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Sample records for voxel-based cortical thickness

  1. Contralesional cortical structural reorganization contributes to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

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    Jianxin Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although changes in brain gray matter after stroke have been identified in some neuroimaging studies, lesion heterogeneity and individual variability make the detection of potential neuronal reorganization difficult. This study attempted to investigate the potential structural cortical reorganization after sub-cortical stroke using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV analysis. Eleven right-handed patients with first -onset, subcortical, ischemic infarctions involving the basal ganglia regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in addition to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Motricity Index assessments in the acute (< 5 days and chronic stages (1 year later. The GMVs were calculated and compared between the two stages using nonparametric permutation paired t tests. Moreover, the Spearman correlations between the GMV changes and clinical recoveries were analyzed. Compared with the acute stage, significant decreases in GMV were observed in the ipsilesional precentral gyrus (PreCG, paracentral gyrus, and contralesional cerebellar lobule VII in the chronic stage. Additionally, significant increases in GMV were found in the contralesional orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and middle (MFG and inferior (IFG frontal gyri. Furthermore, severe GMV atrophy in the ipsilesional PreCG predicted poorer clinical recovery, and greater GMV increases in the contralesional OFG and MFG predicted better clinical recovery. Our findings suggest that structural reorganization of the contralesional ‘cognitive’ cortices might contribute to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke.

  2. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

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    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  3. Voxel-based morphometry in opera singers: Increased gray-matter volume in right somatosensory and auditory cortices.

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    Kleber, Boris; Veit, Ralf; Moll, Christina Valérie; Gaser, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Lotze, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to instrumental musicians, professional singers do not train on a specific instrument but perfect a motor system that has already been extensively trained during speech motor development. Previous functional imaging studies suggest that experience with singing is associated with enhanced somatosensory-based vocal motor control. However, experience-dependent structural plasticity in vocal musicians has rarely been studied. We investigated voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 27 professional classical singers and compared gray matter volume in regions of the "singing-network" to an age-matched group of 28 healthy volunteers with no special singing experience. We found right hemispheric volume increases in professional singers in ventral primary somatosensory cortex (larynx S1) and adjacent rostral supramarginal gyrus (BA40), as well as in secondary somatosensory (S2) and primary auditory cortices (A1). Moreover, we found that earlier commencement with vocal training correlated with increased gray-matter volume in S1. However, in contrast to studies with instrumental musicians, this correlation only emerged in singers who began their formal training after the age of 14years, when speech motor development has reached its first plateau. Structural data thus confirm and extend previous functional reports suggesting a pivotal role of somatosensation in vocal motor control with increased experience in singing. Results furthermore indicate a sensitive period for developing additional vocal skills after speech motor coordination has matured.

  4. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

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    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  5. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder.

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    Madsen, Sarah K; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D

    2015-04-30

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Subcortical and cortical gray matter differences between Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients identified using voxel-based morphometry.

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    Molina, Vicente; Hernández, Juan A; Sanz, Javier; Paniagua, Juan C; Hernández, Ana I; Martín, Carmen; Matías, Juan; Calama, Julia; Bote, Berta

    2010-10-30

    The long-term outcome of schizophrenia patients may differ depending on their brain structure. This would be reflected in significant structural differences between poor-outcome (i.e., Kraepelinian) and non-Kraepelinian patients. To assess this possibility, we have evaluated the degree of deviation in brain structure in Kraepelinian patients with respect to controls and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients. We used voxel-brain morphometry (VBM) to assess the differences in gray matter volume across the brain in the Kraepelinian group with respect to the healthy controls and non-Kraepelinian patients. Twenty-six Kraepelinian and 18 non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients and 41 healthy controls were included. With respect to the healthy controls, the Kraepelinian patients showed a very significant decrease in gray matter in the frontal, occipital, and limbic cortices, and, at a subcortical level, bilaterally in the striatum and thalamus. In comparison with the non-Kraepelinian patients, the Kraepelinian individuals continued to show a similar subcortical decrease. Thus, Kraepelinian patients may be characterized by a distinct pattern of brain abnormalities, in particular, in subcortical regions.

  7. Cortical thickness estimation in longitudinal stroke studies: A comparison of 3 measurement methods.

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    Li, Qi; Pardoe, Heath; Lichter, Renee; Werden, Emilio; Raffelt, Audrey; Cumming, Toby; Brodtmann, Amy

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable controversy about the causes of cognitive decline after stroke, with evidence for both the absence and coexistence of Alzheimer pathology. A reduction in cortical thickness has been shown to be an important biomarker for the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, brain volume changes following stroke are not well described. Cortical thickness estimation presents an ideal way to detect regional and global post-stroke brain atrophy. In this study, we imaged a group of patients in the first month after stroke and at 3 months. We compared three methods of estimating cortical thickness on unmasked images: one surface-based (FreeSurfer) and two voxel-based methods (a Laplacian method and a registration method, DiRecT). We used three benchmarks for our analyses: accuracy of segmentation (especially peri-lesional performance), reproducibility, and biological validity. We found important differences between these methods in cortical thickness values and performance in high curvature areas and peri-lesional regions, but similar reproducibility metrics. FreeSurfer had less reliance on manual boundary correction than the other two methods, while reproducibility was highest in the Laplacian method. A discussion of the caveats for each method and recommendations for use in a stroke population is included. We conclude that both surface- and voxel-based methods are valid for estimating cortical thickness in stroke populations.

  8. Comparison of gray matter volume and thickness for analysis of cortical changes in Alzheimer's disease

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    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Ziyi; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kunchen; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2011-03-01

    Gray matter volume and cortical thickness are two indices of concern in brain structure magnetic resonance imaging research. Gray matter volume reflects mixed-measurement information of cerebral cortex, while cortical thickness reflects only the information of distance between inner surface and outer surface of cerebral cortex. Using Scaled Subprofile Modeling based on Principal Component Analysis (SSM_PCA) and Pearson's Correlation Analysis, this study further provided quantitative comparisons and depicted both global relevance and local relevance to comprehensively investigate morphometrical abnormalities in cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirteen patients with AD and thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Results showed that factor scores from the first 8 principal components accounted for ~53.38% of the total variance for gray matter volume, and ~50.18% for cortical thickness. Factor scores from the fifth principal component showed significant correlation. In addition, gray matter voxel-based volume was closely related to cortical thickness alterations in most cortical cortex, especially, in some typical abnormal brain regions such as insula and the parahippocampal gyrus in AD. These findings suggest that these two measurements are effective indices for understanding the neuropathology in AD. Studies using both gray matter volume and cortical thickness can separate the causes of the discrepancy, provide complementary information and carry out a comprehensive description of the morphological changes of brain structure.

  9. Females and males rely on different cortical regions in Raven's Matrices reasoning capacity: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Wenjing Yang

    Full Text Available Raven's Matrices test (RMT is a non-verbal test designed to assess individuals' ability to reason and solve new problems without relying extensively on declarative knowledge derived from schooling or previous experience. Despite a large number of behavioral studies that demonstrated gender differences in Raven's Matrices reasoning ability, no neural evidence supported this difference. In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used in an attempt to uncover the gender-specific neural basis of Raven's Matrices reasoning ability as measured by the combined Raven's Matrices test (CRT in 370 healthy young adults. The behavioral results showed no difference between males and females. However, the VBM results showed that the relationship between reasoning ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV differed between sexes. The association between CRT scores and rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (associated with visuospatial ability was significantly greater in males than in females, whereas the reverse was true for the inferior frontal cortex (relating to verbal reasoning ability and the medial frontal cortex (engaged in information binding where the association was greater in females. These findings suggest that males and females use differently structured brains in different ways to achieve similar levels of overall Raven's Matrices reasoning ability.

  10. Remote Cortical Reorganization following Sub-Cortical Infarction:A Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Study%皮层下梗死远隔皮层重塑VBM初步研究

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    蔡建新; 冀旗玲; 那旭; 李坤成

    2014-01-01

    目的 利用基于体素的形态学测量(VBM)方法,探讨皮层下梗死患者远隔部位的脑灰质结构重塑及其与运动预后的关系.方法 对11例皮层下梗死患者分别于发病5天内、3个月后行高分辨率MRI全脑容积扫描,并进行美国国立卫生院卒中量表(NIHSS)和运动力指数(MI)评估,应用VBM方法计算患者急性期、陈旧期全脑灰质体积的差异,并分析其与康复指标的相关性.结果 陈旧期时患侧中央前回、中扣带回及健侧小脑Ⅵ区、Crus1灰质体积明显减少,而健侧中央前回、眶额回、腹侧前额叶及患侧小脑Crus1灰质体积增加,且双侧中央前回、健侧小脑Ⅵ区、眶额回灰质体积与康复评分(NIHSS和MI)相关.结论 皮层下脑梗死后存在广泛的远隔皮层重塑,可能与患者预后相关,进一步的研究对揭示梗死后神经功能恢复机制具有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the reorganization in remote cerebral areas after sub-cortical infarction by using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV) analysis.Methods Eleven patients with ischemic stroke that involved sub-cortical regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 5 days and three months after the onset of the infarction.The patients were evaluated using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Motricity Index (MI).Using VBM method the GMV of the acute stage and chronic stage was calculated and the results were compared between the two stages.The correlation between GMV and rehabilitation indexes (NIHSS and MI) was analyzed.Results Compared with the acute stage,significant decrease in GMV was found in the ipsi-lateral precentral gyrus (PreCG),midcingulate cortex and contralesional cerebellar lobule Ⅵ (CBVI),cerebellar lobule Crus 1 in the chronic stage,while significant increase in GMV was seen in the contra-lateral precentral gyrus,orbitofrontal cortex (OFC),ventral prefrontal cortex,and ipsi

  11. Cortical Thickness Changes Associated with Photoparoxysmal Response

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    Hanganu, Alexandru; Groppa, Stanislav A; Deuschl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an EEG trait of spike and spike-wave discharges in response to photic stimulation that is closely linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). In our previous studies we showed that PPR is associated with functional alterations in the occipital and frontal co......) and compared these groups with a group of PPR-negative-healthy-controls (HC, n = 17; 15.3 ± 3.6 years; 6 males). Our results revealed an increase of cortical thickness in the occipital, frontal and parietal cortices bilaterally in PPR-positive-subjects in comparison to HC. Moreover PPR......-positive-subjects presented a significant decrease of cortical thickness in the temporal cortex in the same group contrast. IGE patients exhibited lower cortical thickness in the temporal lobe bilaterally and in the right paracentral region in comparison to PPR-positive-subjects. Our study demonstrates structural changes...... in the occipital lobe, frontoparietal regions and temporal lobe, which also show functional changes associated with PPR. Patients with epilepsy present changes in the temporal lobe and supplementary motor area....

  12. Age-related cortical grey matter reductions in non-demented Down's syndrome adults determined by MRI with voxel-based morphometry.

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    Teipel, Stefan J; Alexander, Gene E; Schapiro, Marc B; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hampel, Harald

    2004-04-01

    Ageing in Down's syndrome is accompanied by amyloid and neurofibrillary pathology the distribution of which replicates pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. With advancing age, an increasing proportion of Down's syndrome subjects >40 years old develop progressive cognitive impairment, resembling the cognitive profile of Alzheimer's disease. Based on these findings, Down's syndrome has been proposed as a model to study the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. Using an interactive anatomical segmentation technique and volume-of-interest measurements of MRI, we showed recently that non-demented Down's syndrome adults had significantly reduced hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and corpus callosum sizes with increasing age. In this study, we applied the automated and objective technique of voxel-based morphometry, implemented in SPM99, to the analysis of structural MRI from 27 non-demented Down's syndrome adults (mean age 41.1 years, 15 female). Regional grey matter volume was decreased with advancing age in bilateral parietal cortex (mainly the precuneus and inferior parietal lobule), bilateral frontal cortex with left side predominance (mainly middle frontal gyrus), left occipital cortex (mainly lingual cortex), right precentral and left postcentral gyrus, left transverse temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. The reductions were unrelated to gender, intracranial volume or general cognitive function. Grey matter volume was relatively preserved in subcortical nuclei, periventricular regions, the basal surface of the brain (bilateral orbitofrontal and anterior temporal) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Our findings suggest grey matter reductions in allocortex and association neocortex in the predementia stage of Down's syndrome. The most likely substrate of these changes is alterations or loss of allocortical and neocortical neurons due to Alzheimer's disease-type pathology.

  13. Relationship Between White Matter Hyperintensities, Cortical Thickness, and Cognition

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    Tuladhar, Anil M.; Norris, David Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with clinically heterogeneous symptoms that cannot be explained by these lesions alone. It is hypothesized that these lesions are associated with distant cortical atrophy and cortical thickness network measures, which can

  14. Differential tinnitus-related neuroplastic alterations of cortical thickness and surface area.

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    Meyer, Martin; Neff, Patrick; Liem, Franziskus; Kleinjung, Tobias; Weidt, Steffi; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Structural neuroimaging techniques have been used to identify cortical and subcortical regions constituting the neuroarchitecture of tinnitus. One recent investigation used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze a sample of tinnitus patients (TI, n = 257) (Schecklmann et al., 2013). A negative relationship between individual distress and cortical volume (CV) in bilateral auditory regions was observed. However, CV has meanwhile been identified as a neuroanatomical measurement that confounds genetically distinct neuroanatomical traits, namely cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA). We performed a re-analysis of the identical sample using the automated FreeSurfer surface-based morphometry (SBM) approach (Fischl, 2012). First, we replicated the negative correlation between tinnitus distress and bilateral supratemporal gray matter volume. Second, we observed a negative correlation for CSA in the left periauditory cortex and anterior insula. Furthermore, we noted a positive correlation between tinnitus duration and CT in the left periauditory cortex as well as a negative correlation in the subcallosal anterior cingulate, a region collated to the serotonergic circuit and germane to inhibitory functions. In short, the results elucidate differential neuroanatomical alterations of CSA and CT for the two independent tinnitus-related psychological traits distress and duration. Beyond this, the study provides further evidence for the distinction and specific susceptibility of CSA and CT within the context of neuroplasticity of the human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

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    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  16. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

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    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  17. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Niels J H M Gerrits

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh and surface area (SA, which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i CTh, SA, and (subcortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  18. Overweight is not associated with cortical thickness alterations in children

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    Rachel Jane Sharkey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSeveral studies report an association between body mass index (BMI and cortical thickness in adults. Some studies demonstrate diffuse cortical thinning in obesity, while others report effects in areas that are associated with self-regulation, such as lateral prefrontal cortex. MethodsThis study used multilevel modelling of data from the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository, a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional database, to examine the relationship between cortical thickness and body weight in children. Cortical thickness was computed at 81,942 vertices of 716 MRI scans from 378 children aged between 4 and 18 years. Body mass index Z score for age was computed for each participant. We preformed vertex-wise statistical analysis of the relationship between cortical thickness and BMI, accounting for age and gender. In addition, cortical thickness was extracted from regions of interest in prefrontal cortex and insula.ResultsNo significant association between cortical thickness and BMI was found, either by statistical parametric mapping or by region of interest analysis. Results remained negative when the analysis was restricted to children aged 12-18.ConclusionsThe correlation between BMI and cortical thickness was not found in this large pediatric sample. The association between BMI and cortical thinning develops after adolescence. This has implications for the nature of the relationship between brain anatomy and weight gain.

  19. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

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    Sona Hurtz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  20. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

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    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  1. Increased cortical thickness in professional on-line gamers.

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    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam; Han, Doug Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. CAREER LENGTH WAS POSITIVELY CORRELATED WITH CORTICAL THICKNESS IN THREE BRAIN REGIONS: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility.

  2. Increased brain cortical thickness associated with visceral fat in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, R L; Soder, R B; Alves Filho, J O; Baldisserotto, M; Franco, A R

    2016-10-27

    There has been a growing amount of evidence indicating that excess visceral fat is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, including brain cortical thinning in adults. This study aims to investigate the relationship between brain cortical thickness with obesity assessments, in adolescents. In this study, we measured three different obesity assessments within an adolescent population (aged 15 - 18 years): body mass index (BMI), visceral fat ratio measured with an MRI and hepatorenal gradient measured with an ultrasound. Volunteers also underwent an MRI scan to measure brain structure. Results indicated that there was no relationship of BMI or hepatorenal gradient with brain cortical dimensions. However, there was a significant association between visceral fat ratio and an increase of cortical thickness throughout the brain. These results suggest that visceral fat, but not BMI, is correlated with cortical thickening in adolescence. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Buccal cortical bone thickness on CBCT for mini-implant

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    Goo, Jong Gook; Lim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jin; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cortical bone thickness is one of the important factor in mini-implant stability. This study was performed to investigate the buccal cortical bone thickness at every interdental area as an aid in planning mini-implant placement. Two-dimensional slices at every interdental area were selected from the cone-beam computed tomography scans of 20 patients in third decade. Buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest in the interdental bones of posterior regions of both jaws using the plot profile function of Ez3D2009TM (Vatech, Yongin, Korea). The results were analyzed using by Mann-Whitney test. Buccal cortical bone was thicker in the mandible than in the maxilla. The thickness increased with further distance from the alveolar crest in the maxilla and with coming from the posterior to anterior region in the mandible (p?0.01). The maximum CT value showed an increasing tendency with further distance from the alveolar crest and with coming from posterior to anterior region in both jaws. Interdental buccal cortical bone thickness varied in both jaws, however our study showed a distinct tendency. We expect that these results could be helpful for the selection and preparation of mini-implant sites.

  4. Independent measurement of femoral cortical thickness and cortical bone density using clinical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, G M; Gee, A H

    2015-02-01

    The local structure of the proximal femoral cortex is of interest since both fracture risk, and the effects of various interventions aimed at reducing that risk, are associated with cortical properties focused in particular regions rather than dispersed over the whole bone. Much of the femoral cortex is less than 3mm thick, appearing so blurred in clinical CT that its actual density is not apparent in the data, and neither thresholding nor full-width half-maximum techniques are capable of determining its width. Our previous work on cortical bone mapping showed how to produce more accurate estimates of cortical thickness by assuming a fixed value of the cortical density for each hip. However, although cortical density varies much less over the proximal femur than thickness, what little variation there is leads to errors in thickness measurement. In this paper, we develop the cortical bone mapping technique by exploiting local estimates of imaging blur to correct the global density estimate, thus providing a local density estimate as well as more accurate estimates of thickness. We also consider measurement of cortical mass surface density and the density of trabecular bone immediately adjacent to the cortex. Performance is assessed with ex vivo clinical QCT scans of proximal femurs, with true values derived from high resolution HRpQCT scans of the same bones. We demonstrate superior estimation of thickness than is possible with alternative techniques (accuracy 0.12 ± 0.39 mm for cortices in the range 1-3mm), and that local cortical density estimation is feasible for densities >800 mg/cm(3).

  5. Associations between children's socioeconomic status and prefrontal cortical thickness.

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    Lawson, Gwendolyn M; Duda, Jeffrey T; Avants, Brian B; Wu, Jue; Farah, Martha J

    2013-09-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function performance and measures of prefrontal cortical function, but little is known about its anatomical correlates. Structural MRI and demographic data from a sample of 283 healthy children from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development were used to investigate the relationship between SES and prefrontal cortical thickness. Specifically, we assessed the association between two principal measures of childhood SES, family income and parental education, and gray matter thickness in specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and on the asymmetry of these areas. After correcting for multiple comparisons and controlling for potentially confounding variables, parental education significantly predicted cortical thickness in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that brain structure in frontal regions may provide a meaningful link between SES and cognitive function among healthy, typically developing children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The alterations of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sporadic Parkinson's disease from the Han population of Mainland China

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    Xia Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD can’t be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. Results showed that a significantly shrunk volume, thinned thickness and enlarged or reduced surface of cortex in some specific brain regions were closely associated with sPD, but all cortical densities were not different. The majority of morphometric alteration of hemisphere cortex was symmetric, but that in the left hemisphere was more significant. The cortical morphometric alterations in the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and limbic lobe, cerebellum, caudate and thalamus were closely related to the clinical neural dysfunction (Clinical manifestations of sPD. Our data indicated that the deficits of extensive brain regions involved in the development of sPD, resulted in a series of correspondent complex clinical manifestations in the disease.

  7. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  8. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness associated with normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; Wan, Jing; Carass, Aaron; An, Yang; Prince, Jerry L; Resnick, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Imaging studies of anatomic changes in regional gray matter volumes and cortical thickness have documented age effects in many brain regions, but the majority of such studies have been cross-sectional investigations of individuals studied at a single point in time. In this study, using serial imaging assessments of participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we investigate longitudinal changes in cortical thickness during aging in a cohort of 66 older adults (mean age 68.78; sd. 6.6; range 60-84 at baseline) without dementia. We used the Cortical Reconstruction Using Implicit Surface Evolution CRUISE suite of algorithms to automatically generate a reconstruction of the cortical surface and identified twenty gyral based regions of interest per hemisphere. Using mixed effects regression, we investigated longitudinal changes in these regions over a mean follow-up interval of 8 years. The main finding in this study is that age-related decline in cortical thickness is widespread, but shows an anterior-posterior gradient with frontal and parietal regions, in general, exhibiting greater rates of decline than temporal and occipital. There were fewer regions in the right hemisphere showing statistically significant age-associated longitudinal decreases in mean cortical thickness. Males showed greater rates of decline in the middle frontal, inferior parietal, parahippocampal, postcentral, and superior temporal gyri in the left hemisphere, right precuneus and bilaterally in the superior parietal and cingulate regions. Significant nonlinear changes over time were observed in the postcentral, precentral, and orbitofrontal gyri on the left and inferior parietal, cingulate, and orbitofrontal gyri on the right.

  9. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  10. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  11. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  12. Extraction of the cerebral cortical boundaries from MRI for measurement of cortical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Simon F.; Uldahl, Mark; Ostergaard, Lasse R.

    2005-04-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, cause atrophy of the cerebral cortex. Measurements of cerebral cortical thickness and volume are used in the quantification and localization of atrophy. It is possible to measure the thickness of the cerebral cortex manually from magnetic resonance imaging, but partial volume effects, orthogonality problems, large amounts of manual labor and operator bias makes it difficult to conduct measurements on large patient populations. Automatic quantification and localization of atrophy is a highly desirable goal, as it facilitates the study of early anatomical changes and track disease progression on large populations. The first step in achieving this goal is to develop robust and accurate methods for measuring cortical thickness and volume automatically. We have developed a new method, capable of both extracting surface representations of the cortical boundaries from magnetic resonance imaging and measuring the cortical thickness. Experiments show that the developed method is robust and performs well on datasets of both healthy subjects and subjects suffering from Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Intelligence and cortical thickness in children with complex partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Duygu; Caplan, Rochelle; Siddarth, Prabha; Seidenberg, Michael; Gurbani, Suresh; Toga, Arthur W; Hermann, Bruce

    2011-07-15

    Prior studies on healthy children have demonstrated regional variations and a complex and dynamic relationship between intelligence and cerebral tissue. Yet, there is little information regarding the neuroanatomical correlates of general intelligence in children with epilepsy compared to healthy controls. In vivo imaging techniques, combined with methods for advanced image processing and analysis, offer the potential to examine quantitative mapping of brain development and its abnormalities in childhood epilepsy. A surface-based, computational high resolution 3-D magnetic resonance image analytic technique was used to compare the relationship of cortical thickness with age and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 65 children and adolescents with complex partial seizures (CPS) and 58 healthy controls, aged 6-18 years. Children were grouped according to health status (epilepsy; controls) and IQ level (average and above; below average) and compared on age-related patterns of cortical thickness. Our cross-sectional findings suggest that disruption in normal age-related cortical thickness expression is associated with intelligence in pediatric CPS patients both with average and below average IQ scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  15. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT, surface area (SA, gray matter volume (GMV, and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1 persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2 remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores, and (3 remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores; and a control group of (4 typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  16. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  17. Basic visual function and cortical thickness patterns in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Manja; Barnes, Josephine; Ridgway, Gerard R; Wattam-Bell, John; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Fox, Nick C; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2011-09-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by a progressive decline in higher-visual object and space processing, but the extent to which these deficits are underpinned by basic visual impairments is unknown. This study aimed to assess basic and higher-order visual deficits in 21 PCA patients. Basic visual skills including form detection and discrimination, color discrimination, motion coherence, and point localization were measured, and associations and dissociations between specific basic visual functions and measures of higher-order object and space perception were identified. All participants showed impairment in at least one aspect of basic visual processing. However, a number of dissociations between basic visual skills indicated a heterogeneous pattern of visual impairment among the PCA patients. Furthermore, basic visual impairments were associated with particular higher-order object and space perception deficits, but not with nonvisual parietal tasks, suggesting the specific involvement of visual networks in PCA. Cortical thickness analysis revealed trends toward lower cortical thickness in occipitotemporal (ventral) and occipitoparietal (dorsal) regions in patients with visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, respectively. However, there was also a lot of overlap in their patterns of cortical thinning. These findings suggest that different presentations of PCA represent points in a continuum of phenotypical variation.

  18. Risk Factors and Consequences of Cortical Thickness in an Asian Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilal, S.; Xin, X.; Ang, S.L.; Tan, C.S.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Niessen, W.J.; Vrooman, H.; Wong, T.Y.; Chen, C.; Ikram, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical thickness has been suggested to be one of the most important markers of cortical atrophy. In this study, we examined potential risk factors of cortical thickness and its association with cognition in an elderly Asian population from Singapore. This is a cross-sectional study among 572 Chi

  19. Cortical thickness and behavior abnormalities in children born preterm.

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    Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify long-term effects of preterm birth and of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL on cortical thickness (CTh. To study the relationship between CTh and cognitive-behavioral abnormalities. METHODS: We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 22 preterm children with PVL, 14 preterm children with no evidence of PVL and 22 full-term peers. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software. All participants underwent cognitive and behavioral assessments by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. RESULTS: We did not find global CTh differences between the groups. However, a thinner cortex was found in left postcentral, supramarginal, and caudal middle rostral gyri in preterm children with no evidence of PVL than in the full-term controls, while PVL preterm children showed thicker cortex in right pericalcarine and left rostral middle frontal areas than in preterm children with no evidence of PVL. In the PVL group, internalizing and externalizing scores correlated mainly with CTh in frontal areas. Attentional scores were found to be higher in PVL and correlated with CTh increments in right frontal areas. INTERPRETATION: The preterm group with no evidence of PVL, when compared with full-term children, showed evidence of a different pattern of regional thinning in the cortical gray matter. In turn, PVL preterm children exhibited atypical increases in CTh that may underlie their prevalent behavioral problems.

  20. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

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    Christoph Abé

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  1. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  2. Apathy is associated with lower inferior temporal cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Ward, Andrew; Schultz, Aaron; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is associated with cortical atrophy in AD dementia. This study investigated possible correlations between apathy and cortical atrophy in 47 individuals with MCI and 19 clinically normal elderly (CN). Backward elimination multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between scores on the Apathy Evaluation Scale and thickness of several cortical regions and covariates. Lower inferior temporal cortical thickness was predictive of greater apathy. Greater anterior cingulate cortical thickness was also predictive of greater apathy, suggesting an underlying reactive process. PMID:25716491

  3. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  4. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. Objectives To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. Methods We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Results Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right>left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Conclusion Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches. PMID:26337200

  5. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y; Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right > left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches.

  6. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Menary (Kyle); P.F. Collins (Paul); J.N. Porter (James); R.L. Muetzel (Ryan); E.A. Olson (Elizabeth); V. Kumar (Vipin); D. Steinbach; K.O. Lim (Kelvin); M. Luciana (Monica)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNeuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed

  7. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Menary (Kyle); P.F. Collins (Paul); J.N. Porter (James); R.L. Muetzel (Ryan); E.A. Olson (Elizabeth); V. Kumar (Vipin); D. Steinbach; K.O. Lim (Kelvin); M. Luciana (Monica)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNeuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throug

  8. Macrostructural brain changes in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes mellitus - a cortical thickness analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, J B; Brock, C; Søfteland, E

    2013-01-01

    with longstanding (average 24.6 years) type 1 DM and 20 healthy controls were studied in a 3T magnetic resonance scanner. Using an automated surface based cortical segmentation method, cortical thickness was assessed in anatomical regions including total and lobe-wise grey and white matter volumes. Also.......03) and superior parietal gyrus (P=0.008) in patients. The cortical thickness of these regions was not associated with diabetes duration, age at diabetes onset or to HbA1c (all P>0.08). Patients with peripheral neuropathy showed reduced right postcentral gyrus cortical thickness compared to patients without...

  9. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (pinsight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia.

  10. Regional cortical gray matter thickness differences associated with type 2 diabetes and major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilore, Olusola; Narr, Katherine; Rosenthal, Jonah; Pham, Daniel; Hamilton, Liberty; Watari, Kecia; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Darwin, Christine; Toga, Arthur; Kumar, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of type 2 diabetes with major depression on cortical gray matter using magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques. We hypothesized that diabetic subjects and depressed diabetic subjects would demonstrate decreased cortical gray matter thickness in prefrontal areas as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=26) and patients diabetes and major depression (n=26) were compared with healthy controls (n=20). Gray matter thickness across the entire cortex was measured using cortical pattern matching methods. Results All subjects with diabetes demonstrated decreased cortical gray matter thickness in the left anterior cingulate region. Additionally, depressed diabetic subjects showed significant cortical gray matter decreases in bilateral prefrontal areas compared with healthy controls. Correlations between clinical variables and cortical gray matter thickness revealed a significant negative relationship with cerebrovascular risk factors across all three groups, most consistently in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. A significant positive relationship between performance on attention and executive function tasks and cortical gray matter thickness predominately in left hemisphere regions was also seen across all subjects. Conclusion Depression and diabetes are associated with significant cortical gray matter thinning in medial prefrontal areas. PMID:20832254

  11. Voxel-based morphometry in autopsy proven PSP and CBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Dickson, Dennis W; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E; Jack, Clifford R

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of grey and white matter atrophy on MRI in autopsy confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and to determine whether the patterns vary depending on the clinical syndrome. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare patterns of atrophy in 13 PSP and 11 CBD subjects and 24 controls. PSP and CBD subjects were also subdivided into those with a dominant dementia or extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects showed brainstem atrophy with involvement of the cortex and underlying white matter. Frontoparietal grey and subcortical grey matter atrophy occurred in CBD. When subdivided, PSP subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome had more brainstem atrophy and less cortical atrophy than CBD subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects with a dementia syndrome had more subcortical white matter atrophy than CBD subjects with a dementia syndrome. These results show regional differences between PSP and CBD that are useful in predicting the underlying pathology, and help to shed light on the in vivo distribution of regional atrophy in PSP and CBD.

  12. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Kyle; Collins, Paul F.; Porter, James N.; Muetzel, Ryan; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Kumar, Vipin; Steinbach, Michael; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throughout both brain hemispheres. In this study, we performed a cortical thickness mapping analysis on data from 182 healthy typically developing males and females ages 9 to 24 years to identify correlates of general intelligence (g) scores. To determine if these correlates also mediate associations of specific cognitive abilities with cortical thickness, we regressed specific cognitive test scores on g scores and analyzed the residuals with respect to cortical thickness. The effect of age on the association between cortical thickness and intelligence was examined. We found a widely distributed pattern of positive associations between cortical thickness and g scores, as derived from the first unrotated principal factor of a factor analysis of Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) subtest scores. After WASI specific cognitive subtest scores were regressed on g factor scores, the residual score variances did not correlate significantly with cortical thickness in the full sample with age covaried. When participants were grouped at the age median, significant positive associations of cortical thickness were obtained in the older group for g-residualized scores on Block Design (a measure of visual-motor integrative processing) while significant negative associations of cortical thickness were observed in the younger group for g-residualized Vocabulary scores. These results regarding correlates of general intelligence are concordant with the existing literature, while the findings from younger versus older subgroups have implications for future research on brain structural correlates of specific cognitive abilities, as well as the cognitive domain specificity of behavioral

  13. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Kyle; Collins, Paul F; Porter, James N; Muetzel, Ryan; Olson, Elizabeth A; Kumar, Vipin; Steinbach, Michael; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2013-09-01

    Neuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throughout both brain hemispheres. In this study, we performed a cortical thickness mapping analysis on data from 182 healthy typically developing males and females ages 9 to 24 years to identify correlates of general intelligence (g) scores. To determine if these correlates also mediate associations of specific cognitive abilities with cortical thickness, we regressed specific cognitive test scores on g scores and analyzed the residuals with respect to cortical thickness. The effect of age on the association between cortical thickness and intelligence was examined. We found a widely distributed pattern of positive associations between cortical thickness and g scores, as derived from the first unrotated principal factor of a factor analysis of Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) subtest scores. After WASI specific cognitive subtest scores were regressed on g factor scores, the residual score variances did not correlate significantly with cortical thickness in the full sample with age covaried. When participants were grouped at the age median, significant positive associations of cortical thickness were obtained in the older group for g-residualized scores on Block Design (a measure of visual-motor integrative processing) while significant negative associations of cortical thickness were observed in the younger group for g-residualized Vocabulary scores. These results regarding correlates of general intelligence are concordant with the existing literature, while the findings from younger versus older subgroups have implications for future research on brain structural correlates of specific cognitive abilities, as well as the cognitive domain specificity of behavioral

  14. Neural correlates of anxiety in healthy volunteers: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Wood, Jacqueline N; De Simone, Veronica; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the amygdala, temporal, and prefrontal cortices play a key role in the expression of anxiety. The correlation between gray matter volume of these structures and behavioral anxiety measures was not previously investigated in healthy volunteers. The authors used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between brain regional volume and anxiety. The authors found an inverse correlation between anxiety measures and cortical volume in regions of the limbic system and prefrontal cortex implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. The authors suggest that volumetric variability of these regions may have a correlation with the development of an anxious personality trait.

  15. Is the Alzheimer's disease cortical thickness signature a biological marker for memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busovaca, Edgar; Zimmerman, Molly E; Meier, Irene B; Griffith, Erica Y; Grieve, Stuart M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Williams, Leanne M; Brickman, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Recent work suggests that analysis of the cortical thickness in key brain regions can be used to identify individuals at greatest risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear to what extent this "signature" is a biological marker of normal memory function - the primary cognitive domain affected by AD. We examined the relationship between the AD signature biomarker and memory functioning in a group of neurologically healthy young and older adults. Cortical thickness measurements and neuropsychological evaluations were obtained in 110 adults (age range 21-78, mean = 46) drawn from the Brain Resource International Database. The cohort was divided into young adult (n = 64, age 21-50) and older adult (n = 46, age 51-78) groups. Cortical thickness analysis was performed with FreeSurfer, and the average cortical thickness extracted from the eight regions that comprise the AD signature. Mean AD-signature cortical thickness was positively associated with performance on the delayed free recall trial of a list learning task and this relationship did not differ between younger and older adults. Mean AD-signature cortical thickness was not associated with performance on a test of psychomotor speed, as a control task, in either group. The results suggest that the AD signature cortical thickness is a marker for memory functioning across the adult lifespan.

  16. Genetic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness emerge at the start of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; van Soelen, Inge L C; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Schnack, Hugo G; Ehli, Erik A; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive abilities are related to (changes in) brain structure during adolescence and adulthood. Previous studies suggest that associations between cortical thickness and intelligence may be different at different ages. As both intelligence and cortical thickness are heritable traits, the question arises whether the association between cortical thickness development and intelligence is due to genes influencing both traits. We study this association in a longitudinal sample of young twins. Intelligence was assessed by standard IQ tests at age 9 in 224 twins, 190 of whom also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three years later at age 12, 177/125 twins returned for a follow-up measurement of intelligence/MRI scanning, respectively. We investigated whether cortical thickness was associated with intelligence and if so, whether this association was driven by genes. At age 9, there were no associations between cortical thickness and intelligence. At age 12, a negative relationship emerged. This association was mainly driven by verbal intelligence, and manifested itself most prominently in the left hemisphere. Cortical thickness and intelligence were explained by the same genes. As a post hoc analysis, we tested whether a specific allele (rs6265; Val66Met in the BDNF gene) contributed to this association. Met carriers showed lower intelligence and a thicker cortex, but only the association between the BDNF genotype and cortical thickness in the left superior parietal gyrus reached significance. In conclusion, it seems that brain areas contributing to (verbal) intellectual performance are specializing under the influence of genes around the onset of puberty.

  17. The Relation of Focal Lesions to Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Zielinski, Brandon A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Black, Garrett M; Huff, B S Trevor; Christiansen, Zachary; Wood, Dawn-Marie; Abildskov, Tracy J; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    In a sample of children with traumatic brain injury, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based investigation examined whether presence of a focal lesion uniquely influenced cortical thickness in any brain region. Specifically, the study explored the relation of cortical thickness to injury severity as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale score and length of stay, along with presence of encephalomalacia, focal white matter lesions or presence of hemosiderin deposition as a marker of shear injury. For comparison, a group of children without head injury but with orthopedic injury of similar age and sex were also examined. Both traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury children had normally reduced cortical thickness with age, assumed to reflect neuronal pruning. However, the reductions observed within the traumatic brain injury sample were similar to those in the orthopedic injury group, suggesting that in this sample traumatic brain injury, per se, did not uniquely alter cortical thickness in any brain region at the group level. Injury severity in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale or longer length of stay was associated with greater reductions in frontal and occipitoparietal cortical thickness. However, presence of focal lesions were not related to unique changes in cortical thickness despite having a prominent distribution of lesions within frontotemporal regions among children with traumatic brain injury. Because focal lesions were highly heterogeneous, their association with cortical thickness and development appeared to be idiosyncratic, and not associated with group level effects.

  18. Technical Note: Cortical thickness and density estimation from clinical CT using a prior thickness-density relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, Ludovic, E-mail: ludohumberto@gmail.com [Galgo Medical, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; Rietbergen, Bert van [Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Río Barquero, Luis Miguel del [CETIR Centre Medic, Barcelona 08029 (Spain); Lenthe, G. Harry van [Biomechanics Section, KU Leuven–University of Leuven, Leuven 3001 (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Cortical thickness and density are critical components in determining the strength of bony structures. Computed tomography (CT) is one possible modality for analyzing the cortex in 3D. In this paper, a model-based approach for measuring the cortical bone thickness and density from clinical CT images is proposed. Methods: Density variations across the cortex were modeled as a function of the cortical thickness and density, location of the cortex, density of surrounding tissues, and imaging blur. High resolution micro-CT data of cadaver proximal femurs were analyzed to determine a relationship between cortical thickness and density. This thickness-density relationship was used as prior information to be incorporated in the model to obtain accurate measurements of cortical thickness and density from clinical CT volumes. The method was validated using micro-CT scans of 23 cadaver proximal femurs. Simulated clinical CT images with different voxel sizes were generated from the micro-CT data. Cortical thickness and density were estimated from the simulated images using the proposed method and compared with measurements obtained using the micro-CT images to evaluate the effect of voxel size on the accuracy of the method. Then, 19 of the 23 specimens were imaged using a clinical CT scanner. Cortical thickness and density were estimated from the clinical CT images using the proposed method and compared with the micro-CT measurements. Finally, a case-control study including 20 patients with osteoporosis and 20 age-matched controls with normal bone density was performed to evaluate the proposed method in a clinical context. Results: Cortical thickness (density) estimation errors were 0.07 ± 0.19 mm (−18 ± 92 mg/cm{sup 3}) using the simulated clinical CT volumes with the smallest voxel size (0.33 × 0.33 × 0.5 mm{sup 3}), and 0.10 ± 0.24 mm (−10 ± 115 mg/cm{sup 3}) using the volumes with the largest voxel size (1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm{sup 3}). A trend for the

  19. Relationships among Cortical Thickness, Reading Skill, and Print Exposure in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…

  20. Temporal lobe cortical thickness correlations differentiate the migraine brain from the healthy brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J Schwedt

    Full Text Available Interregional cortical thickness correlations reflect underlying brain structural connectivity and functional connectivity. A few prior studies have shown that migraine is associated with atypical cortical brain structure and atypical functional connectivity amongst cortical regions that participate in sensory processing. However, the specific brain regions that most accurately differentiate the migraine brain from the healthy brain have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to identify the brain regions that comprised interregional cortical thickness correlations that most differed between migraineurs and healthy controls.This was a cross-sectional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI investigation of 64 adults with migraine and 39 healthy control subjects recruited from tertiary-care medical centers and their surrounding communities. All subjects underwent structural brain MRI imaging on a 3T scanner. Cortical thickness was determined for 70 brain regions that cover the cerebral cortex and cortical thickness correlations amongst these regions were calculated. Cortical thickness correlations that best differentiated groups of six migraineurs from controls and vice versa were identified.A model containing 15 interregional cortical thickness correlations differentiated groups of migraineurs from healthy controls with high accuracy. The right temporal pole was involved in 13 of the 15 interregional correlations while the right middle temporal cortex was involved in the other two.A model consisting of 15 interregional cortical thickness correlations accurately differentiates the brains of small groups of migraineurs from those of healthy controls. Correlations with the right temporal pole were highly represented in this classifier, suggesting that this region plays an important role in migraine pathophysiology.

  1. Associations between cortical thickness and verbal fluency in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James N; Collins, Paul F; Muetzel, Ryan L; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2011-04-15

    Neuroimaging studies of normative human brain development indicate that the brain matures at differing rates across time and brain regions, with some areas maturing into young adulthood. In particular, changes in cortical thickness may index maturational progressions from an overabundance of neuropil toward efficiently pruned neural networks. Developmental changes in structural MRI measures have rarely been examined in relation to discrete neuropsychological functions. In this study, healthy right-handed adolescents completed MRI scanning and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Associations of task performance and cortical thickness were assessed with cortical-surface-based analyses. Significant correlations between increasing COWAT performances and decreasing cortical thickness were found in left hemisphere language regions, including perisylvian regions surrounding Wernicke's and Broca's areas. Task performance was also correlated with regions associated with effortful verbal processing, working memory, and performance monitoring. Structure-function associations were not significantly different between older and younger subjects. Decreases in cortical thicknesses in regions that comprise the language network likely reflect maturation toward adult-like cortical organization and processing efficiency. The changes in cortical thicknesses that support verbal fluency are apparent by middle childhood, but with regionally separate developmental trajectories for males and females, consistent with other studies of adolescent development.

  2. Frontotemporal dementia and language networks: cortical thickness reduction is driven by dyslexia susceptibility genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternicó, Donata; Manes, Marta; Premi, Enrico; Cosseddu, Maura; Gazzina, Stefano; Alberici, Antonella; Archetti, Silvana; Bonomi, Elisa; Cotelli, Maria Sofia; Cotelli, Maria; Turla, Marinella; Micheli, Anna; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Variations within genes associated with dyslexia result in a language network vulnerability, and in patients with Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), language disturbances represent a disease core feature. Here we explored whether variations within three related-dyslexia genes, namely KIAA0319, DCDC2, and CNTNAP, might affect cortical thickness measures in FTD patients. 112 FTD patients underwent clinical and neuropsychological examination, genetic analyses and brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). KIAA0319 rs17243157 G/A, DCDC2 rs793842 A/G and CNTNAP2 rs17236239 A/G genetic variations were assessed. Cortical thickness was analysed by Freesurfer. Patients carrying KIAA0319 A*(AG or AA) carriers showed greater cortical thickness atrophy in the left fusiform and inferior temporal gyri, compared to KIAA0319 GG (p ≤ 0.001). Patients carrying CNTNAP2 G*(GA or GG) showed reduced cortical thickness in the left insula thenCNTNAP2 AA carriers (p≤0.001). When patients with both at-risk polymorphisms were considered (KIAA0319 A* and CNTNAP2 G*), greater and addictive cortical thickness atrophy of the left insula and the inferior temporal gyrus was demonstrated (p ≤ 0.001). No significant effect of DCDC2 was found. In FTD, variations of KIAA0319 and CNTNAP2 genes were related to cortical thickness abnormalities in those brain areas involved in language abilities. These findings shed light on genetic predisposition in defining phenotypic variability in FTD. PMID:27484312

  3. A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analysis of asymptomatic Parkinson's disease-related G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, A.; Artzi, M.; Mirelman, A.; Jacob, Y.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Gurevich, T.; Orr-Urtreger, A.; Marder, K.; Bressman, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Hendler, T.; Giladi, N.; Bashat, D. Ben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease have reduced gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy in both cortical and sub-cortical structures, yet changes in the pre-motor phase of the disease are unknown. METHODS: A comprehensive imaging study using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tens

  4. Measurement of renal cortical thickness using spiral CT in early diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bong Sig; Chung, Won Jung; Park, Byeong Ho; Choi, Jong Cheol; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Yung Il; Chung, Duk Hwan [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    To compare the ratio of renal cortical thickness to renal parenchymal thickness in early diabetic nephropathy and in normal control group. We performed spiral CT in 17 patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy without renal failure or renal atrophy. The normal control group consisted of 19 persons who were normal on renal function test and did not show any abnormality of the kidney. Renal cortical and parenchymal thicknesses were measured at renal hilum level perpendicular to the renal surface by electronic caliper on contrast-enhanced transverse scan demonstrating the cortical nephrogram phase. Using student's test, the difference in renal parenchymal and cortical thickness between the two groups was tested for statistical significance. There was no significant difference in renal parenchymal thickness between the two groups (p>0.05);the patient group had a thicker renal cortex than the normal control group however (p<0.05). The ratio of renal cortical thickness to parenchymal thickness in early diabetic nephropathy patients (Rt.:0.041{+-}0.051, Lt.:0.382{+-}0.053) was significantly higher than in the normal control group (Rt.:0.331{+-}0.067, Lt.:0.323{+-}0.064). The kidney of early diabetic nephropathy patients had a thicker renal cortex than normal kidney.

