WorldWideScience

Sample records for voluntary emission recall

  1. Neural mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary recall: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicoline Marie; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2008-01-25

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval have primarily focused on volitional memory tasks. However, some conscious memories arise involuntarily, i.e. without a strategic retrieval attempt, yet little is known about the neural network underlying involuntary episodic memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether voluntary and involuntary recall are mediated by separate cortical networks. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy subjects during voluntary and involuntary cued recall of pictures and a control condition with no episodic memory requirements. Involuntary recall was elicited by using an incidental memory task. Compared to the control condition, voluntary and involuntary recall were both associated with significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases in posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG; BA 23), left precuneus (BA 7), and right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36). In addition, rCBF in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC; BA 8/9) and left precuneus (BA 7) was significantly larger during voluntary compared to involuntary recall, while rCBF was enhanced in left dorsolateral PFC (BA 9) during involuntary recall. The findings corroborate an association of the right PFC with a strategic component of episodic memory retrieval. Moreover, they show for the first time that it is possible to activate the medial temporal lobe, the PCG, and the precuneus, regions normally associated with retrieval success, without this strategic element. The relatively higher activity in precuneus during voluntary compared to involuntary recall suggests that activity in this region co-varies not only with retrieval success but also with retrieval intentionality.

  2. 78 FR 69793 - Voluntary Remedial Actions and Guidelines for Voluntary Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ...'' and ``hard copy'' as possible forms of direct voluntary recall notice. Because firms often lack... formatting of a voluntary recall notice in the form of a press release should comport with the most current... transmitted using an electronic medium and in hard copy form. Acceptable forms of, and means for...

  3. Involuntary conscious memory facilitates cued recall performance: further evidence that chaining occurs during voluntary recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conscious recollection of the past occurs spontaneously when subjects voluntarily recall their own past experiences or a list of previously studied words. Naturalistic diary studies and laboratory studies of this phenomenon, often called involuntary conscious memory (ICM), show that it occurs in 2 ways. One is direct ICM retrieval, which occurs when a cue spontaneously triggers a conscious memory; the other is chained ICM retrieval, which occurs when a retrieved conscious memory spontaneously triggers another. Laboratory studies investigating ICM show that chained ICM retrieval occurs on voluntary autobiographical memory tasks. The present results show that chained ICM retrieval also occurs on a voluntary word list memory task (cued recall). These results are among a handful suggesting that ICM retrieval routinely occurs during voluntary recall.

  4. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  5. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  6. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  7. Involuntary and voluntary recall of musical memories: A comparison of temporal accuracy and emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren

    2018-01-29

    Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or "earworms")-the spontaneous mental recall and repetition of a tune-to deliberate recall of the same tune as voluntary musical imagery (VMI) in terms of recall accuracy and emotional responses. Twenty participants completed two 3-day tasks. In an INMI task, participants recorded information about INMI episodes as they occurred; in a VMI task, participants were prompted via text message to deliberately imagine each tune they had previously experienced as INMI. In both tasks, tempi of the imagined tunes were recorded by tapping to the musical beat while wearing an accelerometer and additional information (e.g., tune name, emotion ratings) was logged in a diary. Overall, INMI and VMI tempo measurements for the same tune were strongly correlated. Tempo recall for tunes that have definitive, recorded versions was relatively accurate, and tunes that were retrieved deliberately (VMI) were not recalled more accurately in terms of tempo than spontaneous and involuntary instances of imagined music (INMI). Some evidence that INMI elicited stronger emotional responses than VMI was also revealed. These results demonstrate several parallels to previous literature on involuntary memories and add new insights on the phenomenology of INMI.

  8. Regulating a Polluting Oligopoly : Emission Tax or Voluntary Agreement ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mala David

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares, in a polluting oligopoly, an emission tax and a form of environmental policy called voluntary agreement (VA). There are here two ways of reducing pollution: output contraction and endof- pipe abatement. Given the imperfect competition, firms' reaction to the tax is sub-optimal. They reduce output excessively in order to raise the price and do not abate enough. The VA is a take-it-or-leaveit contract on abatement effort, offered to the firms with the threat of a tax. It ha...

