WorldWideScience

Sample records for voluntary intermodal sealift

  1. 77 FR 53963 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... amended to note that each voluntary agreement expires five (5) years after the date it becomes effective... Concept The mission of VISA is to provide commercial sealift and intermodal shipping services and systems... commitments or volunteered capacity are insufficient to meet contingency requirements, and adequate shipping...

  2. 78 FR 64287 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement Open Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ....-flag vessel operator organized under the laws of a state of the United States, or the District of..., vessel space, intermodal systems and equipment, terminal facilities, and related management services,...

  3. Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    STRATEGIC SEALIFT SUPPORTING ARMY DEPLOYMENTS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...THOMPSON, MAJ, US ARMY BFA, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, 1994 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2016 Approved for...Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew

  4. SEALIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    flight. The semi-submersible, self-propelled vessel that carries the dome-shaped radar was developed from deep water oil exploration platform...Squadron One, including MSC Maritime Prepositioning Force ships USNS 2nd LT John P. Bobo and USNS LCPL Roy M. Wheat visited the ports of Palma

  5. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database - Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  6. Modeling the Optimization of Intermodal Train Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    In order to see a shift in modal split in favour of trains as envisioned by the European Union it is necessary for intermodal transport solutions to compete with trucking. Assuming it is possible to compete on price it is necessary to achieve transit times in intermodal networks that are similar...

  7. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  8. INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN EUROPE - OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wagener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport volume in ton-km in OECD countries will grow considerably up to 150 to 230 % in 2050 compared to 2010. Although the EU policy aims to shift 30% of road freight over 300 km to other modes such as rail or waterborne transport by 2030 the recent trends show a stable modal split of road at approx. 75%. Conventional intermodal transport on the major European routes has shown a steady but only limited organic growth through recent years. Therefore, new innovative concepts for intermodal transport and for the shift from road to rail are needed. Methods: Definitions of intermodal transport have been clarified and the development of combined transport in Europe and in Germany and Poland in particular has been analyzed on the basis of available data sources. New innovative concepts for intermodal transport have been identified on the basis of desk research, recent relevant projects (RETRACK, SCANDRIA, Rail Baltica and market intelligence. Results: The analysis leads to the conclusion that new innovative concepts in intermodal transport comprise new forms of organization as well as new technologies and new routes. The following three innovations to facilitate the shift from road to rail by intermodal transport are being introduced and discussed: multimodal operation of ocean carriers in maritime hinterland transportation, innovative handling technologies for non-crane able trainers and freight corridors for long distance intermodal transport within the TEN-T network and on the Europe-Asia corridor. Conclusions: Further accelerated growth in the shift from road to rail through intermodal transport requires new innovative concepts beyond the traditional combined transport in Western Europe. Three promising innovative concepts have been introduced. Further research is needed and should be focused on financial and economic appraisal as well as on the effectiveness of state intervention policies. 

  9. Can any possible combination of modes improve intermodal attractiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Martine; Caris, An; Limbourg, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    In its White Paper on Transport, the European Commission recognizes intermodal transport as an alternative solution to road transport. In practice, intermodal transport can be constituted by any combination of modes, while in the literature, intermodal transport is often modeled as a combination of modes in the order “road-rail/inland waterway-road”. This work develops a new intermodal allocation model which allows choosing between any direct (road, rail and inland waterways) transport and an...

  10. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  11. 78 FR 64285 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Marine Transportation System stakeholders to participate in a discussion intended to develop a robust...'s cargo opportunities and sealift capacity while ensuring future sustainability. Speaker and topic... of global business and employment opportunities for the Nation; and fostering the construction and...

  12. Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    BUILDING STRONG® US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System Dr. Mike...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the... Conceptual Framework c CURRENT MTS CURRENT INTERMODAL SYSTEM c MTS INVESTMENTS INTERMODAL INVESTMENTS FUTURE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION DEMAND c

  13. Intermode beat stabilized laser with frequency pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S; Araki, T; Suzuki, N

    1994-01-20

    A frequency-stabilized two-mode He-Ne laser has been developed. The intermode beat frequency of the experimental laser was approximately 600 MHz for a 25-cm cavity. The laser frequency in which the mode stands is pulled to the center of the gain curve (frequency pulling). The degree of pulling depends on where the longitudinal modes stand in the broadened gain curve. Beat frequency is thereby changed periodically of the order of hundreds of kilohertz with respect to cavity expansion. The frequency pulling was effectively used for frequency stabilization of the laser. The standing position of the longitudinal mode lights was locked in the gain curve by controlling the change of intermode beat frequency. A microwave mixer was applied to extract the frequency change of the intermode beat. Excellent frequency stability (10(10) for the laser oscillation and 10(6) for the beat frequency) was attained. The polarization orthogonality of the proposed laser was superior to that of Zeeman lasers.

  14. Intermodal Barge Transport: Network Design, Nodes and Competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The thesis addresses the opportunities and conditions to increase the market share of intermodal barge transport in Northwest Europe. In particular, it focuses on strategies to improve the performances of the different links of the intermodal transport chain: the barge transport services, the transh

  15. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  16. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  17. Intermodal Transport Security: Need for an Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Kula Degirmenci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation industry has been facing challenges due to various security-related issues such as piracy, terrorism, thefts and accidents. Intermodal transportation as a system that incorporates many players, transportation modes, interchange points as well as various technologies can also be considered as an important platform for securityrelated problems. Although intermodal transportation is quite vulnerable to security-related risks, recent literature heavily focused on the security problems of specific transportation modes. Since intermodal industry consists of many operations, vehicles and actors, responding to security-related issues for each transportation mode only may not be sufficient. In the light of these, this study mainly aims to provide a framework for overall understanding of the security concept in the intermodal transportation chain. The study firstly focuses on the security dimension of each transportation mode that can be a part of an intermodal transportation chain by considering mainly legal, technological and economic factors. Then, a framework is suggested which identifies the main components of security in intermodal transport by focusing on the need for an integrated approach. Since the evaluation of security dimension in transportation industry is only limited to the industry projects and analysis of specific transport modes; mainly sea transport, it is believed that this study will provide significant contribution to the understanding and the evaluation of security concept in intermodal transportation system. This will be achieved through the identification of main security gaps in the system and the analysis of the intermodal transportation security concept. Moreover, some suggestions will be provided in the light of the factors mentioned in order to provide an overall intermodal security framework and an integrated approach.

  18. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the new coopetition with higher efficiency would be emerged. Moreover, we analyze the complexity and evolution of coopetition by repeated pricing game with finitely and infinitely time horizon. In the finitely repeated pricing game, both firms have incentive to reach a tacit understanding to alternate choosing price cooperation and competition after setting suitable allocation scheme; the repeated periods t are then going to be an issue. In the infinitely repeated pricing game, the perfect cooperation is realized by designing the suitable trigger strategy.

  19. Individual somatotopy of primary sensorimotor cortex revealed by intermodal matching of MEG, PET, and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, H; Kristeva, R; Knorr, U; Schlaug, G; Huang, Y; Steinmetz, H; Nebeling, B; Herzog, H; Seitz, R J

    1992-01-01

    A method for comparing estimated magnetoencephalographic (MEG) dipole localizations with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation areas is presented. This approach utilizes individual intermodal matching of MEG data, of rCBF measurements with [15O]-butanol and positron emission tomography (PET), and of anatomical information obtained from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The MEG data and the rCBF measurements were recorded in a healthy subject during right-sided simple voluntary movements of the foot, thumb, index finger, and mouth. High resolution 3D-FLASH MR images of the brain consisting of 128 contiguous sagittal slices of 1.17-mm thickness were used. MEG/MR integration was performed by superimposing the 3D head coordinate system constructed during the MEG measurement onto the MR image data using identical anatomical landmarks as references. PET/MR integration was achieved by a phantom-validated iterative front-to-back-projection algorithm resulting in one integrated MEG/PET/MR image. The estimated dipole locations followed the somatotopic organisation of the task-specific rCBF increases as evident from PET, although they did not match point-to-point. Our results demonstrate that intermodal matching of MEG, PET and MR data provides a tool for relating estimated neuromagnetic field locations to task-specific rCBF changes in individual subjects. Our method offers the perspective of refined dipole modelling.

  20. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  1. Development of Intermodal Transport and Logistics in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Tadić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport and logistics play a key role in economic and social terms by ensuring the competitiveness, economic growth and employment. Intermodal transport has received an increased žattention due to problems of road congestion, environmental concerns and traffic’ safety. Strategic importance of speed, reliability and flexibility in the supply chain is forcing companies to re-examine traditional logistics services. As a result, interest in addressing the problem of intermodal transport and logistics is growing. In order to improve efficiency and sustainability of freight transport in Europe, the European Commission has launched a series of initiatives, projects and has defined the basic directions of development of intermodal transport and logistics. The paper presents the recommendations and measures for the further development of intermodal transport and logistics in Serbia.

  2. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  3. Development of Intermodal Transport at Croatian Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hurtiš

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the railway transport in the EU, in particularthe acceptance of the E U instructions which regulate theright of "the open access to the railway" is the reason forchanges on the European intermodal transport market. TheCommunity of European Railways creates the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways which will exclusively perform railfreight transport. That freeway net has been created in EUmember countries, but they are also extended to the countrieswith the candidate status for the membership in the EU, as wellas to the countries outside the European Union where the qualityof the railway infrastructure enables transport service to beperformed at the required level. Transport at the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways will be performed, for the most part,by the contemporary technologies which enable redirection ofthe goods from the road ways to the railways. Croatian Railwaysis planning to build and open truck terminals by the beginningof the year 2007 in Spacva, Split, Rijeka, Koprivnica andZagreb. This is necessary in order to introduce its own trains forthe transportation of trucks (so calledRo-La trains, which willhelp redirect approximately 150,000 heavy trucks a year fromthe roads to the railways. That way Croatia will profit at theecological and economic level, as well as regarding transportsafety.

  4. 75 FR 51419 - Requirements for Intermodal Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... for intermodal equipment providers (IEPs) to have in place inspection, repair and maintenance programs... require IEPs to register and file with FMCSA an Intermodal Equipment Provider Identification Report (Form... mechanical defects and deficiencies. The regulations also require IEPs to mark each intermodal chassis...

  5. Towards the future: The promise of intermodal and multimodal transportation systems. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.E.; Easley, R.B.; Fowler, T.M.; Gabler, W.L.; Govind, S.

    1995-02-01

    Issues relating to intermodal and multimodal transportation systems are introduced and defined. Intermodal and multimodal transportation solutions are assessed within the framework of legislative efforts such as Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Federal involvement in state intermodal transportation systems, and state responses to the growing intermodal and multimodal trends are also reviewed. The roles and responsibilities of the Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) in the post-ISTEA world is examined and the impacts of legislative mandates considered. As a case study, the workings of the Houston MPO are examined. Private sector intermodal and multimodal involvement is addressed, including issues in management, regulatory, financial, economical, environmental, and even physical constraints. Effects of regulation on private sector intermodalism are discussed, as are case studies in partnering and management.

  6. Voluntary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  7. Voluntary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  8. The Particle in the box Intermode traces in the propagator

    CERN Document Server

    Marzoli, I; Friesch, O M; Kaplan, A E; Schleich, W P; Schleich, and W. P.

    1998-01-01

    Characteristic structures such as canals and ridges --intermode traces-- emerge in the spacetime representation of the probability distribution of a particle in a one-dimensional box. We show that the corresponding propagator already contains these structures. We relate their visibility to the factorization property of the initial wave packet.

  9. Intermodal transport and distribution patterns in ports relationship to hinterland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.; Ilie, A.; Oprea, C.

    2017-08-01

    It is of great importance to examine all interactions between ports, terminals, intermodal transport and logistic actors of distribution channels, as their optimization can lead to operational improvement. Proposed paper starts with a brief overview of different goods types and allocation of their logistic costs, with emphasis on storage component. Present trend is to optimize storage costs by means of port storage area buffer function, by making the best use of free storage time available, most of the ports offer. As a research methodology, starting point is to consider the cost structure of a generic intermodal transport (storage, handling and transport costs) and to link this to intermodal distribution patterns most frequently cast-off in port relationship to hinterland. The next step is to evaluate storage costs impact on distribution pattern selection. For a given value of port free storage time, a corresponding value of total storage time in the distribution channel can be identified, in order to substantiate a distribution pattern shift. Different scenarios for transport and handling costs variation, recorded when distribution pattern shift, are integrated in order to establish the reaction of the actors involved in port related logistic and intermodal transport costs evolution is analysed in order to optimize distribution pattern selection.

  10. Arrangements of intermodal transport in the field of conflicting conventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F. Haak (Krijn); M.A.I.H. Hoeks (Marian)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe continuing advance of containerization emphasizes the need for a more uniform legal approach to international intermodal transport. With the current lack of a uniform instrument regulating such transport, the next best solution - both in legal theory as well as in practice - seems to

  11. Visual-Proprioceptive Intermodal Perception Using Point Light Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuckler, Mark A.; Fairhall, Jennifer L.

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments explored 5- and 7-month-olds' intermodal coordination of proprioceptive information produced by leg movements and visual movement information specifying these same motions. Results suggested that coordination of visual and proprioceptive inputs is constrained by infants' information processing of the displays and have…

  12. On the generalized cost - demand elasticity of intermodal container transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourquin, B.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Elasticities for freight transport in the context of mode choice are hardly available for markets in which intermodal container transport competes with truck only transport. These elasticities are expected to be different, however, from values found in the literature for traditional freight

  13. The comprehensive intermodal planning system in distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Dziamski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Goods distribution by containers has opened new opportunities for them in the global supply chain network. Standardization of transportation units allow to simplify transport logistics operations and enable the integration of different types of transport. Currently, container transport is the most popular means of transport by sea, but recent studies show an increase in its popularity in land transport. In the paper presented the concept of a comprehensive intermodal planning system in a distributed environment which enables more efficient use containers in the global transport. The aim of this paper was to formulate and develop new concept of Internet Intermodal Planning System in distribution environment, supporting the common interests of the consignors and the logistic service providers by integrating the transportation modes, routing, logistics operations and scheduling in order to create intermodal transport plans. Methods: In the paper presented and discussed the new approach to the management of logistics resources used in international intermodal transport. Detailed analysis of proposed classification of variety transportation means has been carried out along with their specific properties, which may affect the time and cost of transportation. Have been presented the modular web-based distribution planning system supporting container transportation planning. Conducted the analysis of the main planning process and curried out the discussion on the effectiveness of the new web-based container transport planning system. Result and conclusions: This paper presents a new concept of the distributed container transport planning system integrating the available on the market logistics service providers with freight exchange. Specific to container planning new transport categories has been identified which simplify and facilitate the management of intermodal planning process. The paper presents a modular structure of Integrated

  14. Modelling the full trip costs of urban intermodal passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chao-Fu; Papon, Francis

    2011-01-01

    To face the competition of private motorized vehicles, intermodal transport becomes a successful condition to encourage public transport and non-motorized modes and to reasonably control the continual growth of individual motorized vehicles in the city area. Therefore, the objective of this research intends to develop a comparable calculating model combining the private, public and external costs of passenger urban transport networks. Private costs consist in the operational-private costs bor...

  15. SUSTAINABLE INTERMODAL FREIGHT BY ROUTE CHOICE WITH PRACTICALITY CONSTRAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadogo, Marie; Anciaux, Didier; Roy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The transfer of goods and raw materials from one point to another in a supply chain is by various transportation modes namely road, air, sea or inland water, railway... These transportation modes generate a variety of potentially harmful environmental impacts. Indeed, the growth of multimodal infrastructures and intermodal services contributes to intensify the environmental impacts. The levels and types of pollution due to transport mainly depend on the combination of ...

  16. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hanaoka

    2011-07-01

    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  17. Information management in intermodal transport; Informationsmanagement im Kombinierten Verkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, J.W.; Voss, S. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. Allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Wirtschaftsinformatik und Informationsmanagement

    2000-07-01

    Transport systems of the future will be more efficient and less polluting than the current systems. Intermodal transport is an interesting alternative, i.e. truck/railway or truck/ship systems. In spite of extensive state funding, systems of this type still fail to meet the standards to make them competitive. The contribution compares monomodal and intermodal systems and attempts to defines strategies to make intermodal systems more successful. [German] Vor dem Hintergrund des in den vergangenen Jahren kontinuierlich gestiegenen Verkehrsaufkommens und den damit in engem Zusammenhang stehenden Umweltproblemen sind fuer die Zukunft leistungsfaehige Transportsysteme gefordert, die eine weiter wachsende Verkehrsnachfrage im Vergleich zu den zur Zeit im Einsatz befindlichen Systemen umweltvertraeglicher abwickeln. Eine aussichtsreiche Alternative stellt in diesem Zusammenhang der Kombinierte Verkehr (KV) als intermodale Verkehrsform von Lkw und Eisenbahn bzw. Schiff dar. Trotz einer Vielzahl in der Vergangenheit erfolgter staatlicher Foerdermassnahmen fehlt es dem KV nach wie vor in vielen Bereichen an der noetigen Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit, was sich in einem entsprechend niedrigen Marktanteil am Gueterverkehrsmarkt niederschlaegt. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird dieser bei vordergruendiger Betrachtung zunaechst als Widerspruch anmutende Sachverhalt im Rahmen einer vergleichenden Analyse von verschiedenen monomodalen Transportsystemen und dem KV untersucht. Die dabei ermittelten Ergebnisse dienen im weiteren als Ausgangspunkt zur Diskussion von Ansaetzen, die ein modernes betriebliches Informationsmanagement im Hinblick auf eine Verbesserung der Akzeptanz des KV bietet. (orig.)

  18. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USNS SEALIFT ARABIAN SEA using BT and XBT casts in the NE/NW Pacific Ocean and other seas from 09 July 1986 to 15 February 1988 (NODC Accession 8800086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USNS SEALIFT ARABIAN SEA in the Northwest / Northeast Pacific Ocean,...

  19. 76 FR 32906 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report for Intermodal Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... requirements. That rule requires Intermodal Equipment Providers (IEPs) to register and file with FMCSA an... regulations also require IEPs to mark each intermodal chassis offered for transportation in interstate commerce with a DOT identification number. These regulations, for the first time, make IEPs subject to the...

  20. 76 FR 29169 - Requirements for Intermodal Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... equipment providers (IEPs) remain in effect, as well as the requirements for IEPs to take appropriate action... regulations require intermodal equipment providers (IEPs) to register and file with FMCSA an Intermodal... made IEPs subject to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs), and called for shared...

  1. The performance of intermodal inland waterway transport: Modeling conditions influencing its competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.; Konings, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, numerous obstacles have been identified which prevent the (extensive) use of intermodal transport. A major motivation to promote intermodal transport is that its cost performance is often assumed better than road-only transport. Considering that the cost of transport services remains one

  2. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks : a performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal termina

  3. Intermodal Learning in Infancy: Learning on the Basis of Two Kinds of Invariant Relations in Audible and Visible Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the development of intermodal perception in infancy by means of a new method, the intermodal learning method. Results support the claim that only subjects who had been familiarized with appropriate and synchronous film and soundtrack pairs showed evidence of intermodal learning. (Author/RWB)

  4. Railroad Terminals and Stations - INTERMODAL_TERMINAL_NTAD_IN: Intermodal Terminal Facilities in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1:100,000 Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — BTS metadata states – “The Intermodal Terminal Facilities data set contains geographic data for trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (COFC) highway...

  5. Railroad Terminals and Stations - INTERMODAL_TERMINAL_NTAD_IN: Intermodal Terminal Facilities in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1:100,000 Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BTS metadata states – “The Intermodal Terminal Facilities data set contains geographic data for trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (COFC) highway...

  6. A system dynamics approach to intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebo, D.

    1996-08-01

    Intermodalism refers to interconnections among modes of transportation, e.g., road, rail, water, and air. Effective intermodal planning must cross boundaries between the public and private sectors as well as transportation modes. The development of an effective and efficient intermodal transportation system requires the identification of barriers to intermodal transportation and the investigation of the impact of proposed changes in infrastructure development, policies, regulations, and planning. A systems approach is necessary to adequately represent the interaction between the sometimes incompatible concerns of all modes and stakeholders. A systems dynamics model of intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston has been developed to highlight leverage points, hidden assumptions, second order effects resulting from feedback loops and system drivers. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the system dynamics model work.

  7. Dynamics of intermodal logistical systems on containerisation and road transportation in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Govender

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The underlying port operations in Durban, South Africa, epitomise intense global competitiveness in the intermodal logistics chain. The link between containerisation and theroad transport network can falter as a result of the dynamics of the logistics system. The main objective of the study was to establish the extent of the intermodal challenges of logistical systems on containerisation to which the role of intermodal sea–road freight transportation enhances the logistical competitiveness. It further examined the intermodal relationship on containerised freight between the challenges of containerisation processes and the effects on road freight transport mode. The impact of containerisation on intermodalism, the sea–road freight transport network and the technological attributes of security-based systems and logistical tracking protocols influence the systematic movement of containers on Durban’s public roads.

  8. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  9. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  10. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  11. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  12. Measurement of the intermodal crosstalk of a bent multimode waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Changyun; Wei, Bing; Gencheng, Wang; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-09-20

    We quantitatively investigate the main source of the intermodal crosstalk of a silicon-based bent multimode waveguide by experiment. The measurement is performed through time-domain scanning low-coherence interferometry. From the measurement results, one can not only calculate the modal crosstalk, but can also locate the position where the crosstalk appears. The results indicate that the modal mismatch at the points where the curvature of the waveguide changes is the main origin of the modal crosstalk. For a two-mode waveguide with a bending radius of 5 μm at 1310 nm, the crosstalk is as high as -20 and -16  dB for the fundamental and first-order mode, respectively. This work gives us a deep insight into how the guided modes actually propagate through the bent waveguide.

  13. On-chip Inter-modal Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kittlaus, Eric A; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin interactions mediate nonlinear coupling between photons and acoustic phonons through an optomechanical three-wave interaction. Though these nonlinearities were previously very weak in silicon photonic systems, the recent emergence of new optomechanical waveguide structures have transformed Brillouin processes into one of the strongest and most tailorable on-chip nonlinear interactions. New technologies based on Brillouin couplings have formed a basis for amplification, filtering, and nonreciprocal signal processing techniques. In this paper, we demonstrate strong guided-wave Brillouin scattering between light fields guided in distinct spatial modes of a silicon waveguide for the first time. This inter-modal coupling creates dispersive symmetry breaking between Stokes and anti-Stokes processes, permitting single-sideband amplification and wave dynamics that permit near-unity power conversion. Combining these physics with integrated mode-multiplexers enables novel device topologies and elim...

  14. Situation and Perspectives of Intermodal Logistics in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bokor

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Logistics has become one of the determining factors inHungarian economic policy. This is supported by the fact thatlogistics has been included into the key programmes of the 2"dHungarian National Development Plan. Intermodallogisticsservices belong to the most important instruments emphasisedby the Hungarian transport policy. Although there have beenseveral improvements in the field of logistics centres and combinedtransport the national intennodallogistics network cannotbe regarded as finished yet. That is why additional investmentsare needed. However, the new developments shall besupported by updated strategic conceptions taking into considerationthe current and future trends in technology and economy,with special regard to changed conditions coming fromjoining the EU This paper aims to analyse the national and internationalbackground of intermodal logistics strategy improvementsand furthermore to draw conclusions on the possibledevelopment directions applicable for specific Hungariancircumstances.

  15. Tabu Search Algorithm to Solve the Intermodal Terminal Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karimi∗

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of appropriate terminals is effective as the main gate entrance to international, national and local transportation network for economic performance, traffic safety and reduction of environmental pollution. This paper focuses on intermodal terminal location problem. The main objective of this problem is to determine which of the terminals of a set of candidate terminals should be opened such that the total cost be minimized. In this problem, demands of customers will ship directly (without the use of terminals between the origin and destination of customers, or intermodaly (by using two terminals or even by combination of both methods. Since this problem is NP-hard, metaheuristics algorithms such as tabu search (TS is used to solve it. The algorithm is compared with greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP on instance of this problem. Results show the efficiency of TS in comparision with GRASP.

  16. Resistance and Stock Propulsion on the High Speed Sealift (HSS) Hybrid Contra-Rotating Shaft-Pod (HCRSP) Concept, Model 5653-3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    pod transmission dynamometers, of 177 lbf. thrust (T) / 112 in-lbf. torque (Q) capacity, manufactured by Force Technology of Denmark. The two pods were... spurred the exploration of alternative ship designs as well as non-conventional propulsion designs on monohulls. The high speed sealift mission profile...complexity required of the coaxial shaftline drive system, and induced problems with expensive gear sets, bearings and seals. Using a pod to drive the aft

  17. A distance meter using a terahertz intermode beat in an optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shuko; Yokoyama, Toshiyuki; Hagihara, Yuki; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2009-09-28

    We propose a distance meter that utilizes an intermode beat of terahertz frequency in an optical frequency comb to perform high resolution and high dynamic range absolute distance measurements. The proposed system is based on a novel method, called multiheterodyne cross-correlation detection, in which intermode beat frequencies are scaled down to radio frequencies by optical mixing of two detuned optical frequency combs with a nonlinear optical crystal. Using this method, we obtained a 1.056 THz intermode beat and achieved a distance resolution of 0.820 microm from its phase measurement. Absolute distance measurement using 1.056 THz and 8.187 GHz intermode beats was also demonstrated in the range of 10 mm, resulting in a precision of 0.688 microm.

  18. On Transport Service Selection in Intermodal Rail/Road Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bierwirth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal rail/road freight transport constitutes an alternative to long-haul road transport for the distribution of large volumes of goods. The paper introduces the intermodal transportation problem for the tactical planning of mode and service selection. In rail mode, shippers either book train capacity on a per-unit basis or charter block trains completely. Road mode is used for short-distance haulage to intermodal terminals and for direct shipments to customers. We analyze the competition of road and intermodal transportation with regard to freight consolidation and service cost on a model basis. The approach is applied to a distribution system of an industrial company serving customers in eastern Europe. The case study investigates the impact of transport cost and consolidation on the optimal modal split.

  19. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.

  20. EEG investigations of duration discrimination: the intermodal effect is induced by an attentional bias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gontier, Emilie; Hasuo, Emi; Mitsudo, Takako; Grondin, Simon

    2013-01-01

    ... (intramodal intervals) rather than from different sensory modalities (intermodal intervals). The present electrophysiological study was conducted to determine the mechanisms which modulated the performances in inter- and intramodal conditions...

  1. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  2. Integration of inland waterway transport in the intermodal supply chain: a taxonomy of research challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Caris, An; Limbourg, Sabine; Macharis, Cathy; Van Lier, Tom; Cools, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies research opportunities which will enable the further integration of inland waterway transport in the intermodal supply chain. Intermodal transport may be interpreted as a chain of actors who supply a transport service. Inland navigation can play a crucial role in increasing supply chain service performance. A first group of research challenges lies in the evolving relationship between transport geography and logistics activities. The next set of research challenges has t...

  3. High-energy fiber lasers at non-traditional colours, via intermodal nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Chen, Y.; Steinvurzel, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose exploiting intermodal four-wave mixing for energy-scalable tuneable fiber lasers, hitherto restricted to low powers, constrained by dispersion-tailoring limitations in PCFs. Conversion over an octave, at mJ-energy-levels, appears feasible.......We propose exploiting intermodal four-wave mixing for energy-scalable tuneable fiber lasers, hitherto restricted to low powers, constrained by dispersion-tailoring limitations in PCFs. Conversion over an octave, at mJ-energy-levels, appears feasible....

  4. Agile Port and Intermodal Transport Operations Model to Secure Lean Supply Chains Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Beškovnik; Elen Twrdy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a strategic view of industry’s expectations from the lean supply chains concept in relation to the container shipping industry. The global market is putting the shipping industry under strong pressure as new trends in logistics seek new opportunities to cut unnecessary costs and players in the supply chain management and in the intermodal transport. For this reason we performed a research on how the intermodal transport can secure efficient transport operations. The emph...

  5. The concept of intermodal network development in Poland using multi-agent systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek MINDUR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The market share and the development of intermodal haulages, they are still at a very low level. It amounts in total goods transported by rail to 2,5% - 3%. The major reason for this situation is lack of coherent method for intermodal network designing. Such method should take into consideration strong relations between transport users, transport service providers, so the micro scale, as well as the regions where they are operating, so the meta scale.The aim of this paper is to present method which makes possible elimination of existing barriers in intermodal transport. The proposed method, for the sake of relations between actors involved in intermodal transport organisation, refers to multi-agent system concept. This system assumes coordinated actions in favour of concrete problem solution with support of cooperating agents, that is, in described paper, actors connected with intermodal transport.Paper presents results of the research project N509 398536, called: „Intermodal logistics network in Poland – concept of model solutions and implementation aspects” carried out by the Institute of Logistics and Warehousing under scientific leadership of professor Leszek Mindur.