  5. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: togao@dr.hosp.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors.

  6. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-01-18

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Correlations between brain cortical thickness and cutaneous pain thresholds are atypical in adults with migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J Schwedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Migraineurs have atypical pain processing, increased expectations for pain, and hypervigilance for pain. Recent studies identified correlations between brain structure and pain sensation in healthy adults. The objective of this study was to compare cortical thickness-to-pain threshold correlations in migraineurs to healthy controls. We hypothesized that migraineurs would have aberrant relationships between the anatomical neurocorrelates of pain processing and pain thresholds. METHODS: Pain thresholds to cutaneously applied heat were determined for 31 adult migraineurs and 32 healthy controls. Cortical thickness was determined from magnetic resonance imaging T1-weighted sequences. Regional cortical thickness-to-pain threshold correlations were determined for migraineurs and controls separately using a general linear model whole brain vertex-wise analysis. A pain threshold-by-group interaction analysis was then conducted to estimate regions where migraineurs show alterations in the pain threshold-to-cortical thickness correlations relative to healthy controls. RESULTS: Controls had negative correlations (p<0.01 uncorrected between pain thresholds and cortical thickness in left posterior cingulate/precuneus, right superior temporal, right inferior parietal, and left inferior temporal regions, and a negative correlation (p<0.01 Monte Carlo corrected with a left superior temporal/inferior parietal region. Migraineurs had positive correlations (p<0.01 uncorrected between pain thresholds and cortical thickness in left superior temporal/inferior parietal, right precuneus, right superior temporal/inferior parietal, and left inferior parietal regions. Cortical thickness-to-pain threshold correlations differed between migraine and control groups (p<0.01 uncorrected for right superior temporal/inferior parietal, right precentral, left posterior cingulate/precuneus, and right inferior parietal regions and (p<0.01 Monte Carlo corrected

  8. 4D segmentation of brain MR images with constrained cortical thickness variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain MR images plays an important role in longitudinal investigation of developmental, aging, disease progression changes in the cerebral cortex. However, most existing brain segmentation methods consider multiple time-point images individually and thus cannot achieve longitudinal consistency. For example, cortical thickness measured from the segmented image will contain unnecessary temporal variations, which will affect the time related change pattern and eventually reduce the statistical power of analysis. In this paper, we propose a 4D segmentation framework for the adult brain MR images with the constraint of cortical thickness variations. Specifically, we utilize local intensity information to address the intensity inhomogeneity, spatial cortical thickness constraint to maintain the cortical thickness being within a reasonable range, and temporal cortical thickness variation constraint in neighboring time-points to suppress the artificial variations. The proposed method has been tested on BLSA dataset and ADNI dataset with promising results. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method, in comparison to other state-of-the-art 4D segmentation methods.

  9. A new cortical thickness mapping method with application to an in vivo finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Jong-Eun; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2014-01-01

    Finite element modelling of musculoskeletal systems, with geometrical structures constructed from computed tomography (CT) scans, is a useful and powerful tool for biomechanical studies. The use of CT scans from living human subjects, however, is still limited. Accurate reconstruction of thin cortical bone structures from CT scans of living human subjects is especially problematic, due to low CT resolution that results from mandatory low radiation doses and/or involuntary movements of the subject. In this study, a new method for mapping cortical thickness is described. Using the method, cortical thickness measurements of a coxal (pelvis) bone obtained from CT scans of a cadaver were mapped to the coxal geometry as obtained through CT scans of a live human subject, resulting in accurate cortical thickness while maintaining geometric fidelity of the live subject. The mapping procedure includes shape-preserving parameterisation, mesh movement and interpolation of thickness using a search algorithm. The methodology is applicable to modelling of other bones where accurate cortical thickness is needed and for which such data exist.

  10. Cortical thickness and surface area in neonates at high risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Ahn, Mihye; Peng, Ziwen; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with subtle abnormal cortical thickness and cortical surface area. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities exist in neonates associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. To this end, this preliminary study was conducted to identify possible abnormalities of cortical thickness and surface area in the high-genetic-risk neonates. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from offspring of mothers (N = 21) who had schizophrenia (N = 12) or schizoaffective disorder (N = 9), and also matched healthy neonates of mothers who were free of psychiatric illness (N = 26). Neonatal cortical surfaces were reconstructed and parcellated as regions of interest (ROIs), and cortical thickness for each vertex was computed as the shortest distance between the inner and outer surfaces. Comparisons were made for the average cortical thickness and total surface area in each of 68 cortical ROIs. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, it was found that the female high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortical thickness in the right lateral occipital cortex than the female control neonates. Before FDR correction, the high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the left transverse temporal gyrus, left banks of superior temporal sulcus, left lingual gyrus, right paracentral cortex, right posterior cingulate cortex, right temporal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, compared with the control neonates. Before FDR correction, in comparison with control neonates, male high-risk neonates had significantly thicker cortex in the left frontal pole, left cuneus cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex; while female high-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the bilateral paracentral, bilateral lateral occipital, left transverse temporal, left pars opercularis, right cuneus, and right posterior cingulate cortices. The high-risk neonates also had significantly

  11. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration.

  12. Association between cortical thickness and CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohades, Sara; Dubois, Jonathan; Parent, Maxime;

    between cortical thinning, amyloidosis or tau hyperphosphorylation depends on cortical regions and clinical stages of AD. Methods: T1-weighed MRIs and associated CSF markers from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 16), Alzheimer Disease (AD; n¼7) and age-matched cognitively normal subjects...... regional cortical thinning (CT) measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain amyloidosis (measured by CSF Ab 1-42 concentrations), or tau hyperphosphorylation (tau 181; p-tau) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. We test the hypothesis that the association...... (CN; n¼8) were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Cortical surface reconstruction and group registration were generated using Freesurfer. A general linear model was used to conduct regressions between CSF markers and cortical thickness. Results: Correlation...

  13. An Experimental Study of Radiographic Density of Alveolar Bone and Cortical Thickness of Mandible by Osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of the systemic osteoporosis on radiographic density of alveolar bone and cortical thickness of mandible. The bone mineral density values of lumbar and femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and T scores of lumbar, femur were obtained respectively. Radiographic densities of alveolar bones and panorama mandibular index (PMI, represents as cortical thickness) were analysed statistically according to age and T score variavles. The radiographic density of alveolar bone of maxillary molar showed significant difference by age and femur T group. That of mandibular molar showed significant difference between femur T group. Panorama mandibular index showed significant difference between age groups. The radiographic density of alvealar bones was more dependent on age femur T than lumbar T. Cortical thickness of mandible was correlated with increasing age.

  14. Longitudinal data on cortical thickness before and after working memory training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Foley, Sonya; Jones, Derek K.

    2016-01-01

    The data and supplementary information provided in this article relate to our research article “Task complexity and location specific changes of cortical thickness in executive and salience networks after working memory training” (Metzler-Baddeley et al., 2016) [1]. We provide cortical thickness and subcortical volume data derived from parieto-frontal cortical regions and the basal ganglia with the FreeSurfer longitudinal analyses stream (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu [2]) before and after Cogmed working memory training (Cogmed and Cogmed Working Memory Training, 2012) [3]. This article also provides supplementary information to the research article, i.e., within-group comparisons between baseline and outcome cortical thickness and subcortical volume measures, between-group tests of performance changes in cognitive benchmark tests (www.cambridgebrainsciences.com [4]), correlation analyses between performance changes in benchmark tests and training-related structural changes, correlation analyses between the time spent training and structural changes, a scatterplot of the relationship between cortical thickness measures derived from the occipital lobe as control region and the chronological order of the MRI sessions to assess potential scanner drift effects and a post-hoc vertex-wise whole brain analysis with FreeSurfer Qdec (https://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/fswiki/Qdec [5]). PMID:27115029

  15. Investigating relationships between cortical thickness and cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartberg, Cecilie Bhandari; Lawyer, Glenn; Nyman, Håkan; Jönsson, Erik G; Haukvik, Unn K; Saetre, Peter; Bjerkan, Petr S; Andreassen, Ole A; Hall, Håkan; Agartz, Ingrid

    2010-05-30

    Relationships between prefrontal and temporal lobe grey matter volumes as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and neurocognitive test results have been reported in schizophrenia. This investigation aimed to localize brain regions where cortical thickness and neurocognitive performance were related, and investigate if such relationships might differ in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Sixty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 69 healthy controls were characterized by neurocognitive testing and by brain cortical thickness maps. Putative cortical thickness/cognitive score relationships were investigated with contrast analyses of general linear models for the combined sample. Regions in which relationships were present were further investigated for diagnostic interaction. In the combined sample, significant positive relationships were found between frontal, temporal and occipital regions and tests for verbal IQ, verbal learning and executive functions. Diagnostic interaction was found for the relationships between verbal IQ and the right temporo-occipital junction and the left middle occipital gyrus. In conclusion, the significant relationships between cortical thickness and neurocognitive performances were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The relationships were similar in patients and controls, except for the right temporo-occipital and left occipital cortical areas, indicating a disrupted structure-function relationship in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy control subjects.

  16. Structural covariance in the hallucinating brain: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Vercammen, Ans; Mechelli, Andrea; Knegtering, Henderikus; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies have indicated that a number of cortical regions express altered patterns of structural covariance in schizophrenia. The relation between these alterations and specific psychotic symptoms is yet to be investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry to examine regional grey matter volumes and structural covariance associated with severity of auditory verbal hallucinations. Methods We applied optimized voxel-based morphometry to volumetric magnetic resonance imaging data from 26 patients with medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs); statistical inferences were made at p < 0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Results Grey matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with severity of AVHs. Hallucination severity influenced the pattern of structural covariance between this region and the left superior/middle temporal gyri, the right inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus, and the insula bilaterally. Limitations The results are based on self-reported severity of auditory hallucinations. Complementing with a clinician-based instrument could have made the findings more compelling. Future studies would benefit from including a measure to control for other symptoms that may covary with AVHs and for the effects of antipsychotic medication. Conclusion The results revealed that overall severity of AVHs modulated cortical intercorrelations between frontotemporal regions involved in language production and verbal monitoring, supporting the critical role of this network in the pathophysiology of hallucinations. PMID:19949723

  17. Cortical thickness maturation and duration of music training: health-promoting activities shape brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudziak, James J; Albaugh, Matthew D; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif; Spottswood, Margaret; Crehan, Eileen; Evans, Alan C; Botteron, Kelly N

    2014-11-01

    To assess the extent to which playing a musical instrument is associated with cortical thickness development among healthy youths. Participants were part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development. This study followed a longitudinal design such that participants underwent MRI scanning and behavioral testing on up to 3 separate visits, occurring at 2-year intervals. MRI, IQ, and music training data were available for 232 youths (334 scans), ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Cortical thickness was regressed against the number of years that each youth had played a musical instrument. Next, thickness was regressed against an "Age × Years of Playing" interaction term. Age, gender, total brain volume, and scanner were controlled for in analyses. Participant ID was entered as a random effect to account for within-person dependence. False discovery rate correction was applied (p ≤ .05). There was no association between thickness and years playing a musical instrument. The "Age × Years of Playing" interaction was associated with thickness in motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, as well as prefrontal and parietal cortices. Follow-up analysis revealed that music training was associated with an increased rate of thickness maturation. Results were largely unchanged when IQ and handedness were included as covariates. Playing a musical instrument was associated with more rapid cortical thickness maturation within areas implicated in motor planning and coordination, visuospatial ability, and emotion and impulse regulation. However, given the quasi-experimental nature of this study, we cannot rule out the influence of confounding variables. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  19. Cortical thickness changes correlate with cognition changes after cognitive training: Evidence from a Chinese community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan eJiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in cortical thickness correlated with cognitive function changes in healthy older adults after receiving cognitive training interventions. Moreover, it also aimed to examine the differential impacts of a multi-domain and a single-domain cognitive training interventions. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanning was performed on participants 65 to 75 years of age using the Siemens 3.0 T Trio Tim with the MPRAGE sequence. The cortical thickness was determined using FreeSurfer software. Cognitive functioning was evaluated using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS. There were significant group × time interaction effects on the left supramarginal, the left frontal pole cortical regions; and a marginal significant group × time interaction effects on visuospatial/constructional and delayed memory scores. In a multi-domain cognitive training group, a number of cortical region changes were significantly positively correlated with changes in attention, delayed memory, and the total score, but significantly negatively correlated with changes in immediate memory and language scores. In the single-domain cognitive training group, some cortical region changes were significantly positively associated with changes in immediate memory, delayed memory, and the total score, while they were significantly negatively associated with changes in visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention scores. Overall, multi-domain cognitive training offered more advantages in visuospatial/constructional, attention, and delayed memory abilities, while single-domain cognitive training benefited immediate memory ability more effectively. These findings suggest that healthy older adults benefit more from the multi-domain cognitive training than single-domain cognitive training. Cognitive training has impacted on cortical thickness changes in healthy elderly

  20. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  1. ODVBA: optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhao; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-08-01

    Gaussian smoothing of images prior to applying voxel-based statistics is an important step in voxel-based analysis and statistical parametric mapping (VBA-SPM) and is used to account for registration errors, to Gaussianize the data and to integrate imaging signals from a region around each voxel. However, it has also become a limitation of VBA-SPM based methods, since it is often chosen empirically and lacks spatial adaptivity to the shape and spatial extent of the region of interest, such as a region of atrophy or functional activity. In this paper, we propose a new framework, named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA), for determining the optimal spatially adaptive smoothing of images, followed by applying voxel-based group analysis. In ODVBA, nonnegative discriminative projection is applied regionally to get the direction that best discriminates between two groups, e.g., patients and controls; this direction is equivalent to local filtering by an optimal kernel whose coefficients define the optimally discriminative direction. By considering all the neighborhoods that contain a given voxel, we then compose this information to produce the statistic for each voxel. Finally, permutation tests are used to obtain a statistical parametric map of group differences. ODVBA has been evaluated using simulated data in which the ground truth is known and with data from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) study. The experimental results have shown that the proposed ODVBA can precisely describe the shape and location of structural abnormality.

  2. Cortical thickness development of human primary visual cortex related to the age of blindness onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaojun; Song, Ming; Xu, Jiayuan; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-07-28

    Blindness primarily induces structural alteration in the primary visual cortex (V1). Some studies have found that the early blind subjects had a thicker V1 compared to sighted controls, whereas late blind subjects showed no significant differences in the V1. This implies that the age of blindness onset may exert significant effects on the development of cortical thickness of the V1. However, no previous research used a trajectory of the age of blindness onset-related changes to investigate these effects. Here we explored this issue by mapping the cortical thickness trajectory of the V1 against the age of blindness onset using data from 99 blind individuals whose age of blindness onset ranged from birth to 34 years. We found that the cortical thickness of the V1 could be fitted well with a quadratic curve in both the left (F = 11.59, P = 3 × 10(-5)) and right hemispheres (F = 6.54, P = 2 × 10(-3)). Specifically, the cortical thickness of the V1 thinned rapidly during childhood and adolescence and did not change significantly thereafter. This trend was not observed in the primary auditory cortex (A1), primary motor cortex (M1), or primary somatosensory cortex (S1). These results provide evidence that an onset of blindness before adulthood significantly affects the cortical thickness of the V1 and suggest a critical period for cortical development of the human V1.

  3. Effect of Cortical Bone Thickness on Detection of Intraosseous Lesions by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Adibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Usefulness of ultrasound (US in detection of intrabony lesions has been showed. A cortical bone perforation or a very thin and intact cortical bone is prerequisite for this purpose. Objective. The current in vitro study was aimed at measuring the cut-off thickness of the overlying cortical bone which allows ultrasonic assessment of bony defects. Materials and Methods. 20 bovine scapula blocks were obtained. Samples were numbered from 1 to 20. In each sample, 5 artificial lesions were made. The lesions were made in order to increase the overlying bone thickness, from 0.1 mm in the first sample to 2 mm in the last one (with 0.1 mm interval. After that, the samples underwent ultrasound examinations by two practicing radiologists. Results. All five lesions in samples numbered 1 to 11 were detected as hypoechoic area. Cortical bone thickness more than 1.1 mm resulted in a failure in the detection of central lesions. Conclusion. We can conclude that neither bony perforation nor very thin cortical bones are needed to consider US to be an effective imaging technique in the evaluation of bony lesion.

  4. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week. A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and left frontal eye fields (FEFs. No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations.

  5. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations.

  6. Positive Association of Video Game Playing with Left Frontal Cortical Thickness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations. PMID:24633348

  7. Dynamic Development of Regional Cortical Thickness and Surface Area in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Amanda E; Shi, Feng; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Hamer, Robert M; Shen, Dinggang; Gilmore, John H

    2015-08-01

    Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders and are correlated with cognitive functioning. Little is known about how these components of cortical gray matter develop in the first years of life. We studied the longitudinal development of regional CT and SA expansion in healthy infants from birth to 2 years. CT and SA have distinct and heterogeneous patterns of development that are exceptionally dynamic; overall CT increases by an average of 36.1%, while cortical SA increases 114.6%. By age 2, CT is on average 97% of adult values, compared with SA, which is 69%. This suggests that early identification, prevention, and intervention strategies for neuropsychiatric illness need to be targeted to this period of rapid postnatal brain development, and that SA expansion is the principal driving factor in cortical volume after 2 years of age.

  8. The role of aerobic fitness in cortical thickness and mathematics achievement in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Kienzler, Caitlin; King, Matthew; Pontifex, Matthew B; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that aerobic fitness benefits the brain and cognition during childhood. The present study is the first to explore cortical brain structure of higher fit and lower fit 9- and 10-year-old children, and how aerobic fitness and cortical thickness relate to academic achievement. We demonstrate that higher fit children (>70th percentile VO2max) showed decreased gray matter thickness in superior frontal cortex, superior temporal areas, and lateral occipital cortex, coupled with better mathematics achievement, compared to lower fit children (achievement, particularly mathematics achievement, and raise the possibility that individual differences in aerobic fitness play an important role in cortical gray matter thinning during brain maturation. The establishment of predictors of academic performance is key to helping educators focus on interventions to maximize learning and success across the lifespan.

  9. Insertion torque versus mechanical resistance of mini-implants inserted in different cortical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata de Faria; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to measure insertion torque, tip mechanical resistance to fracture and transmucosal neck of mini-implants (MI) (Conexão Sistemas de PróteseT), as well as to analyze surface morphology. Methods Mechanical tests were carried out to measure the insertion torque of MIs in different cortical thicknesses, and tip mechanical resistance to fracture as well as transmucosal neck of MIs. Surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the mechanical tests. Results Values of mechanical resistance to fracture (22.14 N.cm and 54.95 N.cm) were higher and statistically different (P 0.05) to torsional fracture in the tip of MI (22.14 N.cm) when 3 mm cortical thickness (16.11 N.cm) and dense bone (23.95 N.cm) were used. Torsional fracture of the transmucosal neck (54.95 N.cm) was higher and statistically different (P implants tested presented adequate surface morphology. The resistance of mini-implants to fracture safely allows placement in 1 and 2-mm cortical thickness. However, in 3-mm cortical thickness and dense bones, pre-drilling with a bur is recommended before insertion. PMID:25162571

  10. Cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in school-age children: A population-based MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Sandra; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; El Marroun, Hanan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; White, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior plays an important role in establishing and maintaining relationships with others and thus may have important developmental implications. This study examines the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children. The present study was embedded within the Generation R Study. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired from 464 children whose parents had completed the prosocial scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. To study the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior, we performed whole-brain surface-based analyses. Prosocial behavior was related to a thicker cortex in a cluster that covers part of the left superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex (p prosocial behavior and cortical thickness in a cluster including the right rostral middle frontal and superior frontal cortex (p prosocial behavior is associated with cortical thickness in regions related to theory of mind (superior frontal cortex, rostral middle frontal cortex cuneus, and precuneus) and inhibitory control (superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex).

  11. Reduced cortical thickness of brain areas involved in pain processing in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frokjaer, J.B.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Olesen, S.S.; Lundager, F.H.; Eskildsen, S.F.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) might have abnormal brain function. We assessed cortical thickness in brain areas involved in visceral pain processing. METHODS: We analyzed brain morphologies of 19 patients with painful CP and compared them with 15 healthy individu

  12. Impaired response inhibition and excess cortical thickness as candidate endophenotypes for trichotillomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    occupying an intermediate position. Permutation cluster analysis revealed significant excesses of cortical thickness in patients and their relatives compared to controls, in right inferior/middle frontal gyri (Brodmann Area, BA 47 & 11), right lingual gyrus (BA 18), left superior temporal cortex (BA 21...

  13. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development.

  14. Brain volumes and regional cortical thickness in young females with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglset, Tone Seim; Endestad, Tor; Hilland, Eva; Bang, Lasse; Tamnes, Christian Krog; Landrø, Nils Inge; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-11-16

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, with an unknown etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging studies show reduced brain volumes and cortical thickness in patients compared to healthy controls. However, findings are inconsistent, especially concerning the anatomical location and extent of the differences. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare brain volumes and regional cortical thickness in young females with AN and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging data was acquired from young females with anorexia nervosa (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 28). Two different scanner sites were used. BMI varied from 13.5 to 20.7 within the patient group, and 11 patients had a BMI > 17.5. FreeSurfer was used to estimate brain volumes and regional cortical thickness. There were no differences between groups in total cerebral cortex volume, white matter volume, or lateral ventricle volume. There were also no volume differences in subcortical grey matter structures. However the results showed reduced cortical thickness bilaterally in the superior parietal gyrus, and in the right inferior parietal and superior frontal gyri. The functional significance of the findings is undetermined as the majority of the included patients was already partially weight-restored. We discuss whether these regions could be related to predisposing factors of the illness, or whether they are regions that are more vulnerable to starvation, malnutrition or associated processes in AN.

  15. Cortical thickness in individuals with non-clinical and clinical psychotic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; de Weijer, Antoin D.; Begemann, Marieke J. H.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms that are linked to psychosis are also experienced by individuals who are not in need of care. In the present study, cortical thickness was investigated in these individuals. Fifty individuals with non-clinical auditory verbal hallucinations (most of them also experienced other non-clinical

  16. Effects of lithium on cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield volumes in psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumatos, C I; Nanda, P; Mathew, I T; Tandon, N; Shah, J; Bishop, J R; Clementz, B A; Pearlson, G D; Sweeney, J A; Tamminga, C A; Keshavan, M S

    2015-02-01

    Relative to healthy controls, lithium free bipolar patients exhibit significant gray matter abnormalities. Lithium, the long-time reference standard medication treatment for bipolar disorder, has been proposed to be neuro-protective against these abnormalities. However, its effects on cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield (HSF) volumes remain unstudied and unclear, respectively, in bipolar disorder. This study included 342 healthy controls (HC), 51 lithium free PBD patients (NoLi), and 51 PBD patients taking lithium (Li). Regional gray matter thickness and HSF volume values were extracted from 3T MRI images. After matching NoLi and Li samples, regions where HC differed from either Li or NoLi were identified. In regions of significant or trending HC-NoLi difference, Li-NoLi comparisons were made. No significant HC-Li thickness or HSF volume differences were found. Significantly thinner occipital cortices were observed in NoLi compared to HC. In these regions, Li consistently exhibited non-significant trends for greater cortical thickness relative to NoLi. Significantly less volume was observed in NoLi compared to both HC and Li in right HSFs. Our results suggest that PBD in patients not treated with Li is associated with thinner occipital cortices and reduced HSF volumes compared with HC. Patients treated with Li exhibited significantly larger HSF volumes than NoLi, and those treated with Li were no different from HC in cortical thickness or hippocampal volumes. This evidence directly supports the hypothesis that Li may counteract the locally thinner and smaller gray matter structure found in PBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Retrospective Study on Indian Population to evaluate Cortical Bone Thickness in Maxilla and Mandible using Computed Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeegar Ketan Vakil

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Mini-implants have gained considerable popularity due to their low cost, effectiveness, clinical management and stability. Among the factors related to microimplant stability, bone density and cortical bone thickness appear to be critical for successful placement. This study will provide knowledge of cortical bone thickness in various areas which can guide the clinicians in selecting the placement site.

  18. Cortical Thickness Changes Correlate with Cognition Changes after Cognitive Training: Evidence from a Chinese Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijuan; Cao, Xinyi; Li, Ting; Tang, Yingying; Li, Wei; Wang, Jijun; Chan, Raymond C; Li, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in cortical thickness correlated with cognitive function changes in healthy older adults after receiving cognitive training interventions. Moreover, it also aimed to examine the differential impacts of a multi-domain and a single-domain cognitive training interventions. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning was performed on participants 65-75 years of age using the Siemens 3.0 T Trio Tim with the Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo (MPRAGE) sequence. The cortical thickness was determined using FreeSurfer Software. Cognitive functioning was evaluated using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). There were significant group × time interaction effects on the left supramarginal, the left frontal pole cortical regions; and a marginal significant group × time interaction effects on visuospatial/constructional and delayed memory scores. In a multi-domain cognitive training group, a number of cortical region changes were significantly positively correlated with changes in attention, delayed memory, and the total score, but significantly negatively correlated with changes in immediate memory and language scores. In the single-domain cognitive training group, some cortical region changes were significantly positively associated with changes in immediate memory, delayed memory, and the total score, while they were significantly negatively associated with changes in visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention scores. Overall, multi-domain cognitive training offered more advantages in visuospatial/constructional, attention, and delayed memory abilities, while single-domain cognitive training benefited immediate memory ability more effectively. These findings suggest that healthy older adults benefit more from the multi-domain cognitive training than single-domain cognitive training. Cognitive training has impacted on cortical thickness changes in

  19. Cortical thickness correlates of socioemotional difficulties in adults with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Jean-François; Clouchoux, Cédric; Lassonde, Maryse; Evans, Alan C; Deal, Cheri L; Théoret, Hugo

    2014-06-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a non-inherited genetic disorder associated with a specific cognitive phenotype and socioemotional impairments. The present study aimed at characterizing the neuroanatomical basis of socioemotional dysfunctions in TS using the Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-I) and cortical morphology analysis in 17 individuals with TS (45,X) and 17-age and verbal IQ matched healthy females. Individuals with TS reported significantly greater socioemotional impairment than controls. Cortical thickness analysis showed that participants with TS had an overall thicker cortex than controls, with extensive alterations in the temporal, frontal, parietal and insular regions bilaterally. Using the total EQ-I score as regressor in the cortical thickness analysis revealed a number of brain regions where the relationship between cortical thickness and EQ-I score differed between groups; these areas included brain regions critically involved in socioemotional processes, such as bilateral insula, the anterior cingulate and the orbitofrontal cortex. These results show that socioemotional dysfunctions seen in women with TS are associated with significant alterations in brain morphology.

  20. Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Tohka, Jussi; Evans, Alan C

    2015-05-01

    Several studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown developmental trajectories of cortical thickness. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accurate estimation of individuals' brain maturity, therefore, is critical in establishing a baseline for normal brain development against which neurodevelopmental disorders can be assessed. In this study, cortical thickness derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a large longitudinal dataset of normally growing children and adolescents (n=308), were used to build a highly accurate predictive model for estimating chronological age (cross-validated correlation up to R=0.84). Unlike previous studies which used kernelized approach in building prediction models, we used an elastic net penalized linear regression model capable of producing a spatially sparse, yet accurate predictive model of chronological age. Upon investigating different scales of cortical parcellation from 78 to 10,240 brain parcels, we observed that the accuracy in estimated age improved with increased spatial scale of brain parcellation, with the best estimations obtained for spatial resolutions consisting of 2560 and 10,240 brain parcels. The top predictors of brain maturity were found in highly localized sensorimotor and association areas. The results of our study demonstrate that cortical thickness can be used to estimate individuals' brain maturity with high accuracy, and the estimated ages relate to functional and behavioural measures, underscoring the relevance and scope of the study in the understanding of biological maturity.

  1. Age effects on cortical thickness in young Down's syndrome subjects: a cross-sectional gender study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Andrea; Moraschi, Marta [San Raffaele Foundation Rome, Rehabilitation Facility Ceglie Messapica, Rome (Italy); Cornia, Riccardo; Stella, Giacomo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Education and Human Sciences, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Bozzao, Alessandro; Gagliardo, Olga [University Sapienza, NESMOS, Department of Neuroradiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Chiacchiararelli, Laura [University Sapienza, Department of Medical Physics, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Iani, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Communication and Economy, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Albertini, Giorgio [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Paediatrics, Rome (Italy); Pierallini, Alberto [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the characteristic pattern of age-related cortical thinning in men and women with Down's syndrome (DS) by means of MRI and automatic cortical thickness measurements and a cross-sectional design, in a large cohort of young subjects. Eighty-four subjects with DS, 30 females (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 22.8 ± 5.9) and 54 males (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 21.5 ± 6.5), were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. MRI-based quantification of cortical thickness was performed using FreeSurfer software package. For all subjects participating in the study, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between age and mean cortical thickness values has been evaluated. A significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in female DS subjects, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes, bilaterally. In male DS subjects, a significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in the right fronto-temporal lobes and cingulate regions. Whole brain mean cortical thickness values were significantly negative correlated with age only in female DS subjects. Females with Down's syndrome showed a strong correlation between cortical thickness and age, already in early age. We suggest that the cognitive impairment due to hormonal deficit in the postmenopausal period could be emphasized by the early structural decline of gray matter in female DS subjects. (orig.)

  2. Increased cortical thickness in a frontoparietal network in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Hänggi, Jürgen; Baur, Volker; Rufer, Michael; Delsignore, Aba; Weidt, Steffi; Jäncke, Lutz; Herwig, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the second leading anxiety disorder. On the functional neurobiological level, specific brain regions involved in the processing of anxiety-laden stimuli and in emotion regulation have been shown to be hyperactive and hyper-responsive in SAD such as amygdala, insula and orbito- and prefrontal cortex. On the level of brain structure, prior studies on anatomical differences in SAD resulted in mixed and partially contradictory findings. Based on previous functional and anatomical models of SAD, this study examined cortical thickness in structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 46 patients with SAD without comorbidities (except for depressed episode in one patient) compared with 46 matched healthy controls in a region of interest-analysis and in whole-brain. In a theory-driven ROI-analysis, cortical thickness was increased in SAD in left insula, right anterior cingulate and right temporal pole. Furthermore, the whole-brain analysis revealed increased thickness in right dorsolateral prefrontal and right parietal cortex. This study detected no regions of decreased cortical thickness or brain volume in SAD. From the perspective of brain networks, these findings are in line with prior functional differences in salience networks and frontoparietal networks associated with executive-controlling and attentional functions.

  3. Mandibular Inferior Cortical Bone Thickness on Panoramic Radiographs in Patients using Bisphosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra R.; Chen, Curtis S. K.; Leroux, Brian G.; Lee, Peggy P.; Hollender, Lars G.; Lloid, Michelle; Drew, Shane Patrick; Schubert, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect dimensional changes in the mandibular cortical bone associated with bisphosphonate (BP) use and to correlate the measurements of the cortical bone with the cumulative dose of BP therapy. Methods Mandibular inferior cortical bone thickness (MICBT) was measured under the mental foramen from panoramic radiographs of subjects using BP with and without bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) and controls. Results The highest mean MICBT was observed in BRONJ subjects 6.81 (± 1.35 mm), when compared to subjects using BP 5.44 (± 1.09 mm) and controls 4.79 (± 0.85 mm; p<0.01). The mean MICBT of BRONJ subjects was significantly higher than that of subjects using BP without BRONJ. There was a correlation between MICBT and cumulative dose of zolendronate. Conclusion The MICBT on panoramic radiograph is a potentially useful tool for the detection of dimensional changes associated with BP therapy. PMID:25864820

  4. Family History of Alzheimer's Disease and Cortical Thickness in Patients With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Steffi; Haussmann, Robert; Gruschwitz, Antonia; Werner, Annett; Osterrath, Antje; Baumgaertel, Johanna; Lange, Jan; Donix, Katharina L; Linn, Jennifer; Donix, Markus

    2016-08-01

    A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease reflects genetic risks for the neurodegenerative disorder. Recent imaging data suggest localized effects of genetic risks on brain structure in healthy people. It is unknown whether this association can also be found in patients who already have dementia. Our aim was to investigate whether family history risk modulates regional medial temporal lobe cortical thickness in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We performed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and cortical unfolding data analysis on 54 patients and 53 nondemented individuals. A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease was associated with left hemispheric cortical thinning in the subiculum among patients and controls. The contribution of Alzheimer's disease family history to regional brain anatomy changes independent of cognitive impairment may reflect genetic risks that modulate onset and clinical course of the disease.

  5. Comparing voxel-based iterative sensitivity and voxel-based morphometry to detect abnormalities in T2-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-de-Grenu, Lara Z; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Williams, Guy B; Nestor, Peter J

    2014-10-15

    This study aimed to test the superiority proposed by Abbott et al. (2011) of their Voxel based iterative sensitivity (VBIS) method over Voxel Based Morphometry using T2-weighted images (T2-VBM), in detecting intensity changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A comparison was made first in simulated intensity lesions and then in AD patients. Intensity changes were evaluated in the whole-brain with VBIS and with a simple intensity-based approach and in specific tissue classes with the conventional VBM method of using tissue probability segments. Results showed that VBIS performed well in the simulated environment though it showed no superiority in detecting the lesion compared to the much simpler VBM approach. The VBIS method, however, failed to detect any meaningful signal intensity reduction in AD patient data. Moreover, its whole brain approach was contaminated by the excess cerebrospinal fluid signal (very bright on T2-weighted scans) in areas of maximal measurable atrophy (mesial temporal lobes); this gave rise to spurious signal intensity increases in these regions in AD. The same artefact was observed for both intensity-based methods but not with the conventional VBM approach of performing statistics on grey matter segments. In conclusion, no evidence was found to indicate that VBIS offers benefits over T2-VBM in AD, nor in simulation intensity lesions. The study highlights the necessity of empirically testing voxel-based analysis techniques rather than merely claiming superiority of one method over another on theoretical grounds.

  6. Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu - its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, R.A.; Pogrund, H.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of the humeral cortical thickness demonstrate that generalised osteoporosis in female Bantu commences in the fifth decade and gradually increases until, in the ninth decade, all subjects are osteoporotic. The combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the humerus in young adults is very similar to that found previously in a white London population and the loss of cortex with age is very similar. It is concluded that the known low incidence of femoral neck fracture in Bantu is not due to a lower incidence of generalised osteoporosis but to environmental factors. The chief environmental factor postulated is the greater amount of physical work performed by the Bantu. A more careful mode of walking is suggested as a subsidiary cause.

  7. Association of Optic Radiation Integrity with Cortical Thickness in Children with Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shun; Mu, Yun-Feng; Cui, Long-Biao; Li, Rong; Shi, Mei; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jian; Yin, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated regional abnormalities of both gray and white matter in amblyopia. However, alterations of cortical thickness associated with changes in white matter integrity have rarely been reported. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained from 15 children with anisometropic amblyopia and 15 age- and gender-matched children with normal sight. Combining DTI and surface-based morphometry, we examined a potential linkage between disrupted white matter integrity and altered cortical thickness. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the optic radiations (ORs) of children with anisometropic amblyopia were lower than in controls (P amblyopia. These findings indicate that developmental changes occur simultaneously in the OR and visual cortex in amblyopia, and provide key information on complex damage of brain networks in anisometropic amblyopia. Our results also support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of anisometropic amblyopia is neurodevelopmental.

  8. Relation of Childhood Home Environment to Cortical Thickness in Late Adolescence: Specificity of Experience and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avants, Brian B; Hackman, Daniel A; Betancourt, Laura M; Lawson, Gwendolyn M; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    What are the long-term effects of childhood experience on brain development? Research with animals shows that the quality of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance both play important roles in shaping lifelong brain structure and function. Human research has so far been limited to the effects of abnormal experience and pathological development. Using a unique longitudinal dataset of in-home measures of childhood experience at ages 4 and 8 and MRI acquired in late adolescence, we were able to relate normal variation in childhood experience to later life cortical thickness. Environmental stimulation at age 4 predicted cortical thickness in a set of automatically derived regions in temporal and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, age 8 experience was not predictive. Parental nurturance was not predictive at either age. This work reveals an association between childhood experience and later brain structure that is specific relative to aspects of experience, regions of brain, and timing.

  9. Radiation-induced abnormal cortical thickness in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional MRI studies showed that radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC in years after radiotherapy (RT could involve brain gray matter (GM and impair brain function. However, it is still unclear the radiation-induced brain morphological changes in NPC patients with normal-appearing GM in the early period after RT. In this study, we acquired high-resolution brain structural MRI data from three groups of patients, 22 before radiotherapy (pre-RT NPC patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated, 22 NPC patients in the early-delayed stage after radiotherapy (post-RT-ED, and 20 NPC patients in the late-delayed stage after radiotherapy (post-RT-LD, and then analyzed the radiation-induced cortical thickness alteration in NPC patients after RT. Using a vertex-wise surface-based morphometry (SBM approach, we detected significantly decreased cortical thickness in the precentral gyrus (PreCG in the post-RT-ED group compared to the pre-RT group. And the post-RT-LD group showed significantly increased cortical thickness in widespread brain regions, including the bilateral inferior parietal, left isthmus of the cingulate, left bank of the superior temporal sulcus and left lateral occipital regions, compared to the pre-RT group, and in the bilateral PreCG compared to the post-RT-ED group. Similar analysis with ROI-wise SBM method also found the consistent results. These results indicated that radiation-induced brain injury mainly occurred in the post-RT-LD group and the cortical thickness alterations after RT were dynamic in different periods. Our findings may reflect the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury in NPC patients with normal-appearing GM and an early intervention is necessary for protecting GM during RT.

  10. Can we predict subject-specific dynamic cortical thickness maps during infancy from birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Li, Gang; Rekik, Islem; Zhang, Han; Gao, Yaozong; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the early dynamic development of the human cerebral cortex remains a challenging problem. Cortical thickness, as one of the most important morphological attributes of the cerebral cortex, is a sensitive indicator for both normal neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders, but its early postnatal development remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate a key question in neurodevelopmental science: can we predict the future dynamic development of cortical thickness map in an individual infant based on its available MRI data at birth? If this is possible, we might be able to better model and understand the early brain development and also early detect abnormal brain development during infancy. To this end, we develop a novel learning-based method, called Dynamically-Assembled Regression Forest (DARF), to predict the development of the cortical thickness map during the first postnatal year, based on neonatal MRI features. We applied our method to 15 healthy infants and predicted their cortical thickness maps at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age, with respectively mean absolute errors of 0.209 mm, 0.332 mm, 0.340 mm, and 0.321 mm. Moreover, we found that the prediction precision is region-specific, with high precision in the unimodal cortex and relatively low precision in the high-order association cortex, which may be associated with their differential developmental patterns. Additional experiments also suggest that using more early time points for prediction can further significantly improve the prediction accuracy. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2865-2874, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Small-world anatomical networks in the human brain revealed by cortical thickness from MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Chen, Zhang J; Evans, Alan C

    2007-10-01

    An important issue in neuroscience is the characterization for the underlying architectures of complex brain networks. However, little is known about the network of anatomical connections in the human brain. Here, we investigated large-scale anatomical connection patterns of the human cerebral cortex using cortical thickness measurements from magnetic resonance images. Two areas were considered anatomically connected if they showed statistically significant correlations in cortical thickness and we constructed the network of such connections using 124 brains from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping database. Significant short- and long-range connections were found in both intra- and interhemispheric regions, many of which were consistent with known neuroanatomical pathways measured by human diffusion imaging. More importantly, we showed that the human brain anatomical network had robust small-world properties with cohesive neighborhoods and short mean distances between regions that were insensitive to the selection of correlation thresholds. Additionally, we also found that this network and the probability of finding a connection between 2 regions for a given anatomical distance had both exponentially truncated power-law distributions. Our results demonstrated the basic organizational principles for the anatomical network in the human brain compatible with previous functional networks studies, which provides important implications of how functional brain states originate from their structural underpinnings. To our knowledge, this study provides the first report of small-world properties and degree distribution of anatomical networks in the human brain using cortical thickness measurements.

  12. Effects of cigarette smoking on cortical thickness in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorlu, Nabi; Cropley, Vanessa Louise; Zorlu, Pelin Kurtgoz; Delibas, Dursun Hakan; Adibelli, Zehra Hilal; Baskin, Emel Pasa; Esen, Özgür Sipahi; Bora, Emre; Pantelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Findings of surface-based morphometry studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) are still inconsistent. Given that cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in MDD and has documented negative effects on the brain, it is possible that some of the inconsistencies may be partly explained by cigarette use. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of cigarette smoking on brain structure in MDD. 50 MDD patients (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) and 22 age, education, gender and BMI matched non-smoker healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Thickness and area of the cortex were measured using surface-based morphometry implemented with Freesurfer (v5.3.0). The non-smoker MDD patients had significantly increased cortical thickness, including in the left temporal cortex (p smoked compared to non-smoking patients in regions that overlapped with the regions found to be increased in non-smoking patients in comparison to controls. Non-smoker MDD patients had increased surface area in the right lateral occipital cortex (p = 0.009). We did not find any region where cortical thickness or surface area significantly differed between controls and either smoker MDD patients or all MDD patients. The findings of the current study suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with cortical thinning in regions found to be increased in patients with MDD. However, these results should be considered preliminary due to methodological limitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortical Thickness in Fusiform Face Area Predicts Face and Object Recognition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana E; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-02-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is defined by its selectivity for faces. Several studies have shown that the response of FFA to nonface objects can predict behavioral performance for these objects. However, one possible account is that experts pay more attention to objects in their domain of expertise, driving signals up. Here, we show an effect of expertise with nonface objects in FFA that cannot be explained by differential attention to objects of expertise. We explore the relationship between cortical thickness of FFA and face and object recognition using the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Vanderbilt Expertise Test, respectively. We measured cortical thickness in functionally defined regions in a group of men who evidenced functional expertise effects for cars in FFA. Performance with faces and objects together accounted for approximately 40% of the variance in cortical thickness of several FFA patches. Whereas participants with a thicker FFA cortex performed better with vehicles, those with a thinner FFA cortex performed better with faces and living objects. The results point to a domain-general role of FFA in object perception and reveal an interesting double dissociation that does not contrast faces and objects but rather living and nonliving objects.