  9. Switching transport modes to meet voluntary carbon emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, K.M.R.; Tan, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The transport sector is the second largest carbon emissions contributor in Europe and its emissions continue to increase. Many producers are committing themselves to reducing transport emissions voluntarily, possibly in anticipation of increasing transport prices. In this paper we study a producer

  10. Switching transport modes to meet voluntary carbon emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, K.M.R.; Tan, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2011-01-01

    The transport sector is the second largest carbon emissions contributor in Europe and its emissions continue to increase. Many shippers are committing themselves to reducing transport emissions voluntarily, possibly in anticipation of increasing transport prices. In this paper we study a shipper

  11. Voluntary initiatives for managing greenhouse gas emissions : How is industry doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peirce, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempted to show that energy industries in Canada have been constructively engaged in global warming issues of legitimate concern to Canadians for many years. As an example, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was the first industry association to commit to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. CAPP supports improvements in energy efficiency, conservation, research, public education and technology transfer to developing countries. Since the VCR program was implemented in 1995, industry has reduced emissions by almost nine million tonnes. The implications of the Kyoto Protocol for Canada were also reviewed. It was stated that achieving the target of 20-25 per cent reductions from 'business as usual' by 2008-2012 will affect all energy consumers in all regions of the country. It was emphasized that it will be crucial to encourage action before 2008. In evolving from the present voluntary action to flexible but binding action it will be necessary to clearly define credit for early action, promote research and technology, focus on Canadian needs in designing flexibility instruments. The flexibility instruments in the Kyoto Protocol are: (1) emissions trading within annex 1 countries, (2) a clean development mechanism, and (3) carbon sinks. All of these instruments have been ill-defined up-to-now and there is much uncertainty regarding rules, modalities and guidelines

  12. Opportunities and criticisms of voluntary emission reduction projects developed by Public Administrations: Analysis of 143 case studies implemented in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Michela; Del Borghi, Adriana; Strazza, Carlo; Parodi, Lara; Arcioni, Livia; Proietti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 143 voluntary emission reduction projects have been analysed. • The projects belong to renewable energy, energy efficiency and transport sectors. • Voluntary emission reduction standards and methodologies have been applied. • The paper identified the main criticisms for each sector. • Energy efficiency projects are the most promising for public entities. - Abstract: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. Besides the “flexibility mechanisms” defined by the Kyoto Protocol to lower the overall costs of achieving their emissions targets, The Voluntary Green House Gases (GHG) reduction projects can have a lead role in GHG reduction in “non Emissions Trading System ETS sectors”. Nowadays, the voluntary market is characterised by critical aspects, such as fragmentation, lack of accounting, monitoring and validation rules that have led to the low spread of voluntary emission reduction projects developed by local authorities in the European Union despite their high potentiality. The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of voluntary emission reduction projects in the public sector following a homogeneous and consistent pattern. A research has been performed at local level on 143 voluntary emission reduction projects implemented by Public Administrations in Northern and Central Italy in renewable energy, energy efficiency and transport sectors. The applicable standards and methodologies have been checked and the case studies have been analysed though a three-step process: Preliminary additionality assessment; Projects selection; Validation of the selected project. The assessment shows that energy efficiency projects, once overcoming additionality issues, are the most promising for public entities while renewable energy and transport projects resulted to be mainly affected by double counting problems and

  13. Reducing information asymmetry in the power industry: Mandatory and voluntary information disclosure regulations of sulfur dioxide emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xufeng; Zhang Chao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the institutional framework for sulfur dioxide emission information disclosure (SDEID) in power industries. The authors argue that mandatory and voluntary SDEID are two complementary regulatory instruments for emission reduction in the power industry. An analytical framework of SDEID with six facets is suggested in this paper to demonstrate relevant legal provisions and regulatory policies of mandatory and voluntary SDEID of power industries in the US. Empirical research shows that mandatory and voluntary SDEID of the power industry have been regulated simultaneously in the US. The foundation of power companies' willingness to disclose emission information voluntarily is the combination of mandatory scientific monitoring with market regulation in the current SDEID system in the US. In comparison, the SDEID of power industries has yet to be widely implemented in developing countries. Finally, the paper provides some implications to developing countries that plan to learn institutional arrangements from developed countries. - Highlights: ► Mandatory and voluntary SDEID are two complementary regulatory instruments. ► An analytical framework is suggested to demonstrate SDEID of power industry in the US. ► Voluntary disclosure can be attributed to scientific monitoring and market regulation. ► We provide implications to developing countries learning from developed countries.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of value added (“GEVA”) — A corporate guide to voluntary climate action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randers, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis. If all nations reduce their “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the global economy continues to grow at its historical rate of 3.5% per year. The suggested 5% per year decline can be translated into a corporate resolution to reduce corporate “GHG emissions per unit of value added” (GEVA) by 5% per year. If all corporations cut their GEVA by 5% per year, the same global result will be achieved. The suggested 5% per year decline can be used as a guideline for responsible action on a voluntary basis. The guideline is unlikely to be made mandatory soon, but compulsory publication of the necessary emissions and productivity data by nations and corporations could help civil society highlight top performers. - Highlights: ► The world needs to reduce GHG emissions by 50% by 2050. ► Is achievable if nations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5%/year. ► Or if corporations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of value added” by 5 %/year. ► Corporations that reduce GEVA by 5%/year can be said to do their fair share. ► Mandatory reporting of corporate GEVA could motivate such reductions.