  6. Numerical analysis of intermodal delay in few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing in optical fiber communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Munir; XIN Xiang-jun; LIU Bo; Abdul Latif; Aftab Hussain; Shahab Ahmad Niazi

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve higher spectral efficiency,mode division multiplexing (MDM) in few-mode fibers is a new research area.The idea faces lots of technical issues including intermodal delay and mode coupling which limit the achievable length of the system.This paper is designated to complete the analysis of intermodal delay in step-index few-mode fibers.We analyze numerically all the parameters of fiber,which could impact intermodal delay in few-mode fibers and identify the conditions which can increase the number of multiplex modes without significant increase in maximum intermodal delay.

  7. Intermodal auditory, visual, and tactile attention modulates early stages of neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M; Knight, Robert T

    2009-04-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and gamma band oscillatory responses (GBRs) to examine whether intermodal attention operates early in the auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. To control for the effects of spatial attention, we spatially coregistered all stimuli and varied the attended modality across counterbalanced blocks in an intermodal selection task. In each block, participants selectively responded to either auditory, visual, or vibrotactile stimuli from the stream of intermodal events. Auditory and visual ERPs were modulated at the latencies of early cortical processing, but attention manifested later for tactile ERPs. For ERPs, auditory processing was modulated at the latency of the Na (29 msec), which indexes early cortical or thalamocortical processing and the subsequent P1 (90 msec) ERP components. Visual processing was modulated at the latency of the early phase of the C1 (62-72 msec) thought to be generated in the primary visual cortex and the subsequent P1 and N1 (176 msec). Tactile processing was modulated at the latency of the N160 (165 msec) likely generated in the secondary association cortex. Intermodal attention enhanced early sensory GBRs for all three modalities: auditory (onset 57 msec), visual (onset 47 msec), and tactile (onset 27 msec). Together, these results suggest that intermodal attention enhances neural processing relatively early in the sensory stream independent from differential effects of spatial and intramodal selective attention.

  8. Detailed phase matching characterization of inter-modal four-wave mixing in a two-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Jung, Y.; Begleris, I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups.......We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups....

  9. Study of inter-modal four wave mixing in two few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmigiani, F.; Jung, Y.; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study inter-modal four-wave mixing (FWM) in few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties. The possibility of transmitting two spatial modes without intermodal FWM cross-talk in the C-band is presented....

  10. Intermodal Matching on the Example of Sound and Color Connection in Norm and Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyachenko A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the initial period of research of synesthesia and further work, experimental and theoretical, related to the study of various intermodal correspondences. Information about the presence of a statistically significant phenomenon of various intermodal correspondences in healthy people (which includes for example the connection of sound and color is provided. Present experiment reveals that the phenomenon of sound-color correspondences undergoes destructive changes in patients with schizophrenia compared with that in healthy individuals, but does not detect new distinct patterns.

  11. Generation of spatially pure photon pairs in a multimode nonlinear waveguide using intermodal dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Karpinski, Michal; Banaszek, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental realization of type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4) nonlinear waveguide. We demonstrate that by careful exploitation of intermodal dispersion in the waveguide it is feasible to produce photon pairs in well defined transverse modes without any additional spatial filtering at the output. Spatial characteristics is verified by measurements of the M2 beam quality factors. We also prepared a postselected polarization-entangled two-photon state shown to violate Bell's inequality. Similar techniques based on intermodal dispersion can be used to generate spatial entanglement and hyperentanglement.

  12. Intermodal Čerenkov radiation in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an intermodal Čerenkov radiation effect in a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber with a mode crossing (i.e., two guided modes having the same propagation constant at the same wavelength). A frequency-shifted soliton in the vicinity of the mode-crossing wavelength emits a phase-matched dispersive wave in a different propagation mode. We develop a theoretical explanation for this nonlinear optical effect and demonstrate that the mode crossing in HOM fibers can be utilized to achieve simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion; the strength of this intermodal nonlinear interaction can be tuned by controlled fiber bending.

  13. 77 FR 34846 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report for Intermodal Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... (IEPs) to retain--driver-vehicle inspection reports (DVIRs) when the driver has neither found nor been.... The rule also eliminates the recordkeeping requirement for intermodal equipment providers (IEPs) to... the SAFETEA-LU requirements. That rule requires IEPs to register and file with FMCSA an IEP...

  14. Some approaches to reduce transport time of intermodal services: Smart rail investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rail intermodal services are an alternative to all-road services if the average transport time offered by these services is at least comparable. One of the determinants of transport time is how well actors in the transport chain cooperate. In this paper it is shown that substantial improvements in r

  15. Optimizing Intermodal Train Schedules with a Design Balanced Network Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    We present a modeling approach for optimizing intermodal trains schedules based on an infrastructure divided into time-dependent train paths. The formulation can be generalized to a capacitated multi commodity network design model with additional design balance constraints. We present a Tabu Search...

  16. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track?: Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, wich is epresented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which ndicate the economic performance of the

  17. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  18. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  19. Interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with MR enterography and CT enterography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael D; Ormstrup, Tina; Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel;

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) visualizes small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) and its complications with high accuracy. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel CD....

  20. Intermodal and cross-polarization four-wave mixing in large-core hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin;

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing is considered in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, combining photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance. Co- and orthogonally polarized pump, signal and idler fields are considered numerically by calculating the parametric gain and experimentally...... by spontaneous degenerate four-wave mixing. Intermodal and birefringence assisted intramodal phase matching is observed. Good agreement between calculations and experimental observations is obtained. Intermodal four-wave mixing is achieved experimentally with a conversion efficiency of 17%. (C) 2015 Optical...

  1. Intermodal and cross-polarization four-wave mixing in large-core hybrid photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2015-03-09

    Degenerate four-wave mixing is considered in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, combining photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance. Co- and orthogonally polarized pump, signal and idler fields are considered numerically by calculating the parametric gain and experimentally by spontaneous degenerate four-wave mixing. Intermodal and birefringence assisted intramodal phase matching is observed. Good agreement between calculations and experimental observations is obtained. Intermodal four-wave mixing is achieved experimentally with a conversion efficiency of 17%.

  2. A Study in Sea-Air Intermodal Port Selection: Strategic Decision Making for United States Southern Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    infrastructure and broader considerations on future investment in new infrastructure. Congestion at the intermodal line haul connectors and...ships like the newly created Emma Maersk . To take advantage of greater economies of scale, many ocean carriers are relying on larger vessels; putting...and can savings of 10-15 percent due to deduced line haul costs (27:2). Freight shipped on one intermodal train could take upwards of 200 to 280

  3. Intermodal Raman Scattering between Full Vectorial Modes in Few Moded Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Ramachandran, Siddharth; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigate intermodal Raman interaction. The pump is in the fundamental mode, HE11, and the signal is in either of two full vectorial modes, TM01 or TE01. The on-off gain is approximately 3 dB for both modes, using 4 km of few-moded fiber and 400 mW of pump power.......We experimentally investigate intermodal Raman interaction. The pump is in the fundamental mode, HE11, and the signal is in either of two full vectorial modes, TM01 or TE01. The on-off gain is approximately 3 dB for both modes, using 4 km of few-moded fiber and 400 mW of pump power....

  4. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  5. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhu Ruan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs and assign medial aid points (MAPs to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is.

  6. Operational assessment of intermodality future in Belgium: Best-case scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Christine Maher Fouad; Limbourg, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    From the perspective of stimulating intermodal transport as an ecological and economically promising freight transport scheme in the EU, this paper is devoted to assess its future position with respect to crucial and plausible operational factors that were selected a priori. The study is conducted in the context of a best-case scenario development, within a rational and optimal decision making framework. We address this goal by designing a realistic medium-term network design and pricing mode...

  7. Far-detuned cascaded intermodal four-wave mixing in a multimode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupiol, R; Bendahmane, A; Krupa, K; Tonello, A; Fabert, M; Kibler, B; Sylvestre, T; Barthelemy, A; Couderc, V; Wabnitz, S; Millot, G

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate far-detuned parametric frequency conversion processes in a few mode graded-index optical fibers pumped by a Q-switched picosecond laser at 1064 nm. Through a detailed analytical and numerical analysis, we show that the multiple sidebands are generated through a complex cascaded process involving inter-modal four-wave mixing. The resulting parametric wavelength detuning spans in the visible down to 405 nm and in the near-infrared up to 1355 nm.

  8. A deterministic annealing algorithm for the pre- and end-haulage of intermodal container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    CARIS, An; Janssens, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    The drayage of containers in the service area of an intermodal barge terminal is modelled as a full truckload pickup and delivery problem with time windows (FTPDPTW). Initial solutions are generated with an insertion heuristic and improved with three local search operators. In a post-optimization phase the three search operators are integrated in a deterministic annealing (DA) framework. The mechanism of the heuristic procedures is demonstrated with a numerical example. A sensitivity analysis...

  9. Quality management in intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Foscaches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal terminals play a key role in the logistics system, since they are an important link between food production and distribution. In the agrifood chain, quality management isn´t seen as a competitive advantage, but as an issue of survival. This study thus aims to identify the quality management phase in which the intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain are found. To this end, interviews were conducted, using semi-structured questionnaires, with the managers of 28 intermodal terminals located in the Midwest, South, Southeast, Northeast and Northern regions. It was found that most terminals are in the Strategic Quality Management era, the fourth era of quality management. In addition, it was observed that the specific tools of the agrifood sector are widely used by terminals. In addition, many terminals use tools from the first and second quality era. Among the tools of the fourth era, product tracking is the most widely used. Finally, it was possible to determine that the terminals in the third quality era, Quality Assurance, have a higher average operating efficiency than terminals in the fourth era, Strategic Quality Management.

  10. Polarization-dependent intermodal four-wave mixing in a birefringent multimode photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Feng; Zhou, Guiyao; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Wang, Liang; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2017-05-01

    In this Letter, polarization-dependent intermodal four-wave mixing (FWM) is demonstrated experimentally in a birefringent multimode photonic crystal fiber (BM-PCF) designed and fabricated in-house. Femtosecond pump pulses at wavelengths ∼800  nm polarized along one of the principal axes of the BM-PCF are coupled into a normal dispersion region away from the zero-dispersion wavelengths of the fundamental guided mode of the BM-PCF. Anti-Stokes and Stokes waves are generated in the 2nd guided mode at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively. For pump pulses at an average input power of 500 mW polarized along the slow axis, the conversion efficiencies ηas and ηs of the anti-Stokes and Stokes waves generated at wavelengths 579.7 and 1290.4 nm are 19% and 14%, respectively. For pump pulses polarized along the fast axis, the corresponding ηas and ηs at 530.4 and 1627 nm are 23% and 18%, respectively. We also observed that fiber bending and intermodal walk-off have a small effect on the polarization-dependent intermodal FWM-based frequency conversion process.

  11. An Intermodal Transport Route within the Hinterland of the Bakar Ro-Ro Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Baričević

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical/traffic position of the P01t of Rijeka is animportant factor in its integration into the European traffic system.In this respect, Bakar emerges as an important point,which, unfortunately, has not been sufficiently valorised andtherefore holds much unused potential (especially in the formercoke plant area. The existing infrastructure facilities and theirtechnical and traffic elements synthesize the aim for a well-balancedmaritime, road and/or railway traffic. The road freighttransport routes correspond to the distant traffic itineraries towardsBakar, i.e. the Rijeka Traffic Junction, and further towardsthe Italian Port of Chioggia. These are the routes fromthe continental hinterland, i.e. Central and Eastern Europe,which primarily exist as two access routes from Zagreb andLjubljana and, secondarily from Dalmatia and !stria. In the future,the Rijeka Traffic Junction access road together with themotorway links will be integrated into the Rijeka by-pass Road.A possibility of introducing intermodal railway alternativeshould be considered as well as the ''piggyback" system. The assumptionsfor the justification of such operations should be examinedin a special research taking into consideration similar,already well-established intermodal services in Europe. Theset-up of the existing Rijeka Traffic Junction infrastructure andsuprastructure allows for an uninhibited start of an extremelypositive initiative. Howeve1; an efficient intermodal route betweenthe countries of Central and Eastern Europe and NorthernItalian ports is possible only with an integrated logistic support.

  12. Neural mechanisms of intermodal sustained selective attention with concurrently presented auditory and visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Saupe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated intermodal attention effects on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR and the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. For this purpose, 40 Hz amplitude modulated tones and a stream of flickering (7.5 Hz random letters were presented concurrently. By means of an auditory or visual target detection task, participants’ attention was directed to the respective modality for several seconds. Attention to the auditory stream led to a significant enhancement of the ASSR compared to when the visual stream was attended. This attentional modulation was located mainly in the right superior temporal gyrus. Vice versa, attention to the visual stream especially increased the second harmonic response of the SSVEP. This modulation was focused in the inferior occipital and lateral occipitotemporal gyrus of both hemispheres. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of amplitude modulation of the ASSR and the SSVEP by intermodal sustained attention. Our results open a new avenue of research to understand the basic neural mechanisms of intermodal attention in the human brain.

  13. Voluntary Simplicity: A Lifestyle Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This guide provides practical ideas for incorporating the concept of voluntary simplicity into home economics classes. Discussed in the first chapter are the need to study voluntary simplicity, its potential contributions to home economics, and techniques and a questionnaire for measuring student attitudes toward the concept. The remaining…

  14. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  15. Toward voluntary parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's proposal to license married parents for child rearing, and to deny the same opportunity to single and inept parents, springs from his deep concern for millions of youngsters cruelly subjected to abusive and neglectful rearing circumstances. Children from such inadequate homes grow up to have high rates of school failure, criminality, and drug addiction. The problem is clear, but Lykken's remedies of mandated marriage and parental licensure are unacceptable in U.S. society, where our reproductive rights are fortunately protected by our Constitution. As a devoted proponent of reproductive rights, I propose a legally and morally acceptable proposal to the same end. Increasing women's effective control of reproduction and moving toward entirely voluntary parenthood will accomplish the same goals without compromising our civil liberties.

  16. Enhanced intermodal four-wave mixing for visible and near-infrared wavelength generation in a photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Guiyao; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xian; Yu, Chongxiu; Wang, Kuiru; Yan, Binbin; Han, Ying; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate experimentally an enhanced intermodal four-wave mixing (FWM) process through coupling positively chirped femtosecond pulses into the deeply normal dispersion region of the fundamental mode of an in-house fabricated photonic crystal fiber (PCF). In the intermodal phase-matching scheme, the energy of the pump waves at 800 nm in the fundamental mode is efficiently converted into the anti-Stokes waves around 553 nm and the Stokes waves within the wavelength range of 1445-1586 nm in the second-order mode. The maximum conversion efficiency of η(as) and η(s) of anti-Stokes and Stokes waves can be up to 21% and 16%, respectively. The Stokes frequency shift Ω is 5580  cm(-1). The fiber bending and intermodal walk-off effect of pulses do not have significant influence on the nonlinear optical process.

  17. EEG investigations of duration discrimination: the intermodal effect is induced by an attentional bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Gontier

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that empty time intervals are better discriminated in the auditory than in the visual modality, and when delimited by signals delivered from the same (intramodal intervals rather than from different sensory modalities (intermodal intervals. The present electrophysiological study was conducted to determine the mechanisms which modulated the performances in inter- and intramodal conditions. Participants were asked to categorise as short or long empty intervals marked by auditory (A and/or visual (V signals (intramodal intervals: AA, VV; intermodal intervals: AV, VA. Behavioural data revealed that the performances were higher for the AA intervals than for the three other intervals and lower for inter- compared to intramodal intervals. Electrophysiological results indicated that the CNV amplitude recorded at fronto-central electrodes increased significantly until the end of the presentation of the long intervals in the AA conditions, while no significant change in the time course of this component was observed for the other three modalities of presentation. They also indicated that the N1 and P2 amplitudes recorded after the presentation of the signals which delimited the beginning of the intervals were higher for the inter- (AV/VA compared to the intramodal intervals (AA/VV. The time course of the CNV revealed that the high performances observed with AA intervals would be related to the effectiveness of the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of the ongoing interval. The greater amplitude of the N1 and P2 components during the intermodal intervals suggests that the weak performances observed in these conditions would be caused by an attentional bias induced by the cognitive load and the necessity to switch between modalities.

  18. Intermodal four-wave mixing from femtosecond pulse-pumped photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, H; Jiang, Z; Marks, D L; Boppart, S A

    2009-03-09

    Large Stokes-shift ( approximately 4700 cm(-1)) four-wave mixing is generated in a deeply normal dispersion regime from a 20 cm commercial large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber pumped by amplified approximately 800 nm femtosecond pulses. The phase-matching condition is realized through an intermodal scheme involving two pump photons in the fundamental fiber mode and a pair of Stokesanti-Stokes photons in a higher-order fiber mode. Over 7% conversion efficiency from the pump input to 586 nm anti-Stokes signal has been attained.

  19. Intermodal four-wave mixing in a higher-order-mode fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E. V.; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency intermodal four-wave-mixing process in an all-fiber system, comprising a picosecond fiber laser and a high-order-mode (HOM) fiber. Two pump photons in the LP01 mode of the fiber can generate an anti-Stokes photon in the LP01 mode and a Stokes photon in the LP02 mode. The wavelength dependent mode profiles of the HOM fiber produce significant spatial overlap between the modes involved. The anti-Stokes wave at 941 nm is generated with 20% conversion efficiency w...

  20. Analyzing voluntary medical incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yang; Richardson, James; Zhijian, Luan; Alafaireet, Patricia; Yoo, Illhoi

    2008-11-06

    Voluntary medical incident reports lacking consistency and accuracy impede the ultimate use of the reports for patient safety research. To improve this, two coders examined harm score usage in a voluntary medical incident reporting system where the harm scores were selected from a predefined list by different reporters. The two coders inter-rater agreement percent was 82%. The major categories and reviewed harm score jointly demonstrate that this process is critical and necessary in preparing the voluntary reports for further content and semantics analysis.

  1. Analyzing Impact of Intermodal Facilities on Design and Management of Biofuel Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksioglu, Sandra D [ORNL; Li, Song [ORNL; Zhang, Shu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petrolia, Daniel [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    The impact of an intermodal facility on location and transportation decisions for biofuel production plants is analyzed. Location decisions affect the management of the inbound and outbound logistics of a plant. This supply chain design and management problem is modeled as a mixed integer program. Input data for this model are location of intermodal facilities and available transportation modes, cost and cargo capacity for each transportation mode, geographical distribution of biomass feedstock and production yields, and biomass processing and inventory costs. Outputs from this model are the number, location, and capacity of biofuel production plants. For each plant, the transportation mode used, timing of shipments, shipment size, inventory size, and production schedule that minimize the delivery cost of biofuel are determined. The model proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for investors in the biofuels industry since it estimates the real cost of the business. The state of Mississippi is considered as the testing grounds for the model.

  2. The coastal transportation in Brazil - potential for the improvement of aiming intermodality logistic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes aspects related to coastal shipping in Brazil and its main actors and intermodal factors (road, rail, fluvial transportation etc. which corroborate to the increase of logistics competitiveness and efficiency of transportation in a large country like Brazil. The purpose of the study is bibliographic research on the topic, analyzing it inside the Brazilian scenario and also how it has been implemented in some countries. The objective of the study is also analyzing legislation which defines parameters to coastal shipping. This fact interferes directly with the logistics system and its intermodal aspects. If Brazil intends to reduce its logistics costs, coastal shipping should be an effective way to contribute to the Brazilian matrix of transport. Coastal shipping is supposed to bring competitive advantage and reduction of logistic costs. The conclusion is that integration is essential among the systems of domestic transportation and coastal shipping with its outstanding role in this environment, can contribute substantially to the Brazilian maritime industry.

  3. Discrimination of two neighboring intra- and intermodal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Hasuo, Emi; Labonté, Katherine; Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the discrimination of two neighboring intra- or inter-modal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli. Each of the three markers was a flash (visual-V) or a sound (auditory-A). The first and last markers were of the same modality, while the second one was either A or V, resulting in four conditions: VVV, VAV, AVA and AAA. Participants judged whether the second interval, whose duration was systematically varied, was shorter or longer than the 500-ms first interval. Compared with VVV and AAA, discrimination was impaired with VAV, but not so much with AVA (in Experiment 1). Whereas VAV and AVA consisted of the same set of single intermodal intervals (VA and AV), discrimination was impaired in the VAV compared to the AVA condition. This difference between VAV and AVA could not be attributed to the participants' strategy to perform the discrimination task, e.g., ignoring the standard interval or replacing the visual stimuli with sounds in their mind (in Experiment 2). These results are discussed in terms of sequential grouping according to sensory similarity.

  4. The Metalanguage of “Visual Design” into the Classroom for the Construction of Intermodal Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Papademetriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that little research has been conducted to date in the classroom about the exploitation of aspects of “visual grammar” for the teaching of literacy, the purpose of this study is to provide research data to support the adoption of a common image/text relations metalanguage in educational practice as an effective tool for critically negotiating, and mainly, for composing intermodal meanings. Forty-six sixth-grade students who attend a state primary school in the city of Ptolemaida, northern Greece participated in the study. The materials used in the study consisted of: (a informational, print-based multimodal texts and, (b compositions produced by students, at first individually and then in groups. The overall research is designed on a pre-test phase, an instructional intervention phase, and a post-test phase. The qualitative comparative analysis of student compositions manifests that the metalanguage of “visual design” constitutes a truly promising, pedagogically utilizable tool for the description, interpretation and comprehension of the interactions among the various semiotic modes co-existing in multimodal ensembles. This entails the development of multimodal and visual literacy skills by the primary education students. These findings highlight the need for adoption and incorporation of such a metalanguage for the design of curricula facilitating the teaching of literacy, in order to reframe the monomodal nature of communication. Keywords: metalanguage, visual grammar, social semiotic theory, semiotic functional linguistics, multimodality, school context/s, intersemiosis, intermodal synergies

  5. The Notion of Voluntary Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)

  6. Multimode optical waveguide enabling microbends with low inter-mode crosstalk for mode-multiplexed optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin

    2014-11-01

    A vertical multimode waveguide enabling micro-bends is proposed for mode-multiplexed optical interconnect links. The multimode waveguide is designed to be singlemode in the lateral direction and support higher-order modes in the vertical direction. The characteristic analysis for an SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based vertical multimode waveguide with a ~0.3μm × ~1.5μm cross section is given as an example. The theoretical pure bending loss is negligible for all the lowest eight modes when the bending radius is even less than 5μm. When light goes through the structure consisting of a straight section connected with a bent section, it is found that some inter-mode crosstalk is caused by the significant mode hybridization happening in the sharply bent multimode waveguide. For the designed SOI-based vertical multimode waveguide, the inter-mode crosstalk is lower than -20dB even when the bending radius is chosen as small as R = 10μm, which is one order smaller than that for the traditional lateral multimode waveguide (whose minimal bending radius is about 130μm). The inter-mode crosstalk can be even reduced to -30dB when choosing R = 30μm. Such a multimode optical waveguide microbend with low inter-mode crosstalk is promising for realizing compact mode-multiplexing links.

  7. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    -efficient choice of road routes, etc. This represents potentials and barriers for promotion of intermodal transport solutions, since it points to the importance of governance of transport networks by different transport stakeholders as "gate-keepers" for what kind of transport modes and routes are selected...

  8. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  9. Voluntary organisation and adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Elsdon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The author starts by offering a definition of voluntary organisations. He then discusses their importance and role, focusing on the issue of adult education wi­ thin these organisations. He also wells upon learning and change of voluntary organisation members, making use of the results of a study he conducted together with his collaborators. One of their fin­dings has been that voluntary organisati­ons, due to their organisational targets li­ke painting, singing or caring for people in need, lead their members to learning, i.e. essentially content learning. Moreo­ver, voluntary organisations offer a fair number of opportunities for social lear­ning and change. ln spite of the fact that the respondents were mostly not aware of the outcomes of their learning and change, careful listeners conducting the interview made them understand the im­portance of the learning they had gone through. The author concludes by poin­ ting out that formal education of adults can get its inspiration in learning in voluntary organisations. On the other hand, such learning would benefit greatly from findings and methods of formal education of adults.

  10. Design-as-inference: Probability-based design of intermodal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggans, Paul M.; Henderson, R. Wesley; Cao, Lei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a method for designing intermodal freight rail-to-highway terminals using Bayesian model selection. Each model consists of a unique network of cities and rail terminals. The model parameters are the amount of freight flowing on each individual path in the network. The prior distribution constrains the freight flowing on each path between each pair of origin and destination cities to Gaussian distributions with means corresponding to the estimated freight demand between the cities. The likelihood function favors low total cost in the network and penalizes routing schemes that exceed terminal capacities. Nested sampling is used to compute the Bayesian evidence for each model. The paper describes the generation of, results from, and conclusions drawn from a realistic test case.

  11. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert van Eeden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  12. V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometer for high-temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhen; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tan, Xiaoling; Gao, Rong

    2015-01-10

    Novel V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometers fabricated by CO2 laser irradiation on a standard single-mode fiber are described. The high-order cladding modes are excited due to the special V-groove structure. The interferometers are classified as Mach-Zehnder and Michelson type based on the way they are structured. Benefiting from the large difference of thermal coefficients of the core and high-order cladding modes, both types receive high temperature sensitivity by monitoring the wavelength shift of the interference spectrum, and their responses to temperature are similar. Compared with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Michelson interferometer is more compact and more flexible in application.

  13. Intermodal transfer in temporal discrimination. [of visual and acoustic stimuli duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm, J. S.; Stutz, R. M.; Vassolo, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    This study determined if training for accuracy in temporal discrimination would transfer across sensory modalities. A fractionation method was used in which subjects bisected the durations of acoustic and visual signals at three standard intervals (6, 12, and 18 sec). Absolute error was the performance index. Half of the subjects were trained with acoustic stimuli and then tested in vision; the remainder were trained in vision and tested in audition. Similar negatively accelerated acquisition functions were noted for both modalities. Positive intermodal transfer, characterized by symmetry across modalities, was obtained at all standard durations. The results were considered to provide support for the notion that a common mechanism underlies temporal discriminations in different sensory systems.

  14. Intermodal four-wave mixing in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-10-15

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency intermodal four-wave-mixing process in an all-fiber system, comprising a picosecond fiber laser and a high-order-mode (HOM) fiber. Two pump photons in the LP(01) mode of the fiber can generate an anti-Stokes photon in the LP(01) mode and a Stokes photon in the LP(02) mode. The wavelength dependent mode profiles of the HOM fiber produce significant spatial overlap between the modes involved. The anti-Stokes wave at 941 nm is generated with 20% conversion efficiency with input pulse energy of 20 nJ. The guidance of the anti-Stokes and Stokes waves in the HOM fiber enhances system stability.

  15. Photon pair generation in multimode optical fibers via intermodal phase-matching

    CERN Document Server

    Pourbeyram, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of photon-pair generation in a multimode optical fiber via nonlinear four-wave mixing and intermodal phase-matching. We show that in multimode optical fibers, it is possible to generate correlated photon pairs in different fiber modes with large spectral shifts from the pump wavelength, such that the photon pairs are immune to contamination from spontaneous Raman scattering and residual pump photons. We also show that it is possible to generate factorable two-photon states exhibiting minimal spectral correlations between the photon pair components in conventional multimode fibers using commonly available pump lasers. It is also possible to simultaneously generate multiple factorable states from different FWM processes in the same fiber and over a wide range of visible spectrum by varying the pump wavelength without affecting the factorability of the states. Therefore, photon-pair generation in multimode optical fibers exhibits considerable potential for producing state engineered p...

  16. A Probabilistic, Non-parametric Framework for Inter-modality Label Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    in a principled way in inter-modality scenarios remains an open problem. Here we propose a label fusion scheme that does not require voxel intensity consistency between the atlases and the target image to segment. The method is based on a generative model of image data in which each intensity in the atlases has...... an associated conditional distribution of corresponding intensities in the target. The segmentation is computed using variational expectation maximization (VEM) in a Bayesian framework. The method was evaluated with a dataset of eight proton density weighted brain MRI scans with nine labeled structures......Multi-atlas techniques are commonplace in medical image segmentation due to their high performance and ease of implementation. Locally weighting the contributions from the different atlases in the label fusion process can improve the quality of the segmentation. However, how to define these weights...