  14. Neuronal injury in the motor cortex after chronic stroke and lower limb motor impairment:a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandria M. Reynolds; Denise M. Peters; Jennifer M. C. Vendemia; Lenwood P. Smith; Raymond C. Sweet; Gordon C. Baylis; Debra Krotish; Stacy L Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined motor impairments using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping, but few are reported regarding the corresponding relationship between cerebral cortex injury and lower limb motor impairment analyzed using this technique. This study correlated neuro-nal injury in the cerebral cortex of 16 patients with chronic stroke based on a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping analysis. Neuronal injury in the corona radiata, caudate nucleus and putamen of patients with chronic stroke could predict walking speed. The behavioral measure scores were consistent with motor deifcits expected after damage to the cortical motor system due to stroke. These ifndings suggest that voxel-based lesion symptom mapping may provide a more accurate prognosis of motor recovery from chronic stroke according to neuronal injury in cerebral motor cortex.

  15. A voxel-based approach to gray matter asymmetries.

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    Luders, E; Gaser, C; Jancke, L; Schlaug, G

    2004-06-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze gray matter (GM) asymmetries in a large sample (n = 60) of male and female professional musicians with and without absolute pitch (AP). We chose to examine these particular groups because previous studies using traditional region-of-interest (ROI) analyses have shown differences in hemispheric asymmetry related to AP and gender. Voxel-based methods may have advantages over traditional ROI-based methods since the analysis can be performed across the whole brain with minimal user bias. After determining that the VBM method was sufficiently sensitive for the detection of differences in GM asymmetries between groups, we found that male AP musicians were more leftward lateralized in the anterior region of the planum temporale (PT) than male non-AP musicians. This confirmed the results of previous studies using ROI-based methods that showed an association between PT asymmetry and the AP phenotype. We further observed that male non-AP musicians revealed an increased leftward GM asymmetry in the postcentral gyrus compared to female non-AP musicians, again corroborating results of a previously published study using ROI-based methods. By analyzing hemispheric GM differences across our entire sample, we were able to partially confirm findings of previous studies using traditional morphometric techniques, as well as more recent, voxel-based analyses. In addition, we found some unusually pronounced GM asymmetries in our musician sample not previously detected in subjects unselected for musical training. Since we were able to validate gender- and AP-related brain asymmetries previously described using traditional ROI-based morphometric techniques, the results of our analyses support the use of VBM for examinations of GM asymmetries.

  16. Cortical thickness and inattention/hyperactivity symptoms in young children: a population-based study.

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    Mous, S E; Muetzel, R L; El Marroun, H; Polderman, T J C; van der Lugt, A; Jaddoe, V W; Hofman, A; Verhulst, F C; Tiemeier, H; Posthuma, D; White, T

    2014-11-01

    While many neuroimaging studies have investigated the neurobiological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few have studied the neurobiology of attention problems in the general population. The ability to pay attention falls along a continuum within the population, with children with ADHD at one extreme of the spectrum and, therefore, a dimensional perspective of evaluating attention problems has an added value to the existing literature. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between cortical thickness and inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in a large population of young children. This study is embedded within the Generation R Study and includes 6- to 8-year-old children (n = 444) with parent-reported attention and hyperactivity measures and high-resolution structural imaging data. We investigated the relationship between cortical thickness across the entire brain and the Child Behavior Checklist Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems score. We found that greater attention problems and hyperactivity were associated with a thinner right and left postcentral gyrus. When correcting for potential confounding factors and multiple testing, these associations remained significant. In a large, population-based sample we showed that young (6- to 8-year-old) children who show more attention problems and hyperactivity have a thinner cortex in the region of the right and left postcentral gyrus. The postcentral gyrus, being the primary somatosensory cortex, reaches its peak growth early in development. Therefore, the thinner cortex in this region may reflect either a deviation in cortical maturation or a failure to reach the same peak cortical thickness compared with children without attention or hyperactivity problems.

  17. Fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms is associated with cortical thickness in late childhood.

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    Sandman, Curt A; Buss, Claudia; Head, Kevin; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2015-02-15

    Maternal depression is one of the most common prenatal complications. The consequences of fetal exposure to maternal depression are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to examine the association between fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and cortical thickness in children 6-9 years old. A prospective, longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms at 19, 25, and 31 weeks' gestation was followed by acquisition of a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan in 81 children (age, 86.1 ± 9.9 months). Significant (p < .01) cortical thinning in children primarily in the right frontal lobes was associated with exposure to prenatal maternal depression. The strongest association was at 25 weeks' gestation; exposure to maternal depression at 25 gestational weeks was associated with cortical thinning in 19% of the whole cortex and 24% of the frontal lobes, primarily in the right superior, medial orbital, and frontal pole regions of the prefrontal cortex (p < .01). The significant association between prenatal maternal depression and child externalizing behavior (p < .05) was mediated by cortical thinning in prefrontal areas of the right hemisphere. The pattern of cortical thinning in children exposed to prenatal maternal depression is similar to patterns in depressed patients and in individuals with risk for depression. Exposure to prenatal depression coupled with subsequent cortical thinning was associated with presence of externalizing behavior in preadolescent children and may be prodromal markers of risk for dysphoria. Vulnerability to prenatal influences at 25 gestational weeks may result from the enormous growth and dramatic structural changes in the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breadth and age-dependency of relations between cortical thickness and cognition

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    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Habeck, Christian; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Barulli, Daniel; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have identified a large number of neural measures that could be involved in age-related declines in cognitive functioning. A popular method of investigating neural-cognition relations has been to determine the brain regions in which a particular neural measure is associated with the level of specific cognitive measures. Although this procedure has been informative, it ignores the strong interrelations that typically exist among the measures in each modality. An alternative approach involves investigating the number and identity of distinct dimensions within the set of neural measures and within the set of cognitive measures prior to examining relations between the two types of measures. The procedure is illustrated with data from 297 adults between 20 and 79 years of age with cortical thickness in different brain regions as the neural measures, and performance on 12 cognitive tests as the cognitive measures. The results revealed that most of the relations between cortical thickness and cognition occurred at a general level corresponding to variance shared among different brain regions and among different cognitive measures. In addition, the strength of the thickness-cognition relation was substantially reduced after controlling the variation in age, which suggests that at least some of the thickness-cognition relations in age-heterogeneous samples may be attributable to the influence of age on each type of measure. PMID:26356042

  19. Dance Experience and Associations with Cortical Gray Matter Thickness in the Aging Population

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    Shai Porat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the effect dance experience may have on cortical gray matter thickness and cognitive performance in elderly participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: 39 cognitively normal and 48 MCI elderly participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifetime experience with music, dance, and song. Participants identified themselves as either dancers or nondancers. All participants received structural 1.5-tesla MRI scans and detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluations. An advanced 3D cortical mapping technique was then applied to calculate cortical thickness. Results: Despite having a trend-level significantly thinner cortex, dancers performed better in cognitive tasks involving learning and memory, such as the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II short delay free recall (p = 0.004, the CVLT-II long delay free recall (p = 0.003, and the CVLT-II learning over trials 1-5 (p = 0.001. Discussion: Together, these results suggest that dance may result in an enhancement of cognitive reserve in aging, which may help avert or delay MCI.

  20. LOGISMOS-B for primates: primate cortical surface reconstruction and thickness measurement

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    Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Sanchez, Mar; Shi, Yundi; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Cortical thickness and surface area are important morphological measures with implications for many psychiatric and neurological conditions. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of the cortical surface from 3D MRI scans is challenging due to the variable anatomy of the cortex and its highly complex geometry. While many methods exist for this task in the context of the human brain, these methods are typically not readily applicable to the primate brain. We propose an innovative approach based on our recently proposed human cortical reconstruction algorithm, LOGISMOS-B, and the Laplace-based thickness measurement method. Quantitative evaluation of our approach was performed based on a dataset of T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans from 12-month-old macaques where labeling by our anatomical experts was used as independent standard. In this dataset, LOGISMOS-B has an average signed surface error of 0.01 +/- 0.03mm and an unsigned surface error of 0.42 +/- 0.03mm over the whole brain. Excluding the rather problematic temporal pole region further improves unsigned surface distance to 0.34 +/- 0.03mm. This high level of accuracy reached by our algorithm even in this challenging developmental dataset illustrates its robustness and its potential for primate brain studies.

  1. Three-dimensional mapping of cortical bone thickness in subjects with different vertical facial dimensions

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    Mais Medhat Sadek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cortical bone thickness among subjects with different vertical facial dimensions using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methods From 114 pre-treatment CBCT scans, 48 scans were selected to be included in the study. CBCT-synthesized lateral cephalograms were used to categorize subjects into three groups based on their vertical skeletal pattern. Cortical bone thickness (CBT at two vertical levels (4 and 7 mm from the alveolar crest were measured in the entire tooth-bearing region in the maxilla and mandible. Results Significant group differences were detected with high-angle subjects having significantly narrower inter-radicular CBT at some sites as compared to average- and low-angle subjects. Conclusions Inter-radicular cortical bone is thinner in high-angle than in average- or low-angle subjects in few selected sites at the vertical height in which mini-implants are commonly inserted for orthodontic anchorage.

  2. Dance Experience and Associations with Cortical Gray Matter Thickness in the Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Shai; Goukasian, Naira; Hwang, Kristy S; Zanto, Theodore; Do, Triet; Pierce, Jonathan; Joshi, Shantanu; Woo, Ellen; Apostolova, Liana G

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect dance experience may have on cortical gray matter thickness and cognitive performance in elderly participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). 39 cognitively normal and 48 MCI elderly participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifetime experience with music, dance, and song. Participants identified themselves as either dancers or nondancers. All participants received structural 1.5-tesla MRI scans and detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluations. An advanced 3D cortical mapping technique was then applied to calculate cortical thickness. Despite having a trend-level significantly thinner cortex, dancers performed better in cognitive tasks involving learning and memory, such as the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) short delay free recall (p = 0.004), the CVLT-II long delay free recall (p = 0.003), and the CVLT-II learning over trials 1-5 (p = 0.001). Together, these results suggest that dance may result in an enhancement of cognitive reserve in aging, which may help avert or delay MCI.

  3. Cognitive insight is associated with cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis.

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    Buchy, Lisa; Barbato, Mariapaola; MacMaster, Frank P; Bray, Signe; Clark, Darren; Deighton, Stephanie; Addington, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Compared to non-clinical subjects, people with psychosis show poor cognitive insight as reflected in low Self-Reflectiveness and high Self-Certainty. Neuroimaging studies have reported that 1) low Self-Reflectiveness is associated with volumetric reductions in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), 2) higher Self-Certainty is associated with volumetric reductions in hippocampus, and 3) higher Self-Certainty is associated with fractional anisotropy in the fornix, in people with psychosis. The aims of the current study were to expand on this research by 1) performing an exploratory whole-brain cortical thickness analysis of the neural correlates of cognitive insight, to reveal whether regions outside the VLPFC are important for cognitive insight, and 2) to evaluate associations between cognitive insight and subfields of the hippocampus, which are distinct, interacting, and have different functions. We also aimed to replicate previous research documenting associations between cognitive insight and 3) total hippocampal volumes and 4) fornix fractional anisotropy. Fifteen people with a first-episode psychosis completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale and provided magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging scans. Cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes were analyzed in FreeSurfer, and fornixfractional anisotropy was analyzed in Diffusion Toolkit/TrackVis. Higher Self-Reflectiveness and lower Self-Certainty significantly associated with thickness and thinness in VLPFC, respectively, as well as thickness and thinness in widespread frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. No associations emerged between Self-Reflectiveness or Self-Certainty and hippocampal total or sub-field volumes, or fornix fractional anisotropy. Results suggest that the neural correlates of cognitive insight involve a network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions.

  4. Voxel-based morphometry to detect brain atrophy in progressive mild cognitive impairment.

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    Hämäläinen, Anne; Tervo, Susanna; Grau-Olivares, Marta; Niskanen, Eini; Pennanen, Corina; Huuskonen, Jari; Kivipelto, Miia; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tapiola, Mia; Vanhanen, Matti; Hallikainen, Merja; Helkala, Eeva-Liisa; Nissinen, Aulikki; Vanninen, Ritva; Soininen, Hilkka

    2007-10-01

    Recent research has shown an increased rate of conversion to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to controls. However, there are no specific methods to predict who will later develop dementia. In the present study, 22 controls and 56 MCI subjects were followed on average for 37 months (max. 60 months) and studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline to assess changes in brain structure associated to later progression to dementia. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter atrophy. During the follow-up, 13 subjects progressed to dementia. At baseline, no differences were detected in age or education between the control and MCI subjects, but they differed by several neuropsychological tests. The stable and progressive MCI subjects differed only by CDR sum of boxes scores and delayed verbal recall, which were also significant predictors of conversion to dementia. At the baseline imaging, the MCI subjects showed reduced gray matter density in medial temporal, temporoparietal as well as in frontal cortical areas compared to controls. Interestingly, the progressive MCI subjects showed atrophy in the left temporoparietal and posterior cingulate cortices and in the precuneus bilaterally, and a trend for hippocampal atrophy when compared to the stable MCI subjects. We conclude that widespread cortical atrophy is present already two and a half years before a clinical diagnosis of dementia can be set.

  5. Brain volumetrics, regional cortical thickness and radiographic findings in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging

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    Alsiagy A. Salama, M.D.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with CCHD show MRI evidence of micro- and macro vascular injury, reduced brain volume and cortical thickness. Brain volume loss correlated with hsCRP, oxygen saturation and packed cell volume.

  6. Hip cortical thickness assessment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and strontium ranelate effect on hip geometry.

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    Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent; Roux, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between hip geometry and the 5-yr risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and the effects of strontium ranelate on these parameters. Using the 5-yr data of a randomized placebo-controlled trial of strontium ranelate (Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]), we reanalyzed the hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to determine the role of hip geometry in the risk of hip fractures (placebo group, n=636) and to analyze the effects of strontium ranelate (n=483). The outcomes included the hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters: cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus, cortical thickness, and buckling ratio, measured at femoral neck, intertrochanteric (IT) region, and proximal shaft. The geometric parameters associated with an increased risk of hip fracture over 5yr were IT CSA and femoral shaft cortical thickness independent of age and total-hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using Bonferroni adjustment, IT cortical thickness was associated with the risk of hip fracture. Over 5yr, significant decreases in some femoral dimensions of the placebo group contrast with significant increases in strontium ranelate group after adjustment for age and BMD. Using Bonferroni adjustment, differences between placebo and strontium ranelate groups were no longer significant after adjustment on 5-yr BMD changes. Some HSA parameters have predictive value for hip fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Strontium ranelate improves some HSA parameters, through the BMD increase. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. It is unclear if adjusting cortical thickness for changes in gray/white matter intensity ratio improves discrimination between normal aging, MCI, and AD.

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    Bauer, Corinna M; Cabral, Howard J; Killiany, Ronald J

    2014-03-01

    The contrast between gray and white matter in MRI is critical for accurately measuring cortical thickness. The gray/white matter intensity ratio (GWIR) has been proposed to be an important adjustment factor for cortical thickness measures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined the GWIR and its influence on cortical thickness in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD. The ability for GWIR to discriminate between these groups was assessed on its own and as an adjustment factor for cortical thickness. Minimal age- and AD-related changes in GWIR were observed. GWIR was not able to differentiate between normal aging, MCI, and AD. However, adjusting cortical thickness for GWIR slightly improved the ability to discriminate between groups and the effect size of cortical thickness increased after adjusting for GWIR. This work demonstrates the ambiguity in adjusting cortical thickness measures for GWIR, particularly when attempting to discriminate between normal aging, MCI, and AD groups.

  8. Brain cortical thickness and surface area correlates of neurocognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartberg, C B; Sundet, K; Rimol, L M; Haukvik, U K; Lange, E H; Nesvåg, R; Dale, A M; Melle, I; Andreassen, O A; Agartz, I

    2011-11-01

    Relationships between cortical brain structure and neurocognitive functioning have been reported in schizophrenia, but findings are inconclusive, and only a few studies in bipolar disorder have addressed this issue. This is the first study to directly compare relationships between cortical thickness and surface area with neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia (n = 117) and bipolar disorder (n = 121) and healthy controls (n = 192). MRI scans were obtained, and regional cortical thickness and surface area measurements were analyzed for relationships with test scores from 6 neurocognitive domains. In the combined sample, cortical thickness in the right rostral anterior cingulate was inversely related to working memory, and cortical surface area in four frontal and temporal regions were positively related to neurocognitive functioning. A positive relationship between left transverse temporal thickness and processing speed was specific to schizophrenia. A negative relationship between right temporal pole thickness and working memory was specific to bipolar disorder. In conclusion, significant cortical structure/function relationships were found in a large sample of healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. The differences that were found between schizophrenia and bipolar may indicate differential relationship patterns in the two disorders, which may be of relevance for understanding the underlying pathophysiology.

  9. Reproducibility of brain-cognition relationships using three cortical surface-based protocols: An exhaustive analysis based on cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Kenia; Madsen, Sarah K; Joshi, Anand A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Román, Francisco J; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Burgaleta, Miguel; Karama, Sherif; Janssen, Joost; Marinetto, Eugenio; Desco, Manuel; Thompson, Paul M; Colom, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    People differ in their cognitive functioning. This variability has been exhaustively examined at the behavioral, neural and genetic level to uncover the mechanisms by which some individuals are more cognitively efficient than others. Studies investigating the neural underpinnings of interindividual differences in cognition aim to establish a reliable nexus between functional/structural properties of a given brain network and higher order cognitive performance. However, these studies have produced inconsistent results, which might be partly attributed to methodological variations. In the current study, 82 healthy young participants underwent MRI scanning and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery including measurements of fluid, crystallized, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory capacity/executive updating, controlled attention, and processing speed. The cognitive scores were obtained by confirmatory factor analyses. T1 -weighted images were processed using three different surface-based morphometry (SBM) pipelines, varying in their degree of user intervention, for obtaining measures of cortical thickness (CT) across the brain surface. Distribution and variability of CT and CT-cognition relationships were systematically compared across pipelines and between two cognitively/demographically matched samples to overcome potential sources of variability affecting the reproducibility of findings. We demonstrated that estimation of CT was not consistent across methods. In addition, among SBM methods, there was considerable variation in the spatial pattern of CT-cognition relationships. Finally, within each SBM method, results did not replicate in matched subsamples.

  10. Value of renal cortical thickness as a predictor of renal function impairment in chronic renal disease patients

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    Samia Rafael Yamashita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the presence of linear relationship between renal cortical thickness, bipolar length, and parenchymal thickness in chronic kidney disease patients presenting with different estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements using ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography was performed in 54 chronic renal failure patients. The scans were performed by two independent and blinded radiologists. The estimated GFR was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Interobserver agreement was calculated and a linear correlation coefficient (r was determined in order to establish the relationship between the different renal measurements and estimated GFR. Results: The correlation between GFR and measurements of renal cortical thickness, bipolar length, and parenchymal thickness was, respectively, moderate (r = 0.478; p < 0.001, poor (r = 0.380; p = 0.004, and poor (r = 0.277; p = 0.116. The interobserver agreement was considered excellent (0.754 for measurements of cortical thickness and bipolar length (0.833, and satisfactory for parenchymal thickness (0.523. Conclusion: The interobserver reproducibility for renal measurements obtained was good. A moderate correlation was observed between estimated GFR and cortical thickness, but bipolar length and parenchymal thickness were poorly correlated.

  11. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa.

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    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise

    2016-03-01

    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  12. Neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus revealed by cortical thickness analysis and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldhafeeri, Faten M. [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); King Khalid General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Radiology Department, Hafral-batin (Saudi Arabia); Mackenzie, Ian; Kay, Tony [Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Alghamdi, Jamaan [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); King Abdul Aziz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Sluming, Vanessa [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Tinnitus is a poorly understood auditory perception of sound in the absence of external stimuli. Convergent evidence proposes that tinnitus perception involves brain structural alterations as part of its pathophysiology. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural brain changes that might be associated with tinnitus-related stress and negative emotions. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated grey matter and white matter (WM) alterations by estimating cortical thickness measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in 14 tinnitus subjects and 14 age- and sex-matched non-tinnitus subjects. Significant cortical thickness reductions were found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporal lobe and limbic system in tinnitus subjects compared to non-tinnitus subjects. Tinnitus sufferers were found to have disrupted WM integrity in tracts involving connectivity of the PFC, temporal lobe, thalamus and limbic system. Our results suggest that such neural changes may represent neural origins for tinnitus or consequences of tinnitus and its associations. (orig.)

  13. Voxel-based morphometry evaluation of patients with photosensitive juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

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    Lin, Katia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Carrete, Henrique; de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Silva, Henrique Hattori; Guaranha, Mirian Salvadori Bittar; Guilhoto, Laura Maria Figueiredo Ferreira; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2009-10-01

    We aim to investigate structural brain abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients with photosensitivity (PS). Sixty JME patients, 19 (32%) of whom were photosensitive, were submitted to 1.5T magnetic resonance voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The control group (CTL) consisted of 30 sex-matched healthy volunteers. JME patients with (JME-PS) and without (JME-NPS) PS did not differ in their duration of disease, treatment or seizure control. VBM revealed significantly reduced bilateral gray matter volume (GMV) in thalami, insula cortices and cerebellar hemispheres; while significantly increased GMV was observed in the right superior frontal, orbitofrontal and medial frontal gyri of the JME group compared to CTL. JME-PS had reduced bilateral GMV of visual cortices when compared with CTL; while it was not seen among JME-NPS patients. Reduced left hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus volume was observed among JME-PS compared with JME-NPS. This study demonstrates structural abnormalities beyond the limits of the frontal lobes and provides evidence for the role of the occipital cortex in human PS, reinforcing the existence of functional-anatomic ictogenic networks in JME and the concept of 'system epilepsies'.

  14. Cortical thickness mapping to identify focal osteoporosis in patients with hip fracture.

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    Kenneth E S Poole

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with osteoporosis are predisposed to hip fracture during trips, stumbles or falls, but half of all hip fractures occur in those without generalised osteoporosis. By analysing ordinary clinical CT scans using a novel cortical thickness mapping technique, we discovered patches of markedly thinner bone at fracture-prone regions in the femurs of women with acute hip fracture compared with controls. METHODS: We analysed CT scans from 75 female volunteers with acute fracture and 75 age- and sex-matched controls. We classified the fracture location as femoral neck or trochanteric before creating bone thickness maps of the outer 'cortical' shell of the intact contra-lateral hip. After registration of each bone to an average femur shape and statistical parametric mapping, we were able to visualise and quantify statistically significant foci of thinner cortical bone associated with each fracture type, assuming good symmetry of bone structure between the intact and fractured hip. The technique allowed us to pinpoint systematic differences and display the results on a 3D average femur shape model. FINDINGS: The cortex was generally thinner in femoral neck fracture cases than controls. More striking were several discrete patches of statistically significant thinner bone of up to 30%, which coincided with common sites of fracture initiation (femoral neck or trochanteric. INTERPRETATION: Femoral neck fracture patients had a thumbnail-sized patch of focal osteoporosis at the upper head-neck junction. This region coincided with a weak part of the femur, prone to both spontaneous 'tensile' fractures of the femoral neck, and as a site of crack initiation when falling sideways. Current hip fracture prevention strategies are based on case finding: they involve clinical risk factor estimation to determine the need for single-plane bone density measurement within a standard region of interest (ROI of the femoral neck. The precise sites of focal

  15. Sex-related differences of cortical thickness in patients with chronic abdominal pain.

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    Zhiguo Jiang

    Full Text Available Regional reductions in gray matter (GM have been reported in several chronic somatic and visceral pain conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and chronic pancreatitis. Reported GM reductions include insular and anterior cingulate cortices, even though subregions are generally not specified. The majority of published studies suffer from limited sample size, heterogeneity of populations, and lack of analyses for sex differences. We aimed to characterize regional changes in cortical thickness (CT in a large number of well phenotyped IBS patients, taking into account the role of sex related differences.Cortical GM thickness was determined in 266 subjects (90 IBS [70 predominantly premenopausal female] and 176 healthy controls (HC [155 predominantly premenopausal female] using the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI Pipeline. A combined region of interest (ROI and whole brain approach was used to detect any sub-regional and vertex-level differences after removing effects of age and total GM volume. Correlation analyses were performed on behavioral data.While IBS as a group did not show significant differences in CT compared to HCs, sex related differences were observed both within the IBS and the HC groups. When female IBS patients were compared to female HCs, whole brain analysis showed significant CT increase in somatosensory and primary motor cortex, as well as CT decrease in bilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC. The ROI analysis showed significant regional CT decrease in bilateral subregions of insular cortex, while CT decrease in cingulate was limited to left sgACC, accounting for the effect of age and GM volume. Several measures of IBS symptom severity showed significant correlation with CT changes in female IBS patients.Significant, sex related differences in CT are present in both HCs and in IBS patients. The biphasic neuroplastic changes in female IBS patients are related to symptom severity.

  16. Bisphosphonates improve trabecular bone mass and normalize cortical thickness in ovariectomized, osteoblast connexin43 deficient mice.

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    Watkins, Marcus P; Norris, Jin Yi; Grimston, Susan K; Zhang, Xiaowen; Phipps, Roger J; Ebetino, Frank H; Civitelli, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43) controls both bone formation and osteoclastogenesis via osteoblasts and/or osteocytes. Cx43 has also been proposed to mediate an anti-apoptotic effect of bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption. We studied whether bisphosphonates are effective in protecting mice with a conditional Cx43 gene deletion in osteoblasts and osteocytes (cKO) from the consequences of ovariectomy on bone mass and strength. Ovariectomy resulted in rapid loss of trabecular bone followed by a slight recovery in wild type (WT) mice, and a similar degree of trabecular bone loss, albeit slightly delayed, occurred in cKO mice. Treatment with either risedronate (20 μg/kg) or alendronate (40 μg/kg) prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in both genotypes. In basal conditions, bones of cKO mice have larger marrow area, higher endocortical osteoclast number, and lower cortical thickness and strength relative to WT. Ovariectomy increased endocortical osteoclast number in WT but not in cKO mice. Both bisphosphonates prevented these increases in WT mice, and normalized endocortical osteoclast number, cortical thickness and bone strength in cKO mice. Thus, lack of osteoblast/osteocyte Cx43 does not alter bisphosphonate action on bone mass and strength in estrogen deficiency. These results support the notion that one of the main functions of Cx43 in cortical bone is to restrain osteoblast and/or osteocytes from inducing osteoclastogenesis at the endocortical surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees, whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest. Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1 decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2 increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world.

  18. Longitudinal trajectories of cortical thickness as a biomarker for psychosis in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Seetha; Mattiaccio, Leah M; Coman, Ioana L; Botti, Jo-Anna C; Fremont, Wanda; Faraone, Stephen V; Antshel, Kevin M; Kates, Wendy R

    2016-12-14

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) or velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic condition that has been identified as the highest genetic risk factor for developing psychotic illnesses. This unique biological nature of 22q11DS provides a valuable opportunity to explore predictive biomarkers of psychosis. In this study, we examined the relationship of cortical thickness and surface area between various brain regions and prodromal symptoms of psychosis. 75 probands with 22q11DS, 32 age-matched controls and 28 siblings underwent MRIs over 2 or 3 timepoints. Longitudinal mixed model regression analyses, with age as an interaction variable, were carried out to study the differences in longitudinal trajectories of change in average cortical thickness and surface area over 6-9years. Similar analyses were carried out to examine the relationship with positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Significant differences were noted in the inferior and superior parietal regions in both the average thickness and longitudinal change in cortical thickness with age between the probands and controls. Significant associations were also noted between regions in the frontal cortex and positive prodromal symptoms among probands. No associations were noted with cortical surface area. Our results indicate that individuals with 22q11DS who develop positive prodromal symptoms demonstrate differential longitudinal trajectories of cortical thickness in some regions of the frontal lobe. Our results suggest that the pruning stage associated with adolescent brain development may be disrupted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cortical thinning in former professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Mayinger, Michael; Muehlmann, Marc; Kaufmann, David; Lin, Alexander P; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Immler, Stefanie; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian R; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. Soccer players are at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impact when heading the ball. Whether this leads to long-term alterations of the brain's structure associated with cognitive decline remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate cortical thickness in former professional soccer players using high-resolution structural MR imaging. Fifteen former male professional soccer players (mean age 49.3 [SD 5.1] years) underwent high-resolution structural 3 T MR imaging, as well as cognitive testing. Fifteen male, age-matched former professional non-contact sport athletes (mean age 49.6 [SD 6.4] years) served as controls. Group analyses of cortical thickness were performed using voxel-based statistics. Soccer players demonstrated greater cortical thinning with increasing age compared to controls in the right inferolateral-parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex. Cortical thinning was associated with lower cognitive performance as well as with estimated exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed decreased memory performance in the soccer players compared to controls. The association of cortical thinning and decreased cognitive performance, as well as exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact, further supports the hypothesis that repetitive subconcussive head impact may play a role in early cognitive decline in soccer players. Future studies are needed to elucidate the time course of changes in cortical thickness as well as their association with impaired cognitive function and possible underlying neurodegenerative process.

  20. Sex, age, and cognitive correlates of asymmetries in thickness of the cortical mantle across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Bansal, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    lateral, dorsal, and mesial surfaces of the frontal lobe, extending into primary sensory, superior parietal, and anterior superior temporal cortices. A right > left asymmetry was present in the lateral, mesial, and dorsal surfaces of the posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices, as well...... as in the entire inferior surface of the brain. An exaggerated left > right asymmetry was detected in females in anterior brain regions, and an exaggerated right > left asymmetry was detected in males in the orbitofrontal, inferior parietal, and inferior occipital cortices. Weaker moderating effects of sex were...... scattered along the mesial surface of the brain. Age significantly moderated asymmetry measures in the inferior sensorimotor, inferior parietal, posterior temporal, and inferior occipital cortices. The age × asymmetry interaction derived from a steeper decline in cortical thickness with age in the right...

  1. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders Through Late Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood: A Large-Scale MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Lewis, John D; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Carbonell, Felix; Evans, Alan C

    2017-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have provided inconsistent evidence of cortical abnormality. This is probably due to the small sample sizes used in most studies, and important differences in sample characteristics, particularly age, as well as to the heterogeneity of the disorder. To address these issues, we assessed abnormalities in ASD within the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange data set, which comprises data from approximately 1100 individuals (~6-55 years). A subset of these data that met stringent quality control and inclusion criteria (560 male subjects; 266 ASD; age = 6-35 years) were used to compute age-specific differences in cortical thickness in ASD and the relationship of any such differences to symptom severity of ASD. Our results show widespread increased cortical thickness in ASD, primarily left lateralized, from 6 years onwards, with differences diminishing during adulthood. The severity of symptoms related to social affect and communication correlated with these cortical abnormalities. These results are consistent with the conjecture that developmental patterns of cortical thickness abnormalities reflect delayed cortical maturation and highlight the dynamic nature of morphological abnormalities in ASD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  3. Reduced frontal cortex thickness and cortical volume associated with pathological narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Sang, Na; Wang, Yongchao; Hou, Xin; Huang, Hui; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Jinfu; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-07-22

    Pathological narcissism is often characterized by arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy, and willingness to exploit other individuals. Generally, individuals with high levels of narcissism are more likely to suffer mental disorders. However, the brain structural basis of individual pathological narcissism trait among healthy people has not yet been investigated with surface-based morphometry. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness (CT), cortical volume (CV), and individual pathological narcissism in a large healthy sample of 176 college students. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional CT, CV, and the total Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) score, adjusting for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. The results showed that the PNI score was significantly negatively associated with CT and CV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, key region of the central executive network, CEN), which might be associated with impaired emotion regulation processes. Furthermore, the PNI score showed significant negative associations with CV in the right postcentral gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the CT in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFG, overlap with social brain network), which may be related to impairments in social cognition. Together, these findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in pathological narcissism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the social brain network and CEN. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Focal Cortical Thickness Correlates of Exceptional Memory Training in Vedic Priests

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    Giridhar Padmanabhan Kalamangalam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for semantic memory – the ability to acquire and store knowledge of the world - is highly developed in the human brain. In particular, semantic memory assimilated through an auditory route may be a uniquely human capacity. One method of obtaining neurobiological insight into auditory semantic memory mechanisms is through the study of experts. In this work, we study a group of Hindu Vedic priests, whose religious training requires the memorization of vast tracts of scriptural texts through an oral tradition, recalled spontaneously during a lifetime of subsequent spiritual practice. We demonstrate focal increases of cortical thickness in the dominant prefrontal lobe and non-dominant temporal lobe in Vedic priests, in comparison to a group of matched controls. The findings are relevant to current hypotheses regarding cognitive processes underlying storage and recall of long-term declarative memory.

  5. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

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    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Raya, J.G. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Pietschmann, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R. [Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Miner' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dortmund (Germany); Glaser, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); RZM Zentrum, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  6. Voxel-based texture analysis of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee Hong; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel voxel-based method for texture analysis of brain images. Texture analysis is a powerful quantitative approach for analyzing voxel intensities and their interrelationships, but has been thus far limited to analyzing regions of interest. The proposed method provides a 3D statistical map comparing texture features on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The validity of the method was examined on artificially generated effects as well as on real MRI data in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The artificially generated effects included hyperintense and hypointense signals added to T1-weighted brain MRIs from 30 healthy subjects. The AD dataset included 30 patients with AD and 30 age/sex matched healthy control subjects. The proposed method detected artificial effects with high accuracy and revealed statistically significant differences between the AD and control groups. This paper extends the usage of texture analysis beyond the current region of interest analysis to voxel-by-voxel 3D statistical mapping and provides a hypothesis-free analysis tool to study cerebral pathology in neurological diseases.

  7. Evaluation of cortical bone thickness of mandible with cone beam computed tomography for orthodontic mini implant installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Moslemzade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achieving maximum anchorage without movement of the teeth in anchorage unit has been a great challenge in orthodontics and the success of the treatment plan highly depends on it. In this case, using orthodontic mini-implants can make a huge difference. The objective of this retrospective study was to measure thickness of cortical bone at prospective mini-implant placement sites in mandible in order to understand stability aspects of mini-implant placement by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images. Materials and Methods: Initial 3-dimensional images of 40 adult patients were studied. The cortical bone thickness was obtained at the alveolar processes from canine to second molar at 5 different vertical levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ. To determine the cortical bone thickness, tangent lines were drawn buccolingually to the roots in axial section and a third line was drawn from the middle of these two lines, and the cortical bone thickness was measured where the third line crossed the buccal cortex.   Results: Mandibular and buccal cortical bone thicknesses were 0.79 to 2.49 mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase from the CEJ to the apex (P<0.001, while this increase was not statically significant at interdental area of teeth #3 and #4. Comparing the 4 mm section in all sites showed significant increase from anterior to posterior. Conclusion: Based on our results, the cortical bone thickness mostly follows a pattern and depends on the interradicular site rather than individual differences.     Key words: Cone-beam computed tomography; orthodontic anchorage procedures

  8. Structural alteration of the dorsal visual network in DLB patients with visual hallucinations: a cortical thickness MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Franciotti, Raffaella; Tartaro, Armando; Caulo, Massimo; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Visual hallucinations (VH) represent one of the core features in discriminating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Previous studies reported that in DLB patients functional alterations of the parieto-occipital regions were correlated with the presence of VH. The aim of our study was to assess whether morphological changes in specific cortical regions of DLB could be related to the presence and severity of VH. We performed a cortical thickness analysis on magnetic resonance imaging data in a cohort including 18 DLB patients, 15 AD patients and 14 healthy control subjects. Relatively to DLB group, correlation analysis between the cortical thickness and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucination item scores was also performed. Cortical thickness was reduced bilaterally in DLB compared to controls in the pericalcarine and lingual gyri, cuneus, precuneus, superior parietal gyrus. Cortical thinning was found bilaterally in AD compared to controls in temporal cortex including the superior and middle temporal gyrus, part of inferior temporal cortex, temporal pole and insula. Inferior parietal and supramarginal gyri were also affected bilaterally in AD as compared to controls. The comparison between DLB and AD evidenced cortical thinning in DLB group in the right posterior regions including superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, pericalcarine and lingual gyri. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between cortical thickness and NPI hallucination item scores showed that the structural alteration in the dorsal visual regions including superior parietal gyrus and precuneus closely correlated with the occurrence and severity of VH. We suggest that structural changes in key regions of the dorsal visual network may play a crucial role in the physiopathology of VH in DLB patients.

  9. Structural alteration of the dorsal visual network in DLB patients with visual hallucinations: a cortical thickness MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Delli Pizzi

    Full Text Available Visual hallucinations (VH represent one of the core features in discriminating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB from Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Previous studies reported that in DLB patients functional alterations of the parieto-occipital regions were correlated with the presence of VH. The aim of our study was to assess whether morphological changes in specific cortical regions of DLB could be related to the presence and severity of VH. We performed a cortical thickness analysis on magnetic resonance imaging data in a cohort including 18 DLB patients, 15 AD patients and 14 healthy control subjects. Relatively to DLB group, correlation analysis between the cortical thickness and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI hallucination item scores was also performed. Cortical thickness was reduced bilaterally in DLB compared to controls in the pericalcarine and lingual gyri, cuneus, precuneus, superior parietal gyrus. Cortical thinning was found bilaterally in AD compared to controls in temporal cortex including the superior and middle temporal gyrus, part of inferior temporal cortex, temporal pole and insula. Inferior parietal and supramarginal gyri were also affected bilaterally in AD as compared to controls. The comparison between DLB and AD evidenced cortical thinning in DLB group in the right posterior regions including superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, pericalcarine and lingual gyri. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between cortical thickness and NPI hallucination item scores showed that the structural alteration in the dorsal visual regions including superior parietal gyrus and precuneus closely correlated with the occurrence and severity of VH. We suggest that structural changes in key regions of the dorsal visual network may play a crucial role in the physiopathology of VH in DLB patients.

  10. Negative correlation of cortical thickness with the severity and duration of abdominal pain in Asian women with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian Sem; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Shiao, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cheng, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Jung-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS. Thirty Asian female IBS patients (IBS group) and 39 healthy individuals (control group) were included in this study. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed. We used FreeSurfer to analyze the differences in the cortical thickness and their correlations with patient characteristics. The left cuneus, left rostral middle frontal cortex, left supramarginal cortex, right caudal anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral insula exhibited cortical thinning in the IBS group compared with those in the controls. Furthermore, the brain cortical thickness correlated negatively the severity as well as duration of abdominal pain. Some of our findings differ from those of Western studies. In our study, all of the significant brain regions in the IBS group exhibited cortical thinning compared with those in the controls. The differences in cortical thickness between the IBS patients and controls may provide useful information to facilitate regulating abdominal pain in IBS patients. These findings offer insights into the association of different cultures and sexes with differences in cortical thinning in patients with IBS.

  11. Anxious/Depressed Symptoms are Linked to Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Maturation in Healthy Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Almli, C. Robert; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Pike, G. Bruce; Collins, D. Louis; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant “CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age” interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15–22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18–22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain. PMID:23749874

  12. Dyslexia and language impairment associated genetic markers influence cortical thickness and white matter in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, John D; Montgomery, Angela M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Darst, Burcu F; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Frazier, Jean; Kaufmann, Walter E; Keating, Brian; Kenet, Tal; Kennedy, David; Mostofsky, Stewart; Murray, Sarah S; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Bartsch, Hauke; Kuperman, Joshua M; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-01

    Dyslexia and language impairment (LI) are complex traits with substantial genetic components. We recently completed an association scan of the DYX2 locus, where we observed associations of markers in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ACOT13, and FAM65B with reading-, language-, and IQ-related traits. Additionally, the effects of reading-associated DYX3 markers were recently characterized using structural neuroimaging techniques. Here, we assessed the neuroimaging implications of associated DYX2 and DYX3 markers, using cortical volume, cortical thickness, and fractional anisotropy. To accomplish this, we examined eight DYX2 and three DYX3 markers in 332 subjects in the Pediatrics Imaging Neurocognition Genetics study. Imaging-genetic associations were examined by multiple linear regression, testing for influence of genotype on neuroimaging. Markers in DYX2 genes KIAA0319 and FAM65B were associated with cortical thickness in the left orbitofrontal region and global fractional anisotropy, respectively. KIAA0319 and ACOT13 were suggestively associated with overall fractional anisotropy and left pars opercularis cortical thickness, respectively. DYX3 markers showed suggestive associations with cortical thickness and volume measures in temporal regions. Notably, we did not replicate association of DYX3 markers with hippocampal measures. In summary, we performed a neuroimaging follow-up of reading-, language-, and IQ-associated DYX2 and DYX3 markers. DYX2 associations with cortical thickness may reflect variations in their role in neuronal migration. Furthermore, our findings complement gene expression and imaging studies implicating DYX3 markers in temporal regions. These studies offer insight into where and how DYX2 and DYX3 risk variants may influence neuroimaging traits. Future studies should further connect the pathways to risk variants associated with neuroimaging/neurocognitive outcomes.

  13. Gray Matter Volume Decreases in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Caroline; Schuller, Anne Marie; Paulos, Carlos; Namer, Izzie; Pull, Charles; Danion, Jean Marie; Foucher, Jack René

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aged patients (>50 years old) with residual schizophrenic symptoms differ from young patients. They represent a subpopulation with a more unfavorable Kraepelinian course and have an increased risk (up to 30%) for dementia of unknown origin. However, our current understanding of age-related brain changes in schizophrenia is derived from studies that included less than 17% of patients who were older than 50 years of age. This study investigated the anatomical distribution of gray matter (GM) brain deficits in aged patients with ongoing schizophrenia. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was applied to 3D-T1 magnetic resonance images obtained from 27 aged patients with schizophrenia (mean age of 60 years) and 40 age-matched normal controls. Results: Older patients with schizophrenia showed a bilateral reduction of GM volume in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex, and in a large posterior region centered on the occipito-temporo-parietal junction. Only the latter region showed accelerated GM volume loss with increasing age. None of these results could be accounted for by institutionalization, antipsychotic medication, or cognitive scores. Conclusions: This study replicated most common findings in patients with schizophrenia with regard to thalamic and frontal GM deficits. However, it uncovered an unexpected large region of GM atrophy in the posterior tertiary cortices. The latter observation may be specific to this aged and chronically symptomatic subpopulation, as atrophy in this region is rarely reported in younger patients and is accelerated with age. PMID:21205677

  14. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  15. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: A voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach

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    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: will.zhang.1111@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Song, Lingheng, E-mail: songlh1023@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, No. 324 Hospital of PLA, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yin, Xuntao, E-mail: xuntaoyin@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhang, Jiuquan, E-mail: jiuquanzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Chen, E-mail: cqliuchen@foxmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjian_811@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Daiquan, E-mail: zhoudq77@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chen, Bing, E-mail: chenbing3@medmail.com.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lii, Haitao, E-mail: haitaolii023@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and methods: High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Conclusion: Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex.

  16. Neurostructural correlates of two subtypes of specific phobia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Kevin; Evens, Ricarda; Maslowski, Nina Isabel; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-02-28

    The animal and blood-injection-injury (BII) subtypes of specific phobia are both characterized by subjective fear but distinct autonomic reactions to threat. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have related these characteristic responses to shared and non-shared neural underpinnings. However, no comparative structural data are available. This study aims to fill this gap by comparing the two subtypes and also comparing them with a non-phobic control group. Gray and white matter data of 33 snake phobia subjects (SP), 26 dental phobia subjects (DP), and 37 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. Especially DP differed from HC and SP by showing significantly increased grey matter volumes in widespread areas including the right subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left orbitofrontal and left prefrontal (PFC) cortices. In addition, white matter volume was significantly increased in the left PFC in DP compared with SP. These results are in line with functional changes observed in dental phobia and point toward those brain circuits associated with emotional processing and regulation. Future studies should aim to further delineate functional and structural connectivity alterations in specific phobia.