  15. Voluntary agreements in the field of energy efficiency and emission reduction: Review and analysis of experiences in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezessy, Silvia; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A number of Member States of the EU have introduced voluntary agreements (VAs) that aim to deliver energy savings and emission reductions via increased energy efficiency in different end-use sectors, mainly targeting industry. Where there is a successful track record of cooperation between public authorities and the private sector, VAs can offer advantages to public authorities in comparison to legislation, most importantly better flexibility when introduced or updated, greater acceptance by industry, possibility for tailor-made solutions e.g. at the level of industrial sectors and opportunity to overcome the information asymmetry between public authorities and private actors. Nevertheless, VAs have been criticized for lack of specific obligations and lenient targets, as well as for deficiencies in compliance monitoring and self-reporting and difficulty in establishing the policy additionality of VA activity. This paper analyses the design of existing VAs in terms of general framework, targets and sectors, obligations and commitments, motivation to join, reporting and monitoring provisions, and results of existing VAs as reported by national authorities. The paper summarizes the key characteristics of voluntary agreements and gives recommendations for the successful application of this policy tool. - Highlights: → Analyze the design of voluntary agreements (VAs) for energy efficiency. → Study national-level VAs in the European Union. → Analyze their general framework and results delivered. → Summarize the key characteristics of VAs. → Give recommendations for the successful application of this policy tool.

  16. Spillover Effects of Voluntary Environmental Programs on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Lessons from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Irene; Husted, Bryan W.; Montiel, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We compare the environmental performance of voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) with different attributes. Using club theory, we argue that the differential performance of VEPs is due in part to their specific design attributes that will either enhance or diminish their ability to improve both targeted and untargeted environmental impacts. We…

  17. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  18. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. A Laboratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability

  19. The mechanics of green power : emission benefits and credits in voluntary and commitment periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.

    1998-01-01

    The challenge facing the electric power industry in reducing greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol was discussed. The paper illustrates the emission reduction incentives prior to and during the commitment period, with particular focus on pricing. It was noted that in the absence of greenhouse gas emission reduction incentives and prices, coal has a lower running cost and would be dispatched ahead of oil and natural gas. The same situation exists with respect to nuclear, hydro and wind, all of which have lower marginal running costs than fossil fuel plants, thus will run ahead of fossil fuel plants wherever they are available. Various models of the electricity market in North America were demonstrated. The issue of how to determine the amount of greenhouse gas offset and its significance was also addressed. figs

  20. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  1. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  2. Voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Thurstan B

    1986-05-10

    Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.

  3. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  4. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  5. Environmental and economic benefits resulting from citizens' participation in CO2 emissions trading: An efficient alternative solution to the voluntary compensation of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few months in the emerging and lucrative carbon project market, a growing number of organizations have proposed to offset citizens' greenhouse gas emissions. The target of these carbon-offset initiatives is to satisfy the increasing demand of individuals wishing to take part in the fight against climate change. In this paper, we review and criticize these carbon-offsetting programs in general terms. We then propose an alternative that, in our opinion, should prove to be a better solution for citizens who are willing to pay for protecting the environment. This alternative is to organize citizens' participation in carbon emissions trading on a large scale in order to purchase and retire (destroy) CO 2 permits. To do so, a benevolent Regulator or non-governmental organization must correct certain CO 2 emissions market failures; this particularly concerns the high transaction costs, which represent an entry barrier and prevent citizens from purchasing and withholding permits. Based on theoretical findings, we demonstrate that implementing citizens' participation in emissions trading is an economically efficient and a morally preferable option. (author)