  17. Intermodal timing relations and audio-visual speech recognition by normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M; Summerfield, Q

    1985-02-01

    Audio-visual identification of sentences was measured as a function of audio delay in untrained observers with normal hearing; the soundtrack was replaced by rectangular pulses originally synchronized to the closing of the talker's vocal folds and then subjected to delay. When the soundtrack was delayed by 160 ms, identification scores were no better than when no acoustical information at all was provided. Delays of up to 80 ms had little effect on group-mean performance, but a separate analysis of a subgroup of better lipreaders showed a significant trend of reduced scores with increased delay in the range from 0-80 ms. A second experiment tested the interpretation that, although the main disruptive effect of the delay occurred on a syllabic time scale, better lipreaders might be attempting to use intermodal timing cues at a phonemic level. Normal-hearing observers determined whether a 120-Hz complex tone started before or after the opening of a pair of liplike Lissajou figures. Group-mean difference limens (70.7% correct DLs) were - 79 ms (sound leading) and + 138 ms (sound lagging), with no significant correlation between DLs and sentence lipreading scores. It was concluded that most observers, whether good lipreaders or not, possess insufficient sensitivity to intermodal timing cues in audio-visual speech for them to be used analogously to voice onset time in auditory speech perception. The results of both experiments imply that delays of up to about 40 ms introduced by signal-processing algorithms in aids to lipreading should not materially affect audio-visual speech understanding.

  18. Primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije / SWOT analysis of the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Pamučar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazana primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije. Kao rezultat analize predstavljeni su ciljevi daljeg usavršavanja integralnog transporta, kao i mogući problemi generisani strateškim upravljanjem. / This work presents the SWOT analysis application to the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia. The analysis resulted in defining goals for the future development of intermodal transportation, as well as possible problems generated by strategic management.

  19. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  20. Social Cohesion and Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…

  1. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  2. Voluntary disclosure: Evidence from UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show tha

  3. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  4. Visual discrimination of delayed self-generated movement reveals the temporal limit of proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Mark; O'Driscoll, Kelly; Moore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the intermodal integration of visual-proprioceptive feedback via a novel visual discrimination task of delayed self-generated movement. Participants performed a goal-oriented task in which visual feedback was available only via delayed videos displayed on two monitors-each with different delay durations. During task performance, delay duration was varied for one of the videos in the pair relative to a standard delay, which was held constant. Participants were required to identify and use the video with the lesser delay to perform the task. Visual discrimination of the lesser-delayed video was examined under four conditions in which the standard delay was increased for each condition. A temporal limit for proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration of 3-5s was revealed by subjects' inability to reliably discriminate video pairs.

  5. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    OpenAIRE

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is a...

  6. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  7. Novel technique for measuring intermodal dispersion in optical fibers using the spectral interference in the Michelson interferometer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubina, Petr

    1999-07-01

    The spectral interference between two modes of an optical fiber, which shows up as a periodic modulation of the source spectrum at its output, cannot be used to measure intermodal dispersion in the optical fiber when the period of modulation is too small to be resolved by a spectrometer. We proposed a novel measuring technique utilizing a tandem configuration of a dispersive Michelson interferometer and a two-mode optical fiber in which the intermodal interference can be restored, and consequently spectral interference fringes can be resolved, even if a low-resolution spectrometer is used. In the tandem configuration of the Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber, the optical path difference (OPD) in the Michelson interferometer is adjusted close to the group OPD between modes of the optical fiber so that the low-frequency spectral modulation that can be processed is produced. The feasibility of this technique has successfully been demonstrated in obtaining the wavelength dependence of the group OPD between two modes of the optical fiber. Using the Fourier transform method in processing the measured spectral modulations and subtracting the effect of the dispersive Michelson interferometer, the intermodal dispersion of the two-mode optical fiber has been obtained.

  8. Managing and organizational changes of intermodal network in transition regions: the case of South-East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan BEŠKOVNIK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents managing changes, challenges and possibilities of intermodal nodes and network in a still transitional region of South-East Europe in order to assure sustainable cargo mobility in this part of Europe. The main thesis that transport and logistics sector in Northern and Southern European regions are completely different, using different infrastructure and the degree of automation, and with completely different managing philosophies has been persecuted. Consequently a research of sixteen main port systems in the region has been performed. According to obtained analyses, national states and economies have strong impacts on the development of national infrastructure and managing it. In addition, traditional managing philosophies are still very important, where the state has the power to decide when and how organizational and structural changes will occur. The private capital did not enter the intermodal infrastructure significantly over the last twenty years of transition. This is reflected in scarce competition and slow development. Intermodal nodes must cooperate between each other and develop possible synergies because according to the results obtained almost 90% of all traffic going through ports in South-East Europe is for local economies. The concept of nodal distribution is not present; therefore, logistics optimization is possible and inevitable. For this reason a model of port classification has been worked-out, where all sixteen ports have been classified according to their actual position and regional role.

  9. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  10. Research on the optical fiber gas flowmeters based on intermodal interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Hu, Hai-feng; Bi, Dan-juan; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a self-heating type optical fiber flowmeter with high sensitivity was proposed. The core-offset fiber structures were employed to couple a part of signal light into the fiber cladding layer, and the other part of light still propagated in the core layer. The intermodal interference between the two parts of light happened when the cladding modes were coupled back into core layer. Meanwhile, the high power laser was also introduced into fiber to heat the silver film coated on the surface of the cladding layer. When the cool gas flow passed, the temperature of the sensor probe decreased due to the heat transfer process. Because of the thermo-optic effect in the fiber, interference spectrum could be shifted when the temperature was changed. The experimental results showed the resolution of the proposed sensor was 2×10-2 m/s in the region of 0-8 m/s. The highest sensitivity could achieve 1537 pm/(m/s).

  11. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  12. Precise control of the optical microfiber tapering process based on monitoring of intermodal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xueliang; Song, Zhangqi; Wang, Jianfei; Meng, Zhou

    2014-12-10

    This paper describes the effective rectification of the estimated diameter of an optical microfiber (OM) during the tapering process. A high-coherence laser is used to monitor the OM-tapering process. The evolution of the intermodal interference between the fundamental mode and the coupled modes can be clearly observed. We analyze the point in time at which the excited mode vanishes and use that to justify the correlative diameter of the fabricated OM for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By comparing the measured cutoff time of the coupled LP(02) mode and the theoretically predicted value, we can judge whether the theoretical estimation of the OM diameter has been correctly obtained, and we can introduce a modification method with feedback by changing the initial parameters or the manufacturing conditions to ensure OM diameter accuracy. This identification and rectification method is helpful for precise fabrication of OMs with different waist lengths and waist diameters, and it can also be used to check the repeatability of OMs.

  13. INTERMODAL TAŞIMACILIĞIN MALİYET AVANTAJLARI: KARAYOLU-DENİZYOLU ENTEGRASYONU ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA - COST BENEFITS OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: A RESEARCH ON ROAD AND MARITIME INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıtkı SAYGILI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetDünya üzerinde uluslararası ticaret her geçen gün gelişmektedir. Küresel pazarlardaki yoğun rekabet ortamında işletmeler kar marjlarını arttırmak için ticari bakış açılarında ve yöntemlerinde değişiklikler yapmaktadır. Toplam maliyetlerin düşürülmesi ve zaman faktörü açısından, günümüzde üreticiler tarafından lojistik hizmetlerin önemi daha iyi anlaşılmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda üreticilerin talepleri lojistik işletmelerinin operasyonlarına da etki etmektedir.Lojistik işletmelerinin müşterilerine rekabet avantajı oluşturacak bir taşıma fiyatı sunabilmesi için finansal durumlarını analiz etmeleri ve maliyetlerini kontrol altında tutmaları gerekmektedir. Taşıma maliyetlerinin düşürülmesi ile birlikte çevreye verilen zararın azaltılması için tüm taşıma türlerinin üstün yönlerinden yararlanarak birden fazla taşıma türünü bir araya getiren intermodal taşıma sistemi önem kazanmaktadır.Bu araştırma kapsamında öncelikle intermodal taşımacılıkla ilgili temel konular açıklanarak, taşıma türlerinin entegrasyonunda etkili olan etmeler ortaya konulmaktadır. Lojistik işletmelerinin maliyet yönetimi hakkında bilgi verilmektedir. Intermodal taşımacılıkta taşıma maliyetlerinin analizine yönelik karayolu taşımacılığına alternatif olarak karayolu-denizyolu entegrasyonu üzerine güzergah maliyetlerinin karşılaştırılması açısından örnek bir uygulama yapılmaktadır.AbstractInternational trade globally develops day by day. In highly competitive global markets, companies make changes in their trading perspectives and methods in order to increase their profit margin. Currently, suppliers recognize the importance of logistics services better in terms of diminishing total costs and time factor. In this sense, demands of suppliers also influence operations of logistics companies.Logistics companies are supposed to analyze their financial

  14. Environmental Factors and Intermodal Freight Transportation: Analysis of the Decision Bases in the Case of Spanish Motorways of the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López-Navarro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is widespread consensus about the notable, yet simultaneously growing, negative environmental impacts generated by the transportation sector. Experts working in a number of different fields consider the current situation to be unsustainable and possible measures to reduce emissions and foster sustainability are being encouraged. The European Commission has highlighted the need to shift away from unimodal road transport toward a greater use of intermodal transport through, for example, motorways of the sea, in light of the evidence that the former makes a significant contribution to increased CO2 emissions. However, although there is a general perception that sea transport is environmentally preferable to road transport, recent studies are beginning to question this assumption. Moreover, little research has been conducted to quantify environmental aspects and incorporate them into the decision-making processes involved in the modal shift. This study first reviews the existing literature to examine the extent to which environmental aspects are relevant in the modal choice in the case of short sea shipping and motorways of the sea. Related to this, the study also evaluates the role that different agents may play in making decisions about choice of mode, taking into consideration environmental aspects. Secondly, we use the values the European Commission provides to calculate external costs for the Marco Polo freight transport project proposals (call 2013 to estimate the environmental costs for several routes (a total of 72, comparing the use of road haulage with the intermodal option that incorporates the Spanish motorways of the sea. The results of this comparative analysis show that the intermodal option is not always the best choice in environmental terms. Consequently, the traditional environmental argument to justify this alternative must be used carefully.

  15. 78 FR 49382 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... English, reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and computer skills that are essential to successful job... education advisor: Education Services Specialist, Education Services Officer (ESO), Voluntary...

  16. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  17. 75 FR 47504 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... America. TTT helps relieve teacher shortages, especially in math, science, special education, and other... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 68 RIN 0790-AI50 Voluntary Education Programs AGENCY: Office of the... for the operation of voluntary education programs within DoD. Included are: Procedures for Service...

  18. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mária Jármai, Erzsébet; Palányi, Ildikó Zsupanekné

    2015-01-01

    The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR…

  19. 14 CFR 234.7 - Voluntary reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary reporting. 234.7 Section 234.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.7 Voluntary reporting. (a) In addition to the...

  20. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  1. 12 CFR 546.4 - Voluntary dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...

  2. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...... Communication towards Children (hereafter: CODE) – with its dependence on a supportive institutional environment and acceptance of as well as dynamics between involved key stakeholders like consumers, political actors and firms – contributes to fighting the obesity pandemic.Thus, we explore within this article...... what information about the process of implementing the CODE as well as about the evolved dynamics between key stakeholders is already available. Here, the recently published report of the PolMark project sheds light on the dynamics between the key stakeholders in relation to the current Danish...

  3. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short...

  4. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks: Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  5. Service network design for an intermodal container network with flexible due dates/times and the possibility of using subcontracted transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart); R.R. Negenborn (Rudy); R. Dekker (Rommert); G. Lodewijks (Gabriel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAn intermodal container transportation network is being developed between Rotterdam and several inland terminals in North West Europe: the EUROPEAN GATEWAY SERVICES (EGS) network. This network is developed and operated by the seaports of EUROPE CONTAINER TERMINALS (ECT). To use this netw

  6. MRI morphologic alterations after liver SBRT. Direct dose correlation with intermodal matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Jahnke, Anika; Jahnke, Lennart; Vogel, Lena; Simeonova-Chergou, Anna O.; Herskind, Carsten; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Attenberger, Ulrike; Budjan, Johannes [University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    CT morphologic and histopathologic alterations have been reported after SBRT. We analyzed the correlation of MRI morphologic alterations with radiation doses to assess the potential for MRI-based dose-effect correlation in healthy liver tissue. MRI data of 24 patients with liver metastases 7±3 weeks after image-guided SBRT in deep-inspiration breath-hold were retrospectively analyzed. MRI images were intermodally matched to the planning CT and corresponding dose distribution. Absolute doses were converted to EQD{sub 2,α/β=x} with α/β values of 2, 3 for healthy liver tissue, 8 Gy for modelled predamaged liver tissue and 10 Gy for tumor tissue. A central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 48.2 ± 15.2 Gy, EQD{sub 2Gy/α/β=10} 92.5 ± 27.7 Gy. Contrast-enhancement around the central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 46.9 ± 15.3 Gy, EQD{sub 2Gy/α/β=10} 90.5 ± 28.3 Gy. Outside the high-dose volume, in the beam path, characteristic sharply defined, nonblurred MRI morphologic alterations were observed that corresponded with the following isodose lines: T1-intensity changes occurred at isodose lines of nominally 21.9 ± 6.7 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2} 42.5 ± 8.7 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=3} 38.5 ± 7.6 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=8} 30.2 ±6.3 Gy). T2-hyper/hypointensity was observed within isodose lines of nominally 22.4 ± 6.6 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2} 42.7 ± 8.1 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=3} 38.7 ± 7 Gy; EQD{sub 2,α/β=8} 30.5 ± 5.9 Gy). Using deformable matching, direct spatial/dosimetric correlation of SBRT-induced changes in liver tissue was possible. In the PTV high-dose region, a central nonenhancing area and peripheral contrast medium accumulation was observed. Beam path doses of 38-42 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2-3}) induce characteristic MRI morphologic alterations. (orig.) [German] CT-morphologische Veraenderungen nach SBRT sind beschrieben und korrelieren mit histopathologischen Veraenderungen. Ziel war es, MRT

  7. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ji Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jong Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI.

  8. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  9. Anticipatory signatures of voluntary memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Leipold, Philipp; Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-03-04

    Voluntary memory suppression can keep unwanted memories from entering consciousness, inducing later forgetting of the information. In the present study, we searched for the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating such voluntary memory suppression. Using the think/no-think paradigm, subjects received a cue whether to prepare to think of a previously studied cue-target pair or whether to not let a previously studied cue-target pair enter consciousness. Examining event-related potentials, we identified two electrophysiological processes of voluntary memory suppression: (1) an early anticipatory process operating before the memory cue for a to-be-suppressed memory was provided, and (2) a later process operating after memory cue presentation. Both ERP effects were due to a decreased right frontal and left parietal positivity. They were positively related and predicted later forgetting. The results point to the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating voluntary memory suppression.

  10. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  11. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  12. Corticospinal excitability in human voluntary movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, G.A.F. van

    2008-01-01

    The research described in this thesis addressed the neurophysiologic changes in the human corticospinal system during preparation and execution of voluntary hand movements. The experiments involved transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex combined with electromyography (EMG) and e

  13. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  14. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism.......This paper draws attention to the importance of the understanding of voluntary actions in the free market construct. Failing to understand the role of voluntary actions in the free market construct will often result in discussions of capitalism versus socialism focusing on asset ownership...... and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...

  15. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  16. Pull factors of Finland and voluntary work

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvakainen, Janika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies pull factors of Finland and voluntary work. The aim of this study is to understand the pull factors of Finland from the perspective of young travelers. Which pull factors attract to choose Finland as their destination? In addition, which pull factors attract young travelers to participate in international voluntary work? The commissioner of this thesis is Allianssi Youth Exchange. The thesis is research-based and includes a quantitative Webropol survey and some qualit...

  17. Twenty-Five Years Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm to Study Language Acquisition: What Have We Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2013-05-01

    The intermodal preferential looking paradigm (IPLP) has proven to be a revolutionary method for the examination of infants' emerging language knowledge. In the IPLP, infants' language comprehension is measured by their differential visual fixation to two images presented side-by-side when only one of the images matches an accompanying linguistic stimulus. Researchers can examine burgeoning knowledge in the areas of phonology, semantics, syntax, and morphology in infants not yet speaking. The IPLP enables the exploration of the underlying mechanisms involved in language learning and illuminates how infants identify the correspondences between language and referents in the world. It has also fostered the study of infants' conceptions of the dynamic events that language will express. Exemplifying translational science, the IPLP is now being investigated for its clinical and diagnostic value. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    ). The traditional role of forwarding firms as freight integrators is being challenged by other actors within the transport system, e.g. ferry and shipping lines, ports and train operators. The rationale for this development has been the increased focus by the transport sectors stakeholders on the control of guiding...... transport flows through specific transport networks of own interest. Most transport firms are mobile in their activities by nature, but are in reality confined in their day-to-day operations to different forms of relative fixed network structure - e.g. railway lines, ferry routes and ports, cost....... In this study stakeholders from Danish and Norwegian ports, ferry operators, train operators, forwarding and road haulage firms has been interviewed in order to analyse how logistical decision-making affect the organisational and physical configuration of intermodal transport solutions in the transport corridor...

  19. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Watches § 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC must.... Voluntary vessels equipped with VHF-DSC equipment must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz and on either 156.525... used to communicate. Voluntary vessels equipped with MF-HF DSC equipment must have the radio turned...

  20. Sealift Execution Scheduling Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    of an integral or Dijkstra’s algorithm for determining the shortest path through a network of nodes. Depending on the criteria, a heuristic algorithm can...produce a solution very quickly or quite slowly. SEACOP’s solution algorithm is an example of a heuristic algorithm that performs its task quite...and Operations Research, v. 26, pp. 191-212, August 1988. 16. Jaw, J. J., and others, " A Heuristic Algorithm For The Multi-Vehicle Advance Request

  1. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  2. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    internationalization. Based on our results, we suggest that, depending on the field of action, voluntary collective action and organized collaboration are substitutes with regard to performance. Our study contributes to the literature on collective action and to research on public organizations in pluralistic......Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances...

  3. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  4. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  5. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    this theoretical frame to analyse case studies of three voluntary organisations.  As a part of the analysis I describe four sets of institutional settings that can influence voluntary organisations ability to create institutional dynamic: institutionalization, moderation, self-organisation and loose-coupling....... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...

  6. 77 FR 72941 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... decision will be made by the selected DoD contractor for the complete `third party review' process. Comment... seeks to enhance the educational opportunities to Service members who may have difficulty in completing... transitions to second careers in teaching. Voluntary education programs. Continuing, adult, or...

  7. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  8. Social orienting: reflexive versus voluntary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julia L; Patel, Saumil; Gu, Xue; Seyedali, Nassim S; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Sereno, Anne B

    2010-09-24

    Many studies have shown that the direction of gaze of a face covertly facilitates the response to a target presented in the matching direction. In this study we seek to determine whether there exist separate reflexive and voluntary forms of such covert social orienting and how they interact with each other. We measured the effect of the predictive value of a gaze cue on manual choice reaction times. When the predictive value of the gaze cue was zero, a facilitatory cueing effect was still observed which peaked at a cue onset to target onset delay (CTD) of 150ms and largely diminished beyond a CTD of 500ms. When the gaze cue was 100% predictive of the future location of the target, at CTDs greater than 200, the predictive cue resulted in a significantly greater facilitation of response than occurred with a non-predictive cue. These results suggest that given enough time (about 200ms), the social cue is interpreted and a willful or voluntary spatially-specific social cueing effect occurs. In addition, we found that a predictive cue resulted in a significant slowing of the observer's responses up to a CTD of 200ms. These findings show that, similar to non-social spatial orienting, there appear to be two forms of social orienting including a reflexive component and voluntary component. We suggest a model of social orienting in which the voluntary social orienting system modulates tonic inhibition of the reflexive social orienting system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A prim

  10. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  11. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  12. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  13. Voluntary Organizations: Commitment, Leadership, and Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Terry P.

    2004-01-01

    Voluntary organizations offer a unique opportunity to interpret participant relationships, leadership influences, and organizational effectiveness unencumbered by employment relationships. Regardless of organizational structure or purpose, all organizations are affected to some degree by their leadership and their membership. Based on the…

  14. Environmental Voluntary Agreements in the Dutch Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; de Bruijn, Theo; Croci, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the use of environmental voluntary agreements, or covenants, in Dutch environmental policy. Covenants have become a widely used policy instrument in the Netherlands. This trend reinforces the strong neo-corporatist traits of Dutch society with its tendency towards

  15. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    While short-term enrolling of citizens in urban regeneration projects often has proven quite successful, permanent embedding of projects in voluntary community-based settings seems to be much more difficult to obtain. This has implications for long term sustainability of urban regeneration projec...

  16. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Levstik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.

  17. Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Lernoud, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards: - Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) area worldwide and selected commodities - Cocoa: Area growth by VSS 2008-2014 - Growth of VSS compliant area worldwide 2008-2013 (selected crops)

  18. China Initiates Voluntary Certification of Public Security Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reporters learned from the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China(CNCA)that burglar-proof door became the first batch of voluntary certification product in public security products.China has formally initiated voluntary certification of public security products.

  19. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  20. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation during voluntary and non-voluntary stepping movements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Kazennikov, O V; Ivanenko, Y P

    2014-09-05

    Here, we compared motor evoked potentials (MEP) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and the H-reflex during voluntary and vibration-induced air-stepping movements in humans. Both the MEPs (in mm biceps femoris, rectus femoris and tibialis anterior) and H-reflex (in m soleus) were significantly smaller during vibration-induced cyclic leg movements at matched amplitudes of angular motion and muscle activity. These findings highlight differences between voluntary and non-voluntary activation of the spinal pattern generator circuitry in humans, presumably due to an extra facilitatory effect of voluntary control/triggering of stepping on spinal motoneurons and interneurons. The results support the idea of active engagement of supraspinal motor areas in developing central pattern generator-modulating therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Proposal for High-resolution X-ray Imaging of Intermodal Cargo Containers for Fissionable Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, B J; Prussin, S G; Pohl, B; Hall, J; Trebes, J; Stone, G; Descalle, M

    2007-07-05

    The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargo of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E {le} 2-3 MeV that contain the majority of multiply-scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9-MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E {le} 3 MeV removes the majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargo with Z {le} 30 and areal densities of at least 145 g cm{sup -2}. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08 kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.

  2. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  3. 5 CFR 919.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 919.1020 Section 919.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED...) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's...

  4. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and...

  5. 15 CFR 12.3 - Development of voluntary product standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of voluntary product... AND LABELING § 12.3 Development of voluntary product standards. (a) Invitation to participate in the development of a voluntary product standard. Whenever the Secretary publishes a final determination of...

  6. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  7. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  8. Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Nielsen, Mette Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education Hanne Selberg1, Mette Elisabeth Nielsen1, Mette Wenzel Horsted2, Karen Bertelsen2, Marianne Linnet Rasmussen2,Rikke Lohmann Panton3, Copenhagen, Mette Kjeldal Jensen4 Background Changes in nursing education in Denmark towards an academic approach...... with more theory and less practical training have resulted in discussions regarding the lack of practical skills amongst novice nurses. A Danish study of students’ drop-out from the nursing education indicates that difficulties in combining theory and practice are one of the motivating factors behind...... the students’ decision to drop out (Jensen et al. 2008). Within the past year our faculty has conducted several projects with the aim of integrating simulation into the curriculum. Furthermore, voluntary simulation workshop has been carried out as an additional offer in the nursing education. The purpose has...

  9. The Political Importance of Voluntary Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Harry

    This paper aims to develop a complex articulation of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work that clarifies its political importance as a countervailing narrative pointing beyond dominant neoliberal and consumptive articulations of a good life. To start with, it sketches a hermeneutic perspective on civic meaningfulness based on the work of Paul Ricoeur. Subsequently, it introduces the ideas of 'ethical complexity', 'epistemological complexity' and 'diapoiesis', building on insights from critical complexity thinking and relational biology. It argues that these notions can provide a bridge between hermeneutic perspectives on meaning and values, on the one hand, and questions of meaning and values on the level of scientific and technological developments and within professional organizations, on the other. Thus a broader, more complex picture emerges of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work in our times.

  10. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...... as a natural laboratory for learning how business would occur without strict rules, enforcement and sanctions. Danish managers often volunteer pro forma financial statements for results that are expected to occur subsequent to the IPO. We examine a sample of 58 Danish firms that issue voluntary management...... earnings forecasts in connection with IPOs that occur between 1984 and 1996. The evidence we uncover strongly suggests that pre-managed earnings are adjusted toward these targets. In contrast with Kasznik's (1999 Kasznik, R. (1999). On the association between voluntary disclosure and earnings management...

  11. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination.

  12. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  13. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  14. Inter-modality relationship constrained multi-modality multi-task feature selection for Alzheimer's Disease and mild cognitive impairment identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Chen, Huafu; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the use of integrated information from multi-modalities could significantly improve diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, feature selection, which is one of the most important steps in classification, is typically performed separately for each modality, which ignores the potentially strong inter-modality relationship within each subject. Recent emergence of multi-task learning approach makes the joint feature selection from different modalities possible. However, joint feature selection may unfortunately overlook different yet complementary information conveyed by different modalities. We propose a novel multi-task feature selection method to preserve the complementary inter-modality information. Specifically, we treat feature selection from each modality as a separate task and further impose a constraint for preserving the inter-modality relationship, besides separately enforcing the sparseness of the selected features from each modality. After feature selection, a multi-kernel support vector machine (SVM) is further used to integrate the selected features from each modality for classification. Our method is evaluated using the baseline PET and MRI images of subjects obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Our method achieves a good performance, with an accuracy of 94.37% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.9724 for AD identification, and also an accuracy of 78.80% and an AUC of 0.8284 for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) identification. Moreover, the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 67.83% and an AUC of 0.6957 for separating between MCI converters and MCI non-converters (to AD). These performances demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art classification methods.

  15. The parallel programming of voluntary and reflexive saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin; McSorley, Eugene

    2006-06-01

    A novel two-step paradigm was used to investigate the parallel programming of consecutive, stimulus-elicited ('reflexive') and endogenous ('voluntary') saccades. The mean latency of voluntary saccades, made following the first reflexive saccades in two-step conditions, was significantly reduced compared to that of voluntary saccades made in the single-step control trials. The latency of the first reflexive saccades was modulated by the requirement to make a second saccade: first saccade latency increased when a second voluntary saccade was required in the opposite direction to the first saccade, and decreased when a second saccade was required in the same direction as the first reflexive saccade. A second experiment confirmed the basic effect and also showed that a second reflexive saccade may be programmed in parallel with a first voluntary saccade. The results support the view that voluntary and reflexive saccades can be programmed in parallel on a common motor map.

  16. Voluntary energy optimisation - Taking responsibility; Verantwortungsvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-07-01

    This interview with Konrad Kyburz, CEO of a printing shop in Dielsdorf, Switzerland, discusses how energy consumption can be reduced on a voluntary basis. The provision free-of-charge of heat recovered from the drying ovens of the printing presses to a nearby sports facility is discussed. The realisation of an energy consumption analysis and the resulting increases in the efficiency of energy usage in the printing facility are discussed. Further improvements such as the use of variable-frequency compressor drives and heating with natural gas that helped in making energy savings of well over 15% are discussed.

  17. A Hybrid Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Multi-Objective Multi-Sourcing Intermodal Transportation Network Design Problem Considering Carbon Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng Ji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern on global warming is prompting transportation sector to take into account more sustainable operation strategies. Among them, intermodal transportation (IT has already been regarded as one of the most effective measures on carbon reductions. This paper focuses on the model and algorithm for a certain kind of IT, namely multi-objective multi-sourcing intermodal transportation network design problem (MO_MITNDP, in which carbon emission factors are specially considered. The MO_MITNDP is concerned with determining optimal transportation routes and modes for a series of freight provided by multiple sourcing places to find good balance between the total costs and time efficiencies. First, we establish a multi-objective integer programming model to formulate the MO_MITNDP with total cost (TTC and maximum flow time (MFT criteria. Specifically, carbon emission costs distinguished by the different transportation mode and route are included in the cost function. Second, to solve the MO_MITNDP, a hybrid estimation of distribution algorithm (HEDA combined with a heterogeneous marginal distribution and a multi-objective local search is proposed, in which the from the Pareto dominance scenario. Finally, based on randomly generated data and a real-life case study of Jilin Petrochemical Company (JPC, China, simulation experiments and comparisons are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and application value of the proposed HEDA.

  18. Voluntary participation and cooperation in a collective-good game.

    OpenAIRE

    Kene Boun My; Benoît Chalvignac

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of voluntary participation in the context of a collective-good experiment. We investigate whether the freedom to participate in the game or not increases contribution levels and enhances their evolution. The analysis of two voluntary participation treatments supports a positive effect of an attractive exit option on both contribution levels and their sustainability. We conclude that the voluntary contribution mechanism can provide sustainable cooperation levels and that th...

  19. Reversal of optic neuropathy secondary to voluntary globe luxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Aylin; Ozturk, Taylan; Soylev, Meltem F

    2009-04-01

    Luxation of the globe is rare in the general population and may be spontaneous, voluntary, or traumatic. Spontaneous or voluntary globe luxation results from shallow orbit, floppy eyelids, lax orbital ligaments, backward displacement of orbital septum, or proptotic eyes due to orbital tumors or infiltrative processes, as in Grave's ophthalmopathy. The authors report a case with unilateral voluntary globe luxation presented with unilateral progressive visual loss.

  20. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  1. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  2. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... contributions stop earning interest on the earliest of— (1) The date when OPM authorizes payment to the... voluntary contributions to purchase additional annuity, voluntary contributions stop earning interest on...

  3. Efficiency of voluntary closing hand and hook prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,

  4. Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Rutgers, AWF; Van Weerden, TW

    1998-01-01

    Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) were studied in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, effects of changes in voluntary control were studied by asking PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects to adapt their walking pattern to visual cues result

  5. Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary turnover: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary turnover (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…

  6. Conditioning Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus Gilli) for Voluntary Diving Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-31

    heartrate (EKG) to validate "voluntary" nature of dive EXAMINE ACTIVE DIVING CONDITIONS (open Ocean Mewwmenr) dive profiles using TDR respiration... heartrate electrodes Open Ocean Experiments ’wear instrument package (TDR) perform voluntary dive up to 200 meters readily present tail flukes for

  7. Students' vocational choices and voluntary action: A 12-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Haski-Leventhal (Debbie); R.A. Cnaan (Ram); F. Handy (Femida); J.L. Brudney (Jeffrey); K. Holmes (Kirsten); L. Hustinx (Lesley); C. Kang (Chulhee); M. Kassam (Meenaz); L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); B. Ranade (Bhagyashree); N. Yamauchi (Naoto); A.B. Yeung (Anne Birgitta); S. Zrinscak (Sinisa)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the m

  8. Integrating Voluntary Simplicity of Lifestyle into Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This curriculum guide presents guidelines for teaching concepts of Voluntary Simplicity in home economics in Florida. (Voluntary Simplicity is a lifestyle in which individuals choose to live more simply, considering the limited nature of the world's resources.) It is designed for use as a separate unit within different subject matter areas or as…

  9. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... precedence set forth in section 8342(c) of title 5, United States Code, is entitled to payment of the balance... contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a person who has made voluntary contributions may withdraw the balance while still an employee or Member,...

  10. 78 FR 54444 - Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United... Aid (ACVFA). Date: Wednesday, September 18, 2013. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Location: Horizon Room..., Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for...

  11. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  12. Voluntary chemical castration of a mental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1988-06-01

    Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.

  13. Lateral asymmetry of voluntary attention orienting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Castro-Barros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that automatic attention favors the right side of space and, in the present study, we investigated whether voluntary attention also favors this side. Six reaction time experiments were conducted. In each experiment, 12 new 18-25-year-old male right-handed individuals were tested. In Experiments 1, 2, 3 (a, b and 4 (a, b, tasks with increasing attentional demands were used. In Experiments 1, 2, 3a, and 4a, attention was oriented to one or both sides by means of a central spatially informative visual cue. A left or right side visual target appeared 100, 300, or 500 ms later. Attentional effects were observed in the four experiments. In Experiments 2, 3a and 4a, these effects were greater when the cue indicated the right side than when it indicated the left side (respectively: 16 ± 10 and 44 ± 6 ms, P = 0.015, for stimulus onset asynchrony of 500 ms in Experiment 2; 38 ± 10 and 70 ± 7 ms, P = 0.011, for Experiment 3a, and 23 ± 11 and 61 ± 10 ms, P = 0.009, for Experiment 4a. In Experiments 3b and 4b, the central cue pointed to both sides and was said to be non-relevant for task performance. In these experiments right and left reaction times did not differ. The most conservative interpretation of the present findings is that voluntary attention orienting favors the right side of space, particularly when a difficult task has to be performed.

  14. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  15. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  16. Cardiovascular responses to voluntary and nonvoluntary static exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D B; Peel, C; Mitchell, J H

    1992-11-01

    We have measured the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and nonvoluntary (electrically induced) one-leg static exercise in humans. Eight normal subjects were studied at rest and during 5 min of static leg extension at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction performed voluntarily and nonvoluntarily in random order. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) were determined, and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. HR increased from approximately 65 +/- 3 beats/min at rest to 80 +/- 4 and 78 +/- 6 beats/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. CO increased from 5.1 +/- 0.7 to 6.0 +/- 0.8 and 6.2 +/- 0.8 l/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. PVR and SV did not change significantly during voluntary or nonvoluntary contractions. Thus the cardiovascular responses were not different between voluntary and electrically induced contractions. These results suggest that the increases in CO, HR, SV, MAP, and PVR during 5 min of static contractions can be elicited without any contribution from a central neural mechanism (central command). However, central command could still have an important role during voluntary static exercise.

  17. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  18. VOLUNTARY NOISE MAPPING FOR SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Poslončec-Petrić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the

  19. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants' judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information. However

  20. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  1. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lokey, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  2. Ecological Research of the Voluntary Disclosure about Listed Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing-Jing; Yan, Guang-Le

    In the paper, the research subject is the ecological relationship between the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises(SMEs) and the Large-scale Enterprises(Les). From the perspective of ecology, setting up the competitive model basic on the Logistic model, and carrying out further analysis about the voluntary information disclosure of listed company, then getting the strategic choice about the voluntary information disclosure and the ecological explanation of false information, and the dynamic mechanism and strategy of the voluntary information disclosure of listed company.

  3. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  4. Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition.

  5. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  6. Voluntary work organization in higher educational establishment: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Polatayko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses basic questions of voluntary work formation in higher educational establishment, its conceptual and legislative basis, defines basic directions of students agencies activities and forms of their participation in higher educational establishment activities.

  7. Respiratory inductance plethysmography is suitable for voluntary hyperventilation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pascale; Besleaga, Tudor; Eberhard, André; Vovc, Victor; Baconnier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the goodness of fit of a signal issued of the respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) derivative to the airflow signal during rest, voluntary hyperventilation, and recovery. RIP derivative signal was filtered with an adjusted filter based on each subject airflow signal (pneumotachography). For each subject and for each condition (rest, voluntary hyperventilation, and recovery) comparisons were performed between the airflow signal and the RIP derivative signal filtered with an adjusted filter obtained either on rest signal or on the studied part of the signals (voluntary hyperventilation or recovery). Results show that the goodness of fit was : (1) higher than 90% at almost all comparisons (122 on 132), (2) not improved by applying an adjusted filter obtained on the studied part of the signals. These results suggest that RIP could be used for studying breathing during voluntary hyperventilation and recovery using adjusted filters obtained from comparison to airflow signal at rest.

  8. 78 FR 71476 - Authority for Voluntary Withholding on Other Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...)(3) authorizes the Secretary to provide regulations for withholding from (A) remuneration for... AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Temporary regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains temporary regulations under the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to voluntary withholding...

  9. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  10. Assessing voluntary muscle activation with the twitch interpolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Anthony; Zhou, Shi

    2004-01-01

    The twitch interpolation technique is commonly employed to assess the completeness of skeletal muscle activation during voluntary contractions. Early applications of twitch interpolation suggested that healthy human subjects could fully activate most of the skeletal muscles to which the technique had been applied. More recently, however, highly sensitive twitch interpolation has revealed that even healthy adults routinely fail to fully activate a number of skeletal muscles despite apparently maximal effort. Unfortunately, some disagreement exists as to how the results of twitch interpolation should be employed to quantify voluntary activation. The negative linear relationship between evoked twitch force and voluntary force that has been observed by some researchers implies that voluntary activation can be quantified by scaling a single interpolated twitch to a control twitch evoked in relaxed muscle. Observations of non-linear evoked-voluntary force relationships have lead to the suggestion that the single interpolated twitch ratio can not accurately estimate voluntary activation. Instead, it has been proposed that muscle activation is better determined by extrapolating the relationship between evoked and voluntary force to provide an estimate of true maximum force. However, criticism of the single interpolated twitch ratio typically fails to take into account the reasons for the non-linearity of the evoked-voluntary force relationship. When these reasons are examined, it appears that most are even more challenging to the validity of extrapolation than they are to the linear equation. Furthermore, several factors that contribute to the observed non-linearity can be minimised or even eliminated with appropriate experimental technique. The detection of small activation deficits requires high resolution measurement of force and careful consideration of numerous experimental details such as the site of stimulation, stimulation intensity and the number of interpolated

  11. Voluntary reaction time and long-latency reflex modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgaard, Christopher J; Franks, Ian M; Maslovat, Dana; Chin, Laurence; Chua, Romeo

    2015-12-01

    Stretching a muscle of the upper limb elicits short (M1) and long-latency (M2) reflexes. When the participant is instructed to actively compensate for a perturbation, M1 is usually unaffected and M2 increases in size and is followed by the voluntary response. It remains unclear if the observed increase in M2 is due to instruction-dependent gain modulation of the contributing reflex mechanism(s) or results from voluntary response superposition. The difficulty in delineating between these alternatives is due to the overlap between the voluntary response and the end of M2. The present study manipulated response accuracy and complexity to delay onset of the voluntary response and observed the corresponding influence on electromyographic activity during the M2 period. In all active conditions, M2 was larger compared with a passive condition where participants did not respond to the perturbation; moreover, these changes in M2 began early in the appearance of the response (∼ 50 ms), too early to be accounted for by voluntary overlap. Voluntary response latency influenced the latter portion of M2, with the largest activity seen when accuracy of limb position was not specified. However, when participants aimed for targets of different sizes or performed movements of various complexities, reaction time differences did not influence M2 period activity, suggesting voluntary activity was sufficiently delayed. Collectively, our results show that while a perturbation applied to the upper limbs can trigger a voluntary response at short latency (reflex gain modulation remains an important contributor to EMG changes during the M2 period. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  13. Voluntary euthanasia under control? Further empirical evidence from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochemsen, H; Keown, J

    1999-01-01

    Nineteen ninety-six saw the publication of a major Dutch survey into euthanasia in the Netherlands. This paper outlines the main statistical findings of this survey and considers whether it shows that voluntary euthanasia is under effective control in the Netherlands. The paper concludes that although there has been some improvement in compliance with procedural requirements, the practice of voluntary euthanasia remains beyond effective control. PMID:10070633

  14. Students' vocational choices and voluntary action: A 12-nation study

    OpenAIRE

    Haski-Leventhal, Debbie; Cnaan, Ram; Handy, Femida; Brudney, Jeffrey; Holmes, Kirsten; Hustinx, Lesley; Kang, ChulHee; Kassam, Meenaz; Meijs, Lucas; Ranade, Bhagyashree; Yamauchi, Naoto; Yeung, Anne Birgitta; Zrinscak, Sinisa

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the middle. However, there were very few studies that empirically compared these assertions. Furthermore, these assertions were not investigated from cross-cultural perspectives. Based on a study of stu...

  15. The We and the I: The Logic of Voluntary Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Ekaterina; Zimmermann, Jean-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    This paper sheds new light on the economic logic of voluntary associations and the relationship between individual contribution and collective action. The aims are twofold. Firstly, we seek to explain how "team reasoning" (Bacharach et al. 2006) can deeply change the functioning of voluntary associations (which are considered to produce a public good) when some or all of the individual members group together to make collective decisions about their involvement or contribution, rather than dec...

  16. Interaction of poststroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Poststroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement must consider how forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine whether the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort or whether the increment in force depends on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and FES. Participants reached a steady level of force, and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown.

  17. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Berning

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open. In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device. We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02 than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  18. Hedonic value of intentional action provides reinforcement for voluntary generation but not voluntary inhibition of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Jim; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Intentional inhibition refers to stopping oneself from performing an action at the last moment, a vital component of self-control. It has been suggested that intentional inhibition is associated with negative hedonic value, perhaps due to the frustration of cancelling an intended action. Here we investigate hedonic implications of the free choice to act or inhibit. Participants gave aesthetic ratings of arbitrary visual stimuli that immediately followed voluntary decisions to act or to inhibit action. We found that participants for whom decisions to act produced a strong positive hedonic value for the immediately following visual stimulus made more choices to act than those with weaker hedonic value for action. This finding is consistent with reinforcement learning of action decisions. However, participants who experienced inhibition as generating more positive hedonic value did not choose to inhibit more than other participants. Thus, voluntary inhibition of action did not act as reinforcement for future inhibitory behaviour. Our finding that inhibition of action lacks motivational capacity may explain why self-control is both difficult and limited.

  19. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Kelsey; Cohick, Sarah; Johnson, Reva; Miller, Laura Ann; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2014-01-01

    Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open). In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis) and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device). We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02) than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  20. Voluntary control of human jaw stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Houle, Guillaume; Ostry, David J

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies of human arm movement have suggested that the control of stiffness may be important both for maintaining stability and for achieving differences in movement accuracy. In the present study, we have examined the voluntary control of postural stiffness in 3D in the human jaw. The goal is to address the possible role of stiffness control in both stabilizing the jaw and in achieving the differential precision requirements of speech sounds. We previously showed that patterns of kinematic variability in speech are systematically related to the stiffness of the jaw. If the nervous system uses stiffness control as a means to regulate kinematic variation in speech, it should also be possible to show that subjects can voluntarily modify jaw stiffness. Using a robotic device, a series of force pulses was applied to the jaw to elicit changes in stiffness to resist displacement. Three orthogonal directions and three magnitudes of forces were tested. In all conditions, subjects increased the magnitude of jaw stiffness to resist the effects of the applied forces. Apart from the horizontal direction, greater increases in stiffness were observed when larger forces were applied. Moreover, subjects differentially increased jaw stiffness along a vertical axis to counteract disturbances in this direction. The observed changes in the magnitude of stiffness in different directions suggest an ability to control the pattern of stiffness of the jaw. The results are interpreted as evidence that jaw stiffness can be adjusted voluntarily, and thus may play a role in stabilizing the jaw and in controlling movement variation in the orofacial system.

  1. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  2. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  3. Cortical potentials associated with voluntary mandibular movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Kaji, R; Hamano, T; Kohara, N; Kimura, J; Shibasaki, H; Iizuka, T

    2000-07-01

    Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) are negative potentials over the scalp, which gradually increase prior to voluntary movements, and might be applied to elucidate the cortical efferent function of the mandibular movements. We compared the MRCPs accompanying various mandibular movements to study the motor control mechanism underlying these movements. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from 11 electrodes placed over the scalp (F3, Fz, F4, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, P3, Pz, and P4), according to the International 10-20 System, and electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained from surface electrodes over the masseter muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Ten healthy subjects were requested to make brisk and self-paced mandibular movements in 4 different directions (mouth-opening and -closing, and left and right lateral movements). We obtained MRCPs by averaging the EEG, using the visually determined EMG onset as a trigger signal. In all the movements, a slowly increasing, bilaterally widespread negativity starting 1.5 to 2.0 sec before the EMG onset (Bereitschaftspotential, or BP proper) was observed, with the maximum over the vertex region. The negative slope (NS') occurred about 300 to 700 msec before the EMG onset. The cortical maps of BP/NS' (BP and NS' combined), immediately prior to the mouth-opening and closing, showed a symmetrical distribution, whereas that for the lateral movements showed a tendency of predominance over the hemisphere ipsilateral to the direction of the movement. BP/NS' amplitudes at the onset of movement differed significantly or tended to do so between open, close, and lateral movements, suggesting that MRCP recordings may thus provide a means to explore the role of the cerebral cortex in the control of mandibular movements.

  4. Voluntary organizations in development in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.

  5. Study on Application of Revenue Management in Container Sea-rail Intermodal Transportation%收益管理在集装箱海铁联运中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迪; 杨华龙

    2012-01-01

    针对集装箱海铁联运存在的问题提出实施收益管理的必要性,结合集装箱海铁联运的特点分析应用收益管理的可行性,并在此基础上建立集装箱海铁联运收益管理系统的概念模型,对模型中的5个构成要素以及简化模型中的需求预测、箱位分配、动态定价3个核心内容进行了分析探讨,为收益管理在集装箱海铁联运中的实际运用提供框架指引.%In this paper, we proposed the necessity of revenue management in view of the problems in the container sea-rail intermodal transportation. Then we analyzed the feasibility of revenue management in connection with the characteristics of the container sea-rail intermodal transportation. On such basis we established the conceptual model of the revenue management system of the container sea-rail intermodal transportation and analyzed its five components and three core contents which were demand forecasting, cargo slot allocation and dynamic pricing.

  6. Opt-out HIV testing in prison: informed and voluntary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.

  7. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  8. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  9. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

  10. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  11. Suicide and voluntary active euthanasia: why the difference in attitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, I

    1995-06-01

    It appears that the attitudes of health professionals differ towards suicide and voluntary active euthanasia. An acceptance of, if not an agreement with, voluntary active euthanasia exists, while there is a general consensus that suicide should be prevented. This paper searches for a working definition of suicide, to discover ethical reasons for the negative value that suicide assumes, and also to provide a term of reference when comparing suicide with euthanasia. On arriving at a working definition of suicide, it is compared with voluntary active euthanasia. An analysis of utilitarian and deontological considerations is provided and proves to be inconclusive with respect to the ethical principles informing the attitudes of professionals. Therefore, a search for other influences is attempted; this indicates that psychological influences inform attitudes to a greater degree than ethical principles.

  12. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  13. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  14. Voluntary vs directed siting -- or somewhere in-between?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1994-04-01

    Waste siting gridlock in the United States and Canada has led to experimentation with voluntary and hybrid or ``mixed mode`` siting. We review nuclear and hazardous waste voluntary siting (VS) results for selected cases in the U.S, and Canada. Findings indicate that VS is not a panacea, but that current siting efforts are inadequate tests of its potential. We suggest trials of improved VS protocols and more effort on hybrid approaches in which the developer chooses the site but is required to reach agreement on conditions with local stakeholders. Mixed mode siting may be better suited to the US context and its three-tiered governmental system.

  15. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  17. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  18. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine as a refined analgesic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Hau, Jann

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a widely used analgesic for laboratory rodents. Administration of the drug in an attractive food item for voluntary ingestion is a desirable way to administer the drug noninvasively. The method refi nes the standard analgesic procedure and has the potential to improve the welfare...

  19. Value orientations, expectations and voluntary contributions in public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.J.S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Sonnemans, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods is presented. Independent information is obtained on individual value orientation and expectations about the behavior of other subjects using incentive compatible mechanisms. The effects of increasing payoffs for

  20. Value Orientations, Expectations and Voluntary Contributions in Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods is presented. Independent information is obtained on individual value orientation and expectations about the behavior of other subjects using incentive compatible mechanisms. The effects of increasing payoffs for

  1. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day...

  2. ANALYSIS OF INTENTION TO CONTINUE SERVICES AMONG RECRUITED VOLUNTARY SOLDIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to attract more promising young people to join the military and enhance combat capability, Taiwan’s Department of Defense is transforming the nation’s military service system from a draft system, which has been in effect for more than sixty years, to an all-volunteer military force system. The government hopes that the new system not only can recruit promising voluntary soldiers, but that they also continue their military service after the contract expires in order to ensure stability in recruitment sources. This study explores the intention of voluntary soldiers to continue their military service. This study’s questionnaire encompasses five dimensions: Participation motivation, organization commitment, career planning, personality traits and departure tendency. The questionnaires were issued to 350 voluntary soldiers to explore if they intend to continue their service after their contract expires, with a total of 314 effective questionnaires that were recovered and analyzed. The results find that about half of the voluntary soldiers indicate that they do not plan on staying and continuing their service after contract expiration, which will result in understaffing in the military. In order to stabilize the prescribed number of soldiers, the existing recruiting policy and military management system should be re-adjusted.

  3. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.W.; Burgoon, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  4. 77 FR 50584 - Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... are summarized below. Total Benefits and Costs The FAA does not require licensing of amateur rocket... of this rule. To the extent the licensing requirements provide a societal benefit, those benefits... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 400 RIN 2120-AJ84 Voluntary Licensing of Amateur...

  5. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly lis

  6. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  7. Human Economy and Entrepreneurial Learning in a Voluntary Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    2014-01-01

    "Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...

  8. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  9. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  10. Force-directed design of a voluntary closing hand prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, H.; Herder, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a body-powered voluntary closing prosthetic hand. It is argued that the movement of the fingers before establishing a grip is much less relevant for good control of the object held than the distribution of forces once the object has been contacted. Based on this not

  11. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from the appar...... of voluntary labour and voluntary associations in publicly subsidised urban regeneration. Empirical data will be collected through in-depth case studies in selected communities in both metropolitan neighbourhoods and smaller market towns....... to community development, urban policy, etc. In addition to this, the paper presents results from a survey exploring the extent and character of volunteerism in a number of integrated urban regeneration projects. The paper proposes a systematic overview of experiences with voluntary inputs and engagement...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...

  12. From participation to consumption? : Consumerism in voluntary sport clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years dark clouds seem to have gathered over the institution of the voluntary sport club. General societal developments such as individualisation and commercialisation have given rise to concerns regarding the transfer of such attitudes to sport clubs. Many people who are involved in and a

  13. 78 FR 71542 - Authority for Voluntary Withholding on Other Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...)(3) authorizes the Secretary to provide regulations for withholding from (A) remuneration for... proposed rulemaking by cross reference to temporary regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations under the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to voluntary withholding agreements. In the Rules...

  14. The Limitations of Voluntary Repatriation and Resettlement of Refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.; Chetail, V.; Bauloz, C.

    2014-01-01

    UNHCR is charged with the pursuit of durable solutions for the problem of refugees. Those solutions are voluntary repatriation and assimilation within new national communities which means either local integration in the country of refuge - tangentially touched upon in this paper - or resettlement in

  15. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  16. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko; Kim, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program is to assist states and local school districts in the development of innovative strategies to expand options for students, and to encourage transfers of students from low-performing to higher-performing schools. This report presents interim findings from the National Evaluation of…

  17. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W. Fransen; B. Burgoon

    2013-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  18. What roles are there for government in voluntary environmental programs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to understand to a greater extent why and how governments are involved in voluntary environmental programmes (VEPs). A better understanding of the role(s) of government in VEPs is of relevance because the current VEP literature considers such involvement one of the key conditions

  19. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  20. The decision making control instrument to assess voluntary consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Ittenbach, Richard F; Harris, Diana; Reynolds, William W; Beauchamp, Tom L; Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    The decision to participate in a research intervention or to undergo medical treatment should be both informed and voluntary. The aim of the present study was to develop an instrument to measure the perceived voluntariness of parents making decisions for their seriously ill children. A total of 219 parents completed questionnaires within 10 days of making such a decision at a large, urban tertiary care hospital for children. Parents were presented with an experimental form of the Decision Making Control Instrument (DMCI), a measure of the perception of voluntariness. Data obtained from the 28-item form were analyzed using a combination of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques. The 28 items were reduced to 9 items representing 3 oblique dimensions: Self-Control, Absence of Control, and Others' Control. The hypothesis that the 3-factor covariance structure of our model was consistent with that of the data was supported. Internal consistency for the scale as a whole was high (0.83); internal consistency for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.87. DMCI scores were associated with measures of affect, trust, and decision self-efficacy, supporting the construct validity of the new instrument. The DMCI is an important new tool that can be used to inform our understanding of the voluntariness of treatment and research decisions in medical settings.

  1. 77 FR 67269 - Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... it received. DATES: The direct final rule published on August 22, 2012, at 77 FR 50584 is withdrawn... withdraws Amendment No. 400-4 published at 77 FR 50584 on August 22, 2012. Issued in Washington, DC, on... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 400 RIN 2120-AK16 Voluntary Licensing of Amateur...

  2. Environmental Concern and Involvement of Individuals in Selected Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Michael A.; Ostergren, David.

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined environmental concern and involvement of individuals in two voluntary associations, the International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) and National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Inc. (NOHVCC). Environmental concerns were assessed using the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP). When compared, results from 10 of 12…

  3. 28 CFR 549.41 - Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medication. 549.41 Section 549.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.41 Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication. (a) A sentenced inmate may be...

  4. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from the appar...

  5. Selection and inhibition mechanisms for human voluntary action decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hughes, Laura E; Rowe, James B

    2012-10-15

    One can choose between action alternatives that have no apparent difference in their outcomes. Such voluntary action decisions are associated with widespread frontal-parietal activation, and a tendency to inhibit the repetition of a previous action. However, the mechanism of initiating voluntary actions and the functions of different brain regions during this process remains largely unknown. Here, we combine computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the selection and inhibition mechanisms that mediate trial-to-trial voluntary action decisions. We fitted an optimized accumulator model to behavioral responses in a finger-tapping task in which participants were instructed to make chosen actions or specified actions. Model parameters derived from each individual were then applied to estimate the expected accumulated metabolic activity (EAA) engaged in every single trial. The EAA was associated with blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in a decision work that was maximal in the supplementary motor area and the caudal anterior cingulate cortex, consistent with a competitive accumulation-to-threshold mechanism for action decision by these regions. Furthermore, specific inhibition of the previous action's accumulator was related to the suppression of response repetition. This action-specific inhibition correlated with the activity of the right inferior frontal gyrus, when the option to repeat existed. Our findings suggest that human voluntary action decisions are mediated by complementary processes of intentional selection and inhibition.

  6. 31 CFR 800.402 - Contents of voluntary notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of voluntary notice. 800.402 Section 800.402 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE...; and (D) Employer identification number or other domestic tax or corporate identification number. (d...

  7. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  8. Voluntary activation of trapezius measured with twitch interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle with twitch interpolation. Subjects (n=8) lifted the right shoulder or both shoulders against fixed force transducers. Stimulation of the accessory nerve in the neck was used to evoke maximal twitche...

  9. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

  10. 7 CFR 4290.585 - Voluntary decrease in RBIC's Regulatory Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in RBIC's Regulatory Capital. 4290... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC Voluntary Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 4290.585 Voluntary decrease in RBIC's Regulatory Capital. You must obtain the Secretary's prior...

  11. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital § 107.585 Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. You must obtain...

  12. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave...

  13. 5 CFR 630.1016 - Termination of a voluntary leave bank program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of a voluntary leave bank program. 630.1016 Section 630.1016 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1016 Termination of a voluntary leave...

  14. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  15. 78 FR 70915 - Notice of December 11 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of December 11 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid... Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA). Date: Wednesday, December 11, 2013. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m... on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE 6116-01-P...

  16. 78 FR 30267 - Notice of June 12 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of June 12 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United States Agency... Committee Act, notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA... Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  17. 78 FR 3878 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid AGENCY... renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid for a two-year period beginning January 10... Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  18. 75 FR 81205 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEVELOPMENT Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid AGENCY: United States Agency for... Voluntary Foreign Aid for a two-year period beginning January 15, 2011 is necessary and in the public... Hubbard, Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency...

  19. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  20. Benefits of voluntary industry standards: The triumph of experience over regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, J.T. [National Mining Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Voluntary international standards for mining machinery may gradually replace many national regulations. The days of establishing voluntary standards nation by nation, inhibiting the important flow of international trade, could be numbered. This does not mean that nations will cease domestic regulatory activities within their boundaries, but rulemaking will pay considerable attention to voluntary international standards and will likely strive for compatibility with voluntary international standards. International standards setting bodies are developing standards for machine safety. When these standards are complete and adopted, some nations will require machinery to comport with them. International commerce in products that do not conform to these voluntary international standards may be discouraged.

  1. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  2. Current concerns in involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...... contents. However, memories related to current concerns were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-concern related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of current...

  3. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaasdonk, E G G; Dankelman, J; Schijven, M P; Lange, J F; Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the task performance of three exercises and was presented to all the participants through an online database on the Internet. The resident with the best score would win a lap-top computer. During three months, 31 individuals from seven hospitals participated (22 surgical residents, 3 surgeons and six interns). A total of 777 scores were logged in the database. In order to out-perform others some participants scheduled themselves voluntarily for additional training. More attempts correlated with higher scores. The serious gaming concept may enhance voluntary skills training. Online data capturing could facilitate monitoring of skills progression in surgical trainees and enhance (VR) simulator validation.