  17. MRI Correlates of Parkinson’s Disease Progression: A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fioravanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated structural brain differences between a group of early-mild PD patients at different phases of the disease and healthy subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. 20 mild PD patients compared to 15 healthy at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. VBM is a fully automated technique, which allows the identification of regional differences in the gray matter enabling an objective analysis of the whole brain between groups of subjects. With respect to controls, PD patients exhibited decreased GM volumes in right putamen and right parietal cortex. After 2 years of disease, the same patients confirmed GM loss in the putamen and parietal cortex; a significant difference was also observed in the area of pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN and in the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR. PD is associated with brain morphological changes in cortical and subcortical structures. The first regions to be affected in PD seem to be the parietal cortex and the putamen. A third structure that undergoes atrophy is the part of the inferior-posterior midbrain, attributable to the PPN and MLR. Our findings provide new insight into the brain involvement in PD and could contribute to a better understanding of the sequence of events occurring in these patients.

  18. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

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    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang (Dept. of Bioengineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China))

    2008-02-15

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD

  19. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang [Dept. of Bioengineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China)

    2008-02-15

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD.

  20. Voxel-Based Morphometric Study on Chinese Blind Men's Brain Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-lan; PAN Wen-ju; ZHENG Lian

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown the functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind men.In order to study the changes of their brain structure,voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods are used.The regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) concentrations of magnetic resonance (MR) images from 11 blind people and 9 sighted control subjects are compared using standard VBM.Optimized VBM is also discussed to measure the absolute local volume of GM or WM.Consistent results are achieved by statistical analysis with these methods.There are distinct differences not only in visual cortex but also the sensory area,auditory area and motor area.GM concentrations in blind men significantly decreased in Brodmann 7 and 22.While in Brodmann 18 and 19,GM concentration increased.GM volumes decreased in Brodmann 3,4,6,9 and 45.On the other hand,both WM concentration and volume increased in Brodmann 7.These results suggest that early visual deprivation can lead to changes in the brain structural anatomy which is consistent with the cortical cross-modal reorganization found by functional imaging.It may help to discover the relationship between the brain structural anatomy and the brain functional data of blind men at a macroscopic level from neuroimaging perspective.

  1. The effect of alendronate treatment on cortical thickness of the proximal femur in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Maryam; Dehghan, Leyla; Yosefi, Gholamali; Mohammadpour, Alireza; Abdi, Rohollah

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are used extensively for managing the osteoporosis. There are some controversies on atypical fractures of femur that associated with increase in cortical thickness (CT) and BPs' use. In this study, the effects of alendronate consumption were studied on femoral CT as a predictor for atypical fracture. Forty nine post-menopausal women aged 50-70 years with osteopenia-osteoporosis who were treated with alendronate 70 mg/week for at least one year were compared to 49 controls for CT in subtrochanteric region of femur by hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and hip Xray. CT and its ratio were measured at 3.5 and 4.0 cm below the tip of the greater trochanter (GT) and 0.5 cm below lesser trochanter (LT) in DXA and at 9.5 and 10.5 cm of GT and 1 cm of LT in Xray. In this study, 98 women participated whose mean age and age at menopause were 60 (17±5.6) and 49 (40±2.7) years, respectively. Duration of BP consumption in alendronate group was 1.76±1.38 (1-10) years. No difference was seen in the mean of CT and its ratio between the alendronate and control groups in BMD scan or X-ray. The best correlation between two imaging modalities was in cortical ratio in 3.5 cm of GT in BMD scan and 9.5 cm of GT in X-ray. Alendronate treatment did not appear to increase femoral CT throughout the detection limits of BMD scan or X-ray.

  2. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jacobus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  3. A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Age of Onset and Childhood Trauma on Cortical Thickness in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Jaworska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD neural underpinnings may differ based on onset age and childhood trauma. We assessed cortical thickness in patients who differed in age of MDD onset and examined trauma history influence. Methods. Adults with MDD (N=36 and controls (HC; N=18 underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty patients had MDD onset 25 years of age (adult onset. The MDD group was also subdivided into those with (N=12 and without (N=19 physical and/or sexual abuse as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Cortical thickness was analyzed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Thicker frontal pole and a tendency for thinner transverse temporal cortices existed in MDD. The former was driven by the pediatric onset group and abuse history (independently, particularly in the right frontal pole. Inverse correlations existed between CTQ scores and frontal pole cortex thickness. A similar inverse relation existed with left inferior and right superior parietal cortex thickness. The superior temporal cortex tended to be thinner in pediatric versus adult onset groups with childhood abuse. Conclusions. This preliminary work suggests neural differences between pediatric and adult MDD onset. Trauma history also contributes to cytoarchitectural modulation. Thickened frontal pole cortices as a compensatory mechanism in MDD warrant evaluation.

  4. Laminar thickness alterations in the fronto-parietal cortical mantle of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elseline Hoekzema

    Full Text Available Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43 and without ADHD (n = 41, as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31, adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31 and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24. We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally. Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing.

  5. Laminar Thickness Alterations in the Fronto-Parietal Cortical Mantle of Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Fernández, Vanesa Richarte; Picado, Marisol; Bosch, Rosa; Soliva, Juan Carlos; Rovira, Mariana; Vives, Yolanda; Bulbena, Antonio; Tobeña, Adolf; Casas, Miguel; Vilarroya, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43) and without ADHD (n = 41), as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31), adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31) and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24). We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally). Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing. PMID:23239964

  6. SKA2 methylation is associated with decreased prefrontal cortical thickness and greater PTSD severity among trauma-exposed veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, N; Spielberg, J M; Logue, M W; Wolf, E J; Smith, A K; Lusk, J; Hayes, J P; Sperbeck, E; Milberg, W P; McGlinchey, R E; Salat, D H; Carter, W C; Stone, A; Schichman, S A; Humphries, D E; Miller, M W

    2016-03-01

    Methylation of the SKA2 (spindle and kinetochore-associated complex subunit 2) gene has recently been identified as a promising biomarker of suicide risk. Based on this finding, we examined associations between SKA2 methylation, cortical thickness and psychiatric phenotypes linked to suicide in trauma-exposed veterans. About 200 trauma-exposed white non-Hispanic veterans of the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (91% male) underwent clinical assessment and had blood drawn for genotyping and methylation analysis. Of all, 145 participants also had neuroimaging data available. Based on previous research, we examined DNA methylation at the cytosine-guanine locus cg13989295 as well as DNA methylation adjusted for genotype at the methylation-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7208505) in relationship to whole-brain cortical thickness, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses identified three clusters in prefrontal cortex that were associated with genotype-adjusted SKA2 DNA methylation (methylation(adj)). Specifically, DNA methylation(adj) was associated with bilateral reductions of cortical thickness in frontal pole and superior frontal gyrus, and similar effects were found in the right orbitofrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. PTSD symptom severity was positively correlated with SKA2 DNA methylation(adj) and negatively correlated with cortical thickness in these regions. Mediation analyses showed a significant indirect effect of PTSD on cortical thickness via SKA2 methylation status. Results suggest that DNA methylation(adj) of SKA2 in blood indexes stress-related psychiatric phenotypes and neurobiology, pointing to its potential value as a biomarker of stress exposure and susceptibility.

  7. A comparison of brain volume and cortical thickness in excoriation (skin picking) disorder and trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder) in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Annerine; Grant, Jon E; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

    2015-02-15

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder, or HPD) significantly overlap in terms of clinical features. However, few studies have directly compared structural brain data in these disorders. The aim of this study was to compare volumes of brain structures and cortical thickness in patients with SPD and HPD, and determine involvement of fronto-striatal pathways. Seventeen female SPD, 17 HPD and 15 healthy age-matched controls underwent clinical assessment and structural MRI imaging. Group differences were determined in brain volume and cortical thickness, controlling for illness severity. Participants with SPD had greater volume of the ventral striatum bilaterally; and reduced cortical thickness in right hemisphere frontal areas, and greater thickness of the cuneus bilaterally compared to HPD and control participants. HPD participants demonstrated reduced thickness of the right parahippocampal gyrus compared to SPD and control participants. The findings here are partially consistent with previous structural work in SPD, and suggest some differences in the neurobiology of SPD and HPD. The more extensive involvement of the ventral striatum in SPD may suggest greater involvement of the reward system, while the more extensive involvement of the parahippocampal gyrus in HPD may be consistent with the dissociative symptoms often seen in these patients.

  8. Cortical thickness of superior frontal cortex predicts impulsiveness and perceptual reasoning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, C; Kühn, S; Paus, T; Romanowski, A; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G J; Brühl, R; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Dalley, J W; Flor, H; Ittermann, B; Ivanov, N; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Kathmann, N; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Schumann, G; Gallinat, J

    2013-05-01

    Impulsiveness is a pivotal personality trait representing a core domain in all major personality inventories. Recently, impulsiveness has been identified as an important modulator of cognitive processing, particularly in tasks that require the processing of large amounts of information. Although brain imaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex to be a common underlying representation of impulsiveness and related cognitive functioning, to date a fine-grain and detailed morphometric analysis has not been carried out. On the basis of ahigh-resolution magnetic resonance scans acquired in 1620 healthy adolescents (IMAGEN), the individual cortical thickness (CT) was estimated. Correlations between Cloninger's impulsiveness and CT were studied in an entire cortex analysis. The cluster identified was tested for associations with performance in perceptual reasoning tasks of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV). We observed a significant inverse correlation between trait impulsiveness and CT of the left superior frontal cortex (SFC; Monte Carlo Simulation P<0.01). CT within this cluster correlated with perceptual reasoning scores (Bonferroni corrected) of the WISC IV. On the basis of a large sample of adolescents, we identified an extended area in the SFC as a correlate of impulsiveness, which appears to be in line with the trait character of this prominent personality facet. The association of SFC thickness with perceptual reasoning argues for a common neurobiological basis of personality and specific cognitive domains comprising attention, spatial reasoning and response selection. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of impulsiveness in several psychiatric disorders associated with prefrontal dysfunctions and cognitive deficits.

  9. Multiple bases of human intelligence revealed by cortical thickness and neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu Yong; Shamosh, Noah A; Cho, Sun Hee; DeYoung, Colin G; Lee, Min Joo; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sun I; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Kyungjin; Gray, Jeremy R; Lee, Kun Ho

    2008-10-08

    We hypothesized that individual differences in intelligence (Spearman's g) are supported by multiple brain regions, and in particular that fluid (gF) and crystallized (gC) components of intelligence are related to brain function and structure with a distinct profile of association across brain regions. In 225 healthy young adults scanned with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging sequences, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on the basis of a correlation between g and either brain structure or brain function. In these ROIs, gC was more strongly related to structure (cortical thickness) than function, whereas gF was more strongly related to function (blood oxygenation level-dependent signal during reasoning) than structure. We further validated this finding by generating a neurometric prediction model of intelligence quotient (IQ) that explained 50% of variance in IQ in an independent sample. The data compel a nuanced view of the neurobiology of intelligence, providing the most persuasive evidence to date for theories emphasizing multiple distributed brain regions differing in function.

  10. Towards a Holistic Cortical Thickness Descriptor: Heat Kernel-Based Grey Matter Morphology Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yalin

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a heat kernel based regional shape descriptor that may be capable of better exploiting volumetric morphological information than other available methods, thereby improving statistical power on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. The mechanism of our analysis is driven by the graph spectrum and the heat kernel theory, to capture the volumetric geometry information in the constructed tetrahedral meshes. In order to capture profound brain grey matter shape changes, we first use the volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator to determine the point pair correspondence between white-grey matter and CSF-grey matter boundary surfaces by computing the streamlines in a tetrahedral mesh. Secondly, we propose multi-scale grey matter morphology signatures to describe the transition probability by random walk between the point pairs, which reflects the inherent geometric characteristics. Thirdly, a point distribution model is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the grey matter morphology signatures and generate the internal structure features. With the sparse linear discriminant analysis, we select a concise morphology feature set with improved classification accuracies. In our experiments, the proposed work outperformed the cortical thickness features computed by FreeSurfer software in the classification of Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment, on publicly available data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The multi-scale and physics based volumetric structure feature may bring stronger statistical power than some traditional methods for MRI-based grey matter morphology analysis.

  11. Cortical thickness in children receiving intensive therapy for idiopathic apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadis, Darren S; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W; Lerch, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Children with idiopathic apraxia experience difficulties planning the movements necessary for intelligible speech. There is increasing evidence that targeted early interventions, such as Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT), can be effective in treating these disorders. In this study, we investigate possible cortical thickness correlates of idiopathic apraxia of speech in childhood, and changes associated with participation in an 8-week block of PROMPT therapy. We found that children with idiopathic apraxia (n = 11), aged 3-6 years, had significantly thicker left supramarginal gyri than a group of typically-developing age-matched controls (n = 11), t(20) = 2.84, p ≤ 0.05. Over the course of therapy, the children with apraxia (n = 9) experienced significant thinning of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (canonical Wernicke's area), t(8) = 2.42, p ≤ 0.05. This is the first study to demonstrate experience-dependent structural plasticity in children receiving therapy for speech sound disorders.

  12. Reduced cortical thickness and its association with social reactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Julia; Henze, Romy; Vomstein, Kilian; Stieltjes, Bram; Parzer, Peter; Haffner, Johann; Brandeis, Daniel; Poustka, Luise

    2015-10-30

    Symptomatology and behavioral characteristics in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have increasingly been linked to abnormalities in early brain growth patterns of affected children. Studies investigating specific components of gray matter structure, such as cortical thickness (CT), have produced conflicting results, and have rarely included additional measures of social impairment. In the present study, we applied a surface-based whole brain analysis to investigate CT in a sample of 36 pre-adolescent children [18 subjects with ASD (IQ mean: 111) and 18 healthy controls (IQ mean: 112.8), age range 6-12 years]. The CT analysis revealed widespread, but mostly left-hemispheric thinning in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain areas related to the theory-of-mind network and the heteromodal association cortex. In an exploratory analysis, CT was observed to be differently associated with social impairment in children with ASD compared with typically developing children. The affected neuroanatomical regions are related to characteristic deficits in language, cognition and behavior that are often observed in the disorder. The relationship between social impairment and CT in children with ASD and controls seems to indicate aberrant developmental trajectories in ASD emerging early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Rui F; Balardin, Joana B; Lazar, Sara; Sato, João R; Igarashi, Nadja; Santaella, Danilo F; Lacerda, Shirley S; Amaro, Edson; Kozasa, Elisa H

    2017-01-01

    Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT) in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  14. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. Afonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  15. Automated scheme for measuring mandibular cortical thickness on dental panoramic radiographs for osteoporosis screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Hayashi, T.; Hara, T.; Katsumata, A.; Muramatsu, C.; Zhou, X.; Iida, Y.; Matsuoka, M.; Katagi, Ki.; Fujita, H.

    2012-03-01

    Findings of dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) have shown that the mandibular cortical thickness (MCT) was significantly correlated with osteoporosis. Identifying asymptomatic patients with osteoporosis through dental examinations may bring a supplemental benefit for the patients. However, most of the DPRs are used for only diagnosing dental conditions by dentists in their routine clinical work. The aim of this study was to develop a computeraided diagnosis scheme that automatically measures MCT to assist dentists in screening osteoporosis. First, the inferior border of mandibular bone was detected by use of an active contour method. Second, the locations of mental foramina were estimated on the basis of the inferior border of mandibular bone. Finally, MCT was measured on the basis of the grayscale profile analysis. One hundred DPRs were used to evaluate our proposed scheme. Experimental results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for identifying osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively. We conducted multiclinic trials, in which 223 cases have been obtained and processed in about a month. Our scheme succeeded in detecting all cases of suspected osteoporosis. Therefore, our scheme may have a potential to identify osteoporotic patients at an early stage.

  16. Striatal phosphodiesterase 10A and medial prefrontal cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia: a PET and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodén, R; Persson, J; Wall, A; Lubberink, M; Ekselius, L; Larsson, E-M; Antoni, G

    2017-03-07

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is abundant in striatal medium spiny neurons and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in animal models and is investigated as a possible new pharmacological treatment target. A reduction of prefrontal cortical thickness is common in schizophrenia, but how this relates to PDE10A expression is unknown. Our study aim was to compare, we believe for the first time, the striatal non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) of the new validated PDE10A ligand [(11)C]Lu AE92686 between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the correlation of PDE10A BPND to cortical thickness. Sixteen healthy male controls and 10 male patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine, olanzapine or quetiapine were investigated with positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Striatal binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]Lu AE92686 was acquired through dynamic PET scans and cortical thickness by structural MRI. Clinical assessments of symptoms and cognitive function were performed and the antipsychotic dosage was recorded. Patients with schizophrenia had a significantly lower BPND of [(11)C]Lu AE92686 in striatum (P=0.003) than healthy controls. The striatal BPND significantly correlated to cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus across patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. No significant correlation was observed between the BPND for [(11)C]Lu AE92686 in striatum and age, schizophrenia symptoms, antipsychotic dosage, coffee consumption, smoking, duration of illness or cognitive function in the patients. In conclusion, PDE10A may be important for functioning in the striato-cortical interaction and in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  17. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

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    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13

  18. Alterations in Cortical Thickness and White Matter Integrity in Mild-to-Moderate Communicating Hydrocephalic School-Aged Children Measured by Whole-Brain Cortical Thickness Mapping and DTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinjian; Bai, Guanghui; Fu, Yuchuan; Mao, Chuanwan; Wu, Aiqin

    2017-01-01

    Follow-up observation is required for mild-to-moderate hydrocephalic patients because of the potential damage to brain. However, effects of mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus on gray and white matter remain unclear in vivo. Using structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), current study compared the cortical thickness and white matter integrity between children with mild-to-moderate communicating hydrocephalus and healthy controls. The relationships between cortical changes and intelligence quota were also examined in patients. We found that cortical thickness in the left middle temporal and left rostral middle frontal gyrus was significantly lower in the hydrocephalus group compared with that of controls. Fractional anisotropy in the right corpus callosum body was significantly lower in the hydrocephalus group compared with that of controls. In addition, there was no association of cortical thinning or white matter fractional anisotropy with intelligence quota in either group. Thus, our findings provide clues to that mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus could lead to structural brain deficits especially in the middle temporal and middle frontal gyrus prior to the behavior changes.

  19. Voxel Based Morphometry Alterations in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome.

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    Yoon-Hee Cha

    Full Text Available Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS is a disorder of chronic self-motion perception that occurs though entrainment to rhythmic background motion, such as from sea voyage, and involves the perception of low-frequency rocking that can last for months or years. The neural basis of this persistent sensory perception abnormality is not well understood.We investigated grey matter volume differences underlying persistent MdDS by performing voxel-based morphometry on whole brain and pre-specified ROIs in 28 individuals with MdDS and comparing them to 18 age, sex, and handedness matched controls.MdDS participants exhibited greater grey matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobule, right inferior occipital gyrus (area V3v, right temporal pole, bilateral cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIII/IX and left lobule VIIa/VIIb. Grey matter volumes were lower in bilateral inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC and left superior medial gyri (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. In ROI analyses, there were no volume differences in the middle occipital gyrus (region of V5/MT or parietal operculum 2 (region of the parietoinsular vestibular cortex. Illness duration was positively related to grey matter volume in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI, right posterior insula, superior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus (V5/MT, bilateral postcentral gyrus, anterior cerebellum, and left cerebellar hemisphere and vermian lobule IX. In contrast, illness duration was negatively related to volume in pgACC, posterior middle cingulate gyrus (MCC, left middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-DLPFC, and right cerebellar hemispheric lobule VIIIb (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. The most significant differences were decreased volume in the pgACC and increased volume in the left IFG/AI with longer illness duration (qFDRcorr <0.05. Concurrent medication use did not correlate with these findings or have a relationship with

  20. Cortical Thickness in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease: A Comparison of Prodromal and Dementia Stages.

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    Frederic Blanc

    Full Text Available To assess and compare cortical thickness (CTh of patients with prodromal Dementia with Lewy bodies (pro-DLB, prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pro-AD, DLB dementia (DLB-d, AD dementia (AD-d and normal ageing.Study participants(28 pro-DLB, 27 pro-AD, 31 DLB-d, 54 AD-d and 33 elderly controls underwent 3Tesla T1 3D MRI and detailed clinical and cognitive assessments. We used FreeSurfer analysis package to measure CTh and investigate patterns of cortical thinning across groups.Comparison of CTh between pro-DLB and pro-AD (p<0.05, FDR corrected showed more right anterior insula thinning in pro-DLB, and more bilateral parietal lobe and left parahippocampal gyri thinning in pro-AD. Comparison of prodromal patients to healthy elderly controls showed the involvement of the same regions. In DLB-d (p<0.05, FDR corrected cortical thinning was found predominantly in the right temporo-parietal junction, and insula, cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral occipital cortices. In AD-d(p<0.05, FDR corrected,the most significant areas affected included the entorhinal cortices, parahippocampal gyri and parietal lobes. The comparison of AD-d and DLB-d demonstrated more CTh in AD-d in the left entorhinal cortex (p<0.05, FDR corrected.Cortical thickness is a sensitive measure for characterising patterns of grey matter atrophy in early stages of DLB distinct from AD. Right anterior insula involvement may be a key region at the prodromal stage of DLB and needs further investigation.

  1. Voxel-based moprhometry in the differential diagnosis of posttraumatic cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Odinak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury (BI is a major cause of cognitive impairments (CI in young people. However, many aspects of their development remain unstudied. In particular, the role of neurodegenerative and vascular processes in the occurrence of posttraumatic disorders of higher cortical functions is still unclear. Voxel-based morphometry is one of the current neuroimaging techniques. Objective: to comprehensively study a change in the volume indicators of a number of brain structures in patients with posttraumatic, vascular, and amnestic CI.Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 123 patients who were divided into 5 groups: 1 20 examinees without CI (a control group; 2 22 patients with mild and moderate CI and a history of mild recurrent CI; 3 19 patients with moderate posttraumatic CI after severe brain contusion; 4 41 patients with moderate vascular CI; 5 21 patients with moderate amnestic CI. Before divided into the groups, all the patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, which enabled different aspects of cognitive performance to be assessed.Results. Atrophic changes were ascertained to be uncharacteristic for the patients who had sustained mild recurrent BI. At the same time, the patients with severe consequences of BI showed a significant decrease in the volume of brain regions, primarily in that of frontal and temporal lobes. A combined comprehensive assessment of the results obtained in the group analysis using SPM8 and calculating absolute volume values using MRICroN allowed one to more accurately understand the nature of neurodegenerative changes. Comparative assessment of the data obtained in the posttraumatic, vascular, and amnestic CI groups identified a number of differences in both the distribution of atrophic changes and their level, which can be of great importance for the differential diagnosis of these conditions.

  2. Voxel-based morphometry analyses of in-vivo MRI in the aging mouse lemur primate

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    Stephen John Sawiak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first nonhuman primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI. These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum. Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal, nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.

  3. Theory of mind and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yamada, Makiko; Namiki, Chihiro; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    Impaired ability to infer the mental states of others (theory of mind; ToM) is considered to be a key contributor to the poor social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. Although neuroimaging and lesion studies have provided empirical evidence for the neural basis of ToM ability, including the involvement of several prefrontal and temporal structures, the association between pathology of these structures and ToM impairment in schizophrenia patients is less well understood. To address this issue, we investigated structural brain abnormalities and ToM impairment in patients with schizophrenia, and examined the relationship between them. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 20 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were examined for ToM ability based on the revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (or Eyes) test [Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., Plumb, I., 2001. The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42, 241-251]. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to investigate regional brain alterations. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right insula. The patients performed poorly on the Eyes test. Importantly, poor performance on the Eyes test was found to be associated with gray matter reduction in the left VLPFC in the patient group. These results suggest that prefrontal cortical reduction, especially in the left VLPFC, is a key pathology underlying the difficulties faced by schizophrenia patients in inferring the mental states of others.

  4. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

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    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Neurology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  5. Organizing Principles of Human Cortical Development--Thickness and Area from 4 to 30 Years: Insights from Comparative Primate Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlien, Inge K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Chaplin, Tristan A; Rosa, Marcello G P; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex undergoes a protracted, regionally heterogeneous development well into young adulthood. Cortical areas that expand the most during human development correspond to those that differ most markedly when the brains of macaque monkeys and humans are compared. However, it remains unclear to what extent this relationship derives from allometric scaling laws that apply to primate brains in general, or represents unique evolutionary adaptations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the relationship only applies to surface area (SA), or also holds for cortical thickness (CT). In 331 participants aged 4 to 30, we calculated age functions of SA and CT, and examined the correspondence of human cortical development with macaque to human expansion, and with expansion across nonhuman primates. CT followed a linear negative age function from 4 to 30 years, while SA showed positive age functions until 12 years with little further development. Differential cortical expansion across primates was related to regional maturation of SA and CT, with age trajectories differing between high- and low-expanding cortical regions. This relationship adhered to allometric scaling laws rather than representing uniquely macaque-human differences: regional correspondence with human development was as large for expansion across nonhuman primates as between humans and macaque.

  6. Primary somatosensory/motor cortical thickness distinguishes paresthesia-dominant from pain-dominant carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyungjun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Mawla, Ishtiaq; Morse, Leslie R; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2016-05-01

    Paresthesia-dominant and pain-dominant subgroups have been noted in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a peripheral neuropathic disorder characterized by altered primary somatosensory/motor (S1/M1) physiology. We aimed to investigate whether brain morphometry dissociates these subgroups. Subjects with CTS were evaluated with nerve conduction studies, whereas symptom severity ratings were used to allocate subjects into paresthesia-dominant (CTS-paresthesia), pain-dominant (CTS-pain), and pain/paresthesia nondominant (not included in further analysis) subgroups. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired at 3T using a multiecho MPRAGE T1-weighted pulse sequence, and gray matter cortical thickness was calculated across the entire brain using validated, automated methods. CTS-paresthesia subjects demonstrated reduced median sensory nerve conduction velocity (P = 0.05) compared with CTS-pain subjects. In addition, cortical thickness in precentral and postcentral gyri (S1/M1 hand area) contralateral to the more affected hand was significantly reduced in CTS-paresthesia subgroup compared with CTS-pain subgroup. Moreover, in CTS-paresthesia subjects, precentral cortical thickness was negatively correlated with paresthesia severity (r(34) = -0.40, P = 0.016) and positively correlated with median nerve sensory velocity (r(36) = 0.51, P = 0.001), but not with pain severity. Conversely, in CTS-pain subjects, contralesional S1 (r(9) = 0.62, P = 0.042) and M1 (r(9) = 0.61, P = 0.046) cortical thickness were correlated with pain severity, but not median nerve velocity or paresthesia severity. This double dissociation in somatotopically specific S1/M1 areas suggests a neuroanatomical substrate for symptom-based CTS subgroups. Such fine-grained subgrouping of CTS may lead to improved personalized therapeutic approaches, based on superior characterization of the linkage between peripheral and central neuroplasticity.

  7. Differences in brain structure in patients with distinct sites of chronic pain A voxel-based morphometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Mao; Longxiao Wei; Qiuli Zhang; Xia Liao; Xiaoli Yang; Ming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in gray matter volume is common in patients with chronic back pain, and different types of pain are associated with gray matter abnormalities in distinct brain regions. To examine ences in brain morphology in patients with low back pain or neck and upper back pain, we gated changes in gray matter volume in chronic back pain patients having different sites of pain using voxel-based morphometry. A reduction in cortical gray matter volume was found primarily in the left postcentral gyrus and in the left precuneus and bilateral cuneal cortex of patients with low back pain. In these patients, there was an increase in subcortical gray matter volume in the bilateral putamen and accumbens, right pal idum, right caudate nucleus, and left amygdala. In upper back pain patients, reduced cortical gray matter volume was found in the left precentral and left tral cortices. Our findings suggest that regional gray matter volume abnormalities in low back pain patients are more extensive than in upper back pain patients. Subcortical gray matter volume in-creases are found only in patients with low back pain.

  8. The Right Hemisphere Planum Temporale Supports Enhanced Visual Motion Detection Ability in Deaf People: Evidence from Cortical Thickness

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    Martha M. Shiell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl’s gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area’s involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity.

  9. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

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    Zhijun Yao

    Full Text Available In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  10. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Lina; Jackson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC) twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  11. Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reduced cortical thickness in those at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David H; Wolf, Erika J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses. Whole-genome polygenic risk scores for the development of Alzheimer's disease were calculated using summary statistics from the largest Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study to date. Results showed that mild traumatic brain injury moderated the relationship between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and cortical thickness, such that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk showed reduced cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable regions. Among males with mild traumatic brain injury, high genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was associated with cortical thinning as a function of time since injury. A moderated mediation analysis showed that mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk indirectly influenced episodic memory performance through cortical thickness, suggesting that cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable brain regions is a mechanism for reduced memory performance. Finally, analyses that examined the apolipoprotein E4 allele, post-traumatic stress disorder, and genetic risk for schizophrenia and depression confirmed the specificity of the Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk finding. These results provide evidence that mild traumatic brain injury is associated with greater neurodegeneration and reduced memory performance

  12. Relationship between neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites and reductions in right medial prefrontal cortical thickness in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Drevets, Wayne C; Wurfel, Brent E; Ford, Bart N; Morris, Harvey M; Victor, Teresa A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Teague, T Kent; Dantzer, Robert; Savitz, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Reductions in gray matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, sgACC) are a widely reported finding in major depressive disorder (MDD). Inflammatory mediators, which are elevated in a subgroup of patients with MDD, activate the kynurenine metabolic pathway and increase production of neuroactive metabolites such as kynurenic acid (KynA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) and quinolinic acid (QA) which influence neuroplasticity. It is not known whether the alterations in brain structure and function observed in major depressive disorders are due to the direct effect of inflammatory mediators or the effects of neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites. Here, using partial posterior predictive distribution mediation analysis, we tested whether the serum concentrations of kynurenine pathway metabolites mediated reductions in cortical thickness in mPFC regions in MDD. Further, we tested whether any association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and cortical thickness would be mediated by kynurenine pathway metabolites. Seventy-three unmedicated subjects who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD and 91 healthy controls (HC) completed MRI scanning using a pulse sequence optimized for tissue contrast resolution. Automated cortical parcellation was performed using the PALS-B12 Brodmann area atlas as implemented in FreeSurfer in order to compare the cortical thickness and cortical area of six PFC regions: Brodmann areas (BA) 9, 10, 11, 24, 25, and 32. Serum concentrations of kynurenine pathway metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection, while high-sensitivity CRP concentration was measured immunoturbidimetrically. Compared with HCs, the MDD group showed a reduction in cortical thickness of the right BA24 (pdepressive episodes displayed thinner cortex in BA32 (p<0.05). Consistent with our previous findings in an overlapping sample, the KynA/3

  13. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  14. A surface based approach for cortical thickness comparison between PiB+ and PiB- healthy control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Chetelat, Gael; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Villemagne, Victor; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    β-amyloid has been shown to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vivo β-amyloid imaging using [11C]Pittsburgh compound Β (PiB) positron emission tomography has made it possible to analyze the relationship between β-amyloid deposition and different pathological markers involved in AD. PiB allows us to stratify the population between subjects which are likely to have prodromal AD, and those who don't. The comparison of the cortical thickness in these different groups is important to better understanding and detect the first symptoms of the disease which may lead to an earlier therapeutic care to reduce neurone loss. Several techniques have been developed to compare the cortical volume and/or thickness between AD and HC groups. However due to the noise introduced by the cortical thickness estimation and by the registration, these methods do not allow to unveil any major different when comparing prodromal AD groups with healthy control subjects group. To improve our understanding of where initial Alzheimer neurodegeneration occurs in the cortex we have developed a surface based technique, and have applied it to the discrimination between PIB-positive and PiB-negative HCs. We first identify the regions where AD patients show high cortical atrophy by using an AD/PiB- HC vertex-wise T-test. In each of these discriminating regions, comparison between PiB+ HC, PiB- HC and AD are performed. We found some significant differences between the two HC groups in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe for both hemisphere and in the precuneus and occipital regions only for the left hemisphere.

  15. The cytosolic chloride concentration in macula densa and cortical thick ascending limb cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, M; Gonzalez, E; Kornfeld, M; Persson, A E

    1993-03-01

    It is believed that chloride transport through the macula densa (MD) cells is a factor involved in the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism and in MD-mediated renin release. In this study isolated and perfused rabbit kidney cortical thick ascending limb (cTAL) segments containing MD plaques and attached glomeruli were loaded with chloride (CL-sensitive) 6 methoxy-1-fluorophore (sulphanate-propyl) quinolinium (SPQ). MD and cTAL intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl-]i) was determined by using image-intensified video microscopy and digital image-processing for measuring the intensity of the emitted SPQ fluorescence. With 150 mM NaCl in lumen and bath the [Cl-]i in MD and cTAL cells was 58.8 +/- 7.2 mM (n = 20) and 68.7 +/- 9.8 mM (n = 14), respectively. When the presumed luminal Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ co-transporter was blocked by adding 10(-4)M furosemide, the [Cl-]i was reduced in both, MD and cTAL cells from 55.5 +/- 11.9 to 28.6 +/- 10.0 mM (n = 10) and from 43.8 +/- 2.6 to 13.1 +/- 4.5 mM (n = 5), respectively. A reduction in luminal NaCl from 150 to 30 mM also decreased both, MD and cTAL [Cl-]i from 69.4 +/- 9.1 to 36.5 +/- 5.1 mM (n = 9) and from 82.9 +/- 14.5 to 49.4 +/- 8.0 mM (n = 8), respectively. Basolateral addition of the Cl(-)-channel blocker NPPB increased MD [Cl-]i from 31.1 +/- 2.0 to 100.7 +/- 17.0 mM (n = 5) and cTAL [Cl-]i from 44.4 +/- 12.9 to 89.7 +/- 11.7 mM (n = 5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Simplified voxel based and automatic VOl analysis of C-11 PIB uptake using a ligand and subject specific PET templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, S. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Oh, S. J. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    We developed simplified analysing method of C-11 PIB PET using a ligand and subject specific PET templates and evaluated the usefulness of this method by comparing standard MR-based methods in Alzheimer disease (AD). We studied 7 patients with AD (71.5{+-}11.5, M/F=3/4) and 5 normal controls (68.4{+-}8.9, M/F=1/4) with C-11 PIB PET and T1 MRI. 90-min dynamic PET scan was performed after injection of C-11 PIB (370 MBq). Region to cerebellar ratio image (ratio image) was obtained from 60-90 min image and distribution volume ratio image (DVR image) was obtained from 90-min dynamic image using a Logan graphical analysis. Ligand and subject specific PET templates were created by spatial normalization of MR coregistered ratio images of AD and normal group to T1 MR MNI template using SPM2. We compared the outcome of voxel based and automatic VOl analysis employing 3 parametric images: MR template based spatially normalized MR coregistered DVR image (MR-DVR image), MR template based normalized MR coregistered ratio image (MR-ratio image), AD and normal group specific PET template based normalized ratio image (PET-ratio image) in all subjects. Voxel based analyses using 3 parametric images revealed significantly increased PIB retention in several brain regions such as both orbitofrontal and temporoparietal cortices and posterior cingulated gyri of AD compared to normal (FDR<0.05), however, the z-values of these regions were more higher in PET- and MR-ratio images than in MR-DVR image. Automatic VOl analyses using 3 parametric images also revealed significantly increased PIB retention values in same regions of AD (p<0.05). PIB retention values in PET-ratio images were significantly correlated with those in MR-ratio images (R=0.96, slope=0.99, p<0.001) and also MR-DVR images (R=0.95, slope = 1.8, p<0.001). Voxel based and automatic VOl analysis can be simply and accurately performed in a single static C-11 PIB PET image using a ligand and subject specific PET templates

  17. Assessing age-related grey matter decline with Voxel-Based Morphometry depends significantly on segmentation and normalisation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée V Callaert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy ageing coincides with a progressive decline of brain grey matter (GM ultimately affecting the entire brain. For a long time, manual delineation-based volumetry within predefined regions of interest (ROI has been the gold standard for assessing such degeneration. Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM offers an automated alternative approach that, however, relies critically on the segmentation and spatial normalization of a large collection of images from different subjects. This can be achieved via different algorithms, with SPM5/SPM8, DARTEL of SPM8 and FSL tools (FAST, FNIRT being three of the most frequently used. We complemented these voxel based measurements with a ROI based approach, whereby the ROIs are defined by transforms of an atlas (containing different tissue probability maps as well as predefined anatomic labels to the individual subject images in order to obtain volumetric information at the level of the whole brain or within separate ROIs. Comparing GM decline between 21 young subjects (mean age 23 and 18 elderly (mean age 66 revealed that volumetric measurements differed significantly between methods. The unified segmentation/normalisation of SPM5/SPM8 revealed the largest age-related differences and DARTEL the smallest, with FSL being more similar to the DARTEL approach. Method specific differences were substantial after segmentation and most pronounced for the cortical structures in close vicinity to major sulci and fissures. Our findings suggest that algorithms that provide only limited degrees of freedom for local deformations (such as the unified segmentation and normalisation of SPM5/SPM8 tend to overestimate between-group differences in VBM results when compared to methods providing more flexible warping. This difference seems to be most pronounced if the anatomy of one of the groups deviates from custom templates, a finding that is of particular importance when results are compared across studies using different VBM

  18. Characterization of tumor dose heterogeneity for 90Y microsphere therapies using voxel- based dosimetry

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    Justin Mikell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dosimetry for 90Y microsphere therapies (YMT with Standard (SM and Partition (PM models provide only uniform dose estimates to tumor and liver. Our objective is to calculate tumor dose heterogeneity, known to effect response, using voxel-based dosimetry and investigate the limitations of SM and PM.Methods: Voxel-based dosimetry was performed on 17 YMT patients using Monte Carlo DOSXYZnrc. 90Y activity and tissue/density distributions were based on quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Tumors (n=31, liver, and treatment lobe/segments were segmented on diagnostic CT or MR. Dose volume histograms (DVH were created for tumors and normal liver. Bland-Altman analysis compared voxel-based mean absorbed doses to tumor and liver with SM and PM. Tumor and normal liver absorbed dose heterogeneity were investigated through metrics: integral uniformity (IU, D10/D90, COV. Correlations of heterogeneity with voxel-based mean doses and volumes were evaluated.Results: Heterogeneity metrics (mean ± 1σ for tumor dose were COV = 0.48 ± 0.28, D10/D90 = 4.7 ± 3.9, and IU = 0.8 ± 0.18. Heterogeneity metrics correlated with tumor volume (r > 0.58 but not tumor mean doses (r < 0.20. Voxel-based tumor mean doses correlated with PM (r = 0.84 but not SM (r = 0.08. Both yielded poor limits of agreement with of 83 ± 174 and -28 ± 181 Gy, respectively. Normal liver heterogeneity metrics (mean ± 1σ were COV = 0.83 ± 0.29, D10/D90 = 12 ± 15, and IU = 0.97 ± 0.03. Only D10/D90 (r = 0.49 correlated with mean normal liver absorbed dose. Voxel-based normal liver/lobe mean doses correlated with PM (r = 0.96, but had poor limits of agreement (26 ± 29 Gy.Conclusion: Tumor doses have high levels of heterogeneity that increase with volume but are independent of dose. Voxel-based DVH and dose heterogeneity metrics will promote accurate characterization of tumor response following YMT.--------------------------------------Cite this article as: Mikell J, Mourtada F

  19. Cortical thickness and semantic fluency in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jennifer A; Hwang, Kristy S; Lazaris, Andreas; Chow, Nicole; Ramirez, Leslie; Babakchanian, Sona; Woo, Ellen; Thompson, Paul M; Apostolova, Liana G

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is declarative memory loss, but deficits in semantic fluency are also observed. We assessed how semantic fluency relates to cortical atrophy to identify specific regions that play a role in the loss of access to semantic information. Whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were analyzed from 9 Normal Control (NC)(M=76.7, SD=5.6), 40 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (M=74.4, SD=8.6), and 10 probable AD (M=72.4, SD=8.0) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). They all were administered the Category Fluency (CF) animals and vegetables tests. Poorer semantic fluency was associated with bilateral cortical atrophy of the inferior parietal lobule (Brodman areas (BA) 39 and 40) and BA 6, 8, and 9 in the frontal lobe, as well as BA 22 in the temporal lobe. More diffuse frontal associations were seen in the left hemisphere involving BA 9, 10, 32, 44, 45, and 46. Additional cortical atrophy was seen in the temporoparietal (BA 37) and the right parastriate (BA 19, 18) cortices. Associations were more diffuse for performance on vegetable fluency than animal fluency. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF animals was pcorrected=0.01 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.06 for the right hemisphere. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF vegetables was pcorrected=0.009 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.03 for the right hemisphere. These results demonstrate the profound effect of cortical atrophy on semantic fluency. Specifically, tapping into semantic knowledge involves the frontal lobe in addition to the language cortices of the temporoparietal region.

  20. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

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    Sergio Elías Hernández

    Full Text Available To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  1. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  2. Differences in regional brain volume related to the extraversion-introversion dimension--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Lea J; de Manzano, Orjan; Karabanov, Anke; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Extraverted individuals are sociable, behaviorally active, and happy. We report data from a voxel based morphometry study investigating, for the first time, if regional volume in gray and white matter brain regions is related to extraversion. For both gray and white matter, all correlations between extraversion and regional brain volume were negative, i.e. the regions were larger in introverts. Gray matter correlations were found in regions that included the right prefrontal cortex and the cortex around the right temporo-parietal junction--regions that are known to be involved in behavioral inhibition, introspection, and social-emotional processing, e.g. evaluation of social stimuli and reasoning about the mental states of others. White matter correlations extended from the brainstem to widespread cortical regions, and were largely due to global effects, i.e. a larger total white matter volume in introverts. We speculate that these white matter findings may reflect differences in ascending modulatory projections affecting cortical regions involved in behavioral regulation.

  3. A Large Scale (N=400) Investigation of Gray Matter Differences in Schizophrenia Using Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Schretlen, David J.; Pulver, Anne; Cascella, Nicola; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kates, Wendy; Buchanan, Robert; Sharma, Tonmoy; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. Objective To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in schizophrenia in a sample significantly larger than any published to date, and to increase statistical power sufficiently to reveal differences missed in smaller analyses. Methods Magnetic resonance whole brain images were acquired from four geographic sites, all using the same model 1.5T scanner and software version, and combined to form a sample of 200 patients with both first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and scanner location. Gray matter concentration was assessed and compared using optimized VBM. Results Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less gray matter concentration in multiple cortical and subcortical regions, some previously unreported. Overall, we found lower concentrations of gray matter in regions identified in prior studies, most of which reported only subsets of the affected areas. Conclusions Gray matter differences in schizophrenia are most comprehensively elucidated using a large, diverse and representative sample. PMID:18378428

  4. Cortical thickness correlates of specific cognitive performance accounted for by the general factor of intelligence in healthy children aged 6 to 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; Haier, Richard; Waber, Deborah P; Lepage, Claude; Ganjavi, Hooman; Jung, Rex; Evans, Alan C

    2011-04-15

    Prevailing psychometric theories of intelligence posit that individual differences in cognitive performance are attributable to three main sources of variance: the general factor of intelligence (g), cognitive ability domains, and specific test requirements and idiosyncrasies. Cortical thickness has been previously associated with g. In the present study, we systematically analyzed associations between cortical thickness and cognitive performance with and without adjusting for the effects of g in a representative sample of children and adolescents (N=207, Mean age=11.8; SD=3.5; Range=6 to 18.3 years). Seven cognitive tests were included in a measurement model that identified three first-order factors (representing cognitive ability domains) and one second-order factor representing g. Residuals of the cognitive ability domain scores were computed to represent g-independent variance for the three domains and seven tests. Cognitive domain and individual test scores as well as residualized scores were regressed against cortical thickness, adjusting for age, gender and a proxy measure of brain volume. g and cognitive domain scores were positively correlated with cortical thickness in very similar areas across the brain. Adjusting for the effects of g eliminated associations of domain and test scores with cortical thickness. Within a psychometric framework, cortical thickness correlates of cognitive performance on complex tasks are well captured by g in this demographically representative sample.

  5. Preliminary findings of cortical thickness abnormalities in blast injured service members and their relationship to clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, D F; York, G E; Reid, M W; Cooper, D B; Jones, L; Robin, D A; Kennedy, J E; Lewis, J

    2014-03-01

    Though cortical abnormalities have been demonstrated in moderate and severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, there have been no studies examining cortical changes following blast related mild TBI (mTBI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and functional relevance of blast mTBI on cortical thickness in a small cohort of carefully screened blast injured US Service Members (SM). Twelve SM with mTBI acquired through blast injury were compared to 11 demographically matched control SM without TBI. Both mTBI and control participants were active duty and had completed a combat deployment. Subjects underwent MRI examination and the T1 weighted anatomic images were processed using the FreeSurfer suite of tools. Cortical thickness maps were compared between groups and examined for relationships with time since injury (TSI). Utilizing a large database of functional imaging results (BrainMap), significant regions of interest (ROI) were used to determine the behavioral profiles most consistently associated with the specific ROI. In addition, clinical variables were examined as part of post-hoc analysis of functional relevance. Group comparisons controlling for age demonstrated several significant clusters of cortical thinning for the blast injured SM. After multiple comparisons correction (False Discovery Rate (FDR)), two left hemisphere clusters remained significant (left superior temporal (STG) and frontal (SFG) gyri). No clusters were significantly correlated with TSI after FDR correction. Behavioral analysis for the STG and SFG clusters demonstrated three significant behavioral/cognitive sub-domains, each associated with audition and language. Blast injured SMs demonstrated distinct areas of cortical thinning in the STG and SFG. These areas have been previously shown to be associated with audition and language. Post-hoc analyses of clinical records demonstrated significant abnormal audiology reports for the blast injured SM suggesting that the

  6. Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm.

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    Manon Ranger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered brain development is evident in children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age, including reduction in gray and white matter volumes, and thinner cortex, from infancy to adolescence compared to term-born peers. However, many questions remain regarding the etiology. Infants born very preterm are exposed to repeated procedural pain-related stress during a period of very rapid brain development. In this vulnerable population, we have previously found that neonatal pain-related stress is associated with atypical brain development from birth to term-equivalent age. Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age. METHODS: 42 right-handed children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age followed longitudinally from birth underwent 3-D T1 MRI neuroimaging at mean age 7.9 yrs. Children with severe brain injury and major motor/sensory/cognitive impairment were excluded. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using custom developed software utilizing FreeSurfer segmentation data. The association between neonatal pain-related stress (defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures accounting for clinical confounders (gestational age, illness severity, infection, mechanical ventilation, surgeries, and morphine exposure, was examined in relation to cortical thickness using constrained principal component analysis followed by generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: After correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting for neonatal clinical factors, greater neonatal pain-related stress was associated with significantly thinner cortex in 21/66 cerebral regions (p-values ranged from 0.00001 to 0.014, predominately in the frontal and parietal lobes. CONCLUSIONS: In very preterm children without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments, neonatal pain-related stress

  7. Longitudinal MRI study of cortical thickness, perfusion, and metabolite levels in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järnum, Hanna; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Steffensen, Elena G

    2011-01-01

    disorder (MDD) display morphologic, functional, and metabolic brain abnormalities in limbic-cortical regions at a baseline magnetic resonance (MR) scan and whether these changes are normalized in MDD patients in remission at a follow-up scan. Method:  A longitudinal 3.0-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging...

  8. Longitudinal MRI study of cortical thickness, perfusion, and metabolite levels in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järnum, Hanna; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Steffensen, Elena G;

    2011-01-01

    disorder (MDD) display morphologic, functional, and metabolic brain abnormalities in limbic-cortical regions at a baseline magnetic resonance (MR) scan and whether these changes are normalized in MDD patients in remission at a follow-up scan. Method:  A longitudinal 3.0-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging...

  9. Evaluation of voxel-based rendering of high resolution surface descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    resolution scans of the room surfaces as basis for the room models. In the present work this approach is evaluated with a voxel-based method (described in earlier publications), and compared to measured impulse responses. The results are compared objectively by visual inspection of the impulse responses...

  10. Physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation for ultra-fast IMRT planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Niklas; Bangert, Mark; Kamerling, Cornelis P; Ziegenhein, Peter; Bol, Gijsbert H; Raaymakers, Bas W; Oelfke, Uwe

    2016-07-08

    Conventional treatment planning in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a trial-and-error process that usually involves tedious tweaking of optimization parameters. Here, we present an algorithm that automates part of this process, in particular the adaptation of voxel-based penalties within normal tissue. Thereby, the proposed algorithm explicitly considers a priori known physical limitations of photon irradiation. The efficacy of the developed algorithm is assessed during treatment planning studies comprising 16 prostate and 5 head and neck cases. We study the eradication of hot spots in the normal tissue, effects on target coverage and target conformity, as well as selected dose volume points for organs at risk. The potential of the proposed method to generate class solutions for the two indications is investigated. Run-times of the algorithms are reported. Physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation is an adequate means to automatically detect and eradicate hot-spots during IMRT planning while maintaining target coverage and conformity. Negative effects on organs at risk are comparably small and restricted to lower doses. Using physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation, it was possible to improve the generation of class solutions for both indications. Considering the reported run-times of less than 20 s, physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation has the potential to reduce the clinical workload during planning and automated treatment plan generation in the long run, facilitating adaptive radiation treatments.

  11. Neural Correlates of Communication Skill and Symptom Severity in Autism: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lauren K.; Hill, Dina E.; Thoma, Robert J.; Euler, Matthew J.; Lewine, Jeffrey D.; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have compared the brains of normal controls and individuals with autism, especially older, higher-functioning individuals with autism, little is known of the neural correlates of the vast clinical heterogeneity characteristic of the disorder. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gray matter…

  12. Anatomical specificity of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in glioblastomas: a voxel-based mapping analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xing [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai; Ma, Jun; Li, Shaowu [Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Shuai [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Departments of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Yong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Beijing Academy of Critical Illness in Brain, Department of Clinical Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-15

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a common genetic alteration in malignant gliomas and contributes to the angiogenesis of tumors. This study aimed to investigate the anatomical specificity of VEGF expression levels in glioblastomas using voxel-based neuroimaging analysis. Clinical information, MR scans, and immunohistochemistry stains of 209 patients with glioblastomas were reviewed. All tumor lesions were segmented manually and subsequently registered to standard brain space. Voxel-based regression analysis was performed to correlate the brain regions of tumor involvement with the level of VEGF expression. Brain regions identified as significantly associated with high or low VEGF expression were preserved following permutation correction. High VEGF expression was detected in 123 (58.9 %) of the 209 patients. Voxel-based statistical analysis demonstrated that high VEGF expression was more likely in tumors located in the left frontal lobe and the right caudate and low VEGF expression was more likely in tumors that occurred in the posterior region of the right lateral ventricle. Voxel-based neuroimaging analysis revealed the anatomic specificity of VEGF expression in glioblastoma, which may further our understanding of genetic heterogeneity during tumor origination. This finding provides primary theoretical support for potential future application of customized antiangiogenic therapy. (orig.)

  13. Postnatal Changes in Humerus Cortical Bone Thickness Reflect the Development of Metabolic Bone Disease in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuko Tokuriki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To use cortical bone thickness (CBT of the humerus to identify risk factors for the development of metabolic bone disease in preterm infants. Methods. Twenty-seven infants born at <32 weeks of gestational age, with a birth weight of <1,500 g, were enrolled. Humeral CBT was measured from chest radiographs at birth and at 27-28, 31-32, and 36–44 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA. The risk factors for the development of osteomalacia were statistically analyzed. Results. The humeral CBT at 36–44 weeks of PMA was positively correlated with gestational age and birth weight and negatively correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation. CBT increased with PMA, except in six very early preterm infants in whom it decreased. Based on logistic regression analysis, gestational age and duration of mechanical ventilation were identified as risk factors for cortical bone thinning. Conclusions. Humeral CBT may serve as a radiologic marker of metabolic bone disease at 36–44 weeks of PMA in preterm infants. Cortical bones of extremely preterm infants are fragile, even when age is corrected for term, and require extreme care to lower the risk of fractures.

  14. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature.

  15. Mapping cortical thickness of the patients with unilateral end-stage open angle glaucoma on planar cerebral cortex maps.

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    Piotr Bogorodzki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To estimate and compare cerebral cortex thickness in patients with unilateral end-stage glaucoma with that of age-matched individuals with unaffected vision. METHODS: 14 patients with unilateral end-stage primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and 12 age-matched control individuals with no problems with vision were selected for the study based on detailed ophthalmic examination. For each participant 3D high-resolution structural brain T1-weighted magnetization prepared MR images were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner. Brain cortex thickness was estimated using the FreeSurfer image analysis environment. After warping of subjects' cortical surfaces to FreeSurfer common space, differences between POAG and control groups were inferred at the group analysis level with the General Linear Model. RESULTS: The analysis performed revealed local thinning in the visual cortex areas in the POAG group. Statistically significant differences form 600 mm2 clusters located in the Brodmann area BA19 in the left and right hemisphere. CONCLUSION: Unilateral vision loss due to end-stage neuropathy from POAG is associated with significant thinning of cortical areas employed in vision.

  16. Longitudinal development of frontoparietal activity during feedback learning: Contributions of age, performance, working memory and cortical thickness

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    Sabine Peters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Feedback learning is a crucial skill for cognitive flexibility that continues to develop into adolescence, and is linked to neural activity within a frontoparietal network. Although it is well conceptualized that activity in the frontoparietal network changes during development, there is surprisingly little consensus about the direction of change. Using a longitudinal design (N = 208, 8–27 years, two measurements in two years, we investigated developmental trajectories in frontoparietal activity during feedback learning. Our first aim was to test for linear and nonlinear developmental trajectories in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, superior parietal cortex (SPC, supplementary motor area (SMA and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Second, we tested which factors (task performance, working memory, cortical thickness explained additional variance in time-related changes in activity besides age. Developmental patterns for activity in DLPFC and SPC were best characterized by a quadratic age function leveling off/peaking in late adolescence. There was a linear increase in SMA and a linear decrease with age in ACC activity. In addition to age, task performance explained variance in DLPFC and SPC activity, whereas cortical thickness explained variance in SMA activity. Together, these findings provide a novel perspective of linear and nonlinear developmental changes in the frontoparietal network during feedback learning.

  17. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An; Sang Hee Im

    2010-01-01

    Background Permanent vegetative state is defined as the impaired level of consciousness longer than 12 months after traumatic causes and 3 months after non-traumatic causes of brain injury. Although many studies assessed the cerebral metabolism in patients with acute and persistent vegetative state after brain injury, few studies investigated the cerebral metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state. In this study, we performed the voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism and investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of impaired consciousness in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury.Methods We compared the regional cerebral glucose metabolism as demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography from 12 patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury with those from 12 control subjects. Additionally, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions where decreased changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism significantly correlated with a decrease of level of consciousness measured by JFK-coma recovery scare. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results Compared with controls, patients with permanent vegetative state demonstrated decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left precuneus, both posterior cingulate cortices, the left superior parietal lobule (Pcorrected <0.001), and increased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both cerebellum and the right supramarginal cortices (Pcorrected <0.001). In the covariance analysis, a decrease in the level of consciousness was significantly correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both posterior cingulate cortices (Puncorrected <0.005).Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posteromedial parietal cortex, which are part of neural network for consciousness, may be relevant structure for pathophysiological mechanism

  18. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  19. Cortical thickness and semantic fluency in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Eastman, Jennifer A.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Lazaris, Andreas; Chow, Nicole; Ramirez, Leslie; Babakchanian, Sona; Woo, Ellen; Thompson, Paul M; Apostolova, Liana G

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is declarative memory loss, but deficits in semantic fluency are also observed. We assessed how semantic fluency relates to cortical atrophy to identify specific regions that play a role in the loss of access to semantic information. Whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were analyzed from 9 Normal Control (NC)(M=76.7, SD=5.6), 40 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (M=74.4, SD=8.6), and 10 probable AD (M=72.4, SD=8.0) subjects from ...

  20. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-07

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  1. Visceral sensitivity correlates with decreased regional gray matter volume in healthy volunteers: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schmid, Julia; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Kattoor, Joswin; Theysohn, Nina; Forsting, Michael; Kotsis, Vassilios

    2014-02-01

    Regional changes in brain structure have been reported in patients with altered visceral sensitivity and chronic abdominal pain, such as in irritable bowel syndrome. It remains unknown whether structural brain changes are associated with visceral sensitivity. Therefore, we present the first study in healthy individuals to address whether interindividual variations in gray matter volume (GMV) in pain-relevant regions correlate with visceral sensitivity. In 92 healthy young adults (52 female), we assessed rectal sensory and pain thresholds and performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to compute linear regression models with visceral sensory and pain thresholds, respectively, as independent variable and GMV in a priori-defined regions of interest (ROIs) as dependent variable. All results were familywise error (FWE) corrected at a level of PFWEpain, without evidence of sex differences. Lower rectal sensory threshold (ie, increased sensitivity) correlated significantly with reduced GMV in the thalamus, insula, posterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortices, amygdala, and basal ganglia (all PFWEpain threshold was associated with reduced GMV in the right thalamus (PFWE=.051). These are the first data supporting that increased visceral sensitivity correlates with decreased gray matter volume in pain-relevant brain regions. These findings support that alterations in brain morphology not only occur in clinical pain conditions but also occur according to normal interindividual variations in visceral sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortical thickness predicts shared individual differences in self-generated thought and temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Smallwood, Jonathan; Tusche, Anita; Ruby, Florence J M; Engen, Haakon G; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Singer, Tania

    2014-04-15

    When deprived of compelling perceptual input, the mind is often occupied with thoughts unrelated to the immediate environment. Previous behavioral research has shown that this self-generated task-unrelated thought (TUT), especially under non-demanding conditions, relates to cognitive capacities such as creativity, planning, and reduced temporal discounting. Despite the frequency and importance of this type of cognition, little is known about its structural brain basis. Using MRI-based cortical thickness measures in 37 participants, we were able to show that individuals with a higher tendency to engage in TUT under low-demanding conditions (but not under high-demanding conditions) show an increased thickness of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior/midcingulate cortex. Thickness of these regions also related to less temporal discounting (TD) of monetary rewards in an economic task, indicative of more patient decision-making. The findings of a shared structural substrate in mPFC and anterior/midcingulate cortex underlying both TUT and TD suggest an important role of these brain regions in supporting the self-generation of information that is unrelated to the immediate environment and which may be adaptive in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Micromechanical analysis of nanocomposites using 3D voxel based material model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2012-01-01

    A computational study on the effect of nanocomposite structures on the elastic properties is carried out with the use of the 3D voxel based model of materials and the combined Voigt–Reuss method. A hierarchical voxel based model of a material reinforced by an array of exfoliated and intercalated...... nanoclay platelets surrounded by interphase layers is developed. With this model, the elastic properties of the interphase layer are estimated using the inverse analysis. The effects of aspect ratio, intercalation and orientation of nanoparticles on the elastic properties of the nanocomposites are analyzed....... For modeling the damage in nanocomposites with intercalated structures, “four phase” model is suggested, in which the strength of “intrastack interphase” is lower than that of “outer” interphase around the nanoplatelets. Analyzing the effect of nanoreinforcement in the matrix on the failure probability...

  4. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  5. Postprocessing of Voxel-Based Topologies for Additive Manufacturing Using the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library (CGAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    surfaces such as Catmull-Clark or Doo-Sabin. 2.1 Topology Optimization Topology optimization applied to structural problems using a voxel/pixel geometry...O. Topology optimization: Theory, methods and appli - cations. Springer; 2003. (Engineering Online Library). 2. Brackett D, Ashcroft I, Hague R. 22nd...ARL-MR-0892• JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Postprocessing of Voxel-Based Topologies forAdditive Manufacturing Using the Compu-tational

  6. Automated volumetry and regional thickness analysis of hippocampal subfields and medial temporal cortical structures in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A; Pluta, John B; Wang, Hongzhi; Xie, Long; Ding, Song-Lin; Gertje, Eske C; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Daria; Das, Sandhitsu R; Wolk, David A

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate a fully automatic technique for labeling hippocampal subfields and cortical subregions in the medial temporal lobe in in vivo 3 Tesla MRI. The method performs segmentation on a T2-weighted MRI scan with 0.4 × 0.4 × 2.0 mm(3) resolution, partial brain coverage, and oblique orientation. Hippocampal subfields, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are labeled using a pipeline that combines multi-atlas label fusion and learning-based error correction. In contrast to earlier work on automatic subfield segmentation in T2-weighted MRI [Yushkevich et al., 2010], our approach requires no manual initialization, labels hippocampal subfields over a greater anterior-posterior extent, and labels the perirhinal cortex, which is further subdivided into Brodmann areas 35 and 36. The accuracy of the automatic segmentation relative to manual segmentation is measured using cross-validation in 29 subjects from a study of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and is highest for the dentate gyrus (Dice coefficient is 0.823), CA1 (0.803), perirhinal cortex (0.797), and entorhinal cortex (0.786) labels. A larger cohort of 83 subjects is used to examine the effects of aMCI in the hippocampal region using both subfield volume and regional subfield thickness maps. Most significant differences between aMCI and healthy aging are observed bilaterally in the CA1 subfield and in the left Brodmann area 35. Thickness analysis results are consistent with volumetry, but provide additional regional specificity and suggest nonuniformity in the effects of aMCI on hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Auras and clinical features in temporal lobe epilepsy: a new approach on the basis of voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Teresa Castilho Garcia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; da Silva, Henrique Hattori; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2010-05-01

    MRI investigations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) have demonstrated structural abnormalities extending beyond ipsilateral hippocampus which may be studied through voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We investigated brain morphology related to clinical features in patients with refractory TLE with MTS using VBM. One hundred patients with unilateral TLE with MTS (59 left) and 30 controls were enrolled. VBM5 was employed to analyze (1) hemispheric damage, (2) influence of initial precipitating injury (IPI): 23 patients with febrile seizures and 19 with status epilepticus, and (3) types of auras classified as: mesial, including psychic auras (19 patients); anterior mesio-lateral, as autonomic symptoms, specially epigastric auras (27 patients) and neocortical, which included auditory, vertiginous, somatosensory and visual auras (16 patients). (1) Left TLE patients presented more widespread gray matter volume (GMV) reductions affecting ipsilateral hippocampus, temporal neocortex, insula and also left uncus, precentral gyrus, thalamus, parietal lobule, cuneus and bilateral cingulum. (2) Febrile seizures group presented ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus, neocortical temporal, frontal and occipital cortices, insula and cingulum. Status epilepticus group presented more widespread GMV reductions involving temporal and extratemporal lobes. (3) Patients with mesial auras showed significant ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus and amygdala, particularly right TLE group, who presented greater extension of GMV reduction in the entorhinal cortex. Significant reductions in hippocampus, amygdala and insula were seen in patients with anterior mesio-lateral auras. This study evaluated a large number of TLE-MTS patients showing structural damage extending beyond hippocampus, and different types of IPI associated with the extension of brain damage. Subtypes of auras are related to different clusters of areas of GMV reductions in

  8. Strategies for improving the Voxel-based statistical analysis for animal PET studies: assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Kang, Hye Jin; Im, Ki Chun; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Sang Moo; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In imaging studies of the human brain, voxel-based statistical analysis method was widely used, since these methods were originally developed for the analysis of the human brain data, they are not optimal for the animal brain data. The aim of this study is to optimize the procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of cat FDG PET brain images. A microPET Focus 120 scanner was used. Eight cats underwent FDG PET scans twice before and after inducing the deafness. Only the brain and adjacent regions were extracted from each data set by manual masking. Individual PET image at normal and deaf state was realigned to each other to remove the confounding effects by the different spatial normalization parameters on the results of statistical analyses. Distance between the sampling points on the reference image and kernel size of Gaussian filter applied to the images before estimating the realignment parameters were adjusted to 0.5 mm and 2 mm. Both data was then spatial normalized onto study-specific cat brain template. Spatially normalized PET data were smoothed and voxel-based paired t-test was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism decreased significantly after the loss of hearing capability in parietal lobes, postcentral gyri, STG, MTG, lTG, and IC at both hemisphere and left SC (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). Cerebral glucose metabolism in deaf cats was found to be significantly higher than in controls in the right cingulate (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). The ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same areas as in the SPM analysis, except for some regions (P < 0.05). Method for the voxel-based analysis of cat brain PET data was optimized for analysis of cat brain PET. This result was also confirmed by ROI analysis. The results obtained demonstrated the high localization accuracy and specificity of the developed method, and were found to be useful for examining cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  9. Evaluation of absorbed doses in voxel-based and simplified models for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Kinase, Sakae; Saito, Kimiaki

    2012-07-01

    Internal dosimetry in non-human biota is desirable from the viewpoint of radiation protection of the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) proposed Reference Animals and Plants using simplified models, such as ellipsoids and spheres and calculated absorbed fractions (AFs) for whole bodies. In this study, photon and electron AFs in whole bodies of voxel-based rat and frog models have been calculated and compared with AFs in the reference models. It was found that the voxel-based and the reference frog (or rat) models can be consistent for the whole-body AFs within a discrepancy of 25%, as the source was uniformly distributed in the whole body. The specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and S values were also evaluated in whole bodies and all organs of the voxel-based frog and rat models as the source was distributed in the whole body or skeleton. The results demonstrated that the whole-body SAFs reflect SAFs of all individual organs as the source was uniformly distributed per mass within the whole body by about 30% uncertainties with exceptions for body contour (up to -40%) for both electrons and photons due to enhanced radiation leakages, and for the skeleton for photons only (up to +185%) due to differences in the mass attenuation coefficients. For nuclides such as (90)Y and (90)Sr, which were concentrated in the skeleton, there were large differences between S values in the whole body and those in individual organs, however the whole-body S values for the reference models with the whole body as the source were remarkably similar to those for the voxel-based models with the skeleton as the source, within about 4 and 0.3%, respectively. It can be stated that whole-body SAFs or S values in simplified models without internal organs are not sufficient for accurate internal dosimetry because they do not reflect SAFs or S values of all individual organs as the source was not distributed uniformly in whole body. Thus, voxel-based models

  10. Task complexity and location specific changes of cortical thickness in executive and salience networks after working memory training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Foley, Sonya; Jones, Derek K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel activities and experiences shape the brain's structure and organisation and, hence, our behaviour. However, evidence from structural plasticity studies remains mixed and the neural correlates of learning and practice are still poorly understood. We conducted a robustly designed study into grey matter plasticity following 2 months of working memory training. We generated a priori hypotheses regarding the location of plastic effects across three cognitive control networks (executive, anterior salience and basal ganglia networks), and compared the effects of adaptive training (n = 20) with a well-matched active control group (n = 20) which differed in training complexity and included extensive cognitive assessment before and after the training. Adaptive training relative to control activities resulted in a complex pattern of subtle and localised structural changes: Training was associated with increases in cortical thickness in right-lateralised executive regions, notably the right caudal middle frontal cortex, as well as increases in the volume of the left pallidum. In addition the training group showed reductions of thickness in the right insula, which were correlated with training-induced improvements in backward digit span performance. Unexpectedly, control activities were associated with reductions in thickness in the right pars triangularis. These results suggest that the direction of activity-induced plastic changes depend on the level of training complexity as well as brain location. These observations are consistent with the view that the brain responds dynamically to environmental demands by focusing resources on task relevant networks and eliminating irrelevant processing for the purpose of energy reduction. PMID:26806288

  11. Synchronous changes of cortical thickness and corresponding white matter microstructure during brain development accessed by diffusion MRI tractography from parcellated cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eJeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical thickness (CT changes during normal brain development is associated with complicated cellular and molecular processes including synaptic pruning and apoptosis. In parallel, the microstructural enhancement of developmental white matter (WM axons with their neuronal bodies in the cerebral cortex has been widely reported with measurements of metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, especially fractional anisotropy (FA. We hypothesized that the changes of CT and microstructural enhancement of corresponding axons are highly interacted during development. DTI and T1-weighted images of 50 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 7 to 25 years were acquired. With the parcellated cortical gyri transformed from T1-weighted images to DTI space as the tractography seeds, probabilistic tracking was performed to delineate the WM fibers traced from specific parcellated cortical regions. CT was measured at certain cortical regions and FA was measured from the WM fibers traced from same cortical regions. The CT of all frontal cortical gyri, includeing Brodmann areas 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46 and 47, decreased significantly and heterogeneously; concurrently, significant and heterogeneous increases of FA of WM traced from corresponding regions were found. We further revealed significant correlation between the slopes of the CT decrease and the slopes of corresponding WM FA increase in all frontal cortical gyri, suggesting coherent cortical pruning and corresponding WM microstructural enhancement. Such correlation was not found in cortical regions other than frontal cortex. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these synchronous changes may be associated with overlapping signaling pathways of axonal guidance, synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and more prevalent interstitial neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Revealing the coherence of cortical and WM structural changes during development may open a new window for

  12. Patterns of Neuropsychological Profile and Cortical Thinning in Parkinson's Disease with Punding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo Yoo

    Full Text Available Punding, one of dopamine replacement treatment related complications, refers to aimless and stereotyped behaviors. To identify possible neural correlates of punding behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, we investigated the patterns of cognitive profiles and cortical thinning.Of the 186 subjects with PD screened during the study period, we prospectively enrolled 10 PD patients with punding and 43 without punding on the basis of a structured interview. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests and voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROIs-based cortical thickness analysis between PD patients with and without punding.The prevalence of punding in patients with PD was 5.4%. Punding behaviors were closely related to previous occupations or hobbies and showed a temporal relationship to changes of levodopa-equivalent dose (LED. Significant predisposing factors were a long duration of PD and intake of medications of PD, high total daily LED, dyskinesia, and impulse control disorder. Punding severity was correlated with LED (p = 0.029. The neurocognitive assessment revealed that PD patients with punding showed more severe cognitive deficits in the color Stroop task than did those without punding (p = 0.022. Voxel-based analysis showed that PD-punders had significant cortical thinning in the dorsolateral prefrontal area relative to controls. Additionally, ROI-based analysis revealed that cortical thinning in PD-punders relative to PD-nonpunders was localized in the prefrontal cortices, extending into orbitofrontal area.We demonstrated that PD patients with punding performed poorly on cognitive tasks in frontal executive functions and showed severe cortical thinning in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal areas. These findings suggest that prefrontal modulation may be an essential component in the development of punding behavior in patients with PD.

  13. Neuroanatomy of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia : A quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Costafreda, Sergi G.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre; Allen, Paul

    Introduction: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies demonstrate grey matter volume (GMV) deficits in schizophrenia. This method is also applied for detecting associations between specific psychotic symptoms and brain structure, such as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). However, due to differing

  14. Structural asymmetry of the human cerebral cortex: Regional and between-subject variability of surface area, cortical thickness, and local gyrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Christine; Vazquez, David; Felton, Adam; McDowell, Alessandra

    2016-12-01

    Structural asymmetry varies across individuals, brain regions, and metrics of cortical organization. The current study investigated regional differences in asymmetry of cortical surface area, thickness, and local gyrification, and the extent of between-subject variability in these metrics, in a sample of healthy young adults (N=200). Between-subject variability in cortical structure may provide a means to assess the extent of biological flexibility or constraint of brain regions, and we explored the potential influence of this variability on the phenotypic expression of structural asymmetry. The findings demonstrate that structural asymmetries are nearly ubiquitous across the cortex, with differing regional organization for the three cortical metrics. This implies that there are multiple, only partially overlapping, maps of structural asymmetry. The results further indicate that the degree of asymmetry of a brain region can be predicted by the extent of the region's between-subject variability. These findings provide evidence that reduced biological constraint promotes the expression of strong structural asymmetry.

  15. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  16. Voxel based statistical analysis method for microPET studies to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model: comparison to ROI based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Jung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging research on the brain of sensory-deprived cats using small animal PET scanner has gained interest since the abundant information about the sensory system of ths animal is available and close examination of the brain is possible due to larger size of its brain than mouse or rat. In this study, we have established the procedures for 3D voxel-based statistical analysis (SPM) of FDG PET image of cat brain, and confirmed using ROI based-method. FDG PET scans of 4 normal and 4 deaf cats were acquired for 30 minutes using microPET R4 scanner. Only the brain cortices were extracted using a masking and threshold method to facilitate spatial normalization. After spatial normalization and smoothing, 3D voxel-wise and ROI based t-test were performed to identify the regions with significant different FDG uptake between the normal and deaf cats. In ROI analysis, 26 ROIs were drawn on both hemispheres, and regional mean pixel value in each ROI was normalized to the global mean of the brain. Cat brains were spatially normalized well onto the target brain due to the removal of background activity. When cerebral glucose metabolism of deaf cats were compared to the normal controls after removing the effects of the global count, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex, head of caudate nucleus, and thalamus in both hemispheres of the deaf cats was significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.01). No area showed a significantly increased metabolism in the deaf cats even in higher significance level (P<0.05). ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same region. This study established and confirmed a method for voxel-based analysis of animal PET data of cat brain, which showed high localization accuracy and specificity and was useful for examining the cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  17. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  18. Differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using structural MRI cortical thickness, hippocampal shape, hippocampal texture, and volumetry

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    Lauge Sørensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brain T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI biomarker that combines several individual MRI biomarkers (cortical thickness measurements, volumetric measurements, hippocampal shape, and hippocampal texture. The method was developed, trained, and evaluated using two publicly available reference datasets: a standardized dataset from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI and the imaging arm of the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle flagship study of ageing (AIBL. In addition, the method was evaluated by participation in the Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Dementia (CADDementia challenge. Cross-validation using ADNI and AIBL data resulted in a multi-class classification accuracy of 62.7% for the discrimination of healthy normal controls (NC, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. This performance generalized to the CADDementia challenge where the method, trained using the ADNI and AIBL data, achieved a classification accuracy 63.0%. The obtained classification accuracy resulted in a first place in the challenge, and the method was significantly better (McNemar's test than the bottom 24 methods out of the total of 29 methods contributed by 15 different teams in the challenge. The method was further investigated with learning curve and feature selection experiments using ADNI and AIBL data. The learning curve experiments suggested that neither more training data nor a more complex classifier would have improved the obtained results. The feature selection experiment showed that both common and uncommon individual MRI biomarkers contributed to the performance; hippocampal volume, ventricular volume, hippocampal texture, and parietal lobe thickness were the most important. This study highlights the need for both subtle, localized measurements and global measurements in order to discriminate NC, MCI, and AD simultaneously based on a single

  19. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Brain Volumes Changes of Postmenopausal Women Revealed by Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Morphometry.

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    Tianhao Zhang

    Full Text Available The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI provides an opportunity to evaluate how menopausal hormone therapy (HT affects the structure of older women's brains. Our earlier work based on region of interest (ROI analysis demonstrated potential structural changes underlying adverse effects of HT on cognition. However, the ROI-based analysis is limited in statistical power and precision, and cannot provide fine-grained mapping of whole-brain changes.We aimed to identify local structural differences between HT and placebo groups from WHIMS-MRI in a whole-brain refined level, by using a novel method, named Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA. ODVBA is a recently proposed imaging pattern analysis approach for group comparisons utilizing a spatially adaptive analysis scheme to accurately locate areas of group differences, thereby providing superior sensitivity and specificity to detect the structural brain changes over conventional methods.Women assigned to HT treatments had significant Gray Matter (GM losses compared to the placebo groups in the anterior cingulate and the adjacent medial frontal gyrus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which persisted after multiple comparison corrections. There were no regions where HT was significantly associated with larger volumes compared to placebo, although a trend of marginal significance was found in the posterior cingulate cortical area. The CEE-Alone and CEE+MPA groups, although compared with different placebo controls, demonstrated similar effects according to the spatial patterns of structural changes.HT had adverse effects on GM volumes and risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. These findings advanced our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of HT effects.

  20. Late-life obesity is associated with smaller global and regional gray matter volumes: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Brooks, S J; Benedict, C; Burgos, J; Kempton, M J; Kullberg, J; Nordenskjöld, R; Kilander, L; Nylander, R; Larsson, E-M; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Lind, L; Schiöth, H B

    2013-02-01

    Obesity adversely affects frontal lobe brain structure and function. Here we sought to show that people who are obese versus those who are of normal weight over a 5-year period have differential global and regional brain volumes. Using voxel-based morphometry, contrasts were done between those who were recorded as being either obese or of normal weight over two time points in the 5 years prior to the brain scan. In a post-hoc preliminary analysis, we compared scores for obese and normal weight people who completed the trail-making task. A total of 292 subjects were examined following exclusions (for example, owing to dementia, stroke and cortical infarcts) from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort with a body mass index of normal weight (obese (30 kg m(-2)). People who were obese had significantly smaller total brain volumes and specifically, significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) (with no difference in white matter or cerebrospinal fluid). Initial exploratory whole brain uncorrected analysis revealed that people who were obese had significantly smaller GMV in the bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left inferior frontal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus. Secondary more stringent corrected analyses revealed a surviving cluster of GMV difference in the left DLPFC. Finally, post-hoc contrasts of scores on the trail-making task, which is linked to DLPFC function, revealed that obese people were significantly slower than those of normal weight. These findings suggest that in comparison with normal weight, people who are obese have smaller GMV, particularly in the left DLPFC. Our results may provide evidence for a potential working memory mechanism for the cognitive suppression of appetite that may lower the risk of developing obesity in later life.

  1. Voxel-based morphometry and automated lobar volumetry: the trade-off between spatial scale and statistical correction.

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    Voormolen, Eduard H J; Wei, Corie; Chow, Eva W C; Bassett, Anne S; Mikulis, David J; Crawley, Adrian P

    2010-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and automated lobar region of interest (ROI) volumetry are comprehensive and fast methods to detect differences in overall brain anatomy on magnetic resonance images. However, VBM and automated lobar ROI volumetry have detected dissimilar gray matter differences within identical image sets in our own experience and in previous reports. To gain more insight into how diverging results arise and to attempt to establish whether one method is superior to the other, we investigated how differences in spatial scale and in the need to statistically correct for multiple spatial comparisons influence the relative sensitivity of either technique to group differences in gray matter volumes. We assessed the performance of both techniques on a small dataset containing simulated gray matter deficits and additionally on a dataset of 22q11-deletion syndrome patients with schizophrenia (22q11DS-SZ) vs. matched controls. VBM was more sensitive to simulated focal deficits compared to automated ROI volumetry, and could detect global cortical deficits equally well. Moreover, theoretical calculations of VBM and ROI detection sensitivities to focal deficits showed that at increasing ROI size, ROI volumetry suffers more from loss in sensitivity than VBM. Furthermore, VBM and automated ROI found corresponding GM deficits in 22q11DS-SZ patients, except in the parietal lobe. Here, automated lobar ROI volumetry found a significant deficit only after a smaller sub-region of interest was employed. Thus, sensitivity to focal differences is impaired relatively more by averaging over larger volumes in automated ROI methods than by the correction for multiple comparisons in VBM. These findings indicate that VBM is to be preferred over automated lobar-scale ROI volumetry for assessing gray matter volume differences between groups.

  2. A Voxel-based Method for Forest Change Detection after Fire Using LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A Voxel-based Method for Forest Change Detection after Fire Using LiDAR DataZewei Xu and Jonathan A. Greenberg Traditional methods of forest fire modeling focus on the patterns of burning in two-dimensions at relatively coarse resolutions. However, fires spread in complex, three-dimensional patterns related to the horizontal and vertical distributions of woody fuel as well as the prevailing climate conditions, and the micro-scale patterns of fuel distributions over scales of only meters can determine the path that fire can take through a complex landscape. One challenge in understanding the full three-dimensional (3D) path that a fire takes through a landscape is a lack of data at landscape scales of these burns. Remote sensing approaches, while operating at landscape scales, typically focus on two-dimensional analyses using standard image-based change detection techniques. In this research, we develop a 3D voxel-based change detection method applied to multitemporal LiDAR data collected before and after forest fires in California to quantify the full 3D pattern of vegetation loss. By changing the size of the voxel, forest loss at different spatial scales is revealed. The 3D tunnel of fuel loss created by the fire was used to examine ground-to-crown transitions, firebreaks, and other three-dimensional aspects of a forest fire.

  3. Voxel-based MRI intensitometry reveals extent of cerebral white matter pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Viktor Hartung

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging have shown great potential in capturing a common white matter pathology. However the sensitivity is variable and diffusion tensor imaging is not yet applicable to the routine clinical environment. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM has revealed grey matter changes in ALS, but the bias-reducing algorithms inherent to traditional VBM are not optimized for the assessment of the white matter changes. We have developed a novel approach to white matter analysis, namely voxel-based intensitometry (VBI. High resolution T1-weighted MRI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla in 30 ALS patients and 37 age-matched healthy controls. VBI analysis at the group level revealed widespread white matter intensity increases in the corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, sub-central, frontal and occipital white matter tracts and cerebellum. VBI results correlated with disease severity (ALSFRS-R and patterns of cerebral involvement differed between bulbar- and limb-onset. VBI would be easily translatable to the routine clinical environment, and once optimized for individual analysis offers significant biomarker potential in ALS.

  4. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

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    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  5. Distribution of bone density and cortical thickness in the proximal femur and their association with hip fracture in postmenopausal women: a quantitative computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Udall, W J M; McCloskey, E V; Eastell, R

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans in an individually matched case-control study of women with hip fracture were analysed. There were widespread deficits in the femoral volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical thickness of cases, and cortical vBMD and thickness discriminated hip fracture independently of BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Acknowledging the limitations of QCT associated with partial volume effects, we used QCT in an individually matched case-control study of women with hip fracture to better understand its structural basis. Fifty postmenopausal women (55-89 years) who had sustained hip fractures due to low-energy trauma underwent QCT scans of the contralateral hip within 3 months of the fracture. For each case, postmenopausal women, matched by age (±5 years), weight (±5 kg) and height (±5 cm), were recruited as controls. We quantified cortical, trabecular and integral vBMD and apparent cortical thickness (AppCtTh) in four quadrants of cross-sections along the length of the femoral head (FH), femoral neck (FN), intertrochanter and trochanter and examined their association with hip fracture. Women with hip or intracapsular (IC) fracture had significantly (p hip and IC fractures independent of hip areal BMD (aBMD). The combination of AppCtTh and trabecular or integral vBMD discriminated hip fracture, whereas the combination of FH and FN AppCtTh discriminated IC fracture significantly (p hip aBMD. Deficits in vBMD and AppCtTh in cases were widespread in the proximal femur, and cortical vBMD and AppCtTh discriminated hip fracture independently of aBMD by DXA.

  6. Altered Cortical Thickness and Tract Integrity of the Mirror Neuron System and Associated Social Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies using neural activity recording and neuroimaging techniques have reported functional deficits in the mirror neuron system (MNS) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a few studies focusing on gray and white matter structures of the MNS have yielded inconsistent results. The current study recruited adolescents and young adults with ASD (aged 15-26 years) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 14-25 years). The cortical thickness (CT) and microstructural integrity of the tracts connecting the regions forming the classical MNS were investigated. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging were performed to quantify the CT and tract integrity, respectively. The structural covariance of the CT of the MNS regions revealed a weaker coordination of the MNS network in ASD. A strong correlation was found between the integrity of the right frontoparietal tracts and the social communication subscores measured by the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The results showed that there were no significant mean differences in the CTs and tract integrity between the ASD and TD groups, but revealed a moderate or even reverse age effect on the frontal MNS structures in ASD. In conclusion, aberrant structural coordination may be an underlying factor affecting the function of the MNS in ASD patients. The association between the right frontoparietal tracts and social communication performance implies a neural correlate of communication processing in the autistic brain. This study provides evidence of abnormal MNS structures and their influence on social communication in individuals with ASD.

  7. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with class I and class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

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    Khumsarn, Nattida [Dental Division of Lamphun Hospital, Lamphun (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-06-15

    This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns.

  8. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  9. The structure of the amygdala associates with human sexual permissiveness: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-02-01

    Sexual behavior is a critical function of human procreation. Despite previous studies that investigated the neural mechanisms of basic human physiological sexual functions, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in human sexual permissiveness remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry and a questionnaire (scale for sexual attitudes) to measure sexual permissiveness to investigate the gray matter and white matter structural correlates of sexual permissiveness. Sexual permissiveness was negatively correlated with regional gray matter density of the structures involving the right amygdala and surrounding areas, and positively correlated with regional white matter density of the white matter area that spread around the left amygdala to the hypothalamus area. There were no gender-specific relationships in the neural correlates of our findings. These findings suggest that structural variations in regions that play key roles in the basic physiological aspects of human sexuality underlie individual complex sexual attitudes in social life. © 2014 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Principles of voxel-based morphometry and availability of integrated software BAAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    BAAD is integrated software for investigation of brain morphological change using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The basic part of the software is voxel-based morphometry (VBM) that has been developed by Drs. Ashburner and Friston. Pathological changes with neuronal loss results in brain atrophy, which can be detected by MRI. VBM provides an automated and unbiased assessment of such morphometric change throughout the brain. Recently, VBM has been drastically improved by introducing the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) registration method that implements a high dimensional warping process. BAAD supports the full-length steps for VBM analysis and makes it easy for everyone. BAAD is a free software and works on 64bit Windows machine without MATLAB installation.

  11. Do manual and voxel-based morphometry measure the same? – A proof of concept study

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    Niels K. Focke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry (VBM is a commonly used method to study volumetric variations on a whole brain basis. However it is often criticised for potential confounds, mainly based on imperfect spatial registration. We therefore aimed to evaluate if VBM and gold-standard manual volumetry are measuring the same effects with respect to subcortical grey matter volumes. Manual regions-of-interest (ROIs were drawn in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, putamen, pallidum and caudate nucleus bilaterally. Resulting volumes were used for a whole brain VBM correlation analysis with SPM8. The hippocampus, amygdala, putamen and caudate nucleus were correctly identified by SPM using the contemporary high-dimensional normalization (DARTEL toolbox. This strongly suggests that VBM and manual volumetry both are indeed measuring the same effects with regard to subcortical brain structures.

  12. Brain structure in diving players on MR imaging studied with voxel-based morphometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxia Wei; Jing Luo; Youfa Li

    2009-01-01

    We adopted professional diving players as a typical subject pool to explore whether structural brain differences relative to motor skill acquisition exist between highly skilled athletes and non-athletes. Based on the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) technique, structural MRIs of the brains of 12 elite diving players with professional training were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects with-out any professional physical training. Diving players showed significantly increased gray matter density in the thalamus and left pre-central gyrus than control subjects. However, future researches are needed to prove the contribution of preposition and practice. It also suggests that athletes as the subject pool could form a new subject pool to explore plastic change induced by motor skill acquisition.

  13. Mechanisms underlying fatigue: a voxel-based morphometric study of chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Watanabe Yasuyoshi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a crucial sensation that triggers rest, yet its underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Intense long-term fatigue is a symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome, which is used as a model to study the mechanisms underlying fatigue. Methods Using magnetic resonance imaging, we conducted voxel-based morphometry of 16 patients and 49 age-matched healthy control subjects. Results We found that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome had reduced gray-matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Within these areas, the volume reduction in the right prefrontal cortex paralleled the severity of the fatigue of the subjects. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous reports of an abnormal distribution of acetyl-L-carnitine uptake, which is one of the biochemical markers of chronic fatigue syndrome, in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, the prefrontal cortex might be an important element of the neural system that regulates sensations of fatigue.

  14. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study

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    Zhou Yan, E-mail: clare1475@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lin Fuchun, E-mail: fclin@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Du Yasong, E-mail: yasongdu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Qin Lingdi, E-mail: flyingfool838@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhao Zhimin, E-mail: zmzsky@163.com [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu Jianrong, E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lei Hao, E-mail: leihao@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Background: This study aims to investigate brain gray matter density (GMD) changes in adolescents with Internet addiction (IA) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images. Methods: Eighteen IA adolescents and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls took part in this study. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on the two groups. VBM analysis was used to compare the GMD between the two groups. Results: Compared with healthy controls, IA adolescents had lower GMD in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and left lingual gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in IA adolescents, and this finding may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of IA.

  15. Brain Gray Matter Atrophy after Spinal Cord Injury: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

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    Nan Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore possible changes in whole brain gray matter volume (GMV after spinal cord injury (SCI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM, and to study their associations with the injury duration, severity, and clinical variables. In total, 21 patients with SCI (10 with complete and 11 with incomplete SCI and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs were recruited. The 3D high-resolution T1-weighted structural images of all subjects were obtained using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Disease duration and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA Scale scores were also obtained from each patient. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was carried out to investigate the differences in GMV between patients with SCI and HCs, and between the SCI sub-groups. Associations between GMV and clinical variables were also analyzed. Compared with HCs, patients with SCI showed significant GMV decrease in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral anterior insular cortex, bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC, and right superior temporal gyrus. No significant difference in GMV in these areas was found either between the complete and incomplete SCI sub-groups, or between the sub-acute (duration <1 year and chronic (duration >1 year sub-groups. Finally, the GMV of the right OFC was correlated with the clinical motor scores of left extremities in not only all SCI patients, but especially the CSCI subgroup. In the sub-acute subgroup, we found a significant positive correlation between the dACC GMV and the total clinical motor scores, and a significant negative correlation between right OFC GMV and the injury duration. These findings indicate that SCI can cause remote atrophy of brain gray matter, especially in the salient network. In general, the duration and severity of SCI may be not associated with the degree of brain atrophy in total SCI patients, but there may be associations between them in subgroups.

  16. Voxel-based analysis of grey and white matter degeneration in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabher, Patrick; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Trachsler, Aaron; Friedl, Susanne; David, Gergely; Sutter, Reto; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Thompson, Alan J; Curt, Armin; Freund, Patrick

    2016-04-20

    In this prospective study, we made an unbiased voxel-based analysis to investigate above-stenosis spinal degeneration and its relation to impairment in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Twenty patients and 18 controls were assessed with high-resolution MRI protocols above the level of stenosis. Cross-sectional areas of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and posterior columns (PC) were measured to determine atrophy. Diffusion indices assessed tract-specific integrity of PC and lateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Regression analysis was used to reveal relationships between MRI measures and clinical impairment. Patients showed mainly sensory impairment. Atrophy was prominent within the cervical WM (13.9%, p = 0.004), GM (7.2%, p = 0.043), and PC (16.1%, p = 0.005). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in the PC (-11.98%, p = 0.006) and lateral CST (-12.96%, p = 0.014). In addition, radial (+28.47%, p = 0.014), axial (+14.72%, p = 0.005), and mean (+16.50%, p = 0.001) diffusivities were increased in the PC. Light-touch score was associated with atrophy (R(2) = 0.3559, p = 0.020) and FA (z score 3.74, p = 0.003) in the PC, as was functional independence and FA in the lateral CST (z score 3.68, p = 0.020). This study demonstrates voxel-based degeneration far above the stenosis at a level not directly affected by the compression and provides unbiased readouts of tract-specific changes that relate to impairment.

  17. A voxel-based morphometry study of grey matter loss in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Javan, Alireza K; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Rivera, Susan M

    2011-03-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older male premutation carriers of the fragile X mental retardation gene. Although its core symptoms are mainly characterized by motor problems such as intention tremor and gait ataxia, cognitive decline and psychiatric problems are also commonly observed. Past radiological and histological approaches have focused on prominent neurodegenerative changes in specific brain structures including the cerebellum and limbic areas. However, quantitative investigations of the regional structural abnormalities have not been performed over the whole brain. In this study, we adopted the voxel-based morphometry method together with regions of interest analysis for the cerebellum to examine the pattern of regional grey matter change in the male premutation carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. In a comparison with healthy controls, we found striking grey matter loss of the patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome in multiple regions over the cortical and subcortical structures. In the cerebellum, the anterior lobe and the superior posterior lobe were profoundly reduced in both vermis and hemispheres. In the cerebral cortex, clusters of highly significant grey matter reduction were found in the extended areas in the medial surface of the brain, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. The other prominent grey matter loss was found in the lateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and insula. Although the voxel-wise comparison between the asymptomatic premutation group and healthy controls did not reach significant difference, a regions of interest analysis revealed significant grey matter reduction in anterior subregions of the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere in the asymptomatic premutation group. Correlation analyses using behavioural scales of the premutation groups showed

  18. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Scholte, H.S.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in

  19. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…

  20. The Neural Basis of Reversible Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the neural basis of reversible sentence comprehension in a large group of aphasic patients (n = 79). Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping revealed a significant association between damage in temporo-parietal cortex and impaired sentence comprehension. This association remained after we controlled for phonological working memory. We…

  1. A voxel-based multiscale model to simulate the radiation response of hypoxic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, I., E-mail: iespinoza@fis.puc.cl [Institute of Physics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile and Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Peschke, P. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Radiooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Karger, C. P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, it is important to predict the response of tumors to irradiation prior to the treatment. This is especially important for hypoxic tumors, which are known to be highly radioresistant. Mathematical modeling based on the dose distribution, biological parameters, and medical images may help to improve this prediction and to optimize the treatment plan. Methods: A voxel-based multiscale tumor response model for simulating the radiation response of hypoxic tumors was developed. It considers viable and dead tumor cells, capillary and normal cells, as well as the most relevant biological processes such as (i) proliferation of tumor cells, (ii) hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, (iii) spatial exchange of cells leading to tumor growth, (iv) oxygen-dependent cell survival after irradiation, (v) resorption of dead cells, and (vi) spatial exchange of cells leading to tumor shrinkage. Oxygenation is described on a microscopic scale using a previously published tumor oxygenation model, which calculates the oxygen distribution for each voxel using the vascular fraction as the most important input parameter. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the dependence of the oxygen distribution on tumor growth and radiation-induced shrinkage is investigated. In addition, the impact of three different reoxygenation processes is compared and tumor control probability (TCP) curves for a squamous cells carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSSC) are simulated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Results: The model describes the spatiotemporal behavior of the tumor on three different scales: (i) on the macroscopic scale, it describes tumor growth and shrinkage during radiation treatment, (ii) on a mesoscopic scale, it provides the cell density and vascular fraction for each voxel, and (iii) on the microscopic scale, the oxygen distribution may be obtained in terms of oxygen histograms. With increasing tumor size, the simulated tumors develop a hypoxic core. Within the

  2. Cortical thickness differences in the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with ADHD in relation to dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; de La Peña, Mar Jiménez; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Manuel Recio; López-Arribas, Sonia; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria

    2015-09-30

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) plays a crucial role in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Concretely, recent data indicate that the 10-repeat (10R) DAT1 allele may mediate neuropsychological functioning, response to methylphenidate, and even brain function and structure in children with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of 10R DAT1 on thickness of the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with ADHD. To this end, brain magnetic resonance images were acquired from 33 patients with homozygosity for the 10R allele and 30 patients with a single copy or no copy of the allele. The prefrontal cortex of each MRI scan was automatically parceled into regions of interest (ROIs) based on Brodmann areas (BA). The two groups were matched for age, gender, IQ, ADHD subtype, symptom severity, comorbidity and medication status. However, patients with two copies of the 10R allele exhibited significantly decreased cortical thickness in right BA 46 relative to patients with one or fewer copies of the allele. No other prefrontal ROI differed significantly between the two groups. Present findings suggest that cortical thickness of right lateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46) is influenced by the presence of the DAT1 10 repeat allele in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  3. The Neuroanatomical Basis of Panic Disorder and Social Phobia in Schizophrenia: A Voxel Based Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Marisol; Carmona, Susanna; Hoekzema, Elseline; Pailhez, Guillem; Bergé, Daniel; Mané, Anna; Fauquet, Jordi; Hilferty, Joseph; Moreno, Ana; Cortizo, Romina; Vilarroya, Oscar; Bulbena, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia. Methods Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects. Results Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV) decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions. PMID:25774979

  4. Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Joana F; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José M; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2013-09-01

    Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), a self-report measure of the Big Five personality traits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the correlation between brain structure and the personality traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. We found that Extraversion was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the middle frontal and orbitofrontal gyri while Agreeableness was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the inferior parietal, middle occipital and posterior cingulate gyri. No positive correlations were found. These results suggest that pro-social personality traits seem to be associated with decreases in grey matter density in more frontal regions for Extraversion, and more posterior regions for Agreeableness.

  5. Parallel Solutions for Voxel-Based Simulations of Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele D’Agostino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness of the pivotal role of noise in biochemical processes and of the effect of molecular crowding on the dynamics of biochemical systems. This necessity has given rise to a strong need for suitable and sophisticated algorithms for the simulation of biological phenomena taking into account both spatial effects and noise. However, the high computational effort characterizing simulation approaches, coupled with the necessity to simulate the models several times to achieve statistically relevant information on the model behaviours, makes such kind of algorithms very time-consuming for studying real systems. So far, different parallelization approaches have been deployed to reduce the computational time required to simulate the temporal dynamics of biochemical systems using stochastic algorithms. In this work we discuss these aspects for the spatial TAU-leaping in crowded compartments (STAUCC simulator, a voxel-based method for the stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion processes which relies on the Sτ-DPP algorithm. In particular we present how the characteristics of the algorithm can be exploited for an effective parallelization on the present heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  6. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional intelligence: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions and the ability to use the gathered information to guide one's thinking and action. EI is thought to be important for social life making it a popular subject of research. However, despite the existence of previous functional imaging studies on EI, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and EI has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a questionnaire (Emotional Intelligence Scale) to measure EI to identify the gray matter correlates of each factor of individual EI (Intrapersonal factor, Interpersonal factor, Situation Management factor). We found significant negative relationships between the Intrapersonal factor and regional gray matter density (rGMD) (1-a) in an anatomical cluster that included the right anterior insula, (1-b) in the right cerebellum, (1-c) in an anatomical cluster that extends from the cuneus to the precuneus, (1-d) and in an anatomical cluster that extends from the medial prefrontal cortex to the left lateral fronto-polar cortex. We also found significant positive correlations between the Interpersonal factor and rGMD in the right superior temporal sulcus, and significant negative correlations between the Situation Management factor and rGMD in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that each factor of EI in healthy young people is related to the specific brain regions known to be involved in the networks of social cognition and self-related recognition, and in the somatic marker circuitry.

  7. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  8. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Li, Lin; Sun, Jie; Ma, Lin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P<0.05). This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A; Robertson, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  10. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Prehn

    Full Text Available Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema, whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2 which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  11. Parallel solutions for voxel-based simulations of reaction-diffusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Daniele; Pasquale, Giulia; Clematis, Andrea; Maj, Carlo; Mosca, Ettore; Milanesi, Luciano; Merelli, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the pivotal role of noise in biochemical processes and of the effect of molecular crowding on the dynamics of biochemical systems. This necessity has given rise to a strong need for suitable and sophisticated algorithms for the simulation of biological phenomena taking into account both spatial effects and noise. However, the high computational effort characterizing simulation approaches, coupled with the necessity to simulate the models several times to achieve statistically relevant information on the model behaviours, makes such kind of algorithms very time-consuming for studying real systems. So far, different parallelization approaches have been deployed to reduce the computational time required to simulate the temporal dynamics of biochemical systems using stochastic algorithms. In this work we discuss these aspects for the spatial TAU-leaping in crowded compartments (STAUCC) simulator, a voxel-based method for the stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion processes which relies on the Sτ-DPP algorithm. In particular we present how the characteristics of the algorithm can be exploited for an effective parallelization on the present heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  12. Neural correlates of transitive and intransitive action imitation: An investigation using voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonivento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reproduce visually presented actions has been studied through neuropsychological observations of patients with ideomotor apraxia. These studies include attempts to understand the neural basis of action reproduction based on lesion–symptom mapping in different patient groups. While there is a convergence of evidence that areas in the parietal and frontal lobes within the left hemisphere are involved in the imitation of a variety of actions, questions remain about whether the results generalize beyond the imitation of tool use and whether the presence of a strong grasp component of the action is critical. Here we used voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping to assess the neural substrates of imitating meaningful (familiar, MF and meaningless (unfamiliar, ML tool-related (transitive and non-tool related (intransitive actions. The analysis showed that the left parietal cortex was involved in the imitation of transitive gestures, regardless of whether they were meaningful or not. In addition there was poor reproduction of meaningless actions (both transitive and intransitive following damage of the right frontal cortex. These findings suggest a role of right frontal regions in processing of unfamiliar actions.

  13. Neural correlates of transitive and intransitive action imitation: an investigation using voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivento, Carolina; Rothstein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn; Chechlacz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reproduce visually presented actions has been studied through neuropsychological observations of patients with ideomotor apraxia. These studies include attempts to understand the neural basis of action reproduction based on lesion-symptom mapping in different patient groups. While there is a convergence of evidence that areas in the parietal and frontal lobes within the left hemisphere are involved in the imitation of a variety of actions, questions remain about whether the results generalize beyond the imitation of tool use and whether the presence of a strong grasp component of the action is critical. Here we used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to assess the neural substrates of imitating meaningful (familiar, MF) and meaningless (unfamiliar, ML) tool-related (transitive) and non-tool related (intransitive) actions. The analysis showed that the left parietal cortex was involved in the imitation of transitive gestures, regardless of whether they were meaningful or not. In addition there was poor reproduction of meaningless actions (both transitive and intransitive) following damage of the right frontal cortex. These findings suggest a role of right frontal regions in processing of unfamiliar actions.

  14. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients:a voxel-based morphometry study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wu; Lin Chen; Lin Bai; Juan Nie; San Zhang; Yan Xiong; Yu Bai; Can-xin Yin; Fan-rong Liang; Yu-mei Zhou; Fang Zeng; Zheng-jie Li; Lu Luo; Yong-xin Li; Wei Fan; Li-hua Qiu; Wei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed signiifcantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clin-ical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = –0.609,P = 0.047) and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deifciency scale (r = –0.737,P = 0.010). Our ifndings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  15. Parallel Solutions for Voxel-Based Simulations of Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Daniele; Pasquale, Giulia; Clematis, Andrea; Maj, Carlo; Mosca, Ettore; Milanesi, Luciano; Merelli, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the pivotal role of noise in biochemical processes and of the effect of molecular crowding on the dynamics of biochemical systems. This necessity has given rise to a strong need for suitable and sophisticated algorithms for the simulation of biological phenomena taking into account both spatial effects and noise. However, the high computational effort characterizing simulation approaches, coupled with the necessity to simulate the models several times to achieve statistically relevant information on the model behaviours, makes such kind of algorithms very time-consuming for studying real systems. So far, different parallelization approaches have been deployed to reduce the computational time required to simulate the temporal dynamics of biochemical systems using stochastic algorithms. In this work we discuss these aspects for the spatial TAU-leaping in crowded compartments (STAUCC) simulator, a voxel-based method for the stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion processes which relies on the Sτ-DPP algorithm. In particular we present how the characteristics of the algorithm can be exploited for an effective parallelization on the present heterogeneous HPC architectures. PMID:25045716

  16. The neuroanatomical basis of panic disorder and social phobia in schizophrenia: a voxel based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Picado

    Full Text Available It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia.Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects.Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group.Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  17. An automatic framework for quantitative validation of voxel based morphometry measures of anatomical brain asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Antonietta; Dinov, Ivo; Tohka, Jussi

    2014-10-15

    The study of anatomical brain asymmetries has been a topic of great interest in the neuroimaging community in the past decades. However, the accuracy of brain asymmetry measurements has been rarely investigated. In this study, we propose a fully automatic methodology for the quantitative validation of brain tissue asymmetries as measured by Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) from structural magnetic resonance (MR) images. Starting from a real MR image, the methodology generates simulated 3D MR images with a known and realistic pattern of inter-hemispheric asymmetry that models the left-occipital right-frontal petalia of a normal brain and the related rightward bending of the inter-hemispheric fissure. As an example, we generated a dataset of 64 simulated MR images and applied this dataset for the quantitative validation of optimized VBM measures of asymmetries in brain tissue composition. Our results suggested that VBM analysis strongly depended on the spatial normalization of the individual brain images, the selected template space, and the amount of spatial smoothing applied. The most accurate asymmetry detections were achieved by 9-degrees of freedom registration to the symmetrical template space with 4 to 8mm spatial smoothing.

  18. VIDA: a voxel-based dosimetry method for targeted radionuclide therapy using Geant4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Susan D; Dewaraja, Yuni K; Abramson, Richard G; Stabin, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    We have developed the Voxel-Based Internal Dosimetry Application (VIDA) to provide patient-specific dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport with the Geant4 toolkit. The code generates voxel-level dose rate maps using anatomical and physiological data taken from individual patients. Voxel level dose rate curves are then fit and integrated to yield a spatial map of radiation absorbed dose. In this article, we present validation studies using established dosimetry results, including self-dose factors (DFs) from the OLINDA/EXM program for uniform activity in unit density spheres and organ self- and cross-organ DFs in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) reference adult phantom. The comparison with reference data demonstrated agreement within 5% for self-DFs to spheres and reference phantom source organs for four common radionuclides used in targeted therapy ((131)I, (90)Y, (111)In, (177)Lu). Agreement within 9% was achieved for cross-organ DFs. We also present dose estimates to normal tissues and tumors from studies of two non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients treated by (131)I radioimmunotherapy, with comparison to results generated independently with another dosimetry code. A relative difference of 12% or less was found between methods for mean absorbed tumor doses accounting for tumor regression.

  19. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  20. The brain structure correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H; Song, Y; Xu, M; Wang, X; Li, X; Liu, J

    2014-07-11

    Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness by correlating the gray matter (GM) volume of each voxel across the whole brain with trait mindfulness measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a large sample of young adults (N=247). We found that individuals who were more mindful of the present had greater GM volume in the right hippocampus/amygdala and bilateral ACC, but less GM volume in bilateral PCC and the left orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with brain regions involved in executive attention, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing, through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects on psychological and physical well-being.

  1. Different brain structures associated with artistic and scientific creativity: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Cao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qunlin; Zhuang, Kaixiang; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects. The results showed that artistic creativity was significantly negatively associated with the regional GMV of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, scientific creativity was significantly positively correlated with the regional GMV of the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG). Overall, artistic creativity was associated with the salience network (SN), whereas scientific creativity was associated with the executive attention network and semantic processing. These results may provide an effective marker that can be used to predict and evaluate individuals’ creative performance in the fields of science and art. PMID:28220826

  2. Creativity and borderline personality disorder: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, Verena; Ille, Rottraut; Wabnegger, Albert; Schienle, Anne; Schöggl, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Fink, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history, various examples of eminent creative people suffering from mental disorders along with some empirical research reports strengthened the idea of a potential link between creativity and psychopathology. This study investigated different facets of psychometrically determined creativity in 20 females diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) relative to 19 healthy female controls. In addition, group differences in grey matter (GM) were examined. Behavioural findings revealed no significant differences between the BPD group and healthy controls with respect to verbal and figural-graphic creative task performance and creativity-related personality characteristics. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a distinct pattern of GM reductions in the BPD group (relative to controls) in a network of brain regions closely associated with various cognitive and emotional functions (including the bilateral orbital inferior frontal gyri and the left superior temporal gyrus), partly overlapping with creativity-related brain regions. Correlation analyses moreover revealed that in the BPD group GM reductions in the orbital parts of the inferior and middle frontal gyri were associated with lower levels of creativity. This study provides no indications in favour of the putative link between creativity and psychopathology, as sometimes reported in the literature.

  3. Dissociation of glutamate and cortical thickness is restricted to regions subserving trait but not state markers in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Meng; Metzger, Coraline D.; Li, Wenjing; Safron, Adam; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Lord, Anton; Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Dou, Weiqiang; Genz, Axel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; He, Huiguang; Walter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). So far, the effect of local cortical alteration on metabolites in multiple subdivisions of ACC has not been studied. We aimed to investigate structural and biochemical ch

  4. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  5. Structural and functional brain changes in early- and mid-stage primary open-angle glaucoma using voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jian; Huang, Xiang-He

    2017-03-01

    To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively.Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Structural and functional changes between the POAG and control groups were analyzed. An analysis was carried out to identify correlations between structural and functional changes acquired in the previous analysis and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL).Patients in the POAG group showed a significant (P < 0.001) volume increase in the midbrain, left brainstem, frontal gyrus, cerebellar vermis, left inferior parietal lobule, caudate nucleus, thalamus, precuneus, and Brodmann areas 7, 18, and 46. Moreover, significant (P < 0.001) BOLD signal changes were observed in the right supramarginal gyrus, frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left cuneus, and left midcingulate area; many of these regions had high correlations with the RNFL.Patients with POAG undergo widespread and complex changes in cortical brain structure and blood flow. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02570867).

  6. Linear and curvilinear correlations of brain gray matter volume and density with age using voxel-based morphometry with the Akaike information criterion in 291 healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-01

    We examined linear and curvilinear correlations of gray matter volume and density in cortical and subcortical gray matter with age using magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a large number of healthy children. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which was used to determine the best-fit model by selecting which predictor terms should be included. We collected data on brain structural MRI in 291 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Structural MRI data were segmented and normalized using a custom template by applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure. Next, we analyzed the correlations of gray matter volume and density with age in VBM with AIC by estimating linear, quadratic, and cubic polynomial functions. Several regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the precentral gyrus, and cerebellum showed significant linear or curvilinear correlations between gray matter volume and age on an increasing trajectory, and between gray matter density and age on a decreasing trajectory in VBM and ROI analyses with AIC. Because the trajectory of gray matter volume and density with age suggests the progress of brain maturation, our results may contribute to clarifying brain maturation in healthy children from the viewpoint of brain structure.

  7. Sensitivity study of voxel-based PET image comparison to image registration algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Stephen, E-mail: syip@lroc.harvard.edu; Chen, Aileen B.; Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aerts, Hugo J. W. L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Accurate deformable registration is essential for voxel-based comparison of sequential positron emission tomography (PET) images for proper adaptation of treatment plan and treatment response assessment. The comparison may be sensitive to the method of deformable registration as the optimal algorithm is unknown. This study investigated the impact of registration algorithm choice on therapy response evaluation. Methods: Sixteen patients with 20 lung tumors underwent a pre- and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) and 4D FDG-PET scans before and after chemoradiotherapy. All CT images were coregistered using a rigid and ten deformable registration algorithms. The resulting transformations were then applied to the respective PET images. Moreover, the tumor region defined by a physician on the registered PET images was classified into progressor, stable-disease, and responder subvolumes. Particularly, voxels with standardized uptake value (SUV) decreases >30% were classified as responder, while voxels with SUV increases >30% were progressor. All other voxels were considered stable-disease. The agreement of the subvolumes resulting from difference registration algorithms was assessed by Dice similarity index (DSI). Coefficient of variation (CV) was computed to assess variability of DSI between individual tumors. Root mean square difference (RMS{sub rigid}) of the rigidly registered CT images was used to measure the degree of tumor deformation. RMS{sub rigid} and DSI were correlated by Spearman correlation coefficient (R) to investigate the effect of tumor deformation on DSI. Results: Median DSI{sub rigid} was found to be 72%, 66%, and 80%, for progressor, stable-disease, and responder, respectively. Median DSI{sub deformable} was 63%–84%, 65%–81%, and 82%–89%. Variability of DSI was substantial and similar for both rigid and deformable algorithms with CV > 10% for all subvolumes. Tumor deformation had moderate to significant impact on DSI for progressor

  8. Voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy in post-stroke apathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-ran Yang

    Full Text Available To explore the structural basis of post-stroke apathy by using voxel-based analysis (VBA of fractional anisotropy (FA maps.We enrolled 54 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke during convalescence, and divided them into apathy (n = 31 and non-apathy (n = 23 groups. We obtained magnetic resonance images of their brains, including T1, T2 and DTI sequences. Age, sex, education level, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD scores, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores, and infarct locations for the two groups were compared. Finally, to investigate the structural basis of post-stroke apathy, VBA of FA maps was performed in which we included the variables that a univariate analysis determined had P-values less than 0.20 as covariates.HAMD (P = 0.01 and MMSE (P<0.01 scores differed significantly between the apathy and non-apathy groups. After controlling for age, education level, HAMD scores, and MMSE scores, significant FA reduction was detected in four clusters with peak voxels at the genu of the corpus callosum (X = -16, Y = 30, Z = 8, left anterior corona radiata (-22, 30, 10, splenium of the corpus callosum (-24, -56, 18, and right inferior frontal gyrus white matter (52, 24, 18, after family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons.Post-stroke apathy is related to depression and cognitive decline. Damage to the genu of the corpus callosum, left anterior corona radiata, splenium of the corpus callosum, and white matter in the right inferior frontal gyrus may lead to apathy after ischemic stroke.

  9. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand.

  10. A Voxel-Based Morphometric MRI Study in Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhu Jin

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has documented subtle changes in brain morphology and function in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, results of magnetic resonance imaging volumetry in patients with BPD are inconsistent. In addition, few researchers using voxel-based morphometry (VBM have focused on attachment and childhood trauma in BPD. This preliminary study was performed to investigate structural brain changes and their relationships to attachment and childhood trauma in a homogenous sample of young adults with BPD.We examined 34 young adults with BPD and 34 healthy controls (HCs to assess regionally specific differences in gray matter volume (GMV and gray matter concentration (GMC. Multiple regressions between brain volumes measured by VBM and attachment style questionnaire (ASQ and childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ scores were performed.Compared with HCs, subjects with BPD showed significant bilateral increases in GMV in the middle cingulate cortex (MCC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC/precuneus. GMC did not differ significantly between groups. In multiple regression models, ASQ insecure attachment scores were correlated negatively with GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus in HCs, HCs with more severe insecure attachment showed smaller volumes in precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus, whereas no negative correlations between insecure attachment and GMV in any region were found in BPD group. In addition, CTQ total scores were not correlated with GMV in any region in the two groups respectively.Our findings fit with those of previous reports of larger precuneus GMV in patients with BPD, and suggest that GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus is associated inversely with insecure attachment style in HCs. Our finding of increased GMV in the MCC and PCC in patients with BPD compared with HCs has not been reported in previous VBM studies.

  11. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  12. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  13. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  14. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise.

  15. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroanatomical phenotype of Klinefelter syndrome in childhood: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Daniel M; Hoeft, Fumiko; Lai, Song; Lackey, John; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith; Reiss, Allan L

    2011-05-04

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder characterized by a supernumerary X chromosome. As such, KS offers a naturally occurring human model for the study of both X-chromosome gene expression and androgen on brain development. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed neuroanatomical variations associated with KS, but have differed widely with respect to subject inclusion criteria, including mosaicism, pubertal status, and history of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), all factors likely to influence neurodevelopment. We conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of regional gray and white matter (GM and WM, respectively) volumes in 31 KS males (mean age, 9.69 ± 1.70 years) and 36 typically developing (TD) male controls (10.99 ± 1.72 years). None of the participants with KS had received TRT, and all were prepubertal and had nonmosaic 47,XXY karyotypes. After controlling for age, males with KS showed trends (0.05 < p < 0.10) for significantly reduced total gray matter volume (TGMV) and total white matter volume (TWMV), relative to TD males. After controlling for TGMV and age, the KS group had significantly increased sensorimotor and parietal-occipital GM and significantly reduced amygdalar, hippocampal, insular, temporal, and inferior frontal GM relative to TD controls. After controlling for TWMV and age, the KS group had significantly increased left parietal WM as well as significantly reduced frontal and temporal WM. These findings are indicative of a characteristic prepubertal neuroanatomical phenotype that may be associated with cognitive-behavioral features of KS. This work offers new insight into the relationships among X-chromosome gene expression, neuroanatomy, and cognitive-behavioral functions impaired in KS, including language and attention.

  17. Voxel Based Analysis of Surgical Revascularization for Moyamoya Disease: Pre- and Postoperative SPECT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Fushimi

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disease that causes abnormal enlargement of collateral pathways (moyamoya vessels in the region of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cerebral revascularization procedures remain the preferred treatment for patients with MMD, improving the compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF. However, voxel based analysis (VBA of revascularization surgery for MMD based on data from pre- and postoperative data has not been established. The latest algorithm called as Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL has been introduced for VBA as the function of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8, and improved registration has been achieved by SPM8 with DARTEL. In this study, VBA was conducted to evaluate pre- and postoperative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images for MMD by SPM8 with DARTEL algorithm, and the results were compared with those from SPM8 without DARTEL (a conventional method. Thirty-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA bypass surgery as the first surgery were included and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative 3D T1-weighted imaging and SPECT. Pre- and postoperative SPECT images were registered to 3D T1-weighted images, then VBA was conducted. Postoperative SPECT showed more statistically increased CBF areas in the bypassed side cerebral hemisphere by using SPM8 with DARTEL (58,989 voxels; P<0.001, and increased ratio of CBF after operation was less than 15%. Meanwhile, postoperative SPECT showed less CBF increased areas by SPM8 without DARTEL. In conclusion, VBA was conducted for patients with MMD, and SPM8 with DARTEL revealed that postoperative SPECT showed statistically significant CBF increases over a relatively large area and with at most 15% increase ratio.

  18. Voxel-Based Spatial Filtering Method for Canopy Height Retrieval from Airborne Single-Photon Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne single-photon lidar (SPL is a new technology that holds considerable potential for forest structure and carbon monitoring at large spatial scales because it acquires 3D measurements of vegetation faster and more efficiently than conventional lidar instruments. However, SPL instruments use green wavelength (532 nm lasers, which are sensitive to background solar noise, and therefore SPL point clouds require more elaborate noise filtering than other lidar instruments to determine canopy heights, particularly in daytime acquisitions. Histogram-based aggregation is a commonly used approach for removing noise from photon counting lidar data, but it reduces the resolution of the dataset. Here we present an alternate voxel-based spatial filtering method that filters noise points efficiently while largely preserving the spatial integrity of SPL data. We develop and test our algorithms on an experimental SPL dataset acquired over Garrett County in Maryland, USA. We then compare canopy attributes retrieved using our new algorithm with those obtained from the conventional histogram binning approach. Our results show that canopy heights derived using the new algorithm have a strong agreement with field-measured heights (r2 = 0.69, bias = 0.42 m, RMSE = 4.85 m and discrete return lidar heights (r2 = 0.94, bias = 1.07 m, RMSE = 2.42 m. Results are consistently better than height accuracies from the histogram method (field data: r2 = 0.59, bias = 0.00 m, RMSE = 6.25 m; DRL: r2 = 0.78, bias = −0.06 m and RMSE = 4.88 m. Furthermore, we find that the spatial-filtering method retains fine-scale canopy structure detail and has lower errors over steep slopes. We therefore believe that automated spatial filtering algorithms such as the one presented here can support large-scale, canopy structure mapping from airborne SPL data.

  19. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder A voxel-based morphometry analysis**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liwen Tan; Li Zhang; Rongfeng Qi; Guangming Lu; Lingjiang Li; Jun Liu; Weihui Li

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, us-ing the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, fol owed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occip-ital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  20. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  1. Evaluation of deep gray matter volume, cortical thickness and white matter integrity in patients with typical absence epilepsy: a study using voxelwise-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, D.G.; Ventura, N.; Tukamoto, G.; Gasparetto, E.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zimmermann, N. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Doring, T.M. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leme, J.; Pereira, M. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Andrea, I. d' ; Rego, C.; Alves-Leon, S.V. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cortical thickness and the volume of deep gray matter structures, measured from 3D T1-weighted gradient echo imaging, and white matter integrity, by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with typical absence epilepsy (AE). Patients (n = 19) with typical childhood AE and juvenile AE, currently taking antiepileptic medication, were compared with control subjects (n = 19), matched for gender and age. 3D T1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo-weighted imaging and DTI along 30 noncolinear directions were performed using a 1.5-T MR scanner. FreeSurfer was used to perform cortical volumetric reconstruction and segmentation of deep gray matter structures. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI, a white matter skeleton was created, along with a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations. A threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Patients with AE presented decreased FA and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in the genu and the body of the corpus callosum and right anterior corona radiata, as well as decreased axial diffusivity in the left posterior thalamic radiation, inferior cerebellar peduncle, right cerebral peduncle, and right corticospinal tract. However, there were no significant differences in cortical thickness or deep gray matter structure volumes between patients with AE and controls. Abnormalities found in white matter integrity may help to better understand the pathophysiology of AE and optimize diagnosis and treatment strategies. (orig.)

  2. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Kjer, Hans Martin; Van Leemput, Koen;

    2014-01-01

    , however, need to be assigned to the MRI images for dose calculation and patient setup based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Here, we investigate the geometric and dosimetric performance for a number of popular voxel-based methods to generate a so-called pseudo CT (pCT). Five patients...... receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation...... including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT...

  3. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Liu; Yinyan Wang; Kaibin Xu; Fan Ping; Renzhi Wang; Fang Li; Xin Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the...

  4. Assessment of quantitative cortical biomarkers in the developing brain of preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Pearlman, Paul C.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Leemans, Alexander; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2013-02-01

    The cerebral cortex rapidly develops its folding during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In preterm birth, this growth might be disrupted and influence neurodevelopment. The aim of this work is to extract quantitative biomarkers describing the cortex and evaluate them on a set of preterm infants without brain pathology. For this study, a set of 19 preterm - but otherwise healthy - infants scanned coronally with 3T MRI at the postmenstrual age of 30 weeks were selected. In ten patients (test set), the gray and white matter were manually annotated by an expert on the T2-weighted scans. Manual segmentations were used to extract cortical volume, surface area, thickness, and curvature using voxel-based methods. To compute these biomarkers per region in every patient, a template brain image has been generated by iterative registration and averaging of the scans of the remaining nine patients. This template has been manually divided in eight regions, and is transformed to every test image using elastic registration. In the results, gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface area appear symmetric between hemispheres, but small regional differences are visible. Cortical thickness seems slightly higher in the right parietal lobe than in other regions. The parietal lobes exhibit a higher global curvature, indicating more complex folding compared to other regions. The proposed approach can potentially - together with an automatic segmentation algorithm - be applied as a tool to assist in early diagnosis of abnormalities and prediction of the development of the cognitive abilities of these children.

  5. Multi-resolutional shape features via non-Euclidean wavelets: Applications to statistical analysis of cortical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Singh, Vikas; Chung, Moo K.; Hinrichs, Chris; Pachauri, Deepti; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis on arbitrary surface meshes such as the cortical surface is an important approach to understanding brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Surface analysis may be able to identify specific cortical patterns that relate to certain disease characteristics or exhibit differences between groups. Our goal in this paper is to make group analysis of signals on surfaces more sensitive. To do this, we derive multi-scale shape descriptors that characterize the signal around each mesh vertex, i.e., its local context, at varying levels of resolution. In order to define such a shape descriptor, we make use of recent results from harmonic analysis that extend traditional continuous wavelet theory from the Euclidean to a non-Euclidean setting (i.e., a graph, mesh or network). Using this descriptor, we conduct experiments on two different datasets, the Alzheimer’s Disease NeuroImaging Initiative (ADNI) data and images acquired at the Wisconsin Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (W-ADRC), focusing on individuals labeled as having Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. In particular, we contrast traditional univariate methods with our multi-resolution approach which show increased sensitivity and improved statistical power to detect a group-level effects. We also provide an open source implementation. PMID:24614060

  6. Voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study of patients with early onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Katsuaki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation into the whole brain morphology of early onset schizophrenia (EOS to date has been sparse. We studied the regional brain volumes in EOS patients, and the correlations between regional volume measures and symptom severity. Methods A total of 18 EOS patients (onset under 16 years and 18 controls matched for age, gender, parental socioeconomic status, and height were examined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis using the Brain Analysis Morphological Mapping (BAMM software package was employed to explore alterations of the regional grey (GM and white matter (WM volumes in EOS patients. Symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results EOS patients had significantly reduced GM volume in the left parahippocampal, inferior frontal, and superior temporal gyri, compared with the controls. They also had less WM volume in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The positive symptom score of PANSS (higher values corresponding to more severe symptoms was negatively related to GM volume in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus. The negative symptom score was positively correlated with GM volume in the right thalamus. As for the association with WM volume, the positive symptom score of PANSS was positively related to cerebellar WM (vermis region, and negatively correlated with WM in the brain stem (pons and in the bilateral cerebellum (hemisphere region. Conclusion Our findings of regional volume alterations of GM and WM in EOS patients coincide with those of previous studies of adult onset schizophrenia patients. However, in brain regions that had no overall structural differences between EOS patients and controls (that is, the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, the right thalamus, the cerebellum, and the pons, within-subject analysis of EOS patients alone revealed that there were significant associations of the volume in these areas

  7. Disparity between dorsal and ventral networks in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence revealed by graph theoretical analysis based on cortical thickness from MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most widely accepted neuroanatomical models on OCD, it has been hypothesized that imbalance between an excitatory direct (ventral pathway and an inhibitory indirect (dorsal pathway in cortico-striato-thalamic circuit underlies the emergence of OCD. Here we examine the structural network in drug-free patients with OCD in terms of graph theoretical measures for the first time. We used a measure called efficiency which quantifies how a node transfers information efficiently. To construct brain networks, cortical thickness was automatically estimated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the network of the OCD patients was as efficient as that of healthy controls so that the both networks were in the small-world regime. More importantly, however, disparity between the dorsal and the ventral networks in the OCD patients was found, suggesting a positive evidence to the imbalance theory on the underlying pathophysiology of OCD.

  8. Go/No Go task performance predicts cortical thickness in the caudal inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with and without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik; Jernigan, Terry L; Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Tapert, Susan F; Potkin, Steven G; Mathalon, Daniel; Molina, Brooke; Bjork, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Swanson, James; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Group, Mta Neuroimaging

    2016-09-01

    Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally.

  9. Structural differences in gray matter between glider pilots and non-pilots. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosif eAhamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full body rotations. In the present study we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction and oculomotor control.

  10. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Born, A Peter; Nagy, Zoltan;

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first......Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  11. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-09-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006).

  12. Relationship between Clinical Parameters and Brain Structure in Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients According to Onset Type: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Yeon-Ha; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing, phenotypically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly the motor neuron system. The present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study investigated whether patterns of brain atrophy differ among sporadic ALS subtypes. Material and methods Sporadic ALS patients (n = 62) with normal cognition and age-matched healthy controls (n = 57) were included in the study. ALS patients were divided into limb- and bulbar-onset groups according to clinical manifestations at symptom onset (n = 48 and 14, respectively). Clinical measures were ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score, disease duration, and forced vital capacity (FVC). Patterns of brain atrophy between ALS subgroups were compared by VBM. Results In limb-onset ALS patients, atrophy was largely confined to the motor cortex and adjacent pre- and postcentral regions. However, in the bulbar-onset group, affected regions were more widespread and included these same areas but also extended to the bilateral frontotemporal and left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, and multiple regression analysis revealed that their ALSFRS-R scores were associated with extensive loss of gray matter while FVC was related to atrophy in subcortical regions of the left superior temporal gyrus. In limb-onset ALS patients, disease duration was related to the degree of atrophy in the motor and adjacent areas. Conclusion Sporadic ALS subtypes show different patterns of brain atrophy. Neural networks related to limb and bulbar motor functions in each ALS subtype may underlie their distinct patterns of cerebral atrophy. That is, more extensive cortical and subcortical atrophy is correlated with greater ALSFRS-R severity and shorter disease duration in the bulbar-onset subtype and may explain the poor prognosis of these patients. PMID:28095425

  13. Cerebral morphology and dopamine D2/D3 receptor distribution in humans: a combined [18F]fallypride and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Zald, David H; Ding, Zhaohua; Riccardi, Patrizia; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Cowan, Ronald L; Li, Rui; Kessler, Robert M

    2009-05-15

    The relationship between cerebral morphology and the expression of dopamine receptors has not been extensively studied in humans. Elucidation of such relationships may have important methodological implications for clinical studies of dopamine receptor ligand binding differences between control and patient groups. The association between cerebral morphology and dopamine receptor distribution was examined in 45 healthy subjects who completed T1-weighted structural MRI and PET scanning with the D(2)/D(3) ligand [(18)F]fallypride. Optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to create grey matter volume and density images. Grey matter volume and density images were correlated with binding potential (BP(ND)) images on a voxel-by-voxel basis using the Biological Parametric Mapping toolbox. Associations between cerebral morphology and BP(ND) were also examined for selected regions-of-interest (ROIs) after spatial normalization. Voxel-wise analyses indicated that grey matter volume and density positively correlated with BP(ND) throughout the midbrain, including the substantia nigra. Positive correlations were observed in medial cortical areas, including anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and circumscribed regions of the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. ROI analyses revealed significant positive correlations between BP(ND) and cerebral morphology in the caudate, thalamus, and amygdala. Few negative correlations between morphology and BP(ND) were observed. Overall, grey matter density appeared more strongly correlated with BP(ND) than grey matter volume. Cerebral morphology, particularly grey matter density, correlates with [(18)F]fallypride BP(ND) in a regionally specific manner. Clinical studies comparing dopamine receptor availability between clinical and control groups may benefit by accounting for potential differences in cerebral morphology that exist even after spatial normalization.

  14. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  15. Brain and behaviour in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a volumetric and voxel-based morphometry MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda E; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G M; Murphy, Kieran C

    2006-05-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders in childhood, and schizophrenia in adolescence or adult life. However, the neurobiology of 22qDS, and the relationship between abnormalities in brain anatomy and behaviour, is poorly understood. Thus, we studied the neuroanatomy of 22qDS children using fully automated voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and manually traced single region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Also, we investigated whether those brain regions that differed significantly between groups were related to behavioural differences within children with 22qDS. We compared the brain morphometry of 39 children and adolescents with 22qDS (mean age: 11 years, SD +/-3, IQ = 67, SD +/-10) and 26 sibling controls (mean age: 11 years, SD +/-3, IQ = 102, SD +/-12). Using VBM, we found, after correction for IQ, that individuals with 22qDS compared with controls had a significant reduction in cerebellar grey matter, and white matter reductions in the frontal lobe, cerebellum and internal capsule. Using single ROI analysis, we found that people with 22qDS had a significant (P social behavioural difficulties and grey matter in frontostriatal regions. Thus, subjects with 22qDS have widespread changes in brain anatomy, particularly affecting white matter, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Also, within 22qDS, regionally specific differences in brain development may partially underpin behavioural differences. We suggest that there is preliminary evidence for specific vulnerability of the frontostriatal and cerebellar-cortical networks in 22qDS.

  16. Correlations between measures of executive attention and cortical thickness of left posterior middle frontal gyrus - a dichotic listening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundervold Arvid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frontal lobe has been associated to a wide range of cognitive control functions and is also vulnerable to degeneration in old age. A recent study by Thomsen and colleagues showed a difference between a young and old sample in grey matter density and activation in the left middle frontal cortex (MFC and performance on a dichotic listening task. The present study investigated this brain behaviour association within a sample of healthy older individuals, and predicted a positive correlation between performance in a condition requiring executive attention and measures of grey matter structure of the posterior left MFC. Methods A dichotic listening forced attention paradigm was used to measure attention control functions. Subjects were instructed to report only the left or the right ear syllable of a dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllable pair. A conflict situation appears when subjects are instructed to report the left ear stimulus, caused by the conflict with the bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Overcoming this processing conflict was used as a measure of executive attention. Thickness and volumes of frontal lobe regions were derived from automated segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance image acquisitions. Results The results revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between the thickness measure of the left posterior MFC and performance on the dichotic listening measures of executive attention. Follow-up analyses showed that this correlation was only statistically significant in the subgroup that showed the typical bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Conclusion The results suggest that the left MFC is a part of an executive attention network, and that the dichotic listening forced attention paradigm may be a feasible tool for assessing subtle attentional dysfunctions in older adults.