  6. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könik, Arda; Johnson, Karen L; Dasari, Paul; Pretorius, P H; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A; Connolly, Caitlin M; Segars, Paul W; Lindsay, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  7. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Karen L.; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W.; Pretorius, P. H.; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  8. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  9. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  10. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  11. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  12. Failure to recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  13. Note Taking and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  14. Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This article reports some calculations on free-recall data from B. Murdock and J. Metcalfe (1978), with vocal rehearsal during the presentation of a list. Given the sequence of vocalizations, with the stimuli inserted in their proper places, it is possible to predict the subsequent sequence of recalls--the predictions taking the form of a…

  15. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205.59 Section 205.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall...

  16. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  17. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  18. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  19. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  20. Delivery mechanisms: voluntary vs command and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program was debated. The generally accepted view is that the voluntary program to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000 has failed. However, the author suggested that the issues and processes are complicated and that we should not give up too soon. Time is needed to refine the market instruments that we are dealing with. Also, there are substantial economic barriers to fully meet target figures, among them the fact that municipalities, universities, social services and health care industries are chronically capital rationed and don't have the money to respond to the VCR program. Other sectors of the economy capitalized and regulated by government, have not seen much success in the VCR program either. The central argument is that while voluntary programs are probably not the answer, binding agreements or government-run schemes are even less likely to succeed

  1. Time Limits : Effects on Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of differing time limits and the level of language proficiency on the written recalls of 66 Japanese EFL undergraduates. Results showed that different time limits affected total recall, but not main ideas recalled. Regardless of proficiency level, the 20-minute group (Group 2) recalled a greater number of idea units than the 8-minute group (Group 1). However, no significant difference was found between Groups 1 and 2 regarding the recall of main ideas, alth...

  2. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  3. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  4. Voluntary Becomes Mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, William

    Voluntary bench-bar press guidelines have evolved over the past 15 years as a way of resolving the conflict between the right of the accused to a fair trial and the right of the press to cover such a trial. In 1980, however, a Washington state judge required reporters to sign an affidavit stating that they would follow the state's guidelines.…

  5. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  6. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  7. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  8. Free Recall Shows Similar Reactivation Behavior as Recognition & Cued Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    I find that the total retrieval time in word free recall increases linearly with the total number of items recalled. Measured slopes, the time to retrieve an additional item, vary from 1.4-4.5 seconds per item depending upon presentation rate, subject age and whether there is a delay after list presentation or not. These times to retrieve an additional item obey a second linear relationship as a function of the recall probability averaged over the experiment, explicitly independent of subject...

  9. Disincentives to voluntary transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations

  10. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  11. Voluntary Activity of Polish People and Its Motives in Recent Years: New Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosewska, Bernadetta

    2015-01-01

    This article covers an issue or the phenomenon of volunteering. The introduction is a recall of a definition of volunteering. Then it shows the distribution of voluntary activity in different countries of the European Union in order to look at some aspects of the phenomenon in the microscale of one country--Poland. It shows the percentage of…

  12. Compound cueing in free recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  13. Compound cuing in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors.

  14. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  15. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  16. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  17. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  18. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  19. Ways of sampling voluntary and involuntary autobiographical memories in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Johannessen, Kim B; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive psychologists have often equaled retrieval of personal events with voluntary recall from autobiographical memory, but more recent research shows that autobiographical memories often come to mind involuntarily-that is, with no retrieval effort. Voluntary memories have been studied in numerous laboratory experiments in response to word-prompts, whereas involuntary memories primarily have been examined in an everyday living context, using a structured diary procedure. However, it remains unclear how voluntary memories sampled in the laboratory map onto self-prompted voluntary memories in daily life. Here, we used a structured diary procedure to compare different types of voluntary autobiographical memories to their involuntary counterparts. The results replicated previous findings with regard to differences between word-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories, whereas there were fewer differences between self-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories. The findings raise the question as to what is the best way of sampling voluntary memories and the best comparison for involuntary memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  1. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  2. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  3. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  4. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  5. Large individual differences in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Using single factor ANOVA I show that there are large individual differences in free recall ({\\eta} ranges from 0.09-0.26) including the total recall, the balance between recency and primacy, and the initial recall (subsequent recalls show smaller individual differences). All three memory properties are relatively uncorrelated. The variance in the initial position may be a measure of executive control and is correlated with total recall (the smaller the variation, the larger the recall).