  4. Voluntary Sleep Choice and Its Effects on Bayesian Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Drummond, Sean P A; Dyche, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether voluntary sleep restriction at commonly experienced levels impacts decision making in a Bayesian choice task. Participants recruited were largely traditional age college students from a regional state university (n = 100) and a federal military academy (n = 99; n = 56 and 43, respectively, used in final analysis). Sleep was measured by actigraphy over a one-week period, followed by performance of a decision task. The task involved two sources of information, base rate odds and sample evidence, with subjects asked to make a probability judgment. Results found that subjects with nightly sleep sleep deprived = SD), relative to those with > 7 hr, placed less decision weight on new evidence, relative to base rate information, in making difficult choices. This result is strongest among female subjects. For easier choices, voluntary SD did not affect relative decision weights placed on the two sources of available information.

  5. Voluntary language switching in English-Spanish bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Although bilingual children frequently switch between languages, the psycholinguistic mechanisms underlying the emerging ability to control language choice are unknown. We examined the mechanisms of voluntary language switching in English-Spanish bilingual children during a picture-naming task under two conditions: 1) single-language naming in English and in Spanish; 2) either-language naming, when the children could use whichever language they wanted. The mechanism of inhibitory control was examined by analyzing local switching costs and global mixing costs. The mechanism of lexical accessibility was examined by analyzing the properties of the items children chose to name in their non-dominant language. The children exhibited significant switching costs across both languages and asymmetrical mixing costs; they also switched into their non-dominant language most frequently on highly accessible items. These findings suggest that both lexical accessibility and inhibition contribute to language choice during voluntary language switching in children. PMID:26889376

  6. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant, a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease

  7. Voluntary childlessness in marriage and family textbooks, 1950-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancey, L; Dumais, S A

    2009-04-01

    We perform a content analysis of twenty marriage and family textbooks published between 1950 and 2000 to study how the voluntarily childless are presented in undergraduate courses. Throughout the time period studied, independence, pursuit of a career, and romance were prominent themes in the representation of voluntary childlessness. Other themes emerged specific to each decade - the 1950s portrayed parenthood as a challenge, while the 1990s concentrated on alleviating negative stereotypes of the voluntarily childless.

  8. MYOELECTRIC ALTERATIONS AFTER VOLUNTARY INDUCED HIGH - AND LOW - FREQUENCY FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Strojnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find whether voluntary induced high- and low-frequency peripheral fatigue exhibit specific alteration in surface EMG signal (SEMG during evoked and maximum voluntary contractions. Ten male students of physical education performed 60 s long stretch-shortening cycle (SSC exercise with maximal intensity and 30 s long concentric (CON exercise with maximal intensity. To verify voluntary induced peripheral fatigue, knee torques during low- (T20 and high-frequency electrical stimulation (T100 of relaxed vastus lateralis muscle (VL were obtained. Contractile properties of the VL were measured with passive twitch and maximal voluntary knee extension test (MVC. Changes in M-waves and SEMG during MVC test were used to evaluate the differences in myoelectrical signals. T100/T20 ratio decreased by 10.9 ± 8.4 % (p < 0.01 after the SSC exercise and increased by 35.9 ± 17.5 % (p < 0.001 after the CON exercise. Significant SEMG changes were observed only after the CON exercise where peak to peak time of the M-waves increased by 9.2 ± 13.3 % (p < 0.06, SEMG amplitude during MVC increased by 32.9 ± 21.6 % (p < 0.001 and SEMG power spectrum median frequency decreased by 11.0 ± 10.5 % (p < 0.05. It is concluded that high frequency fatigue wasn't reflected in SEMG, however the SEMG changes after the CON seemed to reflect metabolic changes due to acidosis

  9. [Mandatory or voluntary vaccinations? Juridical and medico-legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendini, L O; Zanetti, A; Buzzi, F

    2003-01-01

    The Italian juridical and legislative aspects of vaccination based on a compulsory system are presented considering the medico-legal questions. The prospective of a voluntary system, as anticipated by many normatives and other official documents, is examined. The experience of some local health authorities on cases of in observance of the vaccinal obligation are detailed Finally professional risks for vaccinal operators are examined and the need of specific guidelines for parents' consent to compulsory vaccination during infancy is prospected.

  10. Developing voluntary standards for district nurse education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Mary

    2016-05-01

    This article charts the development of a project, funded by the Queen's Nursing Institute and Queen's Nursing Institute Scotland, to develop voluntary standards that reflect the contemporary and future practice of district nurses. The standards are designed to enhance, but not replace, the Nursing and Midwifery Council standards for district nurse specialist practice. The project encompassed the four UK countries and gathered data from a wide range of sources to inform the new standards that were launched in September 2015.

  11. Conditional vs. Voluntary Contribution Mechanism – An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Conditional Contribution Mechanism for public good provision gives all agents the possibility to condition their contribution on the total level of contribution provided by all agents. In this experimental study the mechanism's performance is compared to the performance of the Voluntary Contribution Mechanism. In an environment with binary contribution and linear valuations subjects play the mechanisms in a repeated setting. The mechanisms are compared in one case of complete informati...

  12. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T

    2009-02-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  13. Combined application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary muscular contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Electromyostimulation (EMS) and voluntary muscle contraction (VC) constitute different modes of muscle activation and induce different acute physiological effects on the neuromuscular system. Long-term application of each mode of muscle activation can produce different muscle adaptations. It seems theoretically possible to completely or partially cumulate the muscle adaptations induced by each mode of muscle activation applied separately. This work consisted of examining the literature concerning the muscle adaptations induced by long-term application of the combined technique (CT) [i.e. EMS is combined with VC - non-simultaneously] compared with VC and/or EMS alone in healthy subjects and/or athletes and in post-operative knee-injured subjects. In general, CT induced greater muscular adaptations than VC whether in sports training or rehabilitation. This efficiency would be due to the fact that CT can facilitate cumulative effects of training completely or partially induced by VC and EMS practiced alone. CT also provides a greater improvement of the performance of complex dynamic movements than VC. However, EMS cannot improve coordination between different agonistic and antagonistic muscles and thus does not facilitate learning the specific coordination of complex movements. Hence, EMS should be combined with specific sport training to generate neuromuscular adaptations, but also allow the adjustment of motor control during a voluntary movement. Likewise, in a therapeutic context, CT was particularly efficient to accelerate recovery of muscle contractility during a rehabilitation programme. Strength loss and atrophy inherent in a traumatism and/or a surgical operation would be more efficiently compensated with CT than with VC. Furthermore, CT also restored more functional abilities than VC. Finally, in a rehabilitation context, EMS is complementary to voluntary exercise because in the early phase of rehabilitation it elicits a strength increase, which is necessary

  14. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 583: predispute, voluntary, binding arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    : Arbitration is a form of dispute resolution that is an alternative to 'taking a case to court.' Weighing the potential advantages and disadvantages, predispute arbitration may represent a valid alternative dispute resolution strategy for physicians and patients. When correctly prepared, contractual agreements between patients and physicians for predispute, voluntary, binding arbitration can satisfy both individual and societal needs and, at the same time, meet relevant ethical principles.

  15. High-speed camera characterization of voluntary eye blinking kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyung-Ah; Shipley, Rebecca J; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Ezra, Daniel G; Rose, Geoff; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2013-08-01

    Blinking is vital to maintain the integrity of the ocular surface and its characteristics such as blink duration and speed can vary significantly, depending on the health of the eyes. The blink is so rapid that special techniques are required to characterize it. In this study, a high-speed camera was used to record and characterize voluntary blinking. The blinking motion of 25 healthy volunteers was recorded at 600 frames per second. Master curves for the palpebral aperture and blinking speed were constructed using palpebral aperture versus time data taken from the high-speed camera recordings, which show that one blink can be divided into four phases; closing, closed, early opening and late opening. Analysis of data from the high-speed camera images was used to calculate the palpebral aperture, peak blinking speed, average blinking speed and duration of voluntary blinking and compare it with data generated by other methods previously used to evaluate voluntary blinking. The advantages of the high-speed camera method over the others are discussed, thereby supporting the high potential usefulness of the method in clinical research.

  16. Voluntary Saccadic Eye Movements Ride the Attentional Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze

    2016-10-01

    Visual perception seems continuous, but recent evidence suggests that the underlying perceptual mechanisms are in fact periodic-particularly visual attention. Because visual attention is closely linked to the preparation of saccadic eye movements, the question arises how periodic attentional processes interact with the preparation and execution of voluntary saccades. In two experiments, human observers made voluntary saccades between two placeholders, monitoring each one for the presentation of a threshold-level target. Detection performance was evaluated as a function of latency with respect to saccade landing. The time course of detection performance revealed oscillations at around 4 Hz both before the saccade at the saccade origin and after the saccade at the saccade destination. Furthermore, oscillations before and after the saccade were in phase, meaning that the saccade did not disrupt or reset the ongoing attentional rhythm. Instead, it seems that voluntary saccades are executed as part of an ongoing attentional rhythm, with the eyes in flight during the troughs of the attentional wave. This finding for the first time demonstrates that periodic attentional mechanisms affect not only perception but also overt motor behavior.

  17. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  18. Negative emotional outcomes attenuate sense of agency over voluntary actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Michiko; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-21

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling that one's voluntary actions produce external sensory events [1, 2]. Several psychological theories hypothesized links between SoA and affective evaluation [3-6]. For example, people tend to attribute positive outcomes to their own actions, perhaps reflecting high-level narrative processes that enhance self-esteem [3]. Here we provide the first evidence that such emotional modulations also involve changes in the low-level sensorimotor basis of agency. The intentional binding paradigm [1] was used to quantify the subjective temporal compression between a voluntary action and its sensory consequences, providing an implicit measure of SoA. Emotional valence of action outcomes was manipulated by following participants' key-press actions with negative or positive emotional vocalizations [7], or neutral sounds. We found that intentional binding was reduced for negative compared to positive or neutral outcomes. Discriminant analyses identified a change in time perception of both actions and their negative outcomes, demonstrating that the experience of action itself is subject to affective modulation. A small binding benefit was also found for positive action outcomes. Emotional modulation of SoA may contribute to regulating social behavior. Correctly tracking the valenced effects of one's voluntary actions on other people could underlie successful social interactions.

  19. Modulation in voluntary neural drive in relation to muscle soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringard, A.; Puchaux, K.; Noakes, T. D.; Perrey, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether (1) spinal modulation would change after non-exhausting eccentric exercise of the plantar flexor muscles that produced muscle soreness and (2) central modulation of the motor command would be linked to the development of muscle soreness. Ten healthy subjects volunteered to perform a single bout of backward downhill walking exercise (duration 30 min, velocity 1 ms−1, negative grade −25%, load 12% of body weight). Neuromuscular test sessions [H-reflex, M-wave, maximal voluntary torque (MVT)] were performed before, immediately after, as well as 1–3 days after the exercise bout. Immediately after exercise there was a −15% decrease in MVT of the plantar flexors partly attributable to an alteration in contractile properties (−23% in electrically evoked mechanical twitch). However, MVT failed to recover before the third day whereas the contractile properties had significantly recovered within the first day. This delayed recovery of MVT was likely related to a decrement in voluntary muscle drive. The decrease in voluntary activation occurred in the absence of any variation in spinal modulation estimated from the H-reflex. Our findings suggest the development of a supraspinal modulation perhaps linked to the presence of muscle soreness. PMID:17978834

  20. 基于云计算的铁水联运信息平台架构方案研究%Study on Architecture of Information Platforms for Rail-water Inter-modal Transportation Based on Cloud Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韬; 黄强; 倪少权

    2014-01-01

    在铁水联运信息平台业务架构分析基础上,采用基于云架构理念,提出了部署在混合云上的铁水联运信息平台总体构架方案,设计了具有两个组成部分三层技术服务的纵向技术架构,以及以订单驱动为核心的统一管理业务流程架构,并探讨了基于云的铁水联运信息平台运营模式。%In this paper, on the basis of an analysis of the business architecture of the rail-water inter-modal transportation information platform and relying on the notion of cloud architecture, we proposed the general plan for the platform based on the hybrid cloud, designed the vertical technical structure composed of two parts and three layers as well as the unified management business process architecture centered on orders, and at the end, discussed the operational mode of the cloud-based rail-water inter-modal information platform.

  1. 浅议国际多式联运中如何更好地分清各方责任%Liability Attribution Among Parties of International Inter-modal Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珉

    2011-01-01

    对国际多式联运的网状责任制原则与多式联运经营人的赔偿责任限制进行了理论综述,指出网状责任制的最大弊端和实践中国际货运市场供求关系决定责任归属的现状.通过尝试从企业实践中另辟蹊径,提出了货运单据和科技创新设备在划分各关系方责任方面的实际作用.%The paper reviews literatures on the principle of liabilities and liability limitation for inter-modal transport operators in inter-national inter-modal transportation, points out the most serious limitation of the net-structured distribution of liabilities among the concerned parties as well as the fact that, in practice, demand-supply relationship of the international freight forwarding market determines liability attribution. Then, in an effort at innovation, the paper studies enterprise practices, investigating the roles of BOL and high-tech equipment in the determination of liabilities of the various parties in the relationship.

  2. Repeatability of maximal voluntary force and of surface EMG variables during voluntary isometric contraction of quadriceps muscles in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainoldi, A; Bullock-Saxton, J E; Cavarretta, F; Hogan, N

    2001-12-01

    The repeatability of initial values and rate of change of EMG signal mean spectral frequency (MNF), average rectified values (ARV), muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was investigated in the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both legs of nine healthy male subjects during voluntary, isometric contractions sustained for 50 s at 50% MVC. The values of MVC were recorded for both legs three times on each day and for three subsequent days, while the EMG signals have been recorded twice a day for three subsequent days. The degree of repeatability was investigated using the Fisher test based upon the ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA), the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Data collected showed a high level of repeatability of MVC measurement (normalized SEM from 1.1% to 6.4% of the mean). MNF and ARV initial values also showed a high level of repeatability (ICC>70% for all muscles and legs except right VMO). At 50% MVC level no relevant pattern of fatigue was observed for the VMO and VL muscles, suggesting that other portions of the quadriceps might have contributed to the generated effort. These observations seem to suggest that in the investigation of muscles belonging to a multi-muscular group at submaximal level, the more selective electrically elicited contractions should be preferred to voluntary contractions.

  3. Voluntary driven elbow orthosis with speed controlled tremor suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is gradually becoming commonplace in the medical sector and in the service of patients. Medical conditions that have benefited from significant technological development include stroke, for which rehabilitation with robotic devices is administered, and surgery assisted by robots. Robotic devices have also been proposed for assistance of movement disorders. Pathological tremor, among the most common movement disorders, is such one example. In practice, the dissemination and availability of tremor suppression robotic systems has been limited. Devices in the marketplace tend to either be non-ambulatory or to target specific functions such as eating and drinking.We have developed a one degree-of-freedom (DOF elbow orthosis that could be worn by an individual with tremor. A speed controlled voluntary driven suppression approach is implemented with the orthosis. Typically tremor suppression methods estimate the tremor component of the signal and produce a canceling counterpart signal. The suggested approach, instead estimates the voluntary component of the motion. A controller then actuates the orthosis based on the voluntary signal while simultaneously rejecting the tremorous motion.In this work, we tested the suppressive orthosis using a 1 DOF robotic system that simulates the human arm. The suggested suppression approach does not require a model of the human arm. Moreover, the human input along with the orthosis forearm gravitational forces, of nonlinear nature, are considered as part of the disturbance to the suppression system. Therefore, the suppression system can be modeled linearly. Nevertheless, the orthosis forearm gravitational forces can be compensated by the suppression system.The electromechanical design of the orthosis is presented, and data from an Essential Tremor patient is used as the human input. Velocity tracking results demonstrate an RMS error of 0.31 rad/s, and a power spectral density shows a reduction of

  4. Multi-class EEG classification of voluntary hand movement directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Neethu; Guan, Cuntai; Vinod, A. P.; Keng Ang, Kai; Tee, Keng Peng

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Studies have shown that low frequency components of brain recordings provide information on voluntary hand movement directions. However, non-invasive techniques face more challenges compared to invasive techniques. Approach. This study presents a novel signal processing technique to extract features from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings for classifying voluntary hand movement directions. The proposed technique comprises the regularized wavelet-common spatial pattern algorithm to extract the features, mutual information-based feature selection, and multi-class classification using the Fisher linear discriminant. EEG data from seven healthy human subjects were collected while they performed voluntary right hand center-out movement in four orthogonal directions. In this study, the movement direction dependent signal-to-noise ratio is used as a parameter to denote the effectiveness of each temporal frequency bin in the classification of movement directions. Main results. Significant (p movement direction dependent modulation in the EEG data was identified largely towards the end of movement at low frequencies (≤6 Hz) from the midline parietal and contralateral motor areas. Experimental results on single trial classification of the EEG data collected yielded an average accuracy of (80.24 ± 9.41)% in discriminating the four different directions using the proposed technique on features extracted from low frequency components. Significance. The proposed feature extraction strategy provides very high multi-class classification accuracies, and the results are proven to be more statistically significant than existing methods. The results obtained suggest the possibility of multi-directional movement classification from single-trial EEG recordings using the proposed technique in low frequency components.

  5. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle contraction may be directly linked to muscle fatigue.

  6. THE VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE IN BULGARIA - HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M. Shtereva-Nikolova; Nikolay A. Popov; Tsvetelina M. Petrova-Gotova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the history and development of the Voluntary Health Insurance (VHI) in Bulgaria and the recent regulatory changes. During the investigated period (2003–2012) the market increases over seven times, the number of working and licensed VHI funds grew over three times. The regulatory changes in 2013 require re-licensing and higher capital, which reduced the number of the VHI companies. We analyze the changes in the market and how VHI funds succeed to meet the inc...

  7. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  8. Um modelo de fluxos e localização de terminais intermodais para escoamento da soja brasileira destinada à exportação A model for flow allocation and location of intermodal terminals for the Brazilian soybean exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica do Amaral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A consideração de rotas intermodais pode ser vantajosa em diversas situações, como nos casos de escoamento de produtos agrícolas para exportação. Entretanto, a possibilidade de redução dos custos logísticos está condicionada à existência de instalações que permitam o transbordo de carga e a integração entre os modais disponíveis. Nesse contexto, propõe-se um modelo de fluxos e localização de terminais intermodais, com o objetivo de apoiar decisões de investimento em infraestrutura e de roteirização na rede. O modelo possui forte relação com problemas de p-medianas, sabidamente NP-difíceis. São considerados múltiplos níveis, em que cada nível corresponde ao fluxo entre dois terminais, e uma estrutura esparsa para representação da rede. Testes realizados com uma rede para exportação de soja baseada em dados secundários foram utilizados para verificar a coerência e ilustrar o potencial de análise do modelo, enquanto instâncias geradas aleatoriamente serviram para avaliar seu desempenho computacional utilizando-se dois softwares de otimização.The use of intermodal routes may be advantageous in several situations such as to export agricultural products. However, the possibility of reducing logistics costs depends on the existence of intermodal facilities for the transshipment and the integration between the available modes. In this context, we propose a model for flow allocation and location of intermodal terminals to support investment decisions in network infrastructure and routing. The model is closely related to the NP-hard p-median problem. Multiple levels were used to represent the flows between two terminals, and a sparse structure was used for the network matrix representation. Tests using a soybean network for exports based on secondary data were performed to verify the model consistency and to illustrate the potential of analysis of the model, while randomly generated instances were used to evaluate

  9. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability during voluntary contraction with concurrent electrical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomofumi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available While previous studies have assessed changes in corticospinal excitability following voluntary contraction coupled with electrical stimulation (ES, we sought to examine, for the first time in the field, real-time changes in corticospinal excitability. We monitored motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and recorded the MEPs using a mechanomyogram, which is less susceptible to electrical artifacts. We assessed the MEPs at each level of muscle contraction of wrist flexion (0%, 5%, or 20% of maximum voluntary contraction during voluntary wrist flexion (flexor carpi radialis (FCR voluntary contraction, either with or without simultaneous low-frequency (10 Hz ES of the median nerve that innervates the FCR. The stimulus intensity corresponded to 1.2 × perception threshold. In the FCR, voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly increased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.01. In addition, corticospinal excitability was significantly modulated by the level of FCR voluntary contraction. In contrast, in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR, FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly decreased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.05. Thus, median nerve stimulation during FCR voluntary contraction induces reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Finally we also showed that even mental imagery of FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation induced the same reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Our results support the use of voluntary contraction coupled with ES in neurorehabilitation therapy for patients.

  10. Effect of voluntary exercise on BDNF/TrkB gene expression and alcohol intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Josefine

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running is rewarding and believed to activate the same brain reward system as in alcohol and drug addiction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known growth factor widely expressed in the brain, is modulated by both voluntary exercise and alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate how voluntary exercise affects the expression levels of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in brain regions involved in positive and negative reinforcement. Additionally we want...

  11. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada's voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement approac...

  12. Maximal force, voluntary activation and muscle soreness after eccentric damage to human elbow flexor muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartwuth, O; Taylor, JL; Gandevia, SC

    2005-01-01

    Muscle damage reduces voluntary force after eccentric exercise but impaired neural drive to the muscle may also contribute. To determine whether the delayed-onset muscle soreness, which develops ∼1 day after exercise, reduces voluntary activation and to identify the possible site for any reduction, voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles was examined with both motor cortex and motor nerve stimulation. We measured maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVC), twitch torque, muscle soreness and voluntary activation in eight subjects before, immediately after, 2 h after, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days after eccentric exercise. Motor nerve stimulation and motor cortex stimulation were used to derive twitch torques and measures of voluntary activation. Eccentric exercise immediately reduced the MVC by 38 ± 3% (mean ±s.d., n = 8). The resting twitch produced by motor nerve stimulation fell by 82 ± 6%, and the estimated resting twitch by cortical stimulation fell by 47 ± 15%. While voluntary torque recovered after 8 days, both measures of the resting twitch remained depressed. Muscle tenderness occurred 1–2 days after exercise, and pain during contractions on days 1–4, but changes in voluntary activation did not follow this time course. Voluntary activation assessed with nerve stimulation fell 19 ± 6% immediately after exercise but was not different from control values after 2 days. Voluntary activation assessed by motor cortex stimulation was unchanged by eccentric exercise. During MVCs, absolute increments in torque evoked by nerve and cortical stimulation behaved differently. Those to cortical stimulation decreased whereas those to nerve stimulation tended to increase. These findings suggest that reduced voluntary activation contributes to the early force loss after eccentric exercise, but that it is not due to muscle soreness. The impairment of voluntary activation to nerve stimulation but not motor cortical stimulation suggests that the activation deficit lies in the

  13. A policy analysis of voluntary agreements for energy efficiency in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Anders; Krarup, Signe; Kraemer, Trine Pipi [AKF, Inst. of Local Government Studies, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    To a growing degree voluntary agreements are used as an energy policy instrument in industrial energy policy in Europe. This paper investigates voluntary agreements of Great Britain, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The paper analyses the design and effects of these agreements and on this background discusses general implications of using voluntary agreements as a policy instrument in industrial energy policy. (au) EFP-95. 23 refs.

  14. Intermodal Relationships in Children's Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, Richard R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    First, third, and fifth graders made judgments of the geographical slant of surfaces depicted in photographs while optical slant and postural orientation were manipulated. The results indicated the existence of a linear mechanism which compensates for the effect of postural inclination. (JMB)

  15. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  16. Voluntary activation of human knee extensors measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, S; Romer, L M; Ross, E Z

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability and reliability of a transcranial magnetic stimulation twitch interpolation technique for measuring voluntary activation of a lower limb muscle group. Cortical voluntary activation of the knee extensors was determined in nine healthy men on two separate visits by measuring superimposed twitch torques evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during isometric knee extensions of varying intensity. Superimposed twitch amplitude decreased linearly with increasing voluntary torque between 50 and 100% of mean maximal torque, allowing estimation of resting twitch amplitude and subsequent calculation of voluntary activation. There were no systematic differences for maximal voluntary activation within day (mean +/- s.d. 90.9 +/- 6.2 versus 90.7 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.98) or between days (90.8 +/- 6.0 versus 91.2 +/- 5.7%; P = 0.92). Systematic bias and random error components of the 95% limits of agreement were 0.23 and 9.3% within day versus 0.38 and 7.5% between days. Voluntary activation was also determined immediately after a 2 min maximal voluntary isometric contraction; in four of these subjects, voluntary activation was determined 30 min after the sustained contraction. Immediately after the sustained isometric contraction, maximal voluntary activation was reduced from 91.2 +/- 5.7 to 74.2 +/- 12.0% (P knee extensors.

  17. Is there a place for voluntary active euthanasia in modern-day medicine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogunbanjo, GA; Knapp van Bogaert, D

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses various ethical and legal concepts regarding euthanasia and includes notions such as physician-assisted suicide, assisted suicide, voluntary active euthanasia, killing versus...

  18. Role of feedback in voluntary control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, S B; Levenson, R W; Hinrichsen, J J; Gryll, S L

    1975-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of biofeedback techniques on the voluntary control of heart rate was examined by randomly assigning 32 Ss to one of four feedback conditions in a bi-directional heart-rate control task: (1) no feedback, (2) binary feedback--S was signaled when an interbeat interval had changed in the correct direction, (3) "real-time," proportional feedback--S was provided information about the relative duration of successive interbeat intervals, and (4) numerical, proportional feedback--each interbeat interval was represented as a numeral indicating its relationship to pre-trial mean by direction and magnitude. Significant over-all heart-rate changes were evidenced for both increase and decrease directions, but no differences were found between the feedback conditions. While these data suggest that feedback may be a relatively insignificant factor in voluntary heart-rate control, it was recommended that further investigation examine the role of feedback within the context of other training, mediating and motivational variables.

  19. Maternal Silences: Motherhood and Voluntary Childlessness in Contemporary Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Llewellyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Christianity, there is an ideology of motherhood that pervades scripture, ritual, and doctrine, yet there is an academic silence that means relatively little space has been given to motherhood and mothering, and even less to voluntary childlessness, from a faith perspective. By drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with Christian women living in Britain, narrating their experiences of motherhood and voluntary childlessness, I suggest there are also lived maternal silences encountered by women in contemporary Christianity. There is a maternal expectation produced through church teaching, liturgy and culture that constructs women as ‘maternal bodies’ (Gatrell 2008; this silences and marginalises women from articulating their complex relationship with religion, motherhood, and childlessness in ways that challenge their spiritual development. However, this article also introduces the everyday and intentional tactics women employ to disrupt the maternal expectation, and hereby interrupt the maternal silence.

  20. Individual finger contribution in submaximal voluntary contraction of gripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Lee, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dae-Min; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate individual finger force and contribution to a gripping force, the difference between actual and expected finger forces and subjective discomfort rating at 10 different submaximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) levels (10-100% in 10 increments). Seventy-two participants randomly exerted gripping force with a multi-finger force measurement system. The individual finger force, gripping force and discomfort increased as %MVC levels increased. The middle and ring fingers exerted more force and contributed to a gripping force more than the index and little fingers due to their larger mass fractions of the digit flexor muscles. It was apparent at MVC; however, the index finger increased its contribution and exerted even more force than expected at more than 50% MVC. Subjective discomfort supported the results of the objective measures. This could explain the conflicting findings between index and ring fingers in previous finger contribution studies. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Hand tool design is of special interest in ergonomics due to its association with musculoskeletal disorders in the hand. This study reveals a different contribution pattern of the fingers in submaximal voluntary contraction of gripping exertion.

  1. Inspiratory muscle training lowers the oxygen cost of voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Louise A; Tecklenburg-Lund, Sandra L; Chapman, Robert F; Stager, Joel M; Wilhite, Daniel P; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) alters the oxygen cost of breathing (Vo(2RM)) during voluntary hyperpnea. Sixteen male cyclists completed 6 wk of IMT using an inspiratory load of 50% (IMT) or 15% placebo (CON) of maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi(max)). Prior to training, a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test was performed to determine Vo(2) and ventilation (V(E)) at multiple workloads. Pre- and post-training, subjects performed three separate 4-min bouts of voluntary eucapnic hyperpnea (mimic), matching V(E) that occurred at 50, 75, and 100% of Vo(2 max). Pi(max) was significantly increased (P muscles following a period of IMT may facilitate increased O(2) availability to the active muscles during exercise. These data suggest that IMT may reduce the O(2) cost of ventilation during exercise, providing an insight into mechanism(s) underpinning the reported improvements in whole body endurance performance; however, this awaits further investigation.

  2. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  3. Regulation of animal experimentation: Canada's program of voluntary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, H C

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), is an autonomous advisory and supervisory body responsible for surveillance of experimental animal care and use in Canada's universities, government laboratories and pharmaceutical houses. Its 20-organization membership includes representatives of government, industry, academia and the humane movement. CCAC's voluntary peer review program depends heavily on institutional animal care committees who evaluate the ethical aspects of animal study protocols, and provide day-to-day surveillance of animal care. Its scientific teams, each of which also includes an appointee of the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies (CFHS), conduct assessments based on CCAC's "Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals" (Volume 1, 1980; Volume 2, 1984). Canada's two major funding agencies, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), have recently stated that, in the event of an institution's continued non-compliance with CCAC requirements, sanctions may include the "freezing or withdrawal of any or all research programs funded by either or both Research Councils in an institution". This presentation describes the CCAC program of voluntary peer review and examines historic aspects of animal issues in Canada, from that country's early reliance on the fur trade, to today's almost defunct harp seal fishery, from Banting and Best's discovery of insulin, to development of the pacemaker.

  4. Searching for the majority: algorithms of voluntary control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Fan

    Full Text Available Voluntary control of information processing is crucial to allocate resources and prioritize the processes that are most important under a given situation; the algorithms underlying such control, however, are often not clear. We investigated possible algorithms of control for the performance of the majority function, in which participants searched for and identified one of two alternative categories (left or right pointing arrows as composing the majority in each stimulus set. We manipulated the amount (set size of 1, 3, and 5 and content (ratio of left and right pointing arrows within a set of the inputs to test competing hypotheses regarding mental operations for information processing. Using a novel measure based on computational load, we found that reaction time was best predicted by a grouping search algorithm as compared to alternative algorithms (i.e., exhaustive or self-terminating search. The grouping search algorithm involves sampling and resampling of the inputs before a decision is reached. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the implications of voluntary control via algorithms of mental operations.

  5. Proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R S; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus 'e' was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases.

  6. 我国集装箱铁水联运发展的影响因素分析%Analysis of Factors Influencing Development of Rail-water Intermodal Container Transportation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇; 张哲辉

    2015-01-01

    针对目前我国集装箱铁水联运发展的现状和货源分布现状,从运输价格、基础设施、运输时效、铁路改革、环境影响、政策因素等方面分析了影响集装箱铁水联运发展的主要因素。%In this paper, in view of the current status of the rail-water intermodal container transportation practice in China and the distribution of the cargo sources, we analyzed the major factors influencing its development from the aspects of price, infrastructure, timeliness, railway reform, environmental impact and policy, etc.

  7. Relationships between skinfold thickness and electromyographic and mechanomyographic amplitude recorded during voluntary and non-voluntary muscle actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M; Fry, Andrew C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible correlations between skinfold thicknesses and the a terms from the log-transformed electromyographic (EMGRMS) and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)-force relationships, EMG M-Waves, and MMG gross lateral movements (GLM). Forty healthy subjects performed a 6-s isometric ramp contraction from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction with EMG and MMG sensors placed on the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). A single electrical stimulus was applied to the femoral nerve to record the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs. Skinfold thickness was assessed at the site of each electrode. Pearson's product correlation coefficients were calculated comparing skinfold thicknesses with the a terms from the log-transformed EMGRMS-and MMGRMS-force relationships, EMG M-waves, and MMG GLMs. There were no significant cor1relations (p>0.05) between the a terms and skinfold thicknesses for the RF and VL from the EMGRMS and MMGRMS-force relationships. However, there were significant correlations (pskinfold thicknesses and the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs for the RF (r=-0.521, -0.376) and VL (r=-0.479, -0.484). Relationships were only present between skinfold thickness and the amplitudes of the EMG and MMG signals during the non-voluntary muscle actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Hoge, Katherine M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Cramer, Joel T

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10-90% VI and 40-90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10-90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40-90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions.

  9. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrey Gajjar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but

  10. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Maitrey; Patel, Tarak; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Patel, Kruti; Shah, Mamta; Prajapati, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues. The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast) by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07%) followed by D (95.40%), C (88.77%), c (55.89%) and E (17.88%). The frequency of the Kell antigen (K) was 1.78 %. The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4%) and north Indian donors (93.6) was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85%) and lower than in the Chinese (99%). The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the 'e' antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K) was found in only 101 (1.78 %) donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5%) but also in Caucasians (91%), Blacks (98%) and Chinese (100%). Phenotype

  11. 3 CFR - Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Population Planning Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 23, 2009 Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning Memorandum for the Secretary of State the... subsequently extended the policy to “voluntary population planning” assistance provided by the Department of...

  12. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  13. NDRC Released the Interim Measures on Voluntary Emission Reductions of GHG Trading and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    National Development and Reform Commission issued the Interim Measures on Voluntary Emission Reduction of GHG Trading and Management (hereafter referred to as" Interim Measures") on June, 13th, 2012, which is formulated to encourage project-based voluntary emission reductions and ensure the proper operation of trading activities.

  14. 29 CFR 1608.3 - Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is appropriate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.3 Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is appropriate. (a) Adverse...

  15. The challenges of adopting voluntary health, safety and environment measures for manufactured nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Tickner, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the use of voluntary environmental programs in the United States in the past, and applies the lessons learned from these experiences to the regulation of nanomaterials. The authors found that the key elements of any voluntary environmental program should be incentives...

  16. 13 CFR 108.585 - Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. 108.585 Section 108.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 108.585 Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. You must...

  17. 16 CFR 1031.5 - Criteria for Commission involvement in voluntary standards activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission involvement in the development of voluntary safety standards for consumer products: (a) The... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for Commission involvement in voluntary standards activities. 1031.5 Section 1031.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  18. 49 CFR 27.11 - Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance....11 Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the... activity in violation of this part, the recipient shall take such remedial action as the...

  19. 9 CFR 317.345 - Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products. 317.345 Section 317.345 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of...

  20. 9 CFR 317.343 - Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. 317.343 Section 317.343 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.343 Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. (a) In...

  1. 9 CFR 381.443 - Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. 381.443 Section 381.443 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 381.443 Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. (a) In...

  2. 78 FR 60020 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of the Fiscal Service Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Satisfaction... Customer Satisfaction Survey. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 30, 2013 to...: Title: Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Survey to Implement Executive Order 12862 OMB Number:...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015...

  4. 5 CFR 630.1013 - Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs. 630.1013 Section 630.1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1013...

  5. 14 CFR 234.10 - Voluntary disclosure of on-time performance codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary disclosure of on-time performance codes. 234.10 Section 234.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.10 Voluntary...

  6. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary dri

  7. 7 CFR 1955.10 - Voluntary conveyance of real property by the borrower to the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will submit the voluntary conveyance offer, the case file and a narrative report to the appropriate... on present income and potential earning ability. Exception for SFH loans: FmHA or its successor... with the effective date being the date the voluntary conveyance is closed. If an oral lease is in...

  8. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authority, and the changes in organizational structure it expects to make as the result of projected... description of the types of personnel actions anticipated as a result of the agency's need for voluntary early... voluntary early retirement, which may be made based on the following criteria: (A) 1 or more organizational...

  9. 78 FR 13855 - Notice of March 14 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of March 14 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United States... Aid (ACVFA). Date: Thursday, March 14, 2013. Time: 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Location: Ronald Reagan... on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  10. Application of a Uniform Price Quality Adjusted Discount Auction for Assigning Voluntary Separation Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    7 4. Temporary Early Retirement Authority (TERA) ............................7 C. PROBLEMS...Special Separation Benefit TERA Temporary Early Retirement Allowance USMCMP United States Marine Corps Manpower Planners VSI Voluntary Separation...system, the voluntary separation incentive, the special 2 separation benefit, and the Temporary Early Retirement Authority (TERA) to accomplish

  11. 78 FR 48413 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Violations of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Violations of the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... an investigation or prosecution is necessary and to reach a settlement with violators. Voluntary self...

  12. 77 FR 45718 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Voluntary Service); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Voluntary Service); Comment Request AGENCY... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Voluntary Service, VA Form 10... certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies...

  13. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.23 Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license. A license issued...

  14. Voluntary compliance beyond the letter of the Law : Reciprocity and fair play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Peeters, B.; Gribnau, H.; Badisco, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the obligation to pay taxes. It starts from the idea of voluntary taxation. In ancient Athens, the wealthy had a moral obligation to pay a periodic voluntary contribution (‘liturgy’). They paid for religious festivals and military expeditions which benefited society. This

  15. A history of the pedagogy of voluntary attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the pedagogical recommendations within late nineteenth century psychological literature on voluntary attention, focusing on what was then understood as pathological conditions of attention. The purpose of the article is double. First, to investigate the reasoning embedded...... in the educational exercises with which to capture and retain the attention of students. What is the link between the educational practices of the late nineteenth century and the psychological interest in the concept of attention within this time period? And second, to explore the epistemological and methodological...... power of the pathological. Is it possible to examine the concept of attention through a focus on its pathological forms? The article demonstrates how the pedagogical recommendations embedded in the late nineteenth century psychological literature on attention aim to develop disinterested citizens...

  16. Regulating bodily integrity: cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2012-12-01

    Cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation share a number of features. Both procedures are patient-driven forms of body shaping that can only be performed by surgeons, and therefore the procedures require the imprimatur of the medical profession to be lawful. Both invoke identity construction as a central legitimating factor that renders the procedures therapeutic. The legal regulation of surgery is subsumed within general principles regulating medical practice, where autonomy and consent are constituted as fundamental authorising principles. The legitimacy of consent to surgical intervention operates unevenly in relation to these two forms of surgery. Amputation of healthy limbs is presumed to be non-therapeutic. Capacity is closely interrogated and minutely scrutinised. Consent to cosmetic surgery, by contrast, is presumed to be a valid expression of autonomy and self-determination.

  17. Developing a user-centered voluntary medical incident reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Gong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors are one of leading causes of death among adults in the United States. According to the Institute of Medicine, reporting of medical incidents could be a cornerstone to learn from errors and to improve patient safety, if incident data are collected in a properly structured format which is useful for the detection of patterns, discovery of underlying factors, and generation of solutions. Globally, a number of medical incident reporting systems were deployed for collecting observable incident data in care delivery organizations (CDO) over the past several years. However, few researches delved into design of user-centered reporting system for improving completeness and accuracy of medical incident collection, let alone design models created for other institutes to follow. In this paper, we introduce the problems identified in a current using voluntary reporting system and our effort is being made towards complete, accurate and useful user-centered new reporting system through a usability engineering process.

  18. Non-voluntary passive euthanasia: the social consequences of euphemisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Gwen M

    2007-11-01

    Non-voluntary passive euthanasia, the commonest form of euthanasia, is seldom mentioned in the UK. This article illustrates how the legal reasoning in Airedale NHS Trust v Bland contributed towards this conceptual deletion. By upholding the impermissibility of euthanasia, whilst at the same time permitting 'euthanasia' under the guise of 'withdrawing futile treatment', it is argued that the court (logically) allowed (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia). The Bland reasoning was incorporated into professional guidance, which extended the court's ruling to encompass patients who, unlike Anthony Bland, were sentient. But since the lawfulness of (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia) hinges on the futility of treatment, and since the guidance provides advice about withdrawing treatment from patients who differ from those considered in court, the lawfulness of such 'treatment decisions' is unclear. Legislation is proposed in order to redress the ambiguity that arose when moral decisions about 'euthanasia' were translated into medical decisions about 'treatment'.

  19. Remote guidance of untrained turtles by controlling voluntary instinct behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serin Lee

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been carried out on the direct control of behavior in insects and other lower animals in order to apply these behaviors to the performance of specialized tasks in an attempt to find more efficient means of carrying out these tasks than artificial intelligence agents. While most of the current methods cause involuntary behavior in animals by electronically stimulating the corresponding brain area or muscle, we show that, in turtles, it is also possible to control certain types of behavior, such as movement trajectory, by evoking an appropriate voluntary instinctive behavior. We have found that causing a particular behavior, such as obstacle avoidance, by providing a specific visual stimulus results in effective control of the turtle's movement. We propose that this principle may be adapted and expanded into a general framework to control any animal behavior as an alternative to robotic probes.

  20. Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

  1. An Empirical Evaluation of Private Landowner Participation in Voluntary Forest Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauneckis, Derek; York, Abigail M.

    2009-09-01

    The use of voluntary programs targeting resource conservation on private land has become increasingly prevalent in environmental policy. Voluntary programs potentially offer significant benefits over regulatory and market-based approaches. This article examines the factors affecting landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs using a combination of parcel-level GIS and remotely sensed data and semi-structured interviews of landowners in Monroe County, Indiana. A logistic regression model is applied to determine the probability of participation based on landowner education, membership in other non-forest voluntary programs, dominant land use activity, parcel size, distance from urban center, land resource portfolios, and forest cover. Both land use activity and the spatial configuration of a landholder’s resource portfolio are found to be statistically significant with important implications for the design and implementation of voluntary programs.

  2. An empirical evaluation of private landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauneckis, Derek; York, Abigail M

    2009-09-01

    The use of voluntary programs targeting resource conservation on private land has become increasingly prevalent in environmental policy. Voluntary programs potentially offer significant benefits over regulatory and market-based approaches. This article examines the factors affecting landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs using a combination of parcel-level GIS and remotely sensed data and semi-structured interviews of landowners in Monroe County, Indiana. A logistic regression model is applied to determine the probability of participation based on landowner education, membership in other non-forest voluntary programs, dominant land use activity, parcel size, distance from urban center, land resource portfolios, and forest cover. Both land use activity and the spatial configuration of a landholder's resource portfolio are found to be statistically significant with important implications for the design and implementation of voluntary programs.

  3. Voluntary exercise counteracts Aβ25-35-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Xu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jinrong; Sun, Jianguo; Gao, Junying; Wu, Ting; Xiao, Ming

    2013-11-01

    Exercise has been shown to enhance hippocampus-related cognition and slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether voluntary exercise directly decreases the neurotoxicity of amyloid peptide (Aβ) needs to be determined. In the present study, two-month old male C57bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with Aβ25-35, and then allowed for voluntary exercise for 12 days. Y-maze test revealed that voluntary exercise mitigated spatial memory impairment induced by Aβ25-35. Consistently, Aβ25-35 treated mice with exercise showed reduced neuronal degeneration and synaptic protein loss in the hippocampus compared with sedentary controls. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly ameliorated oxidative stress markers and increased vessel branches in the hippocampus of Aβ25-35 treated mice. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise counteracts the neurotoxicity of Aβ by reducing oxidative stress and increasing angiogenesis, which may underlie the beneficial effect of exercise on AD.

  4. Suprachiasmatic vasopressin and the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Holly C; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; Karatsoreos, Ilia N; Koletar, Margaret M; Ralph, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    A role for arginine vasopressin in the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior (wheel running activity) was investigated in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Spontaneous nocturnal running was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by systemic injections of vasopressin, and also in a concentration-dependent manner by microinjections directly into the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Pre-injections of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist into the nucleus reduced the suppression of behavior by vasopressin. Ethogram analyses revealed that peripheral drug injections predominantly increased grooming, flank marking, and sleep-related behaviors. Central injections did not induce sleep, but increased grooming and periods of 'quiet vigilance' (awake but not moving). Nocturnal behavioral profiles following either peripheral or central injections were similar to those shown by untreated animals in the hour prior to the onset of nocturnal wheel running. Site control vasopressin injections into the medial preoptic area or periaqueductal gray increased flank marking and grooming, but had no significant effect on locomotion, suggesting behavioral specificity of a vasopressin target near the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Both peripheral and central administration increased FOS-like immunoreactivity in the retinorecipient core of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The distribution of FOS-positive cells overlapped the calbindin subregion, but was more extensive, and most calbindin-positive cells did not co-express FOS. We propose a model of temporal behavioral regulation wherein voluntary behavior, such as nocturnal locomotor activity, is inhibited by the activity of neurons in the suprachiasmatic ventrolateral core that project to the posterior hypothalamus and are driven by rhythmic vasopressin input from the dorsomedial shell.

  5. Epidemiologic profile and triggering factors of voluntary poisoning in teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Nicolai; Jitareanu, Cristina; Frasinariu, Otilia Elena; Ciomaga, Irina Mihaela; Rugina, Aniela Luminita; Streanga, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Self-poisoning is an important medical and social problem in adolescents. We performed an observational cross-sectional retrospective study on a group of 219 adolescents admitted for voluntary intoxications at “St. Mary” Children's Emergency Hospital, Iasi during 1 year period. Epidemiological aspects and triggering factors have been analyzed. Data collected from the patients’ files were centralized in an SPSS 18.0 database and processed with confidence interval of 95%. We found that pharmaceutical drugs have been usually involved (34.7%), mostly in girls (56.3% vs. 15.5%; P = 0.0001). The most frequently cited reason for poisoning was family conflict, with a relative risk (RR) 1.43 times higher in girls, as well as scholar conflict (RR = 1.39). A great percentage of the monitored girls presented severe depression (23.3% vs. 6.9%; P = 0.001), with an RR more than 3 times higher than in the case of boys. All cases evolved favorably, no death having been recorded, even if 18 teenagers initially presented an extremely serious condition, being admitted in various stages of coma (Glasgow coma scale score poisonings with pharmaceutical drugs was more common in girls and the use of drug and alcohol intoxication was found especially in boys. The most common pharmaceutical drug involved in self-poisoning was acetaminophen. Psychological disorders and family or school conflicts are the most important triggering factors of voluntary poisoning. Risk factors should be identified after stabilizing the patient, and actions should be taken in order to prevent a fatal recurrence. PMID:28151858

  6. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  7. Factors related to voluntary parental decision-making in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Nelson, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine demographic and contextual correlates of voluntariness in parents making research or treatment decisions for their children with cancer. Participants included 184 parents of children with cancer who made a decision about enrolling the child in a research or treatment protocol within the previous 10 days. Parents completed questionnaires that assessed voluntariness, external influence by others, concern that the child's care would be negatively affected if the parent did not agree, time pressure, information adequacy, and demographics. Lower perceived voluntariness was associated with lower education, male gender, minority status, and not having previous experience with a similar decision. Parents who reported lower voluntariness also perceived more external influence and time pressure, had more concern about the child's care being negatively affected if they declined, and perceived that they had either too much or not enough information about the decision. In a multivariate regression, education, minority status, gender, external influence, and too little information remained significantly associated with voluntariness. Several groups of parents appear to be at risk for decreased voluntariness when making research or treatment decisions for their seriously ill children, including fathers, nonwhite parents, and those with less education. Parental voluntariness may be enhanced by helping parents to mitigate the effects of unhelpful or unwanted influences by others and ensuring that their information needs are met.

  8. Differences in twitch potentiation between voluntary and stimulated quadriceps contractions of equal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, M; Gondin, J; Martin, A; Van Hoecke, J; Maffiuletti, N A

    2010-02-01

    This study compared the extent of twitch and M-wave potentiation (POT) between voluntary and stimulated quadriceps contractions performed at the same intensity. Sixteen healthy men completed 10-s isometric knee extensions at 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction torque under electrical stimulation and voluntary conditions. Single stimuli were delivered to the femoral nerve to evoke twitches before (PRE) and from 3 to 600 s after the end of each conditioning contraction. Changes in twitch contractile properties and M-wave characteristics were compared between the conditions. The extent of twitch peak torque POT was smaller for the stimulated (122+/-20% of PRE) than for the voluntary condition (133+/-20% of PRE). The magnitude of POT for the maximal rate of twitch torque development was also smaller for the stimulated trial. Rectus femoris M-wave amplitude was potentiated by the voluntary but not by the stimulated contraction. It was concluded that stimulated contractions resulted in smaller twitch and M-wave POT than voluntary contractions, despite equivalent torque output and duration. The spatially and temporally fixed recruitment of motor units with electrical stimulation and therefore the lower number of activated motor units compared with voluntary actions of equal intensity could explain the present findings.

  9. The Improved Sensitivity to Crossmodal Asynchrony Caused by Voluntary Action: Comparing Combinations of Sensory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to assess the fine temporal relationship between voluntary actions and their sensory effects to achieve precise spatiotemporal control of body movement. Recently we found that voluntary action improved the subsequent perceptual temporal discrimination between somatosensory and auditory events. In voluntary condition, participants actively pressed a button and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either ‘sound-first’ or ‘touch-first’ responses. We found that the temporal order judgment performance in the voluntary condition (as indexed by just noticeable difference was significantly better than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition. Temporal attention and comparable involuntary movement did not explain the improvement caused by the voluntary action. The results suggest that predicting sensory consequences via a ‘forward’ model enhances perceptual temporal resolution for precise control of the body. The present study examined whether this improved temporal sensitivity caused by the voluntary action is also observed for the other combinations of sensory modalities. We compared the effects of voluntary action on the temporal sensitivity between auditory-somatosensory, visual-somatosensory, and somatosensory-somatosensory stimulus pairs.

  10. Reflex changes in muscle spindle discharge during a voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniss, A M; Gandevia, S C; Burke, D

    1988-03-01

    1. This study was undertaken to determine whether low-threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents from mechanoreceptors in the foot reflexly affect fusimotor neurons innervating the plantar and dorsiflexors of the ankle during voluntary contractions. 2. Recordings were made from 29 identified muscle spindle afferents innervating triceps surae and the pretibial flexors. Trains of electrical stimuli (5 stimuli, 300 impulses per second) were delivered to the sural nerve at the ankle (intensity: 2-4 times sensory threshold) and to the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle (intensity: 1.5-3 times motor threshold for the small muscles of the foot). The stimuli were delivered while the subject maintained an isometric voluntary contraction of the receptor-bearing muscle, sufficient to accelerate the discharge of each spindle ending. This ensured that the fusimotor neurons directed to the ending were active and influencing the spindle discharge. The effects of these stimuli on muscle spindle discharge were assessed using raster displays, frequencygrams, poststimulus time histograms (PSTHs) and cumulative sums ("CUSUMs") of the PSTHs. Reflex effects onto alpha-motoneurons were determined from poststimulus changes in the averaged rectified electromyogram (EMG). Reflex effects of these stimuli onto single-motor units were assessed in separate experiments using PSTHs and CUSUMs. 3. Electrical stimulation of the sural or posterior tibial nerves at nonnoxious levels had no significant effect on the discharge of the 14 spindle endings in the pretibial flexor muscles. The electrical stimuli also produced no significant change in discharge of 11 of 15 spindle endings in triceps surae. With the remaining four endings in triceps surae, the overall change in discharge appeared to be an increase for two endings (at latencies of 60 and 68 ms) and a decrease for two endings (at latencies of 110 and 150 ms). The difference in the incidence of the responses of spindle endings in tibialis

  11. Road blocks in achieving a 100% voluntary blood donation rate in the South Asian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfield Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary blood donation rates are not high in the South Asian region, except in a few countries. The reasons for this are outlined and the roadblocks for improvement of the situation noted. The need for increased planning, both regionally and nationally, is emphasized and some factors that inhibit voluntary blood donation are mentioned. There is a real need to move from a system of reliance on ′replacement′ donors to a fully nonremunerated voluntary blood donation system, and the examples and lessons from successful countries should be carefully studied.

  12. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nicholas, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  13. The determinants of voluntary disclosure in Saudi Arabia:an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Habbash, Murya; Hussainey, Khaled; Ibrahim, Awad

    2016-01-01

    Our study has three objectives. The first is to determine the voluntary disclosure level in Saudi Arabia. The second is to compare this level with that of some other Arab countries. The third is to identify the main drivers of voluntary disclosure in Saudi Arabia. We use a 54-item disclosure checklist and apply the regression and content analyses to examine a sample of 361 firm-year observations of firms listed on Saudi Stock Exchange during 2007-2011. We find the voluntary disclosure average...

  14. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  15. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carlo J; Contessa, Paola

    2012-01-01

    For the past five decades there has been wide acceptance of a relationship between the firing rate of motor units and the afterhyperpolarization of motoneurons. It has been promulgated that the higher-threshold, larger-soma, motoneurons fire faster than the lower-threshold, smaller-soma, motor units. This relationship was based on studies on anesthetized cats with electrically stimulated motoneurons. We questioned its applicability to motor unit control during voluntary contractions in humans. We found that during linearly force-increasing contractions, firing rates increased as exponential functions. At any time and force level, including at recruitment, the firing rate values were inversely related to the recruitment threshold of the motor unit. The time constants of the exponential functions were directly related to the recruitment threshold. From the Henneman size principle it follows that the characteristics of the firing rates are also related to the size of the soma. The "firing rate spectrum" presents a beautifully simple control scheme in which, at any given time or force, the firing rate value of earlier-recruited motor units is greater than that of later-recruited motor units. This hierarchical control scheme describes a mechanism that provides an effective economy of force generation for the earlier-recruited lower force-twitch motor units, and reduces the fatigue of later-recruited higher force-twitch motor units-both characteristics being well suited for generating and sustaining force during the fight-or-flight response.

  16. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative.

  17. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-11-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) cause exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and are important differential diagnoses to exercise-induced asthma. The diagnostic method for EILOs includes provocation to induce the obstruction followed by a verification of the obstruction and the degree thereof. The objective of the present study was to examine if a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test could induce laryngeal obstructions laryngoscopically identical in subtypes and development as seen during an exercise test. EVH and exercise testing with continuous laryngoscopy were performed during a screening of two national athletic teams (n = 67). The laryngoscopic recordings were examined for usability, abnormalities and maximal supraglottic and glottic obstruction using two currently available methods (Eilomea and CLE-score). The participants were asked questions on ERRS, and whether the symptoms experienced during each provocation matched those experienced during regular training. A total of 39 completed both tests. There were no significant differences in subtypes and development thereof, the experience of symptoms, and specificity and sensitivity between the methods. Significantly more recordings obtained during the exercise test were usable for evaluation primarily due to resilient mucus on the tip of the fiber-laryngoscope in the EVH test. Only recordings of six athletes from both provocation methods were usable for evaluation using the Eilomea method (high-quality demand). Amongst these, a linear correlation was found for the glottic obstruction. EVH tests can induce EILOs. However, the present test protocol needs adjustments to secure better visualisation of the larynx during provocation.

  18. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S

    2007-03-01

    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.

  19. Impaired Interlimb Coordination of Voluntary Leg Movements in Poststroke Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate interlimb coordination of the lower extremities is particularly important for a variety of functional human motor behaviors such as jumping, kicking a ball, or simply walking. Specific interlimb coordination patterns may be especially impaired after a lesion to the motor system such as stroke, yet this has not been thoroughly examined to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor deficits in individuals with chronic stroke and hemiparesis when performing unilateral versus bilateral inphase versus bilateral antiphase voluntary cyclic ankle movements. We recorded ankle angular trajectories and muscle activity from the dorsiflexors and plantarflexors and compared these between subjects with stroke and a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. Results showed clear abnormalities in both the kinematics and EMG of the stroke subjects, with significant movement degradation during the antiphase task compared with either the unilateral or the inphase task. The abnormalities included prolonged cycle durations, reduced ankle excursions, decreased agonist EMG bursts, and reduced EMG modulation across movement phases. By comparison, the control group showed nearly identical performance across all task conditions. These findings suggest that stroke involving the corticospinal system projection to the leg specifically impairs one or more components of the neural circuitry involved in lower extremity interlimb coordination. The express susceptibility of the antiphase pattern to exaggerated motor deficits could contribute to functional deficits in a number of antiphase leg movement tasks, including walking. PMID:20463199

  20. Enhancing voluntary imitation through attention and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Marshall, Hannah; Trueman, Sophie; Gowen, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Action observation activates brain areas involved in performing the same action and has been shown to increase motor learning, with potential implications for neurorehabilitation. Recent work indicates that the effects of action observation on movement can be increased by motor imagery or by directing attention to observed actions. In voluntary imitation, activation of the motor system during action observation is already increased. We therefore explored whether imitation could be further enhanced by imagery or attention. Healthy participants observed and then immediately imitated videos of human hand movement sequences, while movement kinematics were recorded. Two blocks of trials were completed, and after the first block participants were instructed to imagine performing the observed movement (Imagery group, N = 18) or attend closely to the characteristics of the movement (Attention group, N = 15), or received no further instructions (Control group, N = 17). Kinematics of the imitated movements were modulated by instructions, with both Imagery and Attention groups being closer in duration, peak velocity and amplitude to the observed model compared with controls. These findings show that both attention and motor imagery can increase the accuracy of imitation and have implications for motor learning and rehabilitation. Future work is required to understand the mechanisms by which these two strategies influence imitation accuracy.

  1. A model of voluntary turnover among hospital CEOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P A; Kimball, P A

    1995-01-01

    This study examines factors contributing to hospital CEOs' voluntary decisions to leave their positions in 1990. Using a longitudinal design, we contrast 49 leavers with 1,362 stayers. We view turnover as influenced by both "push" factors that promote leaving (dissatisfaction with the position) and "hump" factors that need to be overcome (the cost of job change). Push factors giving rise to dissatisfaction include lower compensation, the predecessor's termination, and value incongruity between the CEO and the hospital. Testing the impact of key variables from Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership, we show that task-oriented leaders are relatively less satisfied when compared with relationship-oriented leaders. CEOs also express less satisfaction in low-situational control settings, a measure heavily influenced by perceived inadequate support from medical staff and subordinates. "Hump" factors that deterred leaving included family-related obstacles such as spouse's work or children's school, features mentioned most often by younger CEOs. The study suggests that boards should structure competitively paid positions with opportunities to generate support from the medical staff and subordinates. Recruiters for CEO positions are apprised of the importance of nonwork features in CEOs' willingness to consider new positions.

  2. Voluntary Body Donation: The Gift that Lives on Forever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-10-01

    Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.

  3. Voluntary medical male circumcision in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobian, Aaron A R; Adamu, Tigistu; Reed, Jason B; Kiggundu, Valerian; Yazdi, Youseph; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Throughout East and Southern Africa, the WHO recommends voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to reduce heterosexual HIV acquisition. Evidence has informed policy and the implementation of VMMC programmes in these countries. VMMC has been incorporated into the HIV prevention portfolio and more than 9 million VMMCs have been performed. Conventional surgical procedures consist of forceps-guided, dorsal slit or sleeve resection techniques. Devices are also becoming available that might help to accelerate the scale-up of adult VMMC. The ideal device should make VMMC easier, safer, faster, sutureless, inexpensive, less painful, require less infrastructure, be more acceptable to patients and should not require follow-up visits. Elastic collar compression devices cause vascular obstruction and necrosis of foreskin tissue and do not require sutures or injectable anaesthesia. Collar clamp devices compress the proximal part of the foreskin to reach haemostasis; the distal foreskin is removed, but the device remains and therefore no sutures are required. Newer techniques and designs, such as tissue adhesives and a circular cutter with stapled anastomosis, are improvements, but none of these methods have achieved all desirable characteristics. Further research, design and development are needed to address this gap to enable the expansion of the already successful VMMC programmes for HIV prevention.

  4. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  5. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  6. Damping of the wrist joint during voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, T E; Cloutier, C

    1998-10-01

    Damping characteristics of the musculoskeletal system were investigated during rapid voluntary wrist flexion movements. Oscillations about the final position were induced by introducing a load with the characteristics of negative damping, which artificially reduced the damping of the wrist. Subjects responded to increases in the negatively damped load by stronger cocontraction of wrist flexor and extensor muscles during the stabilization phase of the movement. However, their ability to counteract the effects of the negatively damped load diminished as the negative damping increased. Consequently, the number and frequency of oscillations increased. The oscillations were accompanied by phase-locked muscle activity superimposed on underlying tonic muscle activation. The wrist stiffness and damping coefficient increased with the increased cocontraction that accompanied more negatively damped loads, although changes in the damping coefficient were less systematic than the stiffness. Analysis of successive half-cycles of the oscillation revealed that the wrist stiffness and damping coefficient increased, despite decreasing muscle activation, as oscillation amplitude and velocity declined. This indicates that the inverse dependence of the damping coefficient on oscillation velocity contributes significantly to damping of joint motion. It is suggested that this property helps to offset a negative contribution to damping from the stretch reflex.

  7. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  8. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  9. Voluntary Certification of Agricultural Products in Competitive Markets: The Consideration of Boundedly Rational Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujin Pu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market competition creates strategic incentives for firms to communicate private information about their own product quality through certification. Although voluntary certification has recently gained importance in the agricultural industry, information asymmetry is not always completely addressed. This study analyzes how the relative proportion of boundedly rational consumers in the market influences the effectiveness of voluntary certification mechanisms by using a duopoly game model of high- and low-quality firms. The presented results show that a change in the proportion of boundedly rational consumers leads to different certification behaviors and a different market equilibrium. We also find that the existence of boundedly rational consumers is an important factor in the failure of voluntary certification. Indeed, when the relative proportion of such consumers is very high, voluntary certification is ineffective at improving market efficiency.

  10. 78 FR 59036 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Cogent Patient Safety Organization, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Cogent Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act...

  11. 78 FR 40146 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement...

  12. 76 FR 7853 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Oregon Patient Safety Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Oregon Patient Safety Commission AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: Oregon Patient Safety Commission: AHRQ has accepted...

  13. 78 FR 6819 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From The Connecticut Hospital Association...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From The Connecticut Hospital Association Federal Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety...

  14. 76 FR 7855 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Community Medical Foundation for Patient...

  15. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ...

  16. 76 FR 71345 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Emergency Medicine Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation of its status as a Patient Safety...

  17. Exploring Privacy Management on Facebook: Motivations and Perceived Consequences of Voluntary Disclosure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waters, Susan; Ackerman, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceived motivations and consequences of voluntary disclosure of Facebook active users using a survey administered to college students in a public‐speaking course. College...

  18. 16 CFR 1031.7 - Commission support of voluntary standards activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or subsidizing technical assistance, including research, health science data, and engineering support.... (5) Providing assistance on methods of disseminating information and education about the voluntary... conflicting State and local regulations. (8) Monitoring the number and market share of products conforming...

  19. The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

    1996-12-01

    There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights.

  20. EPA Releases Guidance on a Voluntary Pilot Program to Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the start of a voluntary pilot program to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of a mathematical tool that estimates the toxicological classification of a chemical, which is used in the GHS.

  1. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Belyeu, K.; Kuskova-Burns, K.

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This report surveys utilities, competitive suppliers, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, and, for the first time, the community choice aggregation market. This report finds that the voluntary market totaled 62 million megawatt-hours in 2013. Approximately 5.4 million customers are purchasing green power. This report presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing, and administrative expenses. The report also details trends in REC tracking systems, REC pricing in voluntary and compliance markets, community and crowd-funded solar, and interest in renewable energy by the information and communication technologies sector.

  2. 78 FR 57818 - Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1031 Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  3. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  4. 75 FR 78257 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... in evaluating reports of alleged injuries and adverse reactions from the use of cosmetics. The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  5. On the potential of voluntary environmental programmes for the built environment: A critical analysis of LEED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary environmental programmes (VEPs) are increasingly gaining traction as a means of improving the environmental performance of buildings and their occupants. These programmes are of interest because they incentivise developers, property owners and occupants to improve such performance voluntar

  6. Pavlov's conceptualization of voluntary movements within the framework of the theory of higher nervous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1998-01-01

    Pavlov became interested in the nature of voluntary movements after receiving Konorski and Miller's letter in 1928 describing their experiments on conditioning of motor movements in dogs. Their paradigmatic experiment involved presenting an indifferent stimulus, followed by passive raising of the dog's leg and then reinforcement. If the same stimulus was provided during a number of trials, the animal lifted its corresponding leg. In 1928 Pavlov asked his students to condition motor movements in his laboratory. Although their findings were equivocal, Pavlov incorporated the so-called voluntary movements into his theory of higher nervous activity. Voluntary movements were responses to external environmental contingencies. On the cortical level, the motor analyzer's cells had both afferent and efferent functions. In Pavlov's view, the motor analyzer's cells established connections with the afferent cells of other sensory analyzers. Pavlov held that motor movements, as responses to external and internal environments, give humans the illusion of voluntary behavior.

  7. Voluntary Early Retirement Is a Painless Way to Prune Your Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    The steps necessary to establish most voluntary early retirement incentive plans include establishing a variable-rate incentive, a minimum qualifying salary, a minimum qualifying age, and a method of payment. (Author/IRT)

  8. 78 FR 48413 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Notice... industry to voluntarily self-disclose Antiboycott violations. II. Method of Collection Submitted on paper...

  9. 75 FR 43486 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce ACTION: Notice... Regulations (EAR) by providing a method for industry to voluntarily self-disclose antiboycott violations...

  10. The impacts of product market competition on the quantity and quality of voluntary disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Saeidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between product market competition and voluntary disclosure among 124 selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2013. The study uses Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI and Lerner (LLIA index to measure competition in terms of capacity and price, respectively. In addition, the study uses the questionnaire developed by Botosan (1997 [Botosan, C. A. (1997. Disclosure level and the cost of equity capital. Accounting Review, 72(3, 323-349.] to measure voluntary disclosure. Using linear regression technique, the study has determined that there was a meaningful, direct and positive relationship between voluntary disclosure and competition in terms of price (LLIA. In addition, the results indicate that there was a meaningful and reverse relationship between voluntary disclosure and competition in terms of capacity (HHI.

  11. Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond...

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond This paper studies two recent voluntary operations of debt reduction: Bolivia's buy-back and Mexico's exchange of loans for bonds. This argued that the buy-back had a cost for Bolivia and, hence, it required a political decision when comparing this option to other alternative use of its scarce foreign exchange resources. In the case of Mexico, it is shown that the operation, which can be seen as an indirect buy-back, gave...

  12. The Role of Small Farmer Cooperatives in the Management of Voluntary Coffee Certifications in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Anna Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary certifications offer consumers information on the process in which products are produced. They can use this information to make more informed purchasing decisions and to espouse the issues of sustainability they deem important. Voluntary coffee certifications were some of the first certifications available to consumers. These certifications are purported to promote environmental, social and financial sustainability in the countries of coffee production, but empirical evidence shows ...

  13. DOES VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE LEVEL AFFECT THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore whether voluntary disclosure level affects the value relevance of accounting information from an investor’s perspective on Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE). Based on the assumption that an increased focus on the informational needs of investors should increase the value relevance of the information contained in financial statements we expect that value relevance will increase along with increases in the level of voluntary disclosure. As a consequence, we expect that gre...

  14. Leading by words: A voluntary contribution experiment with one-way communication

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoumelis, Anastasios; Levati, Maria Vittoria; Weisser, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study a voluntary contribution mechanism with one-way communication. The relevance of one person's words is assessed by assigning exogenously the role of the "communicator" to one group member. Contrary to the view that the mutual exchange of promises is necessary for the cooperation-enhancing effect of communication, we ï¬ nd that, compared to a standard voluntary contribution mechanism with no communication, one-way communication signiï¬ cantly increases contributions and ...

  15. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J.

    1988-01-01

    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with th...

  16. Superimposed electrical stimulation comfortably improves the endurance of maximal voluntary contractions.

    OpenAIRE

    Boisgontier, Matthieu; Moineau, Bastien; Nougier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Electrical stimulation has shown to improve muscle endurance in sub-maximal contractions but sessions were painful due to the electric stimuli parameters. Therefore, the present study tested the effects of the superimposed electrical stimulation technique using comfortable current on endurance in repetitions of maximal voluntary contraction. METHODS: Seventeen young healthy subjects performed fifty maximal voluntary contractions of the triceps brachii in two condi...

  17. The simultaneous perception of auditory–tactile stimuli in voluntary movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao eHao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND, an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory–tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy.

  18. Facilitation of corticospinal tract excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation combined with voluntary grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for the deliberate manipulation of the activity of human cerebral cortex. Moreover, it has also been shown that the non-exhausted voluntary motor exercise increases the excitability of corticospinal tract. We conducted this study to define the facilitation effect following anodal tDCS combined with the voluntary grip exercise as compared with single use of tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. Our result showed that the combination of anodal tDCS with voluntary grip exercise produced a 2-fold increase in the amplitude of MEP as compared with single use of anodal tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. In conclusion, our result could indicate that the treatment outcomes of brain and neurorehabilitation using tDCS would be better when tDCS is combined with the appropriate method of voluntary exercise as compared with single use of tDCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. WATER TEMPERATURE, VOLUNTARY DRINKING AND FLUID BALANCE IN DEHYDRATED TAEKWONDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khamnei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status.

  20. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, Erin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  1. Physiological alterations of maximal voluntary quadriceps activation by changes of knee joint angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Awiszus, F

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different angles of the knee joint on voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle, estimating the ability of a subject to activate a muscle maximally by means of voluntary contraction. Isometric torque measurement was performed on 6 healthy subjects in 5 degrees intervals between 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee joint flexion. Superimposed twitches at maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at a level of 60% and 40% of the MVC were applied and the voluntary activation estimated. At between 30 degrees and 75 degrees of knee flexion, the maximal extension torque increased at an average rate of 2.67 +/- 0.6 Nm/degree, followed by a decline with further flexion. However, throughout the joint-angle range tested, voluntary activation increased on average by 0.37%/degree with a maximum at 90 degrees of flexion. Due to the influence of joint position it is not possible to generalize results obtained at the knee joint angle of 90 degrees of flexion, which is usually used for the quadriceps twitch-interpolation technique. Consequently, it is useful to investigate voluntary activation deficits in knee joint disorders at a range of knee joint angles that includes, in particular, the more extended joint angles used frequently during daily activity.

  2. The simultaneous perception of auditory-tactile stimuli in voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory-tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy.

  3. The simultaneous perception of auditory–tactile stimuli in voluntary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory–tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy. PMID:26441799

  4. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs, compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from the Federal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.

  5. [Vasectomy and tubal ligation: medicopsychological aspects of voluntary sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, M

    1982-06-01

    Various psychological aspects of voluntary surgical sterilization are examined. Women's own bodies are protected through sterilization from all the risks of pregnancy, but there is an altruistic element of vasectomy which may be perceived by men either positively or as a sacrifice or mutilition. The greater prevalence of female sterilization thus seems logical. Some psychologists view vasectomy as representing the realization of castration fantasies, but despite occurrence of cases which might seem to legitimate this view, most vasectomized men are married adults who have fathered several children and have otherwise proven their maturity. The status of voluntary sterilization appears to differ in the Third World, where rapid population growth threatens collective survival, and in developed countries whose growth rates are low or negative. Requests for reversal are increasingly frequent as women undergo sterilization at younger ages. Remarriage, a change of mind by the couple, or death of a child are the most frequently cited reasons for reversal requests. Reports of the psychological consequences of sterilization tend to vary in different studies, largely because of differences in the socioeconomic and cultural status of the populations studied and also perhaps because some studies are more superficial than others. In numerous questionnaire surveys mostly done in Anglo-Saxon countries, typically 90-99% of subjects have reported themselves satisfied with the results. The great majority report no regrets, an unchanged or improved marital relationship, and an increase in sexual pleasure. Less heterogeneous samples of persons undergoing sterilization for reasons other than simple contraceptive convenience have sometimes given less positive results. Age, economic status, number of children, marital relationship, educational level, religious and moral convictions, and history of medical or psychological problems can all affect satisfaction with sterilization. Men in

  6. Time-dependent cortical activation in voluntary muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Fang, Yin; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yao, Wanxiang; Yue, Guang H

    2011-01-01

    This study was to characterize dynamic source strength changes estimated from high-density scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) at different phases of a submaximal voluntary muscle contraction. Eight healthy volunteers performed isometric handgrip contractions of the right arm at 20% maximal intensity. Signals of the handgrip force, electromyography (EMG) from the finger flexor and extensor muscles and 64-channel EEG were acquired simultaneously. Sources of the EEG were analyzed at 19 time points across preparation, execution and sustaining phases of the handgrip. A 3-layer boundary element model (BEM) based on the MNI (Montréal Neurological Institute) brain MRI was used to overlay the sources. A distributed current density model, LORETA L1 norm method was applied to the data that had been processed by independent component analysis (ICA). Statistical analysis based on a mixed-effects polynomial regression model showed a significant and consistent time-dependent non-linear source strength change pattern in different phases of the handgrip. The source strength increased at the preparation phase, peaked at the force onset time and decreased in the sustaining phase. There was no significant difference in the changing pattern of the source strength among Brodmann's areas 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. These results show, for the first time, a high time resolution increasing-and-decreasing pattern of activation among the sensorimotor regions with the highest activity occurs at the muscle activity onset. The similarity in the source strength time courses among the cortical centers examined suggests a synchronized parallel function in controlling the motor activity.

  7. Voluntary Participation in Regional Fisheries Management Council Meetings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wilson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient and unrepresentative participation in voluntary public hearings and policy discussions has been problematic since Aristotle's time. In fisheries, research has shown that involvement is dominated by financially resourceful and extreme-opinion stakeholders and tends to advantage groups that have a lower cost of attendance. Stakeholders may exhibit only one or all of these traits but can be still similarly advantaged. The opposites of these traits tend to characterize the disadvantaged, such as the middle-ground opinions, the less wealthy or organized, and the more remote stakeholders. Remoteness or distance is the most straightforward and objective of these characteristics to measure. We analyzed the New England Fishery Management Council's sign-in sheets for 2003–2006, estimating participants' travel distance and associations with the groundfish, scallop, and herring industries. We also evaluated the representativeness of participation by comparing attendance to landings and permit distributions. The distance analysis showed a significant correlation between attendance levels and costs via travel distance. These results suggest a potential bias toward those stakeholders residing closer to meeting locations, possibly disadvantaging parties who are further and must incur higher costs. However, few significant differences were found between the actual fishing industry and attendee distributions, suggesting that the geographical distribution of the meeting attendees is statistically similar to that of the larger fishery. The interpretation of these results must take into consideration the limited time span of the analysis, as policy changes may have altered the industry make-up and location prior to our study. Furthermore, the limited geographical input of stakeholders may lend bias to the Council's perception of ecological and social conditions throughout the spatial range of the fishery. These factors should be further considered in

  8. Voluntary HIV counseling and testing during prenatal care in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zubaran Goldani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Voluntary HIV counseling and testing are provided to all Brazilian pregnant women with the purpose of reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to assess characteristics of HIV testing and identify factors associated with HIV counseling and testing. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out comprising 1,658 mothers living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Biological, reproductive and social variables were obtained from mothers by means of a standardized questionnaire. Being counseling about HIV testing was the dependent variable. Confidence intervals, chi-square test and hierarchical logistic model were used to determine the association between counseling and maternal variables. RESULTS: Of 1,658 mothers interviewed, 1,603 or 96.7% (95% CI: 95.7-97.5 underwent HIV testing, and 51 or 3.1% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0 were not tested. Four (0.2% refused to undergo testing after counseling. Of 51 women not tested in this study, 30 had undergone the testing previously. Of 1,603 women tested, 630 or 39.3% (95% CI: 36.9-41.7 received counseling, 947 or 59.2% (95% CI: 56.6-61.5 did not, and 26 (1.6% did not inform. Low income, lack of prenatal care, late beginning of prenatal care, use of rapid testing, and receiving prenatal in the public sector were variables independently associated with a lower probability of getting counseling about HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirmed the high rate of prenatal HIV testing in Porto Alegre. However, women coming from less privileged social groups were less likely to receive information and benefit from counseling.

  9. FREE CASH FLOW AS PART OF VOLUNTARY REPORTING. LITERATURE REVIEW

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    Negrea Laura Georgeta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as main objective to reflect the state of literature regarding free cash flow, and to withdraw the main pro's and con's in order to create an objective image upon this indicator. The main idea generating this research was the growing interest on cash flow reporting. As many say, 'Cash Flow is King', while in Anglo Saxon countries the interest of investors and analysts in concentrated on operating cash flow, as the most important indicator of the probability of bankruptcy. In this context, voluntary additional reporting, like free cash flow may come either as an aid in providing the fair view or as an opportunistically reported figure. Throughout the paper, the intention was to provide answers to three main research questions: What are the definition and calculation method of free cash flow? Why is there an interest in free cash flow reporting? What is the impact of free cash flow on the agency theory? In order to provide relevant conclusions, four international data basis were used, and related articles and studies were extracted. The results proved that there is no generally accepted definition and computing method, while the format depends on the end-user of the report (shareholders, investors, analysts, bankers, a.s.o.. As stated below, this aspect generates confusion and lack of comparability, giving room to creative accounting techniques. Moreover, the interest on free cash flow reporting is connected mainly to liquidity assessment, company valuation and investors choice. Still, in the context of agency theory, results show that in presence of high free cash flow, managers tend to make investment choices that satisfy their personal interest and that generate low efficiency and profitability for the company. The contribution to current state of research is providing a literature review study, focused on a comparative approach, as well as on underlying an objective image upon a debatable financial indicator and

  10. Effects of voluntary constraining of thoracic displacement during hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Mulholland, M B; Cherniack, N S; Altose, M D

    1987-11-01

    The study evaluated the interrelationships between the extent of thoracic movements and respiratory chemical drive in shaping the intensity of the sensation of dyspnea. Normal subjects rated their sensations of dyspnea as PCO2 increased during free rebreathing and during rebreathing while ventilation was voluntarily maintained at a constant base-line level. Another trial evaluated the effects on the intensity of dyspnea, of voluntary reduction in the level of ventilation while PCO2 was held constant. During rebreathing, there was a power function relationship between changes in PCO2 and the intensity of dyspnea. At a given PCO2, constraining tidal volume and breathing frequency to the prerebreathing base-line level resulted in an increase in dyspnea. The fractional differences in the intensity of dyspnea between free and constrained rebreathing were independent of PCO2. However, the absolute difference in the intensity of dyspnea between free and constrained rebreathing enlarged with increasing hypercapnia. At PCO2 of 50 Torr, this difference correlated significantly with the increase in both minute ventilation (r = 0.675) and tidal volume (r = 0.757) above the base line during free rebreathing. Similarly, during steady-state hypercapnia at 50 Torr PCO2, the intensity of dyspnea increased progressively as ventilation was voluntarily reduced from the spontaneously adopted free-breathing level. These results indicate that dyspnea increases with the level of respiratory chemical drive but that the intensity of the sensation is further accentuated when ventilation is constrained below that demanded by the level of chemical drive. This may be explained by a loss of inhibitory feedback from lung or chest wall mechanoreceptors acting on brain stem and/or cortical centers.

  11. Voluntary wheel running: a review and novel interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin

    1998-07-01

    Voluntary wheel running by animals is an activity that has been observed and recorded in great detail for almost a century. This review shows that it is performed, often with startling intensity and coordination, by a wide variety of wild, laboratory and domestic species with diverse evolutionary histories. However, despite the plethora of published studies on wheel running, there is considerable disagreement between many findings, thus leading to a lack of consensus on explanations of the causality and function. In the initial part of this review, I discuss the internal and external factors that may be involved in the causality of this behaviour, with an emphasis on disparities in both the factual and theoretical development of the subject. I then address the various proposed functions of wheel running, again highlighting evidence to the contrary. This leads to the conclusion that any single theory on the basis of wheel running is likely to be simplistic with little generality. I then present a novel, behaviour-based interpretation in which it is argued that wheel running has no directly analogous naturally occurring behaviour, it is (sometimes) performed for its own sake per se rather than as a redirected or substitute activity, and studies on motivation show that wheel running is self-reinforcing and perceived by animals as 'important'. This review proposes that wheel running may be an artefact of captive environments or of the running-wheel itself, possibly resulting from feedback dysfunction. I also discuss the ubiquity and intensity of its performance, along with its great plasticity and maladaptiveness, all indicating that if it is an artefact, it is nevertheless one of great interest to behavioural science. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. Standardized voluntary force measurement in a lower extremity rehabilitation robot

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    Bolliger Marc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isometric force measurements in the lower extremity are widely used in rehabilitation of subjects with neurological movement disorders (NMD because walking ability has been shown to be related to muscle strength. Therefore muscle strength measurements can be used to monitor and control the effects of training programs. A new method to assess isometric muscle force was implemented in the driven gait orthosis (DGO Lokomat. To evaluate the capabilities of this new measurement method, inter- and intra-rater reliability were assessed. Methods Reliability was assessed in subjects with and without NMD. Subjects were tested twice on the same day by two different therapists to test inter-rater reliability and on two separate days by the same therapist to test intra-rater reliability. Results Results showed fair to good reliability for the new measurement method to assess isometric muscle force of lower extremities. In subjects without NMD, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.97 and intra-rater reliability from 0.71 to 0.90. In subjects with NMD, ICC ranged from 0.66 to 0.97 for inter-rater and from 0.50 to 0.96 for intra-rater reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra- rater reliability of an assessment method for measuring maximal voluntary isometric muscle force of lower extremities was demonstrated. We suggest that this method is a valuable tool for documentation and controlling of the rehabilitation process in patients using a DGO.

  13. Can influenza epidemics be prevented by voluntary vaccination?

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    Raffaele Vardavas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous modeling studies have identified the vaccination coverage level necessary for preventing influenza epidemics, but have not shown whether this critical coverage can be reached. Here we use computational modeling to determine, for the first time, whether the critical coverage for influenza can be achieved by voluntary vaccination. We construct a novel individual-level model of human cognition and behavior; individuals are characterized by two biological attributes (memory and adaptability that they use when making vaccination decisions. We couple this model with a population-level model of influenza that includes vaccination dynamics. The coupled models allow individual-level decisions to influence influenza epidemiology and, conversely, influenza epidemiology to influence individual-level decisions. By including the effects of adaptive decision-making within an epidemic model, we can reproduce two essential characteristics of influenza epidemiology: annual variation in epidemic severity and sporadic occurrence of severe epidemics. We suggest that individual-level adaptive decision-making may be an important (previously overlooked causal factor in driving influenza epidemiology. We find that severe epidemics cannot be prevented unless vaccination programs offer incentives. Frequency of severe epidemics could be reduced if programs provide, as an incentive to be vaccinated, several years of free vaccines to individuals who pay for one year of vaccination. Magnitude of epidemic amelioration will be determined by the number of years of free vaccination, an individuals' adaptability in decision-making, and their memory. This type of incentive program could control epidemics if individuals are very adaptable and have long-term memories. However, incentive-based programs that provide free vaccination for families could increase the frequency of severe epidemics. We conclude that incentive-based vaccination programs are necessary to control

  14. Enhancement pattern of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at contrast-enhanced US (CEUS), MDCT, and MRI: Intermodality agreement and comparison of diagnostic sensitivity between 2005 and 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Alessandro, E-mail: furlana@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Marin, Daniele [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome-La Sapienza, Rome, 00161 (Italy); Cabassa, Paolo [Department of Radiology, Brescia University, Brescia (Italy); Taibbi, Adele [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90127 (Italy); Brunelli, Elena [Department of Radiology, Brescia University, Brescia (Italy); Agnello, Francesco; Lagalla, Roberto; Brancatelli, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90127 (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate agreement between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of typical and atypical enhancement patterns of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); and to compare diagnostic sensitivity of 2005 and 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines. Materials and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2009, we included cirrhotic patients with newly diagnosed 10–20 mm HCC imaged at two contrast-enhanced imaging techniques among CEUS, MDCT, and MRI. Dynamic studies were reviewed by two radiologists to assess enhancement pattern. Percentage of cases with concordant findings and Cohen coefficient (k) were calculated. McNemar's test was used to compare sensitivity between 2005 and 2010 AASLD guidelines. Results: There were 91 patients (69 M; 22 F; mean age, 68 years) with 96 HCCs, studied with a combination of CEUS and MDCT (n = 59), CEUS and MRI (n = 26), or MDCT and MRI (n = 11). Intermodality agreement for assessment of tumor enhancement pattern was 67% (k = 0.294, P = 0.001). Typical enhancement pattern was detected coincidentally at two imaging modalities in 50 (52%) HCCs. Sensitivity for the diagnosis of HCC increased significantly using the 2010 AASLD (81/96 (84%) vs. 50/96 (52%), P < 0.001). Conclusions: Agreement between two imaging modalities for the detection of typical tumor enhancement pattern was reached in 52% of cases. The 2010 AASLD guidelines significantly increased the sensitivity for the diagnosis of HCC.

  15. Offloading social care responsibilities: recent experiences of local voluntary organisations in a remote urban centre in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Rosenberg, Mark; Clasby, Rachael

    2007-07-01

    Services offered by voluntary organisations are an integral but often overlooked component of health and social care. Of late, there has been a renewed interest in voluntary welfare provision as a viable alternative to state and market. Recent developments in welfare provision in Canada appear to have brought greater social care roles for the voluntary sector at the same time as new and arguably more restrictive funding and accountability mechanisms are being imposed by different arms of the state. To explore these issues more closely, the present paper examines the impressions and experiences of voluntary and formal sector providers of services for senior citizens and people with disabilities in a remote urban centre (population less than 100 000) in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Two important operational pressures provide the context of the analysis: (1) reform of provincial government funding and regulation of voluntary services; and (2) the restructuring of welfare provision, especially in the areas of health care and social services. The authors found evidence of an escalating incursion of the state into local voluntary sector affairs that needs to be understood in the context of long-standing institutional links between government and 'professional' voluntary welfare provision in British Columbia. The results point to three important directions in contemporary local voluntary provision: (1) an emerging ethos of accountability, efficiency and competition in voluntary provision; (2) increasing pressure to centralise volunteer services; and consequently, (3) the potential erosion of flexibility and personalisation that are seen to characterise the voluntary sector.

  16. Effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in rat pups borne from morphine-dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Mokhtari, Amin; Safari, Manouchehr

    2014-08-22

    Exposure to morphine during pregnancy produced long-term effects in offspring behaviors. Recent studies have shown that voluntary exercise decreases the severity of anxiety behaviors in both morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Thus, the aims of the present study were to examine whether maternal exercise decreases prenatal dependence-induced anxiety and also, voluntary consumption of morphine in animal models of craving in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with access to a running wheel that lasted at least 21 days. Then, anxiety-like behaviors using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm (TBC) were tested in male rat pups. The results showed that the rat pups borne from exercising morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time (Pexercising morphine-dependent mothers was less in the second (Pexercise decreases the severity of the anxiogenic-like behaviors and voluntary consumption of morphine in rat pups.

  17. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Avijit; Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-03-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture.

  18. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

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    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to partnership working between Early Intervention Services and the voluntary and community sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Helen; Birchwood, Max; Tait, Lynda; Shah, Sonal; England, Elizabeth; Smith, Jo

    2008-09-01

    Partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector has become an increasing political priority. This paper describes and explores the extent and patterns of partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector in the context of Early Intervention Services for young people with a first episode of psychosis. Data were collected from 12 Early Intervention Services and through semistructured interviews with 47 voluntary and community sector leads and 42 commissioners across the West Midlands of England. Most partnerships were described as ad hoc and informal in nature although four formal partnerships between Early Intervention Services and voluntary and community sector organizations had been established. Shared agendas, the ability to refer clients onto an organization that could provide a service they could not and shared training facilitated partnership working in this context. Barriers to closer working included differences in culture such as managing risk, the time required to make and maintain relationships and recognition of the advantages of remaining a small and autonomous organization. The four more formal partnerships were also built on the organizations' experience of working together informally, in one case through a specific pilot project. The voluntary and community organizations involved were also branches of larger national organizations for whom finding sustainable funding was less of an issue. In theoretical terms, eight Early Intervention Service: voluntary and community sector partnerships were at a stage of 'pre-partnership collaboration', three at 'partnership creation and consolidation' and one at 'partnership programme delivery'. The empirical data viewed through the lens of the partnership life-cycle model could help early intervention services, and voluntary and community sector professionals better understand where they are, why they are there and the conditions needed to realise the full

  20. Twitch potentiation induced by stimulated and voluntary isometric contractions at various torque levels in human knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of twitch potentiation (TP) after stimulated or voluntary contractions at identical intensities for the human knee extensor muscles. Isometric knee extensions of 10 s were performed at 20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque level, through percutaneous electrical stimulation of the quadriceps at 80 Hz or voluntary contraction. Twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve percutaneously with supramaximal intensity. The extent of TP after the stimulated contraction was greater than that after the voluntary contraction at the 20% MVC torque level, whereas a stimulated contraction induced a smaller extent of TP than did a voluntary contraction at contraction intensities higher than 40% MVC. We suggest that this contraction intensity dependence of differences in TP after stimulated and voluntary isometric conditioning contractions is responsible for differences in the recruitment pattern of motor units during the conditioning contractions.

  1. Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada’s voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement appro...

  2. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

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    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  3. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  4. Voluntary activation during maximal contraction with advancing age: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Malgorzata; Baudry, Stéphane; Duchateau, Jacques

    2007-07-01

    It is well established that the loss of muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) is the primary factor contributing to the reduction in muscle force with ageing. Based on the observation that force declines at a faster rate than muscle mass, neural alterations are also thought to contribute to muscle weakness by reducing central drive to the agonist muscles and by increasing coactivation of the antagonist muscles. Researchers have attempted to quantify the contribution of impaired voluntary drive to the decline in muscle force using superimposed electrical stimulation during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and by recording surface electromyographic (EMG) activity. Although reduced voluntary activation of agonist muscles and increased coactivation of antagonist muscles during a MVC have been reported with advancing age, such changes are not supported by all studies. These discrepancies may be explained by differences in sensitivity between the methods used to assess voluntary activation, as well as differences between the characteristics of the study population, the muscle group that is tested, and the type of contraction that is performed. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the activation of agonist and antagonist muscles during MVC in elderly and to try to clarify the disparities in literature concerning the influence of a possible deficit in voluntary activation on the maximal force capacity of muscles in elderly adults.

  5. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  6. A Proposal of SNS to Improve Member’s Motivation in Voluntary Community Using Gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Otake

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of voluntary communities such as local communities and university club activities are increasing. In these communities, since there are various types of members and there are no binding forces, it is usually difficult to maintain and im-prove member's motivation. To maintain and improve member's motivation, most of these communities use social networking services (SNSs. However, since existing SNS offer few functions for voluntary community, it is difficult to solve this problem. This research focused on the concept of gamification and proposed an SNS to improve member's motivation of voluntary community. First, the authors analyzed the current conditions and members of a voluntary community. Based on this analysis, the authors found that an SNS to improve member's motivation of voluntary community requires functions which support member's personal activities and also functions which increase social activities. Next, the authors built an SNS that had these functions by applying the concept of gamification. The authors implemented the SNS for a University club’s activities for one month and showed the effectiveness of our SNS.

  7. Do additional inputs change maximal voluntary motor unit firing rates after spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K

    2012-01-01

    Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary drive and other concurrent inputs compared with an MVC alone. Motor unit firing rates, force, and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) were compared across 2 contractions: (a) MVC alone and (b) MVC combined with another input (combination contraction). Other inputs (conditions) included vibration, heat, or cold applied to the anterior surface of the forearm, electrical stimulation delivered to the anterior surface of the middle finger, a muscle spasm, or a voluntary contraction of the contralateral thenar muscles against resistance. The maximal firing frequency (n = 68 units), force, and electromyographic activity (n = 92 contraction pairs) were all significantly higher during the combined contractions compared with MVCs alone. There was a 3-way interaction between contraction, condition, and subject for maximal motor unit firing rates, force, and EMG. Thus, combined contraction responses were different for conditions across subjects. Some conditions (eg, a muscle spasm) resulted in more effective and more frequent responses (increases in unit firing frequency, force, EMG in >50% contractions) than others. Recruitment of new units also occurred in combined contractions. Motoneurons are still responsive to additional afferent inputs from various sources when rate modulation from voluntary drive is limited by SCI. Individuals with SCI may be able to combine inputs to control functional tasks they cannot perform with voluntary drive alone.

  8. Excitability changes in primary motor cortex just prior to voluntary muscle relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomotaka; Sugawara, Kenichi; Takagi, Mineko; Higashi, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    We postulated that primary motor cortex (M1) activity does not just decrease immediately prior to voluntary muscle relaxation; rather, it is dynamic and acts as an active cortical process. Thus we investigated the detailed time course of M1 excitability changes during muscle relaxation. Ten healthy participants performed a simple reaction time task. After the go signal, they rapidly terminated isometric abduction of the right index finger from a constant muscle force output of 20% of their maximal voluntary contraction force and performed voluntary muscle relaxation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses were randomly delivered before and after the go signal, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. We selected the time course relative to an appropriate reference point, the onset of voluntary relaxation, to detect excitability changes in M1. MEP amplitude from 80 to 60 ms before the estimated electromyographic offset was significantly greater than that in other intervals. Dynamic excitability changes in M1 just prior to quick voluntary muscle relaxation indicate that cortical control of muscle relaxation is established through active processing and not by simple cessation of activity. The cortical mechanisms underlying muscle relaxation need to be reconsidered in light of such dynamics. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Disturbance of contralateral unipedal postural control after stimulated and voluntary contractions of the ipsilateral limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Chaubet, Vincent; Maitre, Julien; Dumitrescu, Michel; Borel, Liliane

    2010-12-01

    One session of sustained unilateral voluntary muscular contractions increases central fatigue and induces a cross-over of fatigue of homologous contralateral muscles. It is not known, however, how this cross-transfer affects contralateral unipedal postural control. Moreover, contralateral neurophysiological effects differ between voluntary muscular contractions and electrically stimulated contractions. The aims of this study were thus to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on contralateral unipedal postural control and to compare the effects of stimulated and voluntary contractions. Fifteen subjects took part in the protocol. Fatigue of the ipsilateral quadriceps femoris was generated either by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or by isometric voluntary muscular contraction (VOL). Postural control on the contralateral limb was measured before (PRE condition) and after the completion of the two fatiguing exercises (POST condition) using a force platform. We analyzed body sway area and the spectral power density given by the wavelet transform. In POST condition, postural control recorded in the unipedal stance on the contralateral limb was disturbed after NMES and VOL fatiguing exercises. In addition, postural control was similarly disturbed for both exercises. These results suggest that cross-over fatigue is able to disturb postural control after both stimulated and voluntary contractions.

  10. The Determinants of Voluntary Risk Disclosures: The Case of Shariah Compliant Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Nurul Fida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk reporting is essential in notifying investors on how companies manage the risks they engage in. Even though companies nowadays release information through press releases, corporate websites, and other forms of communications, they still have to disclose more information in their annual reports. The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of voluntary risk disclosures of Shariah compliant companies (ShCCs in Malaysia, focusing on the religiosity factor and the ownership structure. A quantitative analysis using secondary data was employed as a method to assess the annual reports of 116 Shariah compliant companies in Malaysia for the financial years of 2012 and 2013. The findings of this study reveal that the voluntary risk disclosures in ShCCs on average are not more than sixty per cent. This study indicates no relationship between the religiosity of board members and directors’ ownership to the level of voluntary risk disclosure. More importantly, this study finds the relationship between the existence of government ownership and voluntary risk disclosure in ShCCs. The study adds value to the current body of knowledge in voluntary risk disclosures and suggests the importance of risk management information in the annual reports of ShCCs as Malaysia grows as a leading country in the Islamic economy.

  11. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  12. Using farmers' attitude and social pressures to design voluntary Bluetongue vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, J; Hogeveen, H; Elbers, A R W; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the context and drivers of farmers' decision-making is critical to designing successful voluntary disease control interventions. This study uses a questionnaire based on the Reasoned Action Approach framework to assess the determinants of farmers' intention to participate in a hypothetical reactive vaccination scheme against Bluetongue. Results suggest that farmers' attitude and social pressures best explained intention. A mix of policy instruments can be used in a complementary way to motivate voluntary vaccination based on the finding that participation is influenced by both internal and external motivation. Next to informational and incentive-based instruments, social pressures, which stem from different type of perceived norms, can spur farmers' vaccination behaviour and serve as catalysts in voluntary vaccination schemes.

  13. Voluntary strategy suppresses the positive impact of preferential selection in prisoner’s dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Lin, Pei-jie; Chen, Ya-shan

    2014-11-01

    Impact of aspiration is ubiquitous in social and biological disciplines. In this work, we try to explore the impact of such a trait on voluntary prisoners’ dilemma game via a selection parameter w. w=0 returns the traditional version of random selection. For positive w, the opponent of high payoff will be selected; while negative w means that the partner of low payoff will be chosen. We find that for positive w, cooperation will be greatly promoted in the interval of small b, at variance cooperation is inhibited with large b. For negative w, cooperation is fully restrained, irrespective of b value. It is found that the positive impact of preferential selection is suppressed by the voluntary strategy in prisoner’s dilemma. These observations can be supported by the spatial patterns. Our work may shed light on the emergence and persistence of cooperation with voluntary participation in social dilemma.

  14. The pursuit of excellence is not optional in the voluntary sector, it is essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B; Mathews, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines the continuous improvement journey of a voluntary organisation. The significant level of organisational growth and improving quality of services described is clearly linked to the organisation's commitment to improvement. One of the approaches used in adopting a total quality culture was the EFQM model, specifically interpreted for the voluntary sector. Until recently such an approach would have been considered alien to the sector, not least because of its origins in the business community. This article contradicts this assumption. Issues addressed include how the improvement process is driven, the use of performance measurement, external verification and the difficulties in accessing sector appropriate benchmark data. It is suggested that the pursuit of excellence is no longer optional for the voluntary sector, it is essential.

  15. Enhanced voluntary wheel running in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Pehmøller, Christian; Klein, Anders B

    2013-01-01

    to voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise. Moreover, we assessed energy expenditure in the basal state, and evaluated the effects of wheel running on food intake, body composition, and a range of exercise-induced central and peripheral biomarkers. We found that adaptation to voluntary wheel......GPRC6A is an amino acid-sensing receptor highly expressed in the brain and in skeletal muscle. Although recent evidence suggests that genetically engineered GPRC6A receptor knockout (KO) mice are susceptible to develop subtle endocrine and metabolic disturbances, the underlying disruptions...... running is affected by GPRC6A, as ablation of the receptor significantly enhances wheel running in KO relative to WT mice. Both genotypes responded to voluntary exercise by increasing food intake and improving body composition to a similar degree. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the GPRC6A...

  16. Determinants and features of voluntary disclosure in the Chinese stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers in-depth analysis of the determinants and features of voluntary disclosure based on information in the annual reports of 1066 Chinese firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. This extensive sample represents about 80% of all public companies in China. Our findings suggest that voluntary disclosure in China is positively related to firm size, leverage, assets-in-place, and return on equity and is negatively related to auditor type and the level of maturity or sophistication of the intermediary and legal environments. We also find some evidence to suggest a quadratic convex association between state ownership and voluntary disclosure. However, our analysis provides no evidence that extensive disclosure benefits public companies in China in the form of a lower cost of equity.

  17. Motivation and benefits of voluntary activities. Case study: EYOF 2013 Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary activities have become natural concerns among an increasing number of European citizens. Romania, as a member state of the EU, has a low number of participations in voluntary activities, situation partly justified by the lack of presence of our country on the map of large scale events organization which is based to a high extent, on volunteers’ involvement. The present paper presents the results of a quantitative marketing research organized among volunteers who participated at EYOF 2013 Braşov and highlights the participation’s motivations and benefits felt by volunteers at the end of the event. The authors of the article highlight the differences reported between volunteers’ expectations and their opinions after the event, the results obtained being considered useful for planning the voluntary activities in organizing future events hosted in our country.

  18. Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage.

  19. Businesses' voluntary pro-health tobacco policies: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    Research on the role of businesses in tobacco control has focused primarily on retailers, advertising firms and the hospitality industry, all of which have tended to support tobacco industry interests and resist effective tobacco control policies. However, in several countries, businesses have a history of voluntarily adopting tobacco-related policies that may advance tobacco control objectives. These phenomena have received little research attention. Existing literature on businesses ending tobacco sales, instituting voluntary workplace smoking restrictions and establishing non-smoker only hiring policies was reviewed. A research agenda on voluntary business initiatives would enhance and complement research on mandatory tobacco control policies by identifying new advocacy opportunities; suggesting avenues for strengthening or reinforcing existing policy initiatives; laying the groundwork for new mandatory policies; helping to inform ethical debates about contentious voluntary policies; and contributing to a better understanding of how alliances between the tobacco industry and other businesses might be weakened.

  20. Determinants and features of voluntary disclosure in the Chinese stock market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Lan; Lili; Wang; Xueyong; Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers in-depth analysis of the determinants and features of voluntary disclosure based on information in the annual reports of 1066 Chinese firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. This extensive sample represents about 80% of all public companies in China. Our findings suggest that voluntary disclosure in China is positively related to firm size,leverage, assets-in-place, and return on equity and is negatively related to auditor type and the level of maturity or sophistication of the intermediary and legal environments. We also find some evidence to suggest a quadratic convex association between state ownership and voluntary disclosure. However, our analysis provides no evidence that extensive disclosure benefits public companies in China in the form of a lower cost of equity.

  1. Involuntary conscious memory facilitates cued recall performance: further evidence that chaining occurs during voluntary recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conscious recollection of the past occurs spontaneously when subjects voluntarily recall their own past experiences or a list of previously studied words. Naturalistic diary studies and laboratory studies of this phenomenon, often called involuntary conscious memory (ICM), show that it occurs in 2 ways. One is direct ICM retrieval, which occurs when a cue spontaneously triggers a conscious memory; the other is chained ICM retrieval, which occurs when a retrieved conscious memory spontaneously triggers another. Laboratory studies investigating ICM show that chained ICM retrieval occurs on voluntary autobiographical memory tasks. The present results show that chained ICM retrieval also occurs on a voluntary word list memory task (cued recall). These results are among a handful suggesting that ICM retrieval routinely occurs during voluntary recall.

  2. Botulinum toxin injection improved voluntary motor control in selected patients with post-stroke spasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-Hsiu Chang; Gerald E Francisco; Sheng Li

    2012-01-01

    The effect of botulinum toxin type A injection on voluntary grip control was examined in a 53-year-old female, who sustained a hemorrhagic right middle cerebral artery stroke 3 years previously, which resulted in finger flexor spasticity and residual weak finger/wrist extension. The patient received 50 units of botulinum toxin type A injection each to the motor points (2 sites/muscle) of the left flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus, respectively. Botulinum toxin injection led to weakness and tone reduction in the spastic finger flexors, but improved grip release time in grip initiation/release reaction time tasks. Improved release time was accompanied by shortened extensor electromyography activity, and improved release time likely correlated with blocked co-contraction of finger flexors during voluntary finger extension. This case report demonstrated that botulinum toxin injection improved voluntary motor control of the hand in a chronic stroke patient with residual finger extension.

  3. Lower Limb Voluntary Movement Improvement Following a Robot-Assisted Locomotor Training in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirbagheri Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI suffer from severe impairments in voluntary movements. Literature reports a reduction in major kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs’ joints. A body weight support treadmill training with robotic assistance has been widely used to improve lower-extremity function and locomotion in persons with SCI. Our objective was to explore the effects of 4-weeks robot-assisted locomotor training on voluntary movement of the ankle musculature in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, we aimed to characterize the therapeutic effects of Lokomat training on kinematic measures (range of motion, velocity, smoothness during a dorsiflexion movement. We hypothesized that training would improve these measures. Preliminary results show an improvement of kinematic parameters during ankle dorsiflexion voluntary movement after a 4-weeks training in the major part of our participants. Complementary investigations are in progress to confirm these results and understand underlying mechanisms associated with the recovery.

  4. Nuclear power for commercial high-speed sea-lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A.J.; Holiday, S. [Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    A 1000 MW (thermal) pressurized water reactor concept design for large, fast merchant ships is presented here. The design study was undertaken to provide an input to an overall assessment of the near future economic viability of nuclear merchant shipping. The intention was to use a widely available nuclear industrial base completed with features considered necessary like: the diversity of shutdown (reactivity compensation rods, safety rods and soluble boron), a large pressurizer (to tolerate loss of steam demand without relief valve lift and to support a long response time for small leak events), the loop isolation (to manage risks of steam generator tube bundle leaks) and the passive long-term cooling to the atmosphere via duplicate systems. It appears that nuclear propulsion will have an advantage if oil prices rise by 25% or more.

  5. Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Lamdany

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond This paper studies two recent voluntary operations of debt reduction: Bolivia's buy-back and Mexico's exchange of loans for bonds. This argued that the buy-back had a cost for Bolivia and, hence, it required a political decision when comparing this option to other alternative use of its scarce foreign exchange resources. In the case of Mexico, it is shown that the operation, which can be seen as an indirect buy-back, gave this country a rate of return on the use of its reserves, between 18% and 24%. The effects of both transactions on the debtor are examined, as well as on participating and non-participating creditor banks.

  6. [Slowly progressive anarthria and disturbed voluntary respiration--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eiyai; Uchihara, Toshiki; Machida, Akira; Watabiki, Sadakiyo

    2007-06-01

    A 68 year-old right-handed male initially felt an abnormal sensation in the throat and slight difficulties in phonation and articulation. The difficulties slowly progressed. Dementia and kinetic disorder of limbs has not been observed over two years after onset. Although bilateral cortico-bulbar tract sign such as pathological laughter was noted. His articulatory movements were small and indistinct. Phonation was slightly explosive and breathy as if panting out. His clinical feature could be differentiated from primary progressive aphasia because he was not aphasic with excellent word finding, and fell into the realm of progressive anarthria. On SPECT, hypoperfusion was seen in the left frontal region, the left parieto-temporal region, and the right frontal region to a lesser extent. A peculiarity of the patient was in that he had accompanied a difficulty in voluntary inspiration such as taking a deep breath. Because fiberoptic examination of the larynx demonstrated that the vocal cords opened normally when he tried to take a deep breath, the difficulty in inspiration was best explained by loss of voluntary control over diaphragmatic contractions. On voluntary expiration, sustained blowing through the pursued lips (soft blowing) was not successful either. On the other hand, blowing out several candles one by one or blowing up a balloon (hard blowing) was successful. In soft blowing, a voluntary and meticulous control of the diaphragm is necessary to counteract the spontaneous recoil of the lungs. In hard blowing, expiratory muscles may contract forcefully without participation of the diaphragm. This discrepancy is again explained by loss of voluntary control over the diaphragmatic movements. This deficit could have affected phonation; maintaining an adequate vibration on the vocal cords for a certain period of time, it is necessary to control the subglotal pressure at an appropriate level by diaphragmatic control. We believe this is the first patient with a

  7. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  8. Determinants of Voluntary National Health Insurance Drop-Out in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Chantal; Fakihammed, Wael Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Low enrolment and high drop-out rates are common problems in voluntary health insurance schemes. Yet, most studies in this research area focus on community-based health insurance and enrolment, rather than drop-out. This study examines what causes informal sector families not to renew their voluntary National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) health insurance membership in Eastern Sudan. Primary data from about 600 informal sector households that dropped out or remained insured, collected through a household survey conducted in March 2014, were used. Logistic regressions were employed to examine what determines drop-out of the voluntary NHIF scheme. The logistic regression results are consistent with the existing literature and confirm the importance of household head, household and community characteristics. Notably, worse family health status and higher health care utilization decrease the probability of drop-out, which requires further analysis as it may indicate the problem of adverse selection and insufficient risk management. Most importantly, the results consistently show that household heads who are satisfied with health services and those who understand the main features of the voluntary NHIF scheme are less likely to drop out. Also, 30 % of drop-out households hold a social support card and reported that the social support scheme is the main reason for not renewing their voluntary NHIF health insurance membership as they qualify for sponsored NHIF health insurance membership. This study shows that satisfaction with health services and knowledge of the health insurance scheme are important factors explaining drop-out of a national health insurance programme. The results suggest that education and information campaigns should be developed further to raise understanding of the NHIF voluntary scheme. In addition, information systems and coordination between the main agencies should be strengthened to reduce administrative costs and ensure policy coherence.

  9. Auditory-somatosensory temporal sensitivity improves when the somatosensory event is caused by voluntary body movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we actively interact with the environment, it is crucial that we perceive a precise temporal relationship between our own actions and sensory effects to guide our body movements.Thus, we hypothesized that voluntary movements improve perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between auditory and movement-related somatosensory events compared to when they are delivered passively to sensory receptors. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tapped a button, and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either 'sound-first' or 'touch-first' responses. We found that the performance of temporal order judgment (TOJ in the voluntary condition (as indexed by the just noticeable difference was significantly better (M=42.5 ms ±3.8 s.e.m than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition: M=66.8 ms ±6.3 s.e.m. We further examined whether the performance improvement with voluntary action can be attributed to the prediction of the timing of the stimulation from sensory cues (sensory-based prediction, kinesthetic cues contained in voluntary action, and/or to the prediction of stimulation timing from the efference copy of the motor command (motor-based prediction. When the participant’s finger was moved passively to press the button (involuntary condition and when three noise bursts were presented before the target burst with regular intervals (predictable condition, the TOJ performance was not improved from that in the passive condition. These results suggest that the improvement in sensitivity to temporal disparity between somatosensory and auditory events caused by the voluntary action cannot be attributed to sensory-based prediction and kinesthetic cues. Rather, the prediction from the efference copy of the motor command would be crucial for improving the temporal sensitivity.

  10. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chen; Liu, Jinzhuo; Shen, Chen; Jin, Jiahua; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions.

  11. Avoiding a fate worse than death: an argument for legalising voluntary physician-based euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, Julia; Yuksel, Necef; Smith, Saxon

    2012-09-01

    The legalisation of voluntary physician-based euthanasia is currently the subject of much political, social and ethical debate and there is evidence in Australia of growing support for its implementation. In addressing many of the issues that surround legalisation, the article looks at some overseas jurisdictions that have legalised euthanasia to determine whether the social, political and ethical concerns prominent in the Australian debate have proved problematic in other jurisdictions. In addition, the article examines the report on the Dying with Dignity Bill 2009 (Tas) which commented extensively on the issues relating to voluntary physician-based euthanasia.

  12. Underpricing and voluntary disclosure: The case of mining IPOs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bottazzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the extent to which voluntary disclosure of information in IPO prospectuses of mining companies is associated with lower IPO underpricing. We study the disclosure of information at IPO, looking at the IPO prospectus which is the fundamental document providing investors with information about the company. While its format and main contents are largely fixed by law, there is considerable scope for voluntary disclosure. Mining is a highly capital intensive endeavor and access to equity capital is a key requirement for the development of a mine. We find that the quality of information disclosure, as well as the characteristics of the mining companies, indeed affects underpricing.

  13. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J

    1988-01-01

    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with the drivers of emergency vehicles, who are allowed to drive through red lights. PMID:3184136

  14. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers Folkert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise in mice impacts on cholesterol efflux and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. After two weeks of voluntary wheel running (average 10.1 ± 1.4 km/day plasma triglycerides were lower (p

  15. Economic analysis of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Callaway, J.W.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this document is to present an analysis of the impacts of the proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for the construction of new residential buildings. This analysis examines the impacts of having the proposed residential standard apply immediately and, alternatively, having the proposed standard phased in over a five-year period. It does not address the question of whether realistically the standard would be adopted by states, nor does it weight the improbable impact of states with higher energy efficiency standards modifying their standard to comply with this voluntary standard. 19 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  16. Predicting Recovery of Voluntary Upper Extremity Movement in Subacute Stroke Patients with Severe Upper Extremity Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chia-Lin; Pan, Shin-Liang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Bang-Bin; Wang, Yen-Ho; Hsueh, I-Ping; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Prediction of voluntary upper extremity (UE) movement recovery is largely unknown in patients with little voluntary UE movement at admission. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the extent and variation of voluntary UE movement recovery, and (2) the best predictive model of the recovery of voluntary UE movement by clinical variables in patients with severe UE paresis. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods 140 (out of 590) stroke patients with severe UE paresis completed all assessments. Voluntary UE movement was assessed using the UE subscale of the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM-UE). Two outcome measures, STREAM-UE scores at discharge (DCSTREAM-UE) and changes between admission and discharge (ΔSTREAM-UE), were investigated to represent the final states and improvement of the recovery of voluntary UE movement. Stepwise regression analyses were used to investigate 19 clinical variables and to find the best predictive models of the two outcome measures. Results The participants showed wide variation in both DCSTREAM-UE and ΔSTREAM-UE. 3.6% of the participants almost fully recovered at discharge (DCSTREAM-UE > 15). A large improvement (ΔSTREAM-UE >= 10) occurred in 16.4% of the participants, while 32.9% of the participants did not have any improvement. The four predictors for the DCSTREAM-UE (R2 = 35.0%) were ‘baseline STREAM-UE score’, ‘hemorrhagic stroke’, ‘baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score’, and ‘cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex’. The three predictors for the ΔSTREAM-UE (R2 = 22.0%) were ‘hemorrhagic stroke’, ‘baseline NIHSS score’, and ‘cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex’. Conclusions Recovery of voluntary UE movement varied widely in patients with severe UE paresis after stroke. The predictive power of clinical variables was poor. Both results indicate the complex nature of voluntary UE movement recovery in patients

  17. 42 CFR 413.88 - Incentive payments under plans for voluntary reduction in number of medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments under plans for voluntary reduction in number of medical residents. 413.88 Section 413.88 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... voluntary reduction in number of medical residents. (a) Statutory basis. This section implements...

  18. Citizenship rights and voluntary decision making in post-disaster U.S. floodplain buyout mitigation programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H. de Vries; J.C. Fraser

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has promoted voluntary "buyout" programs to relocate property owners out of floodplains. In this paper we evaluate perceived voluntariness of these initiatives. We use local mitigation official interviews and property owne

  19. Voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle in cases with neck/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Katrine Tholstrup; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack of...

  20. 21 CFR 101.45 - Guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruits, vegetables, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... listings for trans fat, dietary fiber, and sugars may be omitted from the charts or individual nutrition... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of... Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.45 Guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of...