  17. Structural brain abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations: a comparative voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Romulo Lopes; Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; Távora, Daniel Gurgel Fernandes; Duran, Fábio L S; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The objective is to evaluate clinical characteristics and cerebral alterations in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with diurnal visual hallucinations (VHs). Assessment was performed using magnetic resonance image (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirty-nine patients with PD (53.8%) and ten controls were studied. Voxel based morphology analysis was performed. Eleven patients presented diurnal VHs and among these, six had cognitive dysfunction. Patients with VHs performed worse in the mentation-related UPDRS I (p=0.005) and motor-related UPDRS III (p=0.02). Patients with VHs showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume compared to controls in the left opercula frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. PD without hallucinations demonstrated reduced grey matter volume in the left superior frontal gyrus compared to controls. Comparisons between patients with VHs regarding the presence of cognitive dysfunction showed that cases with cognitive dysfunction as compared to those without cognitive dysfunction showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume in the left opercular frontal gyrus. Cases without cognitive dysfunction had reduced grey matter substance in the left insula and left trigonal frontal gyrus. Judging from our findings, an abnormal frontal cortex, particularly left sided insula, frontal opercular, trigonal frontal gyrus and orbital frontal would make PD patients vulnerable to hallucinations. Compromise of the left operculum distinguished cases with VHs and cognitive dysfunction. Our findings reinforce the theoretical concept of a top-down visual processing in the genesis of VHs in PD.

  18. Small-world and scale-free organization of voxel-based resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, M P; Stam, C J; Boersma, M; Hulshoff Pol, H E

    2008-11-15

    The brain is a complex dynamic system of functionally connected regions. Graph theory has been successfully used to describe the organization of such dynamic systems. Recent resting-state fMRI studies have suggested that inter-regional functional connectivity shows a small-world topology, indicating an organization of the brain in highly clustered sub-networks, combined with a high level of global connectivity. In addition, a few studies have investigated a possible scale-free topology of the human brain, but the results of these studies have been inconclusive. These studies have mainly focused on inter-regional connectivity, representing the brain as a network of brain regions, requiring an arbitrary definition of such regions. However, using a voxel-wise approach allows for the model-free examination of both inter-regional as well as intra-regional connectivity and might reveal new information on network organization. Especially, a voxel-based study could give information about a possible scale-free organization of functional connectivity in the human brain. Resting-state 3 Tesla fMRI recordings of 28 healthy subjects were acquired and individual connectivity graphs were formed out of all cortical and sub-cortical voxels with connections reflecting inter-voxel functional connectivity. Graph characteristics from these connectivity networks were computed. The clustering-coefficient of these networks turned out to be much higher than the clustering-coefficient of comparable random graphs, together with a short average path length, indicating a small-world organization. Furthermore, the connectivity distribution of the number of inter-voxel connections followed a power-law scaling with an exponent close to 2, suggesting a scale-free network topology. Our findings suggest a combined small-world and scale-free organization of the functionally connected human brain. The results are interpreted as evidence for a highly efficient organization of the functionally connected

  19. Neuroanatomical abnormalities before onset of delusions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakaaki S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shutaro Nakaaki,1 Junko Sato,2 Katsuyoshi Torii,2 Mizuki Oka,1 Atsushi Negi,2 Takashi Nakamae,3 Jin Narumoto,3 Jun Miyata,4 Toshi A Furukawa,5 Masaru Mimura11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 3Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 5Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Structural brain abnormalities associated with delusions in Alzheimer’s disease are poorly understood. In addition, whether the neural substrate underlying the delusions develops before the onset of the delusions is unclear. In this study, we used a voxel-based morphometry approach to examine the existence of regional structural abnormalities at baseline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease who did and who did not develop delusions.Methods: Using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, we identified patients with Alzheimer’s disease who exhibited delusions during a 2-year period. All the patients had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging examination at the start of the study period (baseline. We conducted a voxel-based morphometry analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM5 software and compared the results of patients with Alzheimer’s disease who did and did not develop delusions.Results: Compared with the patients who did not develop delusions (n = 35, the patients who did develop delusions (n = 18 had significantly smaller gray matter volumes on both sides of the parahippocampal gyrus, the right posterior cingulate gyrus, the right orbitofrontal cortex, both sides of the inferior frontal cortex, the right

  20. Fully Automated Treatment Planning for Head and Neck Radiotherapy using a Voxel-Based Dose Prediction and Dose Mimicking Method

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Chris; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A; Purdie, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present an atlas-based approach which learns a dose prediction model for each patient (atlas) in a training database, and then learns to match novel patients to the most relevant atlases. The method creates a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces any requirement for specifying dose-volume objectives for conveying the goals of treatment planning. A probabilistic dose distribution is inferred from the most relevant atlases, and is scalarized using a conditional random field to determine the most likely spatial distribution of dose to yield a specific dose prior (histogram) for relevant regions of interest. Voxel-based dose mimicking then converts the predicted dose distribution to a deliverable treatment plan dose distribution. In this study, we ...

  1. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  2. Gray Matter Atrophy within the Default Mode Network of Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, studies have demonstrated morphological changes in the brain of fibromyalgia (FMS. We aimed to conduct a coordinate-based meta-analytic research through systemic review on voxel-based morphometry (VBM imaging results to identify consistent gray matter (GM difference between FMS patients and healthy subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search in PubMed (January 2000–December 2015 and included six VBM publication on FMS. Stereotactic data were extracted from 180 patients of FMS and 123 healthy controls. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE technique, regional GM reduction in left medial prefrontal cortex and right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex was identified. Both regions are within the default mode network. In conclusion, the gray matter deficit is related to the both affective and nonaffective components of pain processing. This result also provided the neuroanatomical correlates for emotional and cognitive symptoms in FMS.

  3. Whole-brain gray matter volume abnormalities in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2014-02-12

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience psychological distress because of excessive and uncontrollable anxiety in everyday life. Only a few morphological studies have so far focused on specific brain regions of interest as well as the gray matter volume changes in GAD patients. This study evaluated gray matter volume alterations in whole-brain areas between GAD patients and healthy controls, and sex differences between the specific brain areas with significant volume changes in GAD patients using voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-two patients with GAD (13 men and nine women), who were diagnosed using the DSM-IV-TR, and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 men and nine women) participated in this study. The high-resolution MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry analysis on the basis of diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. There was no significant difference in the total intracranial volume between GAD patients and controls, but a significant difference was observed between sexes (Psuperior temporal gyrus compared with the controls. As for the sex comparison, female patients showed a significant increase in the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to male patients. Also, the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in female patients was correlated positively with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score (γ=0.68, P=0.04). The specific morphological variations in patient with GAD will be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with a symptom of GAD. Furthermore, the findings would be valuable for the diagnostic accuracy of GAD using morphometric MRI analysis.

  4. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bing, E-mail: yubing@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Kong, Fanxing, E-mail: kongfx@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Peng, Miao, E-mail: pengm@sj-hospital.org [Psychological Outpatient Service, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Ma, Hongwei, E-mail: mahongwei1960@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna.916@163.com [Department of Radiology, the People' s Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: guoqy@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  5. Comparison of classification methods for voxel-based prediction of acute ischemic stroke outcome following intra-arterial intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Anthony J.; Siemonsen, Susanne; Flottmann, Fabian; Fiehler, Jens; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    Voxel-based tissue outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients is highly relevant for both clinical routine and research. Previous research has shown that features extracted from baseline multi-parametric MRI datasets have a high predictive value and can be used for the training of classifiers, which can generate tissue outcome predictions for both intravenous and conservative treatments. However, with the recent advent and popularization of intra-arterial thrombectomy treatment, novel research specifically addressing the utility of predictive classi- fiers for thrombectomy intervention is necessary for a holistic understanding of current stroke treatment options. The aim of this work was to develop three clinically viable tissue outcome prediction models using approximate nearest-neighbor, generalized linear model, and random decision forest approaches and to evaluate the accuracy of predicting tissue outcome after intra-arterial treatment. Therefore, the three machine learning models were trained, evaluated, and compared using datasets of 42 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intra-arterial thrombectomy. Classifier training utilized eight voxel-based features extracted from baseline MRI datasets and five global features. Evaluation of classifier-based predictions was performed via comparison to the known tissue outcome, which was determined in follow-up imaging, using the Dice coefficient and leave-on-patient-out cross validation. The random decision forest prediction model led to the best tissue outcome predictions with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.37. The approximate nearest-neighbor and generalized linear model performed equally suboptimally with average Dice coefficients of 0.28 and 0.27 respectively, suggesting that both non-linearity and machine learning are desirable properties of a classifier well-suited to the intra-arterial tissue outcome prediction problem.

  6. The Gray Matter Volume of the Amygdala Is Correlated with the Perception of Melodic Intervals: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Beuckelaer, A. De; Guo, J.; Ma, F.; Xu, M.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the abi

  7. Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

  8. Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

  9. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  10. Clinical application of apparent diffusion coefficient mapping in voxel-based morphometry in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ishii, K; Kashiwagi, N; Watanabe, Y; Tanaka, H; Murakami, T; Tomiyama, N

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping compared with voxel-based morphometry and to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of ADC mapping in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study population comprised 31 patients with AD (group A) and 24 patients without dementia (group B) who underwent three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted imaging (WI) and two-dimensional (2D) echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T. The volume and ADC of the regional grey matter (GM) in the bilateral hippocampi, precunei, and the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri were calculated using a voxel-based method for automatic segmentation of brain structures. The significance of intergroup differences in each volume and ADC of all regional GM was tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction. Intergroup regional GM differences in each volume and ADC were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). In group A, the volumes of the precunei (mean value: group A/B=18.93/21.48 cm(3)) and the anterior cingulate gyri (mean value: group A/B=6.1/7.81 cm(3)) were significantly less than in group B (p<0.05). The ADC in group A was significantly larger than that in group B in the bilateral hippocampi (mean value: group A/B=right 1020.79×10(-6)/877.23×10(-6) mm(2)/s; left 1072.89×10(-6)/900.2×10(-6) mm(2)/s) and posterior cingulate gyri (mean value: group A/B=1006.77×10(-6)/876.88×10(-6) mm(2)/s; p<0.05). SPM showed that the areas of increased ADC were more extensive than the areas of decreased volume in the bilateral hippocampi, precunei, and posterior cingulate gyri in group A, compared with those in group B (p<0.001). Evaluation of ADC mapping can quantify changes in brain water diffusivity and may improve the performance of automatic morphometric diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. VOXEL-BASED APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING URBAN TREE VOLUME FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vonderach

    2012-07-01

    extracted branch areas Ai of this horizontal cross-section multiplied by the thickness of the voxel layer. A significant improvement of this method could be obtained by a reasonable determination of the threshold for excluding sparsely filled voxels for noise reduction which can be defined based on the function change of filled voxels. Field measurements were used to validate this method. For a quality assessment nine deciduous trees were selected for control and were scanned before felling and weighing. The results are in good accordance to the control trees within a range of only -5.1% to +14.3%. The determined DBH values show only minor deviations, while the heights of trees are systematically underestimated, mainly due to field measurements. Possible error sources including gaps in surface voxels, influence of thin twigs and others are discussed in detail and several improvements of this approach are suggested. The advantages of the algorithm are the robustness and simple structure as well as the quality of the results obtained. The drawbacks are the high effort both in data acquisition and analysis, even if a remarkable data reduction can be obtained by the voxel structure.

  12. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  13. Small gray matter volume in orbitofrontal cortex in Prader-Willi syndrome: a voxel-based MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Kaeko; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Mayumi; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2011-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with behavioral symptoms including hyperphagia, disinhibition, and compulsive behavior. The behavioral problems in individuals with PWS are strikingly similar to those in patients with frontal pathologies, particularly those affecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, neuroanatomical abnormalities in the frontal lobe have not been established in PWS. The aim of this study was to look, using volumetric analysis, for morphological changes in the frontal lobe, especially the OFC, of the brains of individuals with PWS. Twelve adults with PWS and 13 age- and gender-matched control subjects participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The whole-brain images were segmented and normalized to a standard stereotactic space. Regional gray matter volumes were compared between the PWS group and the control group using voxel-based morphometry. The PWS subjects showed small gray-matter volume in several regions, including the OFC, caudate nucleus, inferior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus, and cerebellum. The small gray-matter volume in the OFC remained significant in a separate analysis that included total gray matter volume as a covariate. These preliminary findings suggest that the neurobehavioral symptoms in individuals with PWS are related to structural brain abnormalities in these areas.

  14. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME, music hobby (MH, and nonmusic (NM group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44, left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18, and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  15. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengmei; Huo, Yajun; Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Jiang; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Huafu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  16. A voxel-based morphometry study of gray matter correlates of facial emotion recognition in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Maila de Castro L; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Silva Neves, Fernando; de Souza-Duran, Fábio Luis; Busatto, Geraldo; Corrêa, Humberto

    2015-08-30

    Facial emotion recognition (FER) is one of the many cognitive deficits reported in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate neuroanatomical correlates of FER impairments in BD type I (BD-I). Participants comprised 21 euthymic BD-I patients without Axis I DSM IV-TR comorbidities and 21 healthy controls who were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40). Preprocessing of images used DARTEL (diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra) for optimized voxel-based morphometry in SPM8. Compared with healthy subjects, BD-I patients performed poorly in on the ER40 and had reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in the left orbitofrontal cortex, superior portion of the temporal pole and insula. In the BD-I group, the statistical maps indicated a direct correlation between FER on the ER40 and right middle cingulate gyrus GMV. Our findings are consistent with the previous studies regarding the overlap of multiple brain networks of social cognition and BD neurobiology, particularly components of the anterior-limbic neural network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral gray matter volume variation in female-to-male transsexuals: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-12-16

    Several studies seem to support the hypothesis that brain anatomy is associated with transsexualism. However, these studies were still limited because few neuroanatomical findings have been obtained from female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. This study compared the cerebral regional volumes of gray matter (GM) between FtM transsexuals and female controls using a voxel-based morphometry. Twelve FtM transsexuals who had undergone sex-reassignment surgery and 15 female controls participated in this study. Both groups were age matched and right-handed, with no history of neurological illness. Fifteen female controls were recruited to determine whether GM volumes in FtM transsexuals more closely resembled individuals who shared their biological sex. MRI data were processed using SPM 8 with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). FtM transsexuals showed significantly larger volumes of the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, gyrus rectus, head of caudate nucleus, precentral gyrus, and subcallosal area compared with the female controls. However, the female controls showed a significantly larger volume in the superior temporal gyrus including Heschl's gyrus and Rolandic operculum. These findings confirm that the volume difference in brain substructures in FtM transsexuals is likely to be associated with transsexualism and that transsexualism is probably associated with distinct cerebral structures, determining gender identity.

  18. Grey matter density decreases as well as increases in patients with classic galactosemia: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; van der Korput, Lisanne D; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2016-10-01

    Brain impairments have been observed in patients with classic galactosemia, an inherited metabolic disorder resulting in a particular neuro-cognitive profile. Neuroimaging studies showed abnormalities such as diffuse white mater (WM) abnormalities and grey matter (GM) atrophy. Our current study analysed grey matter density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared the brains of eight adolescent patients with classic galactosemia with eight healthy gender- and aged-matched controls. GM density differences were found in several regions. Decreased GM density was found in the patients in the bilateral putamen and bilateral occipital cortex. Increased GM density in the patients, on the other hand, was found in the bilateral inferior frontal and medial prefrontal cortex. The anatomical profile of the abnormalities is in line with the neuro-cognitive profile of patients with classic galactosemia, including motor dysfunction, speech and language difficulties and higher order cognitive problems. Less favourable GM densities in patients (either increased or decreased compared to controls) correlated with younger age, a worse visual working memory performance, and an older age at initiation of the galactose-restricted diet. To conclude, this explorative study is the first to analyse the GM using VBM in this population, and demonstrates a mixed profile of both increased and decreased GM density in these patients.

  19. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  20. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor indices in the brain in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Kaiyuan, E-mail: kaiyuanzhang@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China); Yu Chunshui, E-mail: chunshuiyu826@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China); Zhang Yujin, E-mail: zyjinjin@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neurosciences and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wu Xiaoli, E-mail: wendy2006315@126.com [Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China) and Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhu Chaozhe, E-mail: czzhu@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neurosciences and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chan Piu, E-mail: pbchan@bjsap.org [Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the abnormal diffusion in cerebral white matter and its relationship with the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor imaging of the cerebrum was performed in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and 25 control subjects matched for age and sex. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between these two groups were studied by voxel-based analysis of the DTI data. Correlations between diffusion indices and the olfactory function in PD patients were evaluated using the multiple regression model after controlling for the duration of the disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Sale (UPDRS), and age. Results: The damaged white and gray matter showed decreased FA or increased MD, localized bilaterally in the cerebellar and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, in PD patients there was a positive correlation between FA values in the white matter of the left cerebellum and the thresholds of olfactory identification (TOI) and a negative correlation between MD values in the white matter of right cerebellum and the TOI. Conclusion: In patients with PD, there was disruption in the cerebellar white matter which may play an important role in the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  1. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  2. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kanako; Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  3. Grey matter changes associated with deficit awareness in mild cognitive impairment: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Flicker, Leon; Garrido, Griselda J; Greenop, Kathryn R; Foster, Jonathan K; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2014-01-01

    Reduced awareness of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer outcomes although little is known about the anatomical correlates of this. We examined the association of insight and grey matter volume using a voxel-based morphometry approach in 65 volunteers with MCI and 55 healthy age-matched controls. Participants with MCI had multiple areas of subtle grey matter volume loss compared with controls, although these did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. These were predominantly in the temporal and anterior portions of the brain. Individuals with MCI did not differ from each other on a number of demographic and cognitive variables according to level of insight. Reduced awareness of cognitive deficits was associated with few differences in grey matter volume apart from a subtle loss of grey matter in the medial frontal gyri. Given the modest nature of these findings, the routine assessment of insight in non-clinical populations of individuals with MCI is therefore not supported. Prospective data in larger samples, however, would be helpful to clarify this further and determine if impaired insight predicts brain atrophy and cognitive decline.

  4. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-10-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p  200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample.

  5. Association between regional white and gray matter volume and ambiguity tolerance: Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dandan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Che, Xianwei; Zhang, Meng; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Yijun; Cao, Guikang

    2015-08-01

    The concept of tolerance of ambiguity (AT) is defined as the way in which an individual tends to perceive and deal with confusing, vague, and unclear situations. AT is generally considered as an important personality trait, but the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in AT have never been investigated. Using voxel-based morphometry and MSTAT-II scale, we investigated the correlations between AT and regional white matter volume (rWMV) and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in 351 young healthy subjects. We found AT to be positively correlated with rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and negatively correlated with rGMV in the precuneus. These results indicate that increased rGMV in the left DLPFC may lead to characteristics of ambiguous stimuli consideration from multiple contexts and risk taking. Decreased rGMV in the left precuneus may be associated with a high tolerance for ambiguity, which attributes uncertainty to self-related factors.

  6. Surface errors without semantic impairment in acquired dyslexia: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Pillay, Sara B; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Graves, William W; Book, Diane S

    2016-05-01

    Patients with surface dyslexia have disproportionate difficulty pronouncing irregularly spelled words (e.g. pint), suggesting impaired use of lexical-semantic information to mediate phonological retrieval. Patients with this deficit also make characteristic 'regularization' errors, in which an irregularly spelled word is mispronounced by incorrect application of regular spelling-sound correspondences (e.g. reading plaid as 'played'), indicating over-reliance on sublexical grapheme-phoneme correspondences. We examined the neuroanatomical correlates of this specific error type in 45 patients with left hemisphere chronic stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed a strong positive relationship between the rate of regularization errors and damage to the posterior half of the left middle temporal gyrus. Semantic deficits on tests of single-word comprehension were generally mild, and these deficits were not correlated with the rate of regularization errors. Furthermore, the deep occipital-temporal white matter locus associated with these mild semantic deficits was distinct from the lesion site associated with regularization errors. Thus, in contrast to patients with surface dyslexia and semantic impairment from anterior temporal lobe degeneration, surface errors in our patients were not related to a semantic deficit. We propose that these patients have an inability to link intact semantic representations with phonological representations. The data provide novel evidence for a post-semantic mechanism mediating the production of surface errors, and suggest that the posterior middle temporal gyrus may compute an intermediate representation linking semantics with phonology.

  7. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kosmidou, Maria; Tsianos, Epameinondas [University of Ioannina, 1st Department of Internal Medicine (Hepato-Gastroenterology Unit), Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p < 0.05). TBSS showed decreased axial diffusivity (AD) in the right corticospinal tract and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus in patients compared with controls. A larger number of WMHIs was observed in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with IBD show an increase in WMHIs and GM atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis and ischaemia. Decreased AD in major white matter tracts could be a secondary phenomenon, representing Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  8. On the construction of a ground truth framework for evaluating voxel-based diffusion tensor MRI analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Sijbers, Jan; De Backer, Steve; Poot, Dirk; Parizel, Paul M; Leemans, Alexander

    2009-07-01

    Although many studies are starting to use voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods to compare diffusion tensor images between healthy and diseased subjects, it has been demonstrated that VBA results depend heavily on parameter settings and implementation strategies, such as the applied coregistration technique, smoothing kernel width, statistical analysis, etc. In order to investigate the effect of different parameter settings and implementations on the accuracy and precision of the VBA results quantitatively, ground truth knowledge regarding the underlying microstructural alterations is required. To address the lack of such a gold standard, simulated diffusion tensor data sets are developed, which can model an array of anomalies in the diffusion properties of a predefined location. These data sets can be employed to evaluate the numerous parameters that characterize the pipeline of a VBA algorithm and to compare the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of different post-processing approaches quantitatively. We are convinced that the use of these simulated data sets can improve the understanding of how different diffusion tensor image post-processing techniques affect the outcome of VBA. In turn, this may possibly lead to a more standardized and reliable evaluation of diffusion tensor data sets of large study groups with a wide range of white matter altering pathologies. The simulated DTI data sets will be made available online (http://www.dti.ua.ac.be).

  9. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zhu

    Full Text Available Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs and white matter volumes (WMVs. In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  10. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  11. Assessing the clinical outcome of Vim radiosurgery with voxel-based morphometry: visual areas are linked with tremor arrest!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleasca, Constantin; Witjas, Tatiana; Najdenovska, Elena; Verger, Antoine; Girard, Nadine; Champoudry, Jerome; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Levivier, Marc; Guedj, Eric; Régis, Jean

    2017-09-23

    Radiosurgery (RS) is an alternative to open standard stereotactic procedures (deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy) for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), aiming at the same target (ventro-intermediate nucleus, Vim). We investigated the Vim RS outcome using voxel-based morphometry by evaluating the interaction between clinical response and time. Thirty-eight patients with right-sided ET benefited from left unilateral Vim RS. Targeting was performed using 130 Gy and a single 4-mm collimator. Neurological and neuroimaging assessment was completed at baseline and 1 year. Clinical responders were considered those with at least 50% improvement in tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH). Interaction between clinical response and time showed the left temporal pole and occipital cortex (Brodmann area 19, including V4, V5 and the parahippocampal place area) as statistically significant. A decrease in gray matter density (GMD) 1 year after Vim RS correlated with higher TSTH improvement (Spearman = 0.01) for both anatomical areas. Higher baseline GMD within the left temporal pole correlated with better TSTH improvement (Spearman = 0.004). Statistically significant structural changes in the relationship to clinical response after Vim RS are present in remote areas, advocating a distant neurobiological effect. The former regions are mainly involved in locomotor monitoring toward the local and distant environment, suggesting the recruiting requirement in targeting of the specific visuomotor networks.

  12. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyong; Wu, Suqin; Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Andong; Wang, Qianxin; Zhang, Kefei

    2017-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV). In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm) is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models - GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTmN - using different data sources in 2014 - the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  13. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  14. Structural brain correlates of interpersonal violence: Systematic review and voxel-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsma, Jelle; Mackay, Clare; Fazel, Seena

    2017-09-30

    Owing to inconsistent nomenclature and results, we have undertaken a label-based review and anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies measuring the quantitative association between regional grey matter (GM) volume and interpersonal violence. Following PRISMA guidelines, we identified studies by searching 3 online databases (Embase, Medline, PsycInfo) and reference lists. Thirty-five studies were included in the label-based review, providing information for 1288 participants and 86 brain regions. Per region, 0-57% of the results indicated significant reductions in GM volume, while 0-23% indicated significant increases. The only region for which more than half of all results indicated significant reductions was the parietal lobe. However, these results were dispersed across subregions. The ALE meta-analysis, which included 6 whole-brain voxel-based morphometry studies totaling 278 participants and reporting 144 foci, showed no significant clusters of reduced GM volume. No material differences were observed when excluding experiments using reactive violence as outcome or subjects diagnosed with psychopathy. Possible explanations for these findings are phenomenological and etiological heterogeneity, and insufficient power in the label-based review and ALE meta-analysis to detect small effects. We recommend that future studies distinguish between subtypes of interpersonal violence, and investigate mediation by underlying emotional and cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between the brain and mind pops: a voxel-based morphometry study in 256 Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Yang, Ning; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-06-01

    Mind pops or involuntary semantic memories refer to words, phrases, images, or melodies that suddenly pop into one's mind without any deliberate attempt to recall them. Despite their prevalence in everyday life, research on mind pops has started only recently. Notably, mind pops are very similar to clinical involuntary phenomena such as hallucinations in schizophrenia, suggesting their potential role in pathology. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between mind pops and the brain morphometry measured in 302 healthy young adults; after exclusions, 256 participants were included in our analyses. Specifically, the Mind Popping Questionnaire (MPQ) was employed to measure the degree of individual mind pops, whereas the Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to compute the volumes of both gray and white matter tissues. Multiple regression analyses on MPQ and VBM metrics indicated that high-frequency mind pops were significantly associated with smaller gray matter volume in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as with larger gray and white matter volume in the right medial prefrontal cortex. This increase in mind pops is also linked to higher creativity and the personality trait of 'openness'. These data not only suggest a key role of the two regions in generating self-related thoughts, but also open a possible link between brain and creativity or personality.

  16. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; Barker, Gareth J; O'Daly, Owen G; Brammer, Michael; Williams, Steven C R; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2011-11-17

    Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Voxel based morphometry (VBM), corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN) and 21 women (HC) was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  17. Association between lesion location and language function in adult glioma using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pia; Leu, Kevin; Harris, Robert J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Pope, Whitney B; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Management of language difficulties is an important aspect of clinical care for glioma patients, and accurately identifying the possible language deficits in patients based on lesion location would be beneficial to clinicians. To that end, we examined the relationship between lesion presence and language performance on tests of receptive language and expressive language using a highly specific voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) approach in glioma patients. 98 adults with primary glioma, who were pre-surgical candidates, were administered seven neurocognitive tests within the domains of receptive language and expressive language. The association between language performance and lesion presence was examined using VLSM. Statistical parametric maps were created for each test, and composite maps for both receptive language and expressive language were created to display the significant voxels common to all tests within these language domains. We identified clusters of voxels with a significant relationship between lesion presence and language performance. All tasks were associated with several white matter pathways. The receptive language tasks were additionally all associated with regions primarily within the lateral temporal lobe and medial temporal lobe. In contrast, the expressive language tasks shared little overlap, despite each task being independently associated with large anatomic areas. Our findings identify the key anatomic structures involved in language functioning in adult glioma patients using an innovative lesion analysis technique and suggest that expressive language abilities may be more task-dependent and distributed than receptive language abilities.

  18. A voxel-based morphometry study of regional gray and white matter correlate of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShanShan; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Wang, KangCheng; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Self-disclosure is an important performance in human social communication. Generally, an individual is likely to have a good physical and mental health if he is prone to self-disclosure under stressful life events. However, as for now, little is known about the neural structure associated with self-disclosure. Therefore, in this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to explore regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and white matter volume (rWMV) associated with self-disclosure measured by the Jourard Self-disclosure Questionnaire in a large sample of college students. Results showed that individual self-disclosure was significantly and positively associated with rGMV of the left postcentral gyrus, which might be related to strengthen individual's ability of body feeling; while self-disclosure was significantly and negatively associated with rGMV of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which might be involved in increased positive emotion experience seeking (intrinsically rewarding). In addition, individual self-disclosure was also associated with smaller rWMV in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). These findings suggested a biological basis for individual self-disclosure, distributed across different gray and white matter areas of the brain.

  19. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  20. Voxel-based morphometric analysis in hypothyroidism using diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Modi, S; Bagga, D; Kaur, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether brain morphological differences exist between adult hypothyroid subjects and age-matched controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were taken in ten healthy controls and ten hypothyroid subjects. The analysis was conducted using statistical parametric mapping. The VBM study revealed a reduction in grey matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus and cerebellum of hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. A significant reduction in white matter volume was also found in the cerebellum, right inferior and middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus and right temporal gyrus of hypothyroid patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, no meaningful cluster for greater grey or white matter volume was obtained in hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. Our study is the first VBM study of hypothyroidism in an adult population and suggests that, compared to controls, this disorder is associated with differences in brain morphology in areas corresponding to known functional deficits in attention, language, motor speed, visuospatial processing and memory in hypothyroidism. © 2012 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  2. Voxel-based approach to generate entire human metacarpal bone with microscopic architecture for finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C Y; Tsui, C P; Tang, Y M; Wei, L; Wong, C T; Lam, K W; Ip, W Y; Lu, W W J; Pang, M Y C

    2014-01-01

    With the development of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, it is possible to construct three-dimensional (3D) models of human bone without destruction of samples and predict mechanical behavior of bone using finite element analysis (FEA). However, due to large number of elements required for constructing the FE models of entire bone, this demands a substantial computational effort and the analysis usually needs a high level of computer. In this article, a voxel-based approach for generation of FE models of entire bone with microscopic architecture from micro-CT image data is proposed. To enable the FE analyses of entire bone to be run even on a general personal computer, grayscale intensity thresholds were adopted to reduce the amount of elements. Human metacarpal bone (MCP) bone was used as an example for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method. The micro-CT images of the MCP bone were combined and converted into 3D array of pixels. Dual grayscale intensity threshold parameters were used to distinguish the pixels of bone tissues from those of surrounding soft tissues and improve predictive accuracy for the FE analyses with different sizes of elements. The method of selecting an appropriate value of the second grayscale intensity threshold was also suggested to minimize the area error for the reconstructed cross-sections of a FE structure. Experimental results showed that the entire FE MCP bone with microscopic architecture could be modeled and analyzed on a personal computer with reasonable accuracy.

  3. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  4. Increased Intrinsic Activity of Medial-Temporal Lobe Subregions is Associated with Decreased Cortical Thickness of Medial-Parietal Areas in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Scherr, Martin; Tahmasian, Masoud; Myers, Nicholas E; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Akhrif, Atae; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupted connectivity between medial-parietal cortices and medial-temporal lobes (MTL) is linked with increased MTL local functional connectivity, and parietal atrophy is associated with increased MTL memory activation. We hypothesized that intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal degeneration and impaired memory in AD. To test this hypothesis, resting-state-functional and structural-MRI was assessed in 22 healthy controls, 22 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 21 AD-dementia patients. Intrinsic activity was measured by power-spectrum density of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal, medial-parietal degeneration by cortical thinning. In AD-dementia patients, intrinsic activity was increased for several right MTL subregions. Raised intrinsic activity in dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 was associated with cortical thinning in posterior cingulate cortices, and at-trend with impaired delayed recall. Critically, increased intrinsic activity in the right entorhinal cortex was associated with ipsilateral posterior cingulate degeneration. Our results provide evidence that in AD, intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal atrophy. Results fit a model in which medial-parietal degeneration contributes to MTL dysconnectivity from medial-parietal cortices, potentially underpinning disinhibition-like changes in MTL activity.

  5. Prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in Tourette Syndrome: evidence from voxel-based morphometry and magnetization transfer imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengler Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS. To identify TS related abnormalities in gray and white matter we used optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI which are more sensitive to tissue alterations than conventional MRI and provide a quantitative measure of macrostructural integrity. Methods Volumetric high-resolution anatomical T1-weighted MRI and MTI were acquired in 19 adult, unmedicated male TS patients without co-morbidities and 20 age- and sex-matched controls on a 1.5 Tesla neuro-optimized GE scanner. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using an optimized version of VBM in SPM2. Results Using VBM, TS patients showed significant decreases in gray matter volumes in prefrontal areas, the anterior cingulate gyrus, sensorimotor areas, left caudate nucleus and left postcentral gyrus. Decreases in white matter volumes were detected in the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus and the anterior corpus callosum. Increases were found in the left middle frontal gyrus and left sensorimotor areas. In MTI, white matter reductions were seen in the right medial frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally and the right cingulate gyrus. Tic severity was negatively correlated with orbitofrontal structures, the right cingulate gyrus and parts of the parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex bilaterally. Conclusion Our MRI in vivo neuropathological findings using two sensitive and unbiased techniques support the hypothesis that alterations in frontostriatal circuitries underlie TS pathology. We suggest that anomalous frontal lobe association and projection fiber bundles cause disinhibition of the cingulate gyrus and abnormal basal ganglia function.

  6. Brain-volume changes in young and middle-aged smokers: a DARTEL-based voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Jiang, Tao; Chu, Shuilian; Wang, Shuangkun; Xiao, Dan

    2015-09-25

    Many studies have reported brain volume changes in smokers. However, the volume differences of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in young and middle-aged male smokers with different lifetime tobacco consumption (pack-years) remain uncertain. To examine the brain volume change, especially whether more pack-years smoking would be associated with smaller gray matter and white matter volume in young and middle-aged male smokers. We used a 3T MR scanner and performed Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL)-based voxel-based morphometry on 53 long-term male smokers (30.72 ± 4.19 years) and 53 male healthy non-smokers (30.83 ± 5.18 years). We separated smokers to light and heavy smokers by pack-years and compared brain volume between different smoker groups and non-smokers. And then we did analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) between smokers and non-smokers by setting pack-years as covariates. Light and heavy smokers all displayed smaller GM and WM volume than non-smokers and more obviously in heavy smokers. The main smaller areas in light and heavy smokers were superior temporal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate, precuneus in GM and posterior cingulate, thalamus and midbrain in WM, in addition, we also observed more pack-years smoking was associated with some certain smaller GM and WM volumes by ANCOVA. Young and middle-aged male smokers had many smaller brain areas than non-smokers. Some of these areas' volume had negative correlation with pack-years, while some had not. These may due to different pathophysiological role of smokings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: a voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Singh, Namita; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Khushu, Subash

    2012-10-01

    To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural substrates underlying balanced time perspective: A combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiqun; Chen, Zhiyi; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-08-14

    Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear. To address this question, we quantified individual's deviation from the BTP (DBTP), and investigated the neural substrates of DBTP using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods VBM analysis found that DBTP scores were positively correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the ventral precuneus. We further found that DBTP scores were negatively associated with RSFCs between the ventral precuneus seed region and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), parahippocampa gyrus (PHG), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). These brain regions found in both VBM and RSFC analyses are commonly considered as core nodes of the default mode network (DMN) that is known to be involved in many functions, including episodic and autobiographical memory, self-related processing, theory of mind, and imagining the future. These functions of the DMN are also essential to individuals with BTP. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural and functional neural basis of BTP, and highlight the crucial role of the DMN in cultivating an individual's BTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: A voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi, E-mail: modi_shilpi@yahoo.co.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, Manisha, E-mail: manishab10@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Singh, Namita, E-mail: namita23m@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad, E-mail: director@inmas.drdo.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. Materials and methods: High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. Results: VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Conclusion: Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness.

  10. Feasibility of voxel-based Dose Painting for recurrent Glioblastoma guided by ADC values of Diffusion-Weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, M; Botti, A; Sghedoni, R; Cagni, E; Ciammella, P; Iotti, C; Iori, M

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor and frequently recurs in the same location after radiotherapy. Intensive treatment targeting localized lesion is required to improve GBM outcome, but dose escalation using conventional methods is limited by healthy tissue tolerance. Helical Tomotherapy (HT) Dose Painting (DP) treatments were simulated to safely deliver high doses in the recurrent regions. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) data from five recurrent GBM were retrospectively considered for planning. Hypo-fractionated (25-50Gy, 5 fractions) voxel-based prescriptions were opportunely converted to personalized structured-based dose maps to create DP plans with a commercial Treatment Planning System. Optimized plans were generated and analyzed in terms of plan conformity to dose prescription (Q0.90-1.10), tolerance of the healthy tissues (DMAX), and dosimetry accuracy of the deliverable plans (γ-index). Only three of the five cases could receive a safe retreatment without violating the maximum critical organs dose constraints. The conformity of the simulated plans was between 40.9% and 79.9% (Q0.90-1.10), their delivery time was in the range of 38.3-63.6min, while the dosimetry showed γ-index of 82.4-92.4%. This study proved the ability of our method to simulate personalized, deliverable and dosimetrically accurate DPBN plans. HT hypo-fractionated treatments guided by ADC maps can be realized and applied to deliver high doses in the GBM recurrent regions, although there are some critical issues related to low Q0.90-1.10 values, to exceeding of healthy-tissue dose constraints for some patients and long delivery times. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  12. Detection of changes in cerebrospinal fluid space in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus using voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi [University of Tsukuba, Clinical Neuroscience, Medical Sciences for Control of Pathological Process, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Takahashi, Satoshi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    We attempted to detect alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We obtained sagittal volume images of the entire head by three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and compared the regional distribution of CSF in 12 patients with iNPH, 14 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 17 healthy individuals using VBM with automatically extracted CSF objects. VBM demonstrated significant widening at the lateral ventricles and Sylvian fissures and narrowing of the CSF space at the high convexity/midline areas in iNPH patients, compared to the AD patients and healthy controls (p<0.05, after correction with a false-discovery rate). In addition, the ratio of the CSF volume in the lateral ventricle/Sylvian fissure area to that in the high convexity/midline area in iNPH patients (3.9{+-}1.2) was remarkably greater than that in AD patients (1.2{+-}0.3) and controls (0.9{+-}0.3; one-way ANOVA, p <0.001; post hoc Tukey's test, p < 0.001); we could discriminate iNPH patients from those in the other two groups without any overlap, when using a cutoff level of 1.9. VBM using CSF objects can be used to delineate the characteristic alteration of the CSF space in iNPH patients, which has been evaluated by visual interpretation. (orig.)

  13. CNS involvement in primary Sjogren Syndrome: assessment of gray and white matter changes with MRI and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C; Tsifetaki, Niki; Konitsiotis, Spyridon; Zikou, Anastasia; Astrakas, Loukas; Drosos, Alexandros; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate with MRI the involvement of gray matter and white matter structures in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Fifty-three patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, 18 age- and disease duration-matched patients with systemic sclerosis, and 35 age-matched control subjects were examined for differences in white matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) detected on FLAIR MR images. Differences in brain volume between patients with primary Sjögren syndrome and controls were studied by application of voxel-based morphometry to a 3D T1-weighted sequence. WMHIs were observed in 38 of the 53 patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, six of 18 patients with systemic sclerosis, and 17 of 35 controls. The numbers of WMHIs 2 mm or larger and the number smaller than 2 mm were higher in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome than in controls (≥ 2 mm, p = 0.004; syndrome patients and that in systemic sclerosis patients. After control for age, a positive relation was found between disease duration and total number of WMHIs (p = 0.037) and number of WMHIs 2 mm or larger (p = 0.023) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. In comparison with the controls, patients with primary Sjögren syndrome had decreased gray matter volume in the cortex, deep gray matter, and cerebellum. Associated loss of white matter volume was observed in areas corresponding to gray matter atrophy and in the corpus callosum (p syndrome have WMHIs and gray and white matter atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis.

  14. Selection of voxel size and photon number in voxel-based Monte Carlo method: criteria and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan

    2015-01-01

    The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions.

  15. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4{+-}9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9{+-}6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA.

  16. Voxel-based registration of simulated and real patient CBCT data for accurate dental implant pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, António H. J.; Queirós, Sandro; Morais, Pedro; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Correia, André Ricardo; Fernandes, Valter; Pinho, A. C. M.; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    The success of dental implant-supported prosthesis is directly linked to the accuracy obtained during implant's pose estimation (position and orientation). Although traditional impression techniques and recent digital acquisition methods are acceptably accurate, a simultaneously fast, accurate and operator-independent methodology is still lacking. Hereto, an image-based framework is proposed to estimate the patient-specific implant's pose using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and prior knowledge of implanted model. The pose estimation is accomplished in a threestep approach: (1) a region-of-interest is extracted from the CBCT data using 2 operator-defined points at the implant's main axis; (2) a simulated CBCT volume of the known implanted model is generated through Feldkamp-Davis-Kress reconstruction and coarsely aligned to the defined axis; and (3) a voxel-based rigid registration is performed to optimally align both patient and simulated CBCT data, extracting the implant's pose from the optimal transformation. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the framework: (1) an in silico study using 48 implants distributed through 12 tridimensional synthetic mandibular models; (2) an in vitro study using an artificial mandible with 2 dental implants acquired with an i-CAT system; and (3) two clinical case studies. The results shown positional errors of 67+/-34μm and 108μm, and angular misfits of 0.15+/-0.08° and 1.4°, for experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, in experiment 3, visual assessment of clinical data results shown a coherent alignment of the reference implant. Overall, a novel image-based framework for implants' pose estimation from CBCT data was proposed, showing accurate results in agreement with dental prosthesis modelling requirements.

  17. Fully automated treatment planning for head and neck radiotherapy using a voxel-based dose prediction and dose mimicking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Welch, Mattea; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-08-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present a probabilistic, atlas-based approach which predicts the dose for novel patients using a set of automatically selected most similar patients (atlases). The output is a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces the need to specify and tune dose-volume objectives. Voxel-based dose mimicking optimization then converts the predicted dose distribution to a complete treatment plan with dose calculation using a collapsed cone convolution dose engine. In this study, we investigated automated planning for right-sided oropharaynx head and neck patients treated with IMRT and VMAT. We compare four versions of our dose prediction pipeline using a database of 54 training and 12 independent testing patients by evaluating 14 clinical dose evaluation criteria. Our preliminary results are promising and demonstrate that automated methods can generate comparable dose distributions to clinical. Overall, automated plans achieved an average of 0.6% higher dose for target coverage evaluation criteria, and 2.4% lower dose at the organs at risk criteria levels evaluated compared with clinical. There was no statistically significant difference detected in high-dose conformity between automated and clinical plans as measured by the conformation number. Automated plans achieved nine more unique criteria than clinical across the 12 patients tested and automated plans scored a significantly higher dose at the evaluation limit for two high-risk target coverage criteria and a significantly lower dose in one critical organ maximum dose. The novel dose prediction method with dose mimicking can generate complete treatment plans in 12-13 min without user interaction. It is a promising approach for fully automated treatment

  18. Approach to voxel-based carbon stock quanticiation using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Piao, Dongfan; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Yoon, Mihae; Moon, Jooyeon

    2016-04-01

    Forest is an important means to adapt climate change as the only carbon sink recognized by the international community (KFS 2009). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sectors including forestry contributed 24% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010 (IPCC 2014; Tubiello et al. 2015). While all sectors excluding AFOLU have increased Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, land use sectors including forestry remains similar level as before due to decreasing deforestation and increasing reforestation. In earlier researches, optical imagery has been applied for analysis (Jakubowski et al. 2013). Optical imagery collects spectral information in 2D. It is difficult to effectively quantify forest stocks, especially in dense forest (Cui et al. 2012). To detect individual trees information from remotely sensed data, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used (Hyyppäet al. 2001; Persson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2006). Moreover, LiDAR has the ability to actively acquire vertical tree information such as tree height using geo-registered 3D points (Kwak et al. 2007). In general, however, geo-register 3D point was used with a raster format which contains only 2D information by missing all the 3D data. Therefore, this research aimed to use the volumetric pixel (referred as "voxel") approach using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei. By comparing the parameters derived from voxel based LiDAR data and field measured data, we examined the relationships between them for the quantification of forest carbon. This study expects to be more helpful to take advantage of the strategic application of climate change adaption.

  19. Comparison of the accuracy of voxel based registration and surface based registration for 3D assessment of surgical change following orthognathic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Almukhtar

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Superimposition of two dimensional preoperative and postoperative facial images, including radiographs and photographs, are used to evaluate the surgical changes after orthognathic surgery. Recently, three dimensional (3D imaging has been introduced allowing more accurate analysis of surgical changes. Surface based registration and voxel based registration are commonly used methods for 3D superimposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the two methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-operative and 6 months post-operative cone beam CT scan (CBCT images of 31 patients were randomly selected from the orthognathic patient database at the Dental Hospital and School, University of Glasgow, UK. Voxel based registration was performed on the DICOM images (Digital Imaging Communication in Medicine using Maxilim software (Medicim-Medical Image Computing, Belgium. Surface based registration was performed on the soft and hard tissue 3D models using VRMesh (VirtualGrid, Bellevue City, WA. The accuracy of the superimposition was evaluated by measuring the mean value of the absolute distance between the two 3D image surfaces. The results were statistically analysed using a paired Student t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc Duncan test, a one sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test. RESULTS: The results showed no significant statistical difference between the two superimposition methods (p<0.05. However surface based registration showed a high variability in the mean distances between the corresponding surfaces compared to voxel based registration, especially for soft tissue. Within each method there was a significant difference between superimposition of the soft and hard tissue models. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant statistical differences between the two registration methods and it was unlikely to have any clinical significance. Voxel based registration was associated with less variability. Registering on

  20. 经MRI研究屈光不正性弱视患儿枕叶皮质厚度%MRI study on the cortical thickness of occipital lobe in children with ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜寒剑; 王健; 黎川; 张久权; 陈利; 刘波

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study cortical thickness of the occipital lobe in children with ametropic amblyopia by using MRI technique and the FreeSurfer software.MethOds Nine children with ametropic amblyopia were included in the amblyopic group and 8 normal children were included in the control group.All the children underwent brain MRI on the Siemens Avanto 1.5 T scanner.For the cortical thickness analysis,3-demensional MPRAGE images were collected and analyzed with FreeSurfer software package.Cortical thickness of related regions in the occipital lobe (including the cuneus,later occipital,lingual,and pericalcarine gyri) were recorded and compared. Results The cortical thickness of the lingual,pericalcarine gyri on the left hemisphere and the cuneus,lateraloccipital,lingual gyri on the right hemisphere in amblyopic group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Morphological changes existed in the occipital lobe in ametropic amblyopic children.The analysis technique with the FreeSurfer package has a potential value in the clinical application.%目的 探讨屈光不正性弱视患儿枕叶皮质厚度改变.方法 以1.5 T MR仪对9例屈光不正性弱视患儿及8名视力正常儿童进行全脑扫描,应用三维磁化准备快速梯度回波(3D MPRAGE)序列扫描,采集3D解剖数据,采用FreeSurfer软件进行处理分析.观察指标为双侧半球枕叶4个部位即楔叶、舌回、枕外侧叶和距状沟周边区的皮质厚度.结果 屈光不正性弱视患儿双侧半球舌回、左侧距状沟周边区、右侧半球楔叶及枕外侧叶皮质厚度与对照组相比均明显变薄(P<0.05).结论 屈光不正性弱视儿童枕叶皮质存在形态学改变;通过对MR的3D解剖数据分析可以无创性衡量屈光不正性弱视患儿视觉相关枕叶皮质发育情况,具有潜在的临床应用价值.

  1. Voxel-based comparison of rCBF SPET images in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease highlights the involvement of different cortical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea; Pappata, Sabina; Quarantelli, Mario; Alfano, Bruno [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Napoli (Italy); Caraco, Corradina [Institute of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology, Piano Lago Mangone (Cosenza) (Italy); Soricelli, Andrea [Faculty of Motor Sciences, University ' ' Parthenope' ' , Napoli (Italy); Milan, Graziella; Postiglione, Alfredo [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University ' ' Federico II' ' of Napoli (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, University ' ' Federico II' ' of Napoli (Italy)

    2002-11-01

    Characteristic patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) reduction, as detected by technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) single-photon emission tomography (SPET), may help clinicians in differentiating patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) from those with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in some cases these patients may share common rCBF abnormalities and the visual analysis and/or the region of interest (ROI) approach may not sensitively detect more localised focal changes that could be more specific for each pathology. Recently, automated voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of perfusion brain maps has been applied to SPET images. This method has the advantage of including the rCBF information for the whole brain for statistical analysis without any a priori hypothesis regarding the regions possibly involved. This could result in a better characterisation of rCBF differences in brain regions while also reducing the operator's subjectivity and the time required for data analysis. The purpose of this study was to apply such a technique to highlight the specific brain areas showing a relative functional involvement in FTD and AD. Thus, we compared the relative rCBF patterns obtained in eight FTD patients with those obtained in 21 AD patients using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET and statistical parametric mapping (SPM). When FTD patients were compared with AD patients, relatively lower rCBF was observed in right medial frontal cortex (BA 8, 9, 10), right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), right temporal cortex (BA 21/22), right orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 47); in BA 47 the reduction was evident bilaterally but was more marked on the right side. On the other hand, when AD patients were compared with FTD patients, a significant relative rCBF decrease was found in the bilateral superior parietal cortex (BA 7); this decrease was more extensive on the left side, where it also included the inferior parietal (BA 40), superior occipital (BA 19) and temporo-occipital regions (BA 39, 19). The results of this study confirm the preferential involvement of the frontotemporal regions in FTD patients and of the temporoparietal regions in AD patients. Furthermore, they highlight the networks that are more specifically impaired in these disorders and that could be implicated in the emotional-behavioural and cognitive disturbances that characterise FTD and AD respectively. (orig.)

  2. Construction and evaluation of F-18 FDG PET probabilistic MAP for voxel based analysis of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, K. C.; Kim, J. S.; Na, Y. S.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop F-18 FDG PET and MRI template for normal rat brain. Also, feasibility of SPM in detailed regional analysis of molecular changes in the rat brain was explored for F-18 FDG PET imaging of a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten normal rats were scanned with PET and MRI. The PET images were acquired with 3D mode using microPET focus 120 scanner after injection of 37 MBq F-18 FDG. T2-weighted MR images were acquired using 4.7T MRI system. A MRI-based spatial normalization was used. The PET images were coregistered to T2-weighted MR images. Maximum mutual information (MMI) registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM2. The spatial normalization of the MRI to the standard MRI was applied to the integral images. The normalized PET images were averaged voxel wise to create PET template. Eight TBI model rats were subjected to a moderate lateral fluid percussion injury. At 2 days, 1 week, 3 weeks and 5 weeks post FPI, PET images of 8 TBI rats were acquired 4 times. TBI PET images were realigned, spatially normalized to a created PET-template and smoothed (8 mm FWHM). To assess the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions in TBI compared to normal controls were obtained by a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected p < 0.001, 50 voxels). Visually acceptable PET and MRI templates were created. Registration errors were negligible when MMI procedure was used to register a translated or rotated image volume. Thirty-two PET studies of 8 TBI model subjects were obtained. SPM analysis showed injured distribution of decrease F-18 FDG uptake in TBI rats compared with normal rats. In SPM analysis, the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions were decreased according to a significant effect of time. At 5 weeks injured animals showed F-18 FDG uptake recovery using SPM analysis. These results indicate that voxel-based method will be useful for future longitudinal studies of rat brain.

  3. Brain structure differences among male schizophrenic patients with history of serious violent acts: an MRI voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Noriomi; Kashiwagi, Hiroko; Ota, Miho; Ishikawa, Masanori; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Sato, Noriko; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Ota, Toshio

    2017-03-21

    The biological underpinnings of serious violent behaviors in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts, who were being treated under relatively new legislation for offenders with mental illness in Japan where their relevant action should be strongly associated with their mental illness. We also investigated whether morphometric changes would depend on types of serious violent actions or not. Thirty-four male patients with schizophrenia who were hospitalized after committing serious violent acts were compared with 23 male outpatients or inpatients with schizophrenia and no history of violent acts. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry was used to assess gray matter volume. Additionally, patients with violent acts were divided based on whether their relevant actions were premeditated or not. The regional volumes of these two groups were compared to those of the control patient group. Patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts showed significantly smaller regional volumes of the right inferior temporal area expanded to the middle temporal gyrus and the temporal pole, and the right insular area compared to patients without a history of violence. Patients with premeditated violent acts showed significantly smaller regional volumes of the right inferior temporal area, the right insular area, the left planum polare area including the insula, and the bilateral precuneus area including the posterior cingulate gyrus than those without a history of violence, whereas patients with impulsive violent acts showed significantly smaller volumes of only the right inferior temporal area compared to those without a history of violence. Patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts showed structural differences in some brain regions compared to those with

  4. 首发未治疗成人重型抑郁症患者皮层厚度的MRI研究%Brain cortical thickness abnormalities in first-episode, never-medicated, adult major depressive disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵又瑾; 陈丽舟; 张文静; 孙怀强; 邱丽华; 孙学礼; 吕粟; 龚启勇

    2016-01-01

    目的:探索首发未治疗成人重型抑郁症(MDD)患者皮层厚度是否存在异常及其与病程及临床症状的相关性。方法研究纳入2013年3月至2015年8月间招募的37例MDD患者(患者组)及41名健康志愿者(对照组)。所有受试者通过三维扰相梯度回波(3D-SPGR)序列获得3D T1图像。应用FreeSurfer软件完成3D-SPGR图像皮层表面的建造,然后通过自动重建表面、转换、高分辨个体间校准步骤来测量整个皮层的厚度。最后采用一般线性模型对2组皮层厚度进行比较,将患者组全脑皮层厚度与病程及临床评分进行相关分析。结果与对照组比较,MDD患者左侧前、中扣带回,双侧中央前回,左侧中央旁小叶,双侧顶上回,左侧颞极及右侧枕外叶皮层厚度增加(皮层厚度1.89~2.87 mm,皮层表面积34~384 mm2,P0.05)。结论首发未治疗MDD患者皮层厚度改变的脑区主要位于前额叶-边缘系统。%Objective Present study aimed to characterize the alteration of cortical thickness in first-episode, never-medicated, adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and explore whether such deficits were related with their disease duration and clinical symptom severity. Methods Thirty-seven adult MDD patients were recruited from March 2013 to August 2015 as patient group, and 41 healthy volunteers were as control group. All the patients underwent three-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled (3D-SPGR) sequences, and the images were acquired. Constructions of the cortical surface were developed from 3D-SPGR images using FreeSurfer software, and the thickness of the entire cortex was measured according to the automated surface reconstruction, transformation, and high-resolution inter-subject alignment procedures. Finally, cortical thickness was compared between the two groups, and the relativity between clinical symptom severity, disease progression and clinical scores were analyzed

  5. Structural and connectomic neuroimaging for the personalized study of longitudinal alterations in cortical shape, thickness and connectivity after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, A; Goh, S Y; Torgerson, C M; Vespa, P; Van Horn, J D

    2014-09-01

    The integration of longitudinal brain structure analysis with neurointensive care strategies continues to be a substantial difficulty facing the traumatic brain injury (TBI) research community. For patient-tailored case analysis, it remains challenging to establish how lesion profile modulates longitudinal changes in cortical structure and connectivity, as well as how these changes lead to behavioral, cognitive and neural dysfunction. Additionally, despite the clinical potential of morphometric and connectomic studies, few analytic tools are available for their study in TBI. Here we review the state of the art in structural and connectomic neuroimaging for the study of TBI and illustrate a set of recently-developed, patient-tailored approaches for the study of TBI-related brain atrophy and alterations in morphometry as well as inter-regional connectivity. The ability of such techniques to quantify how injury modulates longitudinal changes in cortical shape, structure and circuitry is highlighted. Quantitative approaches such as these can be used to assess and monitor the clinical condition and evolution of TBI victims, and can have substantial translational impact, especially when used in conjunction with measures of neuropsychological function.

  6. STRUCTURAL AND CONNECTOMIC NEUROIMAGING FOR THE PERSONALIZED STUDY OF LONGITUDINAL ALTERATIONS IN CORTICAL SHAPE, THICKNESS AND CONNECTIVITY AFTER TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, A.; Goh, S.-Y. M.; Torgerson, C. M.; Vespa, P. M.; Van Horn, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of longitudinal brain structure analysis with neurointensive care strategies continues to be a substantial difficulty facing the traumatic brain injury (TBI) research community. For patient-tailored case analysis, it remains challenging to establish how lesion profile modulates longitudinal changes in cortical structure and connectivity, as well as how these changes lead to behavioral, cognitive and neural dysfunction. Additionally, despite the clinical potential of morphometric and connectomic studies, few analytic tools are available for their study in TBI. Here we review the state of the art in structural and connectomic neuroimaging for the study of TBI and illustrate a set of recently-developed, patient-tailored approaches for the study of TBI-related brain atrophy and alterations in morphometry as well as inter-regional connectivity. The ability of such techniques to quantify how injury modulates longitudinal changes in cortical shape, structure and circuitry is highlighted. Quantitative approaches such as these can be used to assess and monitor the clinical condition and evolution of TBI victims, and can have substantial translational impact, especially when used in conjunction with measures of neuropsychological function. PMID:24844173

  7. Accuracy and reproducibility of voxel based superimposition of cone beam computed tomography models on the anterior cranial base and the zygomatic arches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M Nada

    Full Text Available Superimposition of serial Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scans has become a valuable tool for three dimensional (3D assessment of treatment effects and stability. Voxel based image registration is a newly developed semi-automated technique for superimposition and comparison of two CBCT scans. The accuracy and reproducibility of CBCT superimposition on the anterior cranial base or the zygomatic arches using voxel based image registration was tested in this study. 16 pairs of 3D CBCT models were constructed from pre and post treatment CBCT scans of 16 adult dysgnathic patients. Each pair was registered on the anterior cranial base three times and on the left zygomatic arch twice. Following each superimposition, the mean absolute distances between the 2 models were calculated at 4 regions: anterior cranial base, forehead, left and right zygomatic arches. The mean distances between the models ranged from 0.2 to 0.37 mm (SD 0.08-0.16 for the anterior cranial base registration and from 0.2 to 0.45 mm (SD 0.09-0.27 for the zygomatic arch registration. The mean differences between the two registration zones ranged between 0.12 to 0.19 mm at the 4 regions. Voxel based image registration on both zones could be considered as an accurate and a reproducible method for CBCT superimposition. The left zygomatic arch could be used as a stable structure for the superimposition of smaller field of view CBCT scans where the anterior cranial base is not visible.

  8. Brain structural changes and their correlation with vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients:a voxel-based morphometric study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxia Wang; Kailiang Fu; Huaijun Liu; Fei Xing; Songyun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry has been used in the study of alterations in brain structure in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. These changes are associated with clinical indices. The age at onset, pathogenesis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus are different from those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus may have different impacts on brain structure. Only a few studies of the alterations in brain structure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using voxel-based morphometry have been conducted, with inconsistent results. We detected subtle changes in the brain structure of 23 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and demonstrated that there was no signiifcant difference between the total volume of gray and white matter of the brain of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and that in controls. Regional atrophy of gray matter mainly occurred in the right temporal and left occipital cortex, while regional atrophy of white matter involved the right temporal lobe and the right cerebellar hemisphere. The ankle-brachial index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus strongly correlated with the volume of brain regions in the default mode network. The ankle-brachial index, followed by the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, most strongly correlated with the volume of gray matter in the right temporal lobe. These data suggest that voxel-based morphometry could detect small structural changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early macrovascular atherosclerosis may play a crucial role in subtle brain atro-phy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with chronic hyperglycemia playing a lesser role.

  9. The Gray Matter Volume of the Amygdala Is Correlated with the Perception of Melodic Intervals: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xueting Li; Alain De Beuckelaer; Jiahui Guo; Feilong Ma; Miao Xu; Jia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was corre...

  10. The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks:A large scale voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny King L. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280 of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120 days post-stroke. Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a ‘shared’ component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a ‘unique’ component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing.

  11. Structural brain abnormalities correlate with clinical features in patients with drug-naïve OCD: A DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wanjie; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Bin; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei; Xu, Jiuping; Yang, Yanchun; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal brain structure has been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but findings from these reports have been inconsistent. This study aimed to gain more detailed insights into gray matter structure and correlate this structure with clinical features in patients with drug-naïve OCD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Voxel-based morphometry and tools of Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) were used to investigate structural differences in gray matter volume between 26 drug-naïve OCD patients and 32 healthy controls. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze associations of gray matter abnormalities with Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and illness duration. Compared to healthy controls, drug-naïve OCD patients showed significantly smaller gray matter volume in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left superior temporal gyrus, left precuneus and right precentral gyrus, as well as significantly greater gray matter volume in the left anterior insula and right parahippocampal gyrus (psuperior temporal gyrus and connected limbic structures such as the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior insula. Longitudinal studies are needed that integrate anatomical, functional and diffusion MRI data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Voxel-based model construction from colored tomographic images; Construcao de simuladores baseados em elementos de volume a partir de imagens tomograficas coloridas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Eduardo Cesar de Miranda

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a new approach in the construction of voxel-based phantoms that was implemented to simplify the segmentation process of organs and tissues reducing the time used in this procedure. The segmentation process is performed by painting tomographic images and attributing a different color for each organ or tissue. A voxel-based head and neck phantom was built using this new approach. The way as the data are stored allows an increasing in the performance of the radiation transport code. The program that calculates the radiation transport also works with image files. This capability allows image reconstruction showing isodose areas, under several points of view, increasing the information to the user. Virtual X-ray photographs can also be obtained allowing that studies could be accomplished looking for the radiographic techniques optimization assessing, at the same time, the doses in organs and tissues. The accuracy of the program here presented, called MCvoxEL, that implements this new approach, was tested by comparison to results from two modern and well-supported Monte Carlo codes. Dose conversion factors for parallel X-ray exposure were also calculated. (author)

  13. Empirical comparison of maximal voxel and non-isotropic adjusted cluster extent results in a voxel-based morphometry study of comorbid learning disability with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, T William J; Job, Dominic E; Spencer, Michael D; Whalley, Heather C; Johnstone, Eve C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2005-11-15

    We present an empirical comparison of cluster extent and maximal voxel results in a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study of brain structure. The cluster extents are adjusted for underlying deviation from uniform smoothness. We implement this comparison on a four-group cohort that has previously shown evidence of a neuro-developmental component in schizophrenia (Moorhead, T.W.J., Job, D.E., Whalley, H.C., Sanderson, T.L., Johnstone, E.C. and Lawrie, S.M. 2004. Voxel-based morphometry of comorbid schizophrenia and learning disability: analyses in normalized and native spaces using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. NeuroImage 22: 188-202.). We find that adjusted cluster extent results provide information on the nature of deficits that occur in the schizophrenia affected groups, and these important structural differences are not all shown in maximal voxel results. The maximal voxel and cluster extent results are corrected for multiple comparisons using Random Fields (RF) methods. In order to apply the cluster extent measures, we propose a post-hoc method for determining the primary threshold in the analysis. Unadjusted cluster extent results are reported, for these, no allowance is made for non-isotropic smoothness, and comparison with the adjusted extent results shows that the unadjusted results can be either conservative or anti-conservative depending upon the underlying tissue distributions.

  14. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: correlates with cognitive and motor deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook Hui; Park, Jun Sung; Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Sang Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Han, Seol-Heui; Na, Duk L

    2011-10-01

    Patients with small vessel disease show high-signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images that represent ischemic cell damage. However, despite a similar degree of ischemic change, the amount and the severity of clinical presentations may vary. We investigated the clinical correlations of ischemic changes using voxel-based morphometric analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-seven MCI and 34 dementia patients were included who all had significant small vessel disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In all patients, neuropsychological tests, a rating on the Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal scale (PEPS) for motor deficits, and 3-Tesla MRI including DTI scans were performed. Voxel-based analysis of the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were computed. Cognitive scores correlated with the DTI abnormalities in supratentorial areas with regional specificity according to each cognitive test. Unexpectedly, cognitive deficits in most neuropsychological tests, even in some frontal tasks, were associated with disruption of posterior white matter integrities. Motor deficits correlated with both supra- and infratentorial lesions. Our findings suggest that in patients with small vessel disease who show cognitive and motor impairments, a specific distribution of fiber tract damage is more related with clinical deficits than is the severity of the total ischemia. © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  16. Voxel-based analysis of the immediate early gene, c-jun, in the honey bee brain after a sucrose stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, M S; Robinson, G E

    2015-06-01

    Immediate early genes (IEGs) have served as useful markers of brain neuronal activity in mammals, and more recently in insects. The mammalian canonical IEG, c-jun, is part of regulatory pathways conserved in insects and has been shown to be responsive to alarm pheromone in honey bees. We tested whether c-jun was responsive in honey bees to another behaviourally relevant stimulus, sucrose, in order to further identify the brain regions involved in sucrose processing. To identify responsive regions, we developed a new method of voxel-based analysis of c-jun mRNA expression. We found that c-jun is expressed in somata throughout the brain. It was rapidly induced in response to sucrose stimuli, and it responded in somata near the antennal and mechanosensory motor centre, mushroom body calices and lateral protocerebrum, which are known to be involved in sucrose processing. c-jun also responded to sucrose in somata near the lateral suboesophageal ganglion, dorsal optic lobe, ventral optic lobe and dorsal posterior protocerebrum, which had not been previously identified by other methods. These results demonstrate the utility of voxel-based analysis of mRNA expression in the insect brain.

  17. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  18. Anatomic Correlation of the Mini-Mental State Examination: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinomais, Mickael; Celle, Sebastien; Duval, Guillaume T.; Roche, Frederic; Henni, Samir; Bartha, Robert; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The clinical utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its shorter version (SMMSE) is still debated. There is a need to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of these cognitive tests. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether lower MMSE and SMMSE scores correlated with focal brain volume reduction in older adults. Participants from the GAIT study (n = 207; mean, 70.9±5.9 years; 57% female; mean MMSE 26.2±3.9; mean SMMSE 5.1±1.1) were evaluated using the MMSE and SMMSE and received a 1.5-Tesla MRI scan of the brain. Cortical gray and white matter subvolumes were automatically segmented using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Age, gender, education level, and total intracranial volume were included as potential confounders. We found correlations between the MMSE score and specific cortical regions of the limbic system including the hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, independently of the diagnostic category (i.e., mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease or controls). Regarding correlations with the SMMSE score, only one cluster in the left hippocampus was identified, which overlapped with the cluster that was positively correlated with the MMSE score. There were no correlations with the volume of white matter. In conclusion, worse MMSE and SMMSE scores were associated with gray matter atrophy mainly in the limbic system. This finding highlights that atrophy of specific brain regions are related to performance on the MMSE and the SMMSE tests, and provides new insights into the cognitive function probed by these tests. PMID:27741236

  19. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations Associated with Ambient Fine Particles in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Ramon; Wang, Xinhui; Reyes, Jeanette; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Vizuete, William; Chui, Helena C.; Driscoll, Ira; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Goodwin, Mimi; DeNise, Richard; Lipton, Michael; Hannigan, James; Carpini, Anthony; Noble, David; Guzman, Wilton; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Goveas, Joseph; Kerwin, Diana; Ulmer, John; Censky, Steve; Flinton, Troy; Matusewic, Tracy; Prost, Robert; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Swope, Sue; Sawyer-Glover, Anne Marie; Hartley, Susan; Jackson, Rebecca; Hallarn, Rose; Kennedy, Bonnie; Bolognone, Jill; Casimir, Lindsay; Kochis, Amanda; Robbins, John; Zaragoza, Sophia; Carter, Cameron; Ryan, John; Macias, Denise; Sonico, Jerry; Nathan, Lauren; Voigt, Barbara; Villablanca, Pablo; Nyborg, Glen; Godinez, Sergio; Perrymann, Adele; Limacher, Marian; Anderson, Sheila; Toombs, Mary Ellen; Bennett, Jeffrey; Jones, Kevin; Brum, Sandy; Chatfield, Shane; Vantrees, Kevin; Robinson, Jennifer; Wilson, Candy; Koch, Kevin; Hart, Suzette; Carroll, Jennifer; Cherrico, Mary; Ockene, Judith; Churchill, Linda; Fellows, Douglas; Serio, Anthony; Jackson, Sharon; Spavich, Deidre; Margolis, Karen; Bjerk, Cindy; Truwitt, Chip; Peitso, Margaret; Camcrena, Alexa; Grim, Richard; Levin, Julie; Perron, Mary; Brunner, Robert; Golding, Ross; Pansky, Leslie; Arguello, Sandie; Hammons, Jane; Peterson, Nikki; Murphy, Carol; Morgan, Maggie; Castillo, Mauricio; Beckman, Thomas; Huang, Benjamin; Kuller, Lewis; McHugh, Pat; Meltzer, Carolyn; Davis, Denise; Davis, Joyce; Kost, Piera; Lucas, Kim; Potter, Tom; Tarr, Lee; Shumaker, Sally; Espeland, Mark; Coker, Laura; Williamson, Jeff; Felton, Debbie; Gleiser, LeeAnn; Rapp, Steve; Legault, Claudine; Dailey, Maggie; Casanova, Ramon; Robertson, Julia; Hogan, Patricia; Gaussoin, Sarah; Nance, Pam; Summerville, Cheryl; Peral, Ricardo; Tan, Josh; Bryan, Nick; Davatzikos, Christos; Desiderio, Lisa; Buckholtz, Neil; Molchan, Susan; Resnick, Susan; Rossouw, Jacques; Pottern, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure. Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1365 women (aged 71–89) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space). Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average) exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked smaller WM volumes to PM2.5, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  20. 基于体素的形态测量学在震颤麻痹型多系统萎缩中的应用%Voxel-based morphometry in the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦萍; 王含; 李琢; 冯逢

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价震颤麻痹型多系统萎缩(MSA-P型)患者全脑灰、白质体积减少区域及分布特征.方法 选取13例临床拟诊为MSA-P型可能性大的患者及14名年龄匹配的正常对照者行全脑三维快速扰相梯度回波(3D fast spoiled gradient echo,3D-FSPGR)序列扫描,采用基于体素的形态测量学(voxel-based morphometry,VBM)分析方法的统计参数图软件(statistical parametric mapping,SPM)8,对MSA-P型患者及正常对照者的灰、白质体素进行分析.结果 与正常对照者相比,MSA-P患者的脑灰、白质体积均减少;脑灰质减少区多数区域呈双侧对称分布:包括双侧辅助运动区、背侧后扣带皮层、额叶内侧回、颞上回、小脑半球皮层等;少数区域仅累及单侧,如右侧初级运动皮层、体感联合皮层及左侧下前扣带皮层等.脑白质区主要累及双侧额上回、楔前叶、额叶下,左侧颞上回、扣带回及右侧额眶回、颞叶下等.结论 VBM方法具有自动、全面的特点,能客观地反映MSA-P患者组全脑结构的差异.%Objective To assess patterns of the gray and white matter atrophy in patients with multiple system atrophy-P(MSA-P)variant of whole brain compared with normal controls.Methods Three dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo(3D-FSPGR)T1WI of whole brain were obtained from 13 patients with probable MSA-P and 14 age-matched normal controls.The volume of gray matter(GM)and white matter (WM)of MSA-P patients and normal controls was analyzed with voxel-based morphometry(VBM) using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)8.Results Compared with the controls,the MSA-P patients showed decreased gray matter and white matter in bread areas. Gray matter loss mainly symmetrically distributed in bilateral supplementary motor area(SMA),dorsal posterior cingulate cortex(DPCC),medial frontal gyrus,superior temporal gyrus,cerebellum cortex,etc.Unilateral involvement of cortices mainly located in right primary motor cortex

  1. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Tomoda

    Full Text Available Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years including 22 (6 males/16 females with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18 (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level. Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.

  2. Density abnormalities in normal-appearing gray matter in the middle-aged brain with white matter hyperintense lesions: a DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan Peng,1,* Shenhong Li,2,* Ying Zhuang,3,* Xiaojia Liu,4 Lin Wu,2 Honghan Gong,2 Dewu Liu,1 Fuqing Zhou2 1Burn Center, 2Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 3Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, 4Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Little is known about the structural alterations within gray matter (GM in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH lesions. Here, we aimed to examine the anatomical changes within the GM and their relationship to WMH lesion loads in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Twenty-three middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group and 23 demographically matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. A Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Liealgebra-enhanced voxel-based morphometry was used to measure the GM density, and the correlations between WMH lesion volume and extracted GM values in abnormal regions were identified by voxel-based morphometry analysis. Results: Compared with the healthy control subjects, the WMH group had a significantly decreased GM density in the left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left and right premotor cortex, and left and right middle cingulate cortex and an increased GM density in the bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right temporoparietal junction, left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC, and left inferior parietal lobule. A relationship was observed between the normalized WMH lesion volume and the decreased GM density, including the left middle frontal gyrus (ρ=-0.629, P=0.002, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ρ=-0.507, P=0.019, right middle cingulate cortex (ρ=-0.484, P=0.026, and

  3. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  4. Supersize my brain: A cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry study on the association between self-reported dietary restraint and regional grey matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Laura N; Charbonnier, Lisette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Kroese, Floor M; van Rijn, Inge; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-05-01

    Restrained eaters do not eat less than their unrestrained counterparts. Proposed underlying mechanisms are that restrained eaters are more reward sensitive and that they have worse inhibitory control. Although fMRI studies assessed these mechanisms, it is unknown how brain anatomy relates to dietary restraint. Voxel-based morphometry was performed on anatomical scans from 155 normal-weight females to investigate how regional grey matter volume correlates with restraint. A positive correlation was found in several areas, including the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, striatum and the amygdala (bilaterally, pgrey matter volume in reward-related areas and lower grey matter volume in regions involved in inhibition, provides a neuroanatomical underpinning of theories relating restraint to increased reward sensitivity and reduced inhibitory capacity.

  5. White matter abnormalities in young males with antisocial personality disorder Evidence from voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.

  6. Gray and white matter density changes in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Mandl, RC

    2006-01-01

    best reflect the genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia remains unresolved. 1.5-T MRI brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic twin-pairs discordant for schizophrenia were compared to 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic healthy control...... twin-pairs using voxel-based morphometry. Linear regression analysis was done in each voxel for the average and difference in gray and white matter density separately, in each twin-pair, with group (discordant, healthy) and zygosity (monozygotic, dizygotic) as between subject variables, and age, sex...... and handedness as covariates. The t-maps (critical threshold value mid R:tmid R: > 6.0, P

  7. Voxel-Based Correlation between Coregistered Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Suspected Alzheimer Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallin, L.; Axelsson, R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Svensson, L.; Juhlin, P.; Wiberg, M. Kristoffersen; Frank, A. [Division of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    Background: Current diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made by clinical, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging assessments. Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be valuable in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, as well as in assessing prognosis. Purpose: To compare SPECT and MRI in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Material and Methods: 24 patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls, were investigated with SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO, Ceretec; GE Healthcare Ltd., Little Chalsont UK) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a contrast-enhancing gadobutrol formula (Gadovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany). Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR images was calculated. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were then performed in 24 different brain areas using brain registration and analysis of SPECT studies (BRASS; Nuclear Diagnostics AB, Stockholm (SE)) on both SPECT and DSC-MRI. Results: Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR showed a high correlation, with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.94. ROI analyses of 24 regions showed significant differences between the control group and AD patients in 10 regions using SPECT and five regions in DSC-MR. Conclusion: SPECT remains superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological perfusion, and DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer disease.

  8. Voxel-Based Correlation between Coregistered Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Suspected Alzheimer Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallin, L.; Axelsson, R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Svensson, L.; Juhlin, P.; Wiberg, M. Kristoffersen; Frank, A. (Division of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    Background: Current diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made by clinical, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging assessments. Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be valuable in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, as well as in assessing prognosis. Purpose: To compare SPECT and MRI in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Material and Methods: 24 patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls, were investigated with SPECT using 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO, Ceretec; GE Healthcare Ltd., Little Chalsont UK) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a contrast-enhancing gadobutrol formula (Gadovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany). Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR images was calculated. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were then performed in 24 different brain areas using brain registration and analysis of SPECT studies (BRASS; Nuclear Diagnostics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)) on both SPECT and DSC-MRI. Results: Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR showed a high correlation, with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.94. ROI analyses of 24 regions showed significant differences between the control group and AD patients in 10 regions using SPECT and five regions in DSC-MR. Conclusion: SPECT remains superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological perfusion, and DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer disease

  9. Structural abnormalities in early Tourette syndrome children: a combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM and white matter (WM has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post-central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD and mean diffusivity (MD increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS, and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children.

  10. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  11. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image

  12. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image regis

  13. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ceschin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  14. Neural correlates of cognitive impairment in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Aurélie; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Samri, Dalila; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Lacomblez, Lucette; Kalafat, Michel; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Cohen, Laurent; Dubois, Bruno; Habert, Marie-Odile; Sarazin, Marie

    2011-05-01

    With the prospect of disease-modifying drugs that will target the physiopathological process of Alzheimer's disease, it is now crucial to increase the understanding of the atypical focal presentations of Alzheimer's disease, such as posterior cortical atrophy. This study aimed to (i) characterize the brain perfusion profile in posterior cortical atrophy using regions of interest and a voxel-based approach; (ii) study the influence of the disease duration on the clinical and imaging profiles; and (iii) explore the correlations between brain perfusion and cognitive deficits. Thirty-nine patients with posterior cortical atrophy underwent a specific battery of neuropsychological tests, mainly targeting visuospatial functions, and a brain perfusion scintigraphy with 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer. The imaging analysis included a comparison with a group of 24 patients with Alzheimer's disease, matched for age, disease duration and Mini-Mental State Examination, and 24 healthy controls. The single-photon emission computed tomography profile in patients with posterior cortical atrophy was characterized by extensive and severe hypoperfusion in the occipital, parietal, posterior temporal cortices and in a smaller cortical area corresponding to the frontal eye fields (Brodmann areas 6/8). Compared with patients with Alzheimer's disease, the group with posterior cortical atrophy showed more severe occipitoparietal hypoperfusion and higher perfusion in the frontal, anterior cingulate and mesiotemporal regions. When considering the disease duration, the functional changes began and remained centred on the posterior lobes, even in the late stage. Correlation analyses of brain perfusion and neuropsychological scores in posterior cortical atrophy highlighted the prominent role of left inferior parietal damage in acalculia, Gerstmann's syndrome, left-right indistinction and limb apraxia, whereas damage to the bilateral dorsal occipitoparietal regions appeared to be involved in B

  15. Comparison of (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, brain perfusion SPECT, and voxel-based MRI morphometry for distinguishing between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Toyama, Hiroshi; Manabe, Yuta; Sarai, Masayoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic value of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy, N-isopropyl-p[(123)I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for the differentiation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-five and 34 patients with probable DLB and probable AD, respectively, were enrolled. All patients underwent (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, (123)I-IMP brain perfusion SPECT, and brain MRI. For (123)I-MIBG imaging, we calculated early and delayed heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratios. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) were used to analyze the results of (123)I-IMP SPECT. VBM with statistical parametric mapping 8 plus diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to analyze the brain MRI data. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for discriminating DLB and AD was highest (0.882) for the delayed H/M ratio on (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy. AUC for z-score measurement in the occipital lobe was 0.818 and that for the extent of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the whole brain was 0.788. AUC for the combination of 3D-SSP and VBM analysis was 0.836. The respective sensitivities and specificities for distinguishing DLB from AD were 97.1 and 100 % for the delayed H/M ratio using (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy; 88.6 and 73.5 % for the occipital lobe z-score using 3D-SSP analysis; 85.7 and 64.7 % for the extent of whole brain GM atrophy using voxel-based MRI morphometry; and 91.4 and 76.5 % for the combination of 3D-SSP analysis and VBM. (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy was superior to brain perfusion SPECT and brain MRI using an advanced statistical technique to differentiate DLB and AD.

  16. Automated Voxel-Based Analysis of Volumetric Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Data Improves Measurement of Serial Changes in Tumor Vascular Biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coolens, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.coolens@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Driscoll, Brandon [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chung, Caroline [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shek, Tina; Gorjizadeh, Alborz [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Development of perfusion imaging as a biomarker requires more robust methodologies for quantification of tumor physiology that allow assessment of volumetric tumor heterogeneity over time. This study proposes a parametric method for automatically analyzing perfused tissue from volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) scans and assesses whether this 4-dimensional (4D) DCE approach is more robust and accurate than conventional, region-of-interest (ROI)-based CT methods in quantifying tumor perfusion with preliminary evaluation in metastatic brain cancer. Methods and Materials: Functional parameter reproducibility and analysis of sensitivity to imaging resolution and arterial input function were evaluated in image sets acquired from a 320-slice CT with a controlled flow phantom and patients with brain metastases, whose treatments were planned for stereotactic radiation surgery and who consented to a research ethics board-approved prospective imaging biomarker study. A voxel-based temporal dynamic analysis (TDA) methodology was used at baseline, at day 7, and at day 20 after treatment. The ability to detect changes in kinetic parameter maps in clinical data sets was investigated for both 4D TDA and conventional 2D ROI-based analysis methods. Results: A total of 7 brain metastases in 3 patients were evaluated over the 3 time points. The 4D TDA method showed improved spatial efficacy and accuracy of perfusion parameters compared to ROI-based DCE analysis (P<.005), with a reproducibility error of less than 2% when tested with DCE phantom data. Clinically, changes in transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K{sub trans}) were seen when using TDA, with substantially smaller errors than the 2D method on both day 7 post radiation surgery (±13%; P<.05) and by day 20 (±12%; P<.04). Standard methods showed a decrease in K{sub trans} but with large uncertainty (111.6 ± 150.5) %. Conclusions

  17. The change of cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation in congestive heart failure: a voxel-based and automatic VOl analysis of Tc-99m ECD SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, I. K.; Kim, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Lim, K. C.; Moon, D. H.; Rhu, J. S.; Kim, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the change of global and regional cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation (HT) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Twenty-one patients with CHF who underwent HT (45{+-}12 yrs, M/F=19/2) and 10 healthy volunteers (39{+-}13 yrs, M/F = 7/3) were prospectively included. All patients underwent echocardiography and radionuclide angiography including brain and aorta with brain SPECT which was performed after iv bolus injection of Tc-99m ECD (740MBq) before (175{+-}253 days) and after (129{+-}82 days) HT. Patients were divided into two groups according to the interval between HT and postoperative SPECT [early follow-up (f/u): <6 mo, n=14; late f/u: >6 mo, n=7]. Global CBF (gCBF) of bilateral hemispheres were calculated by Patlak graphical analysis. Absolute rCBF map was obtained from brain SPECT by Lassen's correction algorithm. Age-corrected voxel-based analysis using SPM2 and automatic VOl analysis were performed to assess the rCBF change. Cardiac ejection fraction of all patients improved after HT (20.8%{yields}64.0%). gCBF was reduced compared to normal before HT (35.7{+-}3.9 vs. 49.1{+-}3.0 ml/100g/min; p<0.001) and improved postoperatively (46.6{+-}5.4, p<0.001). The preoperative gCBFs of early and late f/u group were not different (34.6{+-}3.2 vs. 38.0{+-}4.4, p=0.149) but postoperative gCBF (43.9{+-}3.7) of late f/u group was higher than those (52.0{+-}4.0) of early f/u group (p<0.001). On voxel-based analysis, preoperative rCBF was reduced in entire brain but most severely in bilateral superior and inferior frontal cortex, supplementary motor area, precuneus and anterior cingulum, compared to normals (uncorrected p<0.001). After HT, rCBF of these areas improved more significantly in late f/u group than in early f/u group but still lower than normals. Global CBF was significantly reduced in CHF patients and improved after HT. rCBFs of the frontal cortex, precuneus and cingulum were most severely reduced and slowly improved after

  18. Evaluation of translation in the normal and dysplastic hip using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, K; Sakai, T; Koyanagi, J; Yoshikawa, H; Sugamoto, K

    2011-06-01

    To elucidate in vivo hip instability by comparing normal hips to hips with acetabular dysplasia by evaluating three-dimensional (3D) translations of the femoral head center (FHC) at different hip positions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty normal hips and 22 dysplastic female hips were examined. MRI was performed at four different positions bilaterally: neutral, 45° of flexion, 15° of extension, and the Patrick position. Femoral and pelvic bones were separately extracted at the neutral position and superimposed over the images of each different position using voxel-based registration. The distance between the acetabular center and FHC at neutral position was defined as 3D-migration. The distance between FHC at neutral position and that at each different position was defined as 3D-translation. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to consider the dependency between right and left-side data, and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess independent relationships. The center-edge (CE) angle was the determinant for 3D-migration (β=-0.415, P=0.001), and there was a statistical significant difference in 3D-migration between normal female hips and dysplastic hips (P=0.047). From neutral to the Patrick position, the FHC of normal and dysplastic hips translated postero-infero-medially by 1.12±0.39mm (0.45-1.85mm) and 1.97±0.84mm (0.95-4.34mm), respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P=0.005). CE angle was the determinant for 3D-translation from neutral to the Patrick position (β=-0.730, Ptranslation was 0.172mm and 0.193mm for intra- and interobserver reproducibility, respectively. Hip instability was increased in proportion to the severity of acetabular dysplasia. A 3D MRI voxel-based registration technique can show in vivo morphology and kinematics of the native hip without exposure to radioactivity. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International

  19. Reduced cortical thickness in gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    Gambling disorder has recently been recognized as a prototype 'behavioral addiction' by virtue of its inclusion in the DSM-5 category of 'Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.' Despite its newly acquired status and prevalence rate of 1-3 % globally, relatively little is known regarding...

  20. A comparison of gray and white matter density in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies using voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji E; Park, Bosuk; Song, Sook K; Sohn, Young H; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2010-01-15

    Despite clinical and neuropsychological similarities between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), recent studies have demonstrated that structural and pathological changes are more severe in DLB than in PDD. We used voxel-based morphometry using a 3-T MRI scanner to compare gray and white matter densities in 20 patients with probable PDD and 18 patients with probable DLB, who had similar overall severity of dementia and similar demographic characteristics. The gray matter density was significantly decreased in the left occipital, parietal, and striatal areas in patients with DLB compared with patients with PDD. The white matter density was significantly decreased in bilateral occipital and left occipito-parietal areas in patients with DLB compared with those with PDD. The degree of white and gray matter atrophy was similar in patients with DLB; in contrast, there was markedly less atrophy in the white matter than in the gray matter in patients with PDD. On analyzing the change of WM density relative to that of GM density in patients with DLB compared to those with PDD, the area of WM atrophy in the occipital areas was more extensive than that of GM atrophy. Our data demonstrate that atrophy of both gray and white matter was more severe in patients with DLB and that white matter atrophy relative to gray matter atrophy was less severe in patients with PDD. These data may reflect a difference in the underlying nature of PDD and DLB.

  1. Grey matter volume abnormalities in patients with bipolar I depressive disorder and unipolar depressive disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Li; Liao, Mei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Lifeng; Peng, Hongjun; He, Zhong; Li, Zexuan; Li, Weihui; Lu, Shaojia; Ding, Yuqiang; Li, Lingjiang

    2015-02-01

    Bipolar disorder and unipolar depressive disorder (UD) may be different in brain structure. In the present study, we performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify the grey matter volumes in 23 patients with bipolar I depressive disorder (BP1) and 23 patients with UD, and 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) using magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the HC and UD groups, the BP1 group showed reduced grey matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus and middle cingulate gyrus, while the UD group showed reduced volume in the right inferior frontal gyrus compared to HCs. In addition, correlation analyses revealed that the grey matter volumes of these regions were negatively correlated with the Hamilton depression rating scores. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that decreased grey matter volume of the right inferior frontal gyrus is a common abnormality in BP1 and UD, and decreased grey matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus may be specific to BP1.

  2. Patients with Poor Response to Antipsychotics Have a More Severe Pattern of Frontal Atrophy: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Treatment Resistance in Schizophrenia

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    Mario Quarantelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  3. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueting; De Beuckelaer, Alain; Guo, Jiahui; Ma, Feilong; Xu, Miao; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.

  4. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueting Li

    Full Text Available Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music se