  6. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  7. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  9. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  10. Practice makes perfect in memory recall

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists. Moreover, some of them developed a number of consistent input-position-dependent recall strategies, in particular recalling words consecutively (?chainin...

  11. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  13. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  14. Free Recall Curves: Nothing but Rehearsing Some Items More or Recalling Them Sooner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Delbert A.; Prytulak, Lubomir S.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that free recall curves reflecting effects of serial position, presentation time and delay of recall are attributable to subjects' pattern of rehearsal was explored. Experiments varied the patterns of rehearsal to examine the effects on recall. (CHK)

  15. Enhancing Recall in Semantic Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    lexically and structurally different, which we will introduce in the next section. As RDF graphs from different sources are expected to be linked, the modeling heterogeneities will make the federated graph become sparser and inconsistent. This is detrimental to the recall of SPARQL queries, as the query...

  16. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  17. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  18. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  19. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  20. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK MIHAI LUPU Abstract. For the first participation in the TREC Total Recall track, we set out to try some basic...significantly and consistently outperformed it. 1. Introduction As the organizers point out, the focus of the Total Recall Track is to evaluate methods to...TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK 3 The only change we made was at a higher level. The Sofia ML library provides 5 more ML algorithms. The following

  1. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  2. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  3. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  4. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs....42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A recall strategy that takes into account the following factors... in the market-place. (v) Continued availability of essential products. (2) The Food and Drug...

  5. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  6. Video context-dependent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M; Manzano, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    In two experiments, we used an effective new method for experimentally manipulating local and global contexts to examine context-dependent recall. The method included video-recorded scenes of real environments, with target words superimposed over the scenes. In Experiment 1, we used a within-subjects manipulation of video contexts and compared the effects of reinstatement of a global context (15 words per context) with effects of less overloaded context cues (1 and 3 words per context) on recall. The size of the reinstatement effects in Experiment 1 show how potently video contexts can cue recall. A strong effect of cue overload was also found; reinstatement effects were smaller, but still quite robust, in the 15 words per context condition. The powerful reinstatement effect was replicated for local contexts in Experiment 2, which included a no-contexts-reinstated group, a control condition used to determine whether reinstatement of half of the cues caused biased output interference for uncued targets. The video context method is a potent way to investigate context-dependent memory.

  7. Common Modality Effects in Immediate Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for either immediate free recall (IFR) or immediate serial recall (ISR). Auditory recall advantages at the end of the list (modality effects) and visual recall advantages early in the list (inverse modality effects) were observed in both tasks and the extent and…

  8. The effects of recall-concurrent visual-motor distraction on picture and word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M W

    1977-05-01

    The dual-coding model (Paivio, 1971, 1975) predicts a larger imaginal component in the recall of pictures relative to words and a larger imaginal component in the recall of concrete words relative to abstract words. These predictions were tested by examining the effect of a recall-concurrent imagery-suppression task (pursuit-rotor tracking) on the recall of pictures vs picture labels and on the recall of concrete words vs abstract words. The results showed that recall-concurrent pursuit-rotor tracking interfered with picture recall, but not word recall (Experiments 1 and 2); however, there was no evidence of an effect of recall-concurrent tracking on the recall of concrete words (Experiment 3). The results suggested a revision of the dual-coding model.

  9. Subjective Organization Calculator for Free Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Senkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The free recall measure has an advantage over other memory measures because the free recall measure can provide organization measures, which can reveal the strategies participants used to maximize recall. For instance, even when a study list does not show a clear organizational scheme, recall outputs are often far from random, evidenced by participants recalling the same two or more items together repeatedly across multiple test trials. Unfortunately, computing organizational measures is laborious. The present article introduces a calculator to compute subjective organization (SO measures. The calculator is based on a popular platform accessible to most researchers and is designed to compute commonly used SO measures for each participant.

  10. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamagishi; Takuya Sato; Atsushi Sato; Toru Imamura

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the ...

  11. Involuntary and voluntary recall of musical memories: a comparison of temporal accuracy and emotional responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or “earworms”)—the spontaneous ...

  12. Are forward and backward recall the same? A dual-task study of digit recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen L; Allen, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    There is some debate surrounding the cognitive resources underlying backward digit recall. Some researchers consider it to differ from forward digit recall due to the involvement of executive control, while others suggest that backward recall involves visuospatial resources. Five experiments therefore investigated the role of executive-attentional and visuospatial resources in both forward and backward digit recall. In the first, participants completed visuospatial 0-back and 2-back tasks during the encoding of information to be remembered. The concurrent tasks did not differentially disrupt performance on backward digit recall, relative to forward digit recall. Experiment 2 shifted concurrent load to the recall phase instead and, in this case, revealed a larger effect of both tasks on backward recall, relative to forwards recall, suggesting that backward recall may draw on additional resources during the recall phase and that these resources are visuospatial in nature. Experiments 3 and 4 then further investigated the role of visual processes in forward and backward recall using dynamic visual noise (DVN). In Experiment 3, DVN was presented during encoding of information to be remembered and had no effect upon performance. However, in Experiment 4, it was presented during the recall phase, and the results provided evidence of a role for visual imagery in backward digit recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 5, in which the same list length was used for forward and backward recall tasks. The findings are discussed in terms of both theoretical and practical implications.

  13. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, David V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process

  14. Bizarreness effect in dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, C; Bolzani, R; Cornoldi, C; De Beni, R; Fagioli, I

    1993-02-01

    This study aimed to ascertain a) whether morning reports of dream experience more frequently reproduce bizarre contents of night reports than nonbizarre ones and b) whether this effect depends on the rarity of bizarre contents in the dream or on their richer encoding in memory. Ten subjects were awakened in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep three times per night for 4 nonconsecutive nights and asked to report their previous dream experiences. In the morning they were asked to re-report those dreams. Two separate pairs of judges scored the reports: the former identified the parts in each report with bizarre events, characters or feelings and the latter parsed each report into content units using transformational grammar criteria. By combining the data of the two analyses, content units were classified as bizarre or nonbizarre and, according to whether present in both the night and corresponding morning reports, as semantically equivalent or nonequivalent. The proportion of bizarre contents common to night and morning reports was about twice that of nonbizarre contents and was positively correlated to the quantity of bizarre contents present in the night report. These findings support the view that bizarreness enhances recall of dream contents and that this memory advantage is determined by a richer encoding at the moment of dream generation. Such a view would seem to explain why dreams in everyday life, which are typically remembered after a rather long interval, appear more markedly bizarre than those recalled in the sleep laboratory.

  15. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  16. Analysis and evaluation of forest carbon projects and respective certification standards for the voluntary offset of greenhouse gas emissions; Analyse und Bewertung von Waldprojekten und entsprechender Standards zur freiwilligen Kompensation von Treibhausgasemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Christian; Tennigkeit, Timm; Techel, Grit; Seebauer, Matthias [UNIQUE forestry consultants GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Forest based CO{sub 2} sequestration projects, regardless of their methodological approach, are always defined by the interaction of two carbon pools: (a) the CO{sub 2} stored in the forest ecosys-tem and (b) the CO{sub 2} present in the atmosphere. Forests are sinks for atmospheric carbon. This holds especially true for young or immature forests, if they are not disturbed and are not yet at equilibrium of increment, harvest and/or decay and harvest. This positive net sequestration of CO{sub 2} can be traded via emission reduction certificates, e.g. to offset emissions from industrial production, travelling and energy consumption. In contrast, the atmospheric pool increases if forests are destroyed leading to the release of the stored CO{sub 2}. This occurs if forest lands are converted into other land uses such as agricul-ture, or through forest management activities like harvesting or natural disturbances like for-est fires or pests. In all these cases forests become sources of CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  17. Practice makes perfect in memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-04-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists. Moreover, some of them developed a number of consistent input-position-dependent recall strategies, in particular recalling words consecutively ("chaining") or in groups of consecutively presented words ("chunking"). The time course of acquisition and particular choice of positional grouping were variable among participants. Our results show that acquiring positional strategies plays a crucial role in improvement of recall performance. © 2016 Romani et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Intrusive images and voluntary memory for affective pictures: contextualization and dual-task interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Langner, Oliver; Reinecke, Andrea; Pearson, David G

    2013-12-01

    The present study addressed the role of context information and dual-task interference during the encoding of negative pictures on intrusion development and voluntary recall. Healthy participants were shown negative pictures with or without context information. Pictures were either viewed alone or concurrently with a visuospatial or verbal task. Participants reported their intrusive images of the pictures in a diary. At follow-up, perceptual and contextual memory was tested. Participants in the context group reported more intrusive images and perceptual voluntary memory than participants in the no context group. No effects of the concurrent tasks were found on intrusive image frequency, but perceptual and contextual memory was affected according to the cognitive load of the task. The analogue method cannot be generalized to real-life trauma and the secondary tasks may differ in cognitive load. The findings challenge a dual memory model of PTSD but support an account in which retrieval strategy, rather than encoding processes, accounts for the experience of involuntary versus voluntary recall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients' memory impairments in daily living.

  20. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamagishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Results: Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Conclusion: The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.

  1. Serial position curves in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  2. Ultramar Ltd voluntary challenge action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Ultramar Limited (Ltd.) operates a refinery in St-Romuald, Quebec, where crude oil is converted to high-grade petroleum products destined for markets in both Canada and the United States. In this document, the measures implemented to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions in support of the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program have been highlighted. The reference year for this report is 1990. The emphasis was placed on energy efficiency improvements. The target set by Ultramar Ltd. is a one per cent annual energy efficiency improvement, to be averaged over the period 1995-2005. The one per cent reduction in energy efficiency per year has been attained over the past three years by Ultramar Ltd. It was accomplished mainly through reduced energy consumption and increased plant capacity associated to minimal increases in energy consumption. For the year 2000, Ultramar achieved an improvement of 12 per cent over 1990. Some of the measures implemented included: personnel awareness concerning the importance of energy efficiency, maintenance and operational improvements, and capital investment program. Currently underway or recently completed initiatives included stream leaks and traps, flare losses reduction, and crude pre-heat exchangers. The various measures were briefly described, and the company indicated it fells confident that its energy efficiency, as measured by the Solomon Index, will be at least 10 per cent over the period 1995-2005. 2 figs

  3. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Canadian Gas Association response to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Since the inception of Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program in 1994, the Canadian Gas Association (CGA) and its members have been active in promoting emissions reductions. Natural gas is considered to be one of the cleanest fossil fuels. However, the industry faces several challenges. Over 50 per cent of Canadian production is exported to the US, but no credits are being received to offset emission reduction in the US from fuel switching to natural gas. Also, more than 80 per cent of the emissions from the natural gas cycle occur at the burner tip, therefore users of natural gas must share the responsibility for reducing emissions through conservation practices and greater use of high-efficiency equipment. The activities undertaken by the CGA in response to the VCR program, including research and technology development were reviewed, and a forecast of future activities was presented. It was predicted that the demand for Canadian natural gas will exceed the historic rate of emissions reductions accomplished through energy conservation and efficiency improvements, hence there is likely to be an increase in net emissions. An argument was made to establish proxy indicators of success for the gas industry for VCR, such as emissions on a unit basis (unit of energy, production, throughput, etc.) to take into account the fact that the increase in natural gas demand is, in part, the result of fuel switching from more polluting fuels

  5. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  6. Voluntary work, a diversity of forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Joep de Hart

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Vrijwilligerswerk in meervoud. By international standards, the level of participation in voluntary work in the Netherlands is high, and the signs are that this will continue. On the other hand, the type of voluntary work and the groups in which it is concentrated are changing.

  7. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  8. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  9. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  10. Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared traditional measures of pattern recall to measures of anticipatory recall and decision-making to examine the underlying mechanisms of expert pattern perception and to address methodological limitations in previous studies where anticipatory recall has generally been overlooked. Recall performance in expert and novice basketball players was measured by examining the spatial error in recalling player positions both for a target image (traditional recall) and at 40-ms increments following the target image (anticipatory recall). Decision-making performance was measured by comparing the participant's response to those identified by a panel of expert coaches. Anticipatory recall was observed in the recall task and was significantly more pronounced for the experts, suggesting that traditional methods of spatial recall analysis may not have provided a completely accurate determination of the full magnitude of the experts' superiority. Accounting for anticipatory recