excitotoxicity is thought to be involved in HD and several studies have indicated that NMDA receptor (NMDAR overactivation can play a role in the selective neuronal loss found in HD. Interestingly, a small subset of striatal neurons (less than 1% of the overall population is found to be spared in post-mortem HD brains. These neurons are medium-sized aspiny interneurons that highly express the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Intriguingly, nNOS(+ neurons show reduced vulnerability to NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity. Mechanisms underlying this reduced vulnerability are still largely unknown. One untested possibility is that nNOS(+ neurons possess fewer or less functioning NMDARs. Employing single cell calcium imaging we challenged this hypothesis and found that cultured striatal nNOS(+ neurons show NMDAR-evoked responses that are identical to the ones observed in the overall population of nNOS(- neurons. NMDAR-dependent dysregulation of intraneuronal Ca2+ is known to generate high levels of reactive oxygen species of mitochondrial origin (mt-ROS, a crucial step in the excitotoxic cascade. With confocal imaging and dihydrorhodamine (DHR; a ROS-sensitive probe we compared mt-ROS levels generated by NMDAR activation in nNOS(+ and (- striatal neurons. DHR experiments revealed that nNOS(+ neurons failed to produce significant amounts of mt-ROS in response to NMDA exposure, thereby providing a mechanism for their reduced vulnerability to excitotoxicity.

  10. Evolution of the CD4 family: teleost fish possess two divergent forms of CD4 in addition to lymphocyte activation gene-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, K.J.; Zou, J.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Phillips, R.; Secombes, C.J.; Hansen, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The T cell coreceptor CD4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Ig superfamily and is essential for cell-mediated immunity. Two different genes were identified in rainbow trout that resemble mammalian CD4. One (trout CD4) encodes four extracellular Ig domains reminiscent off mammalian CD4, whereas the other (CD4REL) codes for two Ig domains. Structural motifs within the amino acid sequences suggest that the two Ig domains of CD4REL duplicated to generate the four-domain molecule of CD4 and the related gene, lymphocyte activation gene-3. Here we present evidence that both of these molecules in trout are homologous to mammalian CD4 and that teleosts encode an additional CD4 family member, lymphocyte activation gene-3, which is a marker for activated T cells. The syntenic relationships of similar genes in other teleost and non-fish genomes provide evidence for the likely evolution of CD4-related molecules in vertebrates, with CD4REL likely representing the primordial form in fish. Expression of both CD4 genes is highest in the thymus and spleen, and mRNA expression of these genes is limited to surface IgM- lymphocytes, consistent with a role for T cell functionality. Finally, the intracellular regions of both CD4 and CD4REL possess the canonical CXC motif involved in the interaction off CD4 with p56LCK, implying that similar mechanisms for CD4 + T cell activation are present in all vertebrates. Our results therefore raise new questions about T cell development and functionality in lower vertebrates that cannot be answered by current mammalian models and, thus, is of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of cell-mediated immunity in gnathosomes. Copyright ?? 2006 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Side population cells separated from A549 lung cancer cell line possess cancer stem cell-like properties and inhibition of autophagy potentiates the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Yuxia; Qi, Yu; Liu, Donglei; Wu, Kai; Wen, Fengbiao; Zhao, Song

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumorigenesis and contribute to resistance to chemotherapy. Side population (SP) cells are thought to be enriched for CSCs in most types of human tumors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to sort SP cells using an A549 lung cancer cell line, identify the cancer stem cell-like properties of SP and determine the role of autophagy in the survival of SP cells of lung cancer. SP cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) from A549 lung cancer cells, and the CSC-like properties were verified through confocal fluorescence imaging, sphere formation assays, cell proliferation and colony formation assay, gene expression in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. The role of autophagy in the survival of SP cells was assessed by western blotting and flow cytometric analysis. A549 lung cancer cells contained 1.10% SP cells. SP cells showed higher abilities of sphere and colony formation, cell proliferation and self-renewal. Moreover, compared to non-SP, SP cells demonstrated a higher mRNA expression of stem cell markers (MDR1, ABCG2 and OCT-4). The clone formation efficiency of SP cells was significantly higher than that non-SP cells under the same conditions. Expression of autophagosomes in SP cells was markedly lower than that in non-SP cells. However, the level of autophagy in SP cells was found to be markedly increased in the presence of cisplatin. In addition, inhibition of autophagy enhanced the effects of apoptosis induced by cisplatin. SP cells from the A549 lung cancer cell line possessed the properties of CSCs and were used to investigate the further characteristics of lung CSCs. SP cells were more resistant to chemotherapy and inhibition of autophagy enhanced the effects of apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. These results may provide insight into novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Construction of chlorosomal rod self-aggregates in the solid state on any substrates from synthetic chlorophyll derivatives possessing an oligomethylene chain at the 17-propionate residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Sunao; Hashishin, Takeshi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2012-10-15

    Chlorosomes are one of the most unique natural light-harvesting antennas and their supramolecular nanostructures are still under debate. Chlorosomes contain bacteriochlorophyll (BChl)-c, d and e molecules and these pigments self-aggregate under a hydrophobic environment inside a chlorosome. The self-aggregates are mainly constructed by the following three interactions: hydrogen bonding, coordination bonding and π-π stacking. Supramolecular nanostructures of self-aggregated BChls have been widely investigated by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Model compounds of such chlorosomal BChl molecules have been synthesized and the effects of esterified long alkyl chains at the 17-propionate residue for their self-aggregation have been studied. Structurally simple zinc chlorophyll derivatives possessing an oligomethylene chain as the esterifying group at the 17-propionate residue were prepared as chlorosomal BChl models. The synthetic zinc BChls self-aggregated in nonpolar organic solvents to give precipitates. The resulting insoluble self-aggregated solids were investigated on a variety of substrates, including hydrophobic, neutral and hydrophilic substrates, by visible absorption, circular dichroism and polarized light absorption spectroscopies, as well as atomic force, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopies. The self-aggregates of synthetic Zn-BChls formed rods with an approximately 5 nm diameter and wires with further elongated growth of the rods (aspect ratio >200). The diameter size was consistent with that estimated for natural chlorosomal rods in a filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, Chloroflexus aurantiacus. The supramolecular formation and stability of the rod on the examined substrates depended on the length of an oligomethylene chain at the 17-propionate residue as well as on the surface properties. Especially, the number of the 5 nm rods on the substrates increased with an elongation of the chain. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag

  13. Type I signal peptidase and protein secretion in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberger, Mark A; Niessen, Sherry; Shao, Changxia; Fowler, Bruce J; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2012-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen whose virulence relies on the secretion of many different proteins. In general, the secretion of most proteins in S. aureus, as well as other bacteria, is dependent on the type I signal peptidase (SPase)-mediated cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide that targets a protein to the general secretory pathway. The arylomycins are a class of natural product antibiotics that inhibit SPase, suggesting that they may be useful chemical biology tools for characterizing the secretome. While wild-type S. aureus (NCTC 8325) is naturally resistant to the arylomycins, sensitivity is conferred via a point mutation in its SPase. Here, we use a synthetic arylomycin along with a sensitized strain of S. aureus and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) mass spectrometry to identify 46 proteins whose extracellular accumulation requires SPase activity. Forty-four possess identifiable Sec-type signal peptides and thus are likely canonically secreted proteins, while four also appear to possess cell wall retention signals. We also identified the soluble C-terminal domains of two transmembrane proteins, lipoteichoic acid synthase, LtaS, and O-acyteltransferase, OatA, both of which appear to have noncanonical, internal SPase cleavage sites. Lastly, we identified three proteins, HtrA, PrsA, and SAOUHSC_01761, whose secretion is induced by arylomycin treatment. In addition to elucidating fundamental aspects of the physiology and pathology of S. aureus, the data suggest that an arylomycin-based therapeutic would reduce virulence while simultaneously eradicating an infection.

  14. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  15. Evolution of protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of protein-protein interactions · Our interests in protein-protein interactions · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20.

  16. Conservation and Variability of Synaptonemal Complex Proteins in Phylogenesis of Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Grishaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the origin and evolution of meiosis include the enigmatic variability of the synaptonemal complexes (SCs which, being morphology similar, consist of different proteins in different eukaryotic phyla. Using bioinformatics methods, we monitored all available eukaryotic proteomes to find proteins similar to known SC proteins of model organisms. We found proteins similar to SC lateral element (LE proteins and possessing the HORMA domain in the majority of the eukaryotic taxa and assume them the most ancient among all SC proteins. Vertebrate LE proteins SYCP2, SYCP3, and SC65 proved to have related proteins in many invertebrate taxa. Proteins of SC central space are most evolutionarily variable. It means that different protein-protein interactions can exist to connect LEs. Proteins similar to the known SC proteins were not found in Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta, Charophyta, Xanthophyta, Dinoflagellata, and primitive Coelomata. We conclude that different proteins whose common feature is the presence of domains with a certain conformation are involved in the formation of the SC in different eukaryotic phyla. This permits a targeted search for orthologs of the SC proteins using phylogenetic trees. Here we consider example of phylogenetic trees for protozoans, fungi, algae, mosses, and flowering plants.

  17. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fenglei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-08-09

    , evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

  18. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein - 24 hour; Chronic kidney disease - urine protein; Kidney failure - urine protein ... Bladder tumor Heart failure High blood pressure during pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Kidney disease caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune disorders, ...

  19. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  20. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  1. Crystal Structure of a Plant Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion Family Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Iwaki, Shigehiro; Tsukazaki, Tomoya

    2017-09-05

    The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of proteins consists of transporters responsible for multidrug resistance in prokaryotes. In plants, a number of MATE proteins were identified by recent genomic and functional studies, which imply that the proteins have substrate-specific transport functions instead of multidrug extrusion. The three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic MATE proteins, including those of plants, has not been reported, preventing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of these proteins. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a MATE protein from the plant Camelina sativa at 2.9 Å resolution. Two sets of six transmembrane α helices, assembled pseudo-symmetrically, possess a negatively charged internal pocket with an outward-facing shape. The crystal structure provides insight into the diversity of plant MATE proteins and their substrate recognition and transport through the membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioinformatics analysis of disordered proteins in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov Saša N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of proteins have been shown to be intrinsically disordered, meaning that they lack a fixed 3 D structure or contain regions that do not posses a well defined 3 D structure. It has also been proven that a protein's disorder content is related to its function. We have performed an exhaustive analysis and comparison of the disorder content of proteins from prokaryotic organisms (i.e., superkingdoms Archaea and Bacteria with respect to functional categories they belong to, i.e., Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs and groups of COGs-Cellular processes (Cp, Information storage and processing (Isp, Metabolism (Me and Poorly characterized (Pc. We also analyzed the disorder content of proteins with respect to various genomic, metabolic and ecological characteristics of the organism they belong to. We used correlations and association rule mining in order to identify the most confident associations between specific modalities of the characteristics considered and disorder content. Results Bacteria are shown to have a somewhat higher level of protein disorder than archaea, except for proteins in the Me functional group. It is demonstrated that the Isp and Cp functional groups in particular (L-repair function and N-cell motility and secretion COGs of proteins in specific possess the highest disorder content, while Me proteins, in general, posses the lowest. Disorder fractions have been confirmed to have the lowest level for the so-called order-promoting amino acids and the highest level for the so-called disorder promoters. For each pair of organism characteristics, specific modalities are identified with the maximum disorder proteins in the corresponding organisms, e.g., high genome size-high GC content organisms, facultative anaerobic-low GC content organisms, aerobic-high genome size organisms, etc. Maximum disorder in archaea is observed for high GC content-low genome size organisms, high GC content

  3. Household possession, use and non-use of treated or untreated mosquito nets in two ecologically diverse regions of Nigeria – Niger Delta and Sahel Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsemobor Peju

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current use of treated mosquito nets for the prevention of malaria falls short of what is expected in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, though research within the continent has indicated that the use of these commodities can reduce malaria morbidity by 50% and malaria mortality by 20%. Governments in sub-Sahara Africa are investing substantially in scaling-up treated mosquito net coverage for impact. However, certain significant factors still prevent the use of the treated mosquito nets, even among those who possess them. This survey examines household ownership as well as use and non-use of treated mosquito nets in Sahel Savannah and Niger Delta regions of Nigeria. Methodology This survey employed cross-sectional survey to collect data from households on coverage and use of mosquito nets, whether treated or not. Fever episodes in previous two weeks among children under the age of five were also recorded. The study took place in August 1 – 14 2007, just five months after the March distribution of treated mosquito nets, coinciding with the second raining period of the year and a time of high malaria transmission during the wet season. EPI INFO version 2003 was used in data analysis. Results The survey covered 439 households with 2,521 persons including 739 under-fives, 585 women in reproductive age and 78 pregnant women in Niger Delta Region and Sahel Savannah Region. Of the 439 HHs, 232 had any mosquito nets. Significantly higher proportion of households in the Niger Delta Region had any treated or untreated mosquito nets than those in the Sahel Savannah Region. In the Niger Delta Region, the proportion of under-fives that had slept under treated nets the night before the survey exceeded those that slept under treated nets in the Sahel Savannah Region. Children under the age of five years in the Niger Delta Region were four times more likely to sleep under treated nets than those in the Sahel Savannah Region. Conclusion This study

  4. Performance Testing of Yardney MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 Lithium-ion Cells Possessing Electrolytes with Improved Safety Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Whitcanack, Larry D.; Krause, Frederick C.; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Santee, Stuart; Puglia, Frank J.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Many future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon and Mars require high specific energy rechargeable batteries that possess enhanced safety characteristics. There is also a strong desire to develop Li-ion batteries with improved safety characteristics for terrestrial applications, most notably for HEV and PHEV automotive applications. In previous work focused upon evaluating various potential flame retardant additives1, triphenyl phosphate (TPP)2 was observed to have the most desirable attributes, including good life characteristics and resilience to high voltage operation. We have employed a number of approaches in the design of promising TPP-based electrolytes with improved safety, including: (a) varying the flame retardant additive (FRA) content (from 5 to 15%), (b) the use of fluorinated co-solvents, (c) the use of additives to improve compatibility, and (c) the use of ester co-solvents to decrease the viscosity and increase the conductivity. In recent work, we have demonstrated a number of these electrolyte formulations to be compatible with a number of chemistries, including: MCMB carbon-LiNi0.8Co0.2O2, graphite-LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, Li-Li(Li0.17Ni 0.25 Mn 0.58 )O2, Li-LiNiCoMnO2 and graphite- LiNiCoMnO2.3,4 In the current study, we have demonstrated the performance of a number of TPP-containing electrolytes in 7 Ah prototype MCMB-LiNiCoO2 cells. We will describe the results of a number of performance tests, including: a) 100% DOD cycle life testing at various temperatures, b) discharge rate characterization as a function of temperature, c) charge rate characterization as a function of temperature, and d) impedance as a function of temperature. In addition to displaying good life characteristics, being comparable to baseline chemistries, a number of cells were observed to provide good performance over a wide temperature range.

  5. The family feud: do proteins with similar structures fold via the same pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrine-Afsar, Arash; Larson, Stefan M; Davidson, Alan R

    2005-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of protein folding have suggested that the topology of the native state may be the most important factor determining the folding pathway of a protein, independent of its specific amino acid sequence. To test this concept, many experimental studies have been carried out with the aim of comparing the folding pathways of proteins that possess similar tertiary structures, but divergent sequences. Many of these studies focus on quantitative comparisons of folding transition state structures, as determined by Phi(f) value analysis of folding kinetic data. In some of these studies, folding transition state structures are found to be highly conserved, whereas in others they are not. We conclude that folds displaying more conserved transition state structures may have the most restricted number of possible folding pathways and that folds displaying low transition state structural conservation possess many potential pathways for reaching the native state.

  6. A new look on protein-polyphenol complexation during honey storage: is this a random or organized event with the help of dirigent-like proteins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brudzynski

    Full Text Available Honey storage initiates melanoidin formation that involves a cascade of seemingly unguided redox reactions between amino acids/proteins, reducing sugars and polyphenols. In the process, high molecular weight protein-polyphenol complexes are formed, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. The objective of this study was twofold: to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins in honeys stored for prolonged times and in different temperatures and to relate these changes to the formation of protein-polyphenol complexes. Six -month storage decreased the protein content by 46.7% in all tested honeys (t-test, p<0.002 with the rapid reduction occurring during the first three month. The changes in protein levels coincided with alterations in molecular size and net charge of proteins on SDS -PAGE. Electro-blotted proteins reacted with a quinone-specific nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that quinones derived from oxidized polyphenols formed covalent bonds with proteins. Protein-polyphenol complexes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography differed in size and stoichiometry and fall into two categories: (a high molecular weight complexes (230-180 kDa enriched in proteins but possessing a limited reducing activity toward the NBT and (b lower molecular size complexes (110-85 kDa enriched in polyphenols but strongly reducing the dye. The variable stoichiometry suggest that the large, "protein-type" complexes were formed by protein cross-linking, while in the smaller, "polyphenol-type" complexes polyphenols were first polymerized prior to protein binding. Quinones preferentially bound a 31 kDa protein which, by the electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Qtof-MS analysis, showed homology to dirigent-like proteins known for assisting in radical coupling and polymerization of phenolic compounds. These findings provide a new look on protein-polyphenol interaction in honey where the

  7. [Effect of straw apoplast protein on cellulase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Di; Chen, Hong-Zhang; Ma, Run-Yu

    2006-03-01

    We studied the alteration of the maize straw apoplast proteins in the process of preservation, and analyzed the effects of apoplast proteins on Penicillum expansum cellulase activities. The results show that: the extractable apoplast proteins are gradually decreased during the preservation of maize straw. Meanwhile, their synergistic effects on P. expensum cellulose are also attenuated. The apoplast proteins extracted from fresh maize straw possess endogenous EG activities, which is unstable and completely vanished after 6 months preservation. The apoplast proteins from the preserved straw exhibit significant synergistic effect on FPA, cotton lyase and beta-glucosidase. The maximal synergistic values are 95.32%, 102.06% and 96.6%, respectively. But interestingly, they inhibit the CMCase activity (max. 49.52%). Apoplast proteins show distinctive synergy with betaG and EG, but have no effect on CBH activity. After eliminating the effect of endogenous EG, the apoplast proteins from fresh maize straw have enhanced synergistic or inhibiting effects on FPA, Cotton lyase, betaG and CMCase than those extracted from the preserved straw. Based on our observation, the apoplast proteins play important roles in regulating the cellulase activities. The detailed analysis of the related mechanisms will greatly benefit the studies of the natural biomaterials hydrolysis.

  8. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Isolates with Wild-Type Core Promoter Sequence Replicate Less Efficiently than Genotype B Isolates but Possess Higher Virion Secretion Capacity ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yanli; Tang, Xiaoli; Garcia, Tamako; Hussain, Munira; Zhang, Jiming; Lok, Anna; Wands, Jack; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping

    2011-01-01

    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged viremic phase, delayed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with genotype B infection. Genotype C is also associated with the more frequent emergence of core promoter mutations, which increase genome replication and are independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. We amplified full-length HBV genomes from serum samples from Chinese and U. S. patients with chronic HBV infection and transfected circularized genome pools or dimeric constructs of individual clones into Huh7 cells. The two genotypes could be differentiated by Western blot analysis due to the reactivities of M and L proteins toward a monoclonal pre-S2 antibody and slightly different S-protein mobilities. Great variability in replication capacity was observed for both genotypes. The A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations were prevalent in genotype C isolates and correlated with increased replication capacity, while the A1752G/T mutation frequently found in genotype B isolates correlated with a low replication capacity. Importantly, most genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicated less efficiently than the corresponding genotype B isolates due to less efficient transcription of the 3.5-kb RNA. However, genotype C isolates often displayed more efficient virion secretion. We propose that the low intracellular levels of viral DNA and core protein of wild-type genotype C delay immune clearance and trigger the subsequent emergence of A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations to upregulate replication; efficient virion secretion compensates for the low replication capacity to ensure the establishment of persistent infection by genotype C. PMID:21775451

  9. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures.

  10. The RecX protein interacts with the RecA protein and modulates its activity in Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvão, C.W. [Departamento de Biologia Estrutural, Molecular e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, E.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Etto, R.M. [Departamento de Biologia Estrutural, Molecular e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pedrosa, F.O.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Yates, M.G. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schumacher, J.; Buck, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Steffens, M.B.R. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    DNA repair is crucial to the survival of all organisms. The bacterial RecA protein is a central component in the SOS response and in recombinational and SOS DNA repairs. The RecX protein has been characterized as a negative modulator of RecA activity in many bacteria. The recA and recX genes of Herbaspirillum seropedicae constitute a single operon, and evidence suggests that RecX participates in SOS repair. In the present study, we show that the H. seropedicae RecX protein (RecX{sub Hs}) can interact with the H. seropedicae RecA protein (RecA{sub Hs}) and that RecA{sub Hs} possesses ATP binding, ATP hydrolyzing and DNA strand exchange activities. RecX{sub Hs} inhibited 90% of the RecA{sub Hs} DNA strand exchange activity even when present in a 50-fold lower molar concentration than RecA{sub Hs}. RecA{sub Hs} ATP binding was not affected by the addition of RecX, but the ATPase activity was reduced. When RecX{sub Hs} was present before the formation of RecA filaments (RecA-ssDNA), inhibition of ATPase activity was substantially reduced and excess ssDNA also partially suppressed this inhibition. The results suggest that the RecX{sub Hs} protein negatively modulates the RecA{sub Hs} activities by protein-protein interactions and also by DNA-protein interactions.

  11. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  12. [Isolation and identification of proteins with anti-tumor and fibrinolysogen kinase activities from Eisenia foetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Ji, Jian-Guo; Tong, Yuan-Peng; Chen, Qian; Pu, Hai; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2002-09-01

    Proteins from Eisenia foetida possess many biological activities. A group of proteins precipitated by ethanol were isolated and purified by Sephadex G-75 and HiPrep 16/60 DEAE columns, then identified by one- or two- dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. 2D gel experiments displayed that the pI of proteins from Eisenia foetida were mainly from 3.0 to 4.0. Anti-tumor and kinase activities were determined by in vitro experiments. The enthanol fraction D2(8) showed both of the activities. These ethanol-precipitated proteins were identified further by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, the protein spots were cut off from gels and digested by trypsin, the peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) were determined by mass spectrometry. PMF, molecular weight, amino acid composition and N-terminus of 6 proteins were characterized, and band 9 was identified as D2(8). The results suggested that there exist proteins in Eisenia foetida possessed both anti-tumor and fibrinolysogen kinase activities. These methods can be used for identification of the natural bioactive proteins.

  13. Random mutagenesis of the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC1 (NB-LRR Required for Hypersensitive Response-Associated Cell Death-1), a downstream signalling nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein, identifies gain-of-function mutations in the nucleotide-binding pocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sueldo, D.J.; Shimels, M.Z.; Spiridon, L.N.; Caldararu, O.; Petrescu, A.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Tameling, W.I.L.

    2015-01-01

    •Plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins confer immunity to pathogens possessing the corresponding avirulence proteins. Activation of NB-LRR proteins is often associated with induction of the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death. •NRC1 (NB-LRR

  14. Exploring the conformational energy landscape of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienhaus, G.U. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)]|[Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Mueller, J.D.; McMahon, B.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Proteins possess a complex energy landscape with a large number of local minima called conformational substates that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Here we discuss experiments aimed at the elucidation of the energy landscape in carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO). In the highest tier of the hierarchy, a few taxonomic substates exist. Because of their small number, these substates are accessible to detailed structural investigations. Spectroscopic experiments are discussed that elucidate the role of protonations of amino acid side chains in creating the substates. The lower tiers of the hierarchy contain a large number of statistical substates. Substate interconversions are observed in the entire temperature range from below 1 K up to the denaturation temperature, indicating a wide spectrum of energy barriers that separate the substates.

  15. Primary Triage in a Mass-casualty Event Possesses a Risk of Increasing Informational Confusion: A Simulation Study Using Shannon's Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajimi, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Masaru; Uchida, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Ichiro; Nakahara, Shinya; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-10-01

    .00 bits/symbol as maximal value when the probability of each category was 1/8, whereas the values in System B showed a linear decrease from 2.00 to 0.00 bits/symbol. Informational confusion in a primary triage area measured using Shannon's entropy revealed that random triage using a low-visibility tag might increase the degree of confusion. Methods for reducing entropy, such as enhancement of triage colors, may contribute to minimizing informational confusion. Ajimi Y , Sasaki M , Uchida Y , Kaneko I , Nakahara S , Sakamoto T . Primary triage in a mass-casualty event possesses a risk of increasing informational confusion: a simulation study using Shannon's entropy. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):498-504.

  16. Functions of fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1) in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Andrés D; Fujita, Toshitsugu; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2010-08-17

    Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1) is a mammalian ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-76 protein that possesses four coiled-coil domains and a nuclear localization signal. It is mainly expressed in the brain. Suppression of FEZ1 expression in cultured embryonic neurons causes deficiency of neuronal differentiation. Recently, proteomic techniques revealed that FEZ1 interacts with various intracellular partners, such as signaling, motor, and structural proteins. FEZ1 was shown to act as an antiviral factor. The findings reported so far indicate that FEZ1 is associated with neuronal development, neuropathologies, and viral infection. Based on these accumulating evidences, we herein review the biological functions of FEZ1.

  17. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unconventional Secretion of Heat Shock Proteins in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tiago Góss; Martins, Vilma Regina; Hajj, Glaucia Noeli Maroso

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are abundant cellular proteins involved with protein homeostasis. They have both constitutive and inducible isoforms, whose expression levels are further increased by stress conditions, such as temperature elevation, reduced oxygen levels, infection, inflammation and exposure to toxic substances. In these situations, HSPs exert a pivotal role in offering protection, preventing cell death and promoting cell recovery. Although the majority of HSPs functions are exerted in the cytoplasm and organelles, several lines of evidence reveal that HSPs are able to induce cell responses in the extracellular milieu. HSPs do not possess secretion signal peptides, and their secretion was subject to widespread skepticism until the demonstration of the role of unconventional secretion forms such as exosomes. Secretion of HSPs may confer immune system modulation and be a cell-to-cell mediated form of increasing stress resistance. Thus, there is a wide potential for secreted HSPs in resistance of cancer therapy and in the development new therapeutic strategies. PMID:28468249

  19. The focal adhesion-associated proteins DOCK5 and GIT2 comprise a rheostat in control of epithelial invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Scott R; Köllmann, C P; van Lidth de Jeude, J F

    2017-01-01

    DOCK proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. DOCK1 is the founding member of the family and acts downstream of integrins via the canonical Crk-p130Cas complex to activate Rac GTPases in numerous contexts. In contrast, DOCK5, which possesses the greatest...

  20. Amalgam, an axon guidance Drosophila adhesion protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily: Over-expression, purification and biophysical characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Paz, Aviv; Peleg, Yoav; Toker, Lilly; Wolf, Sharon G.; Rydberg, Edwin H.; Sussman, Joel L.; Silman, Israel

    Amalgam, a multi-domain member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, possesses homophilic and heterophilic cell adhesion properties. It is required for axon guidance during Drosophila development in which it interacts with the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein, neurotactin, to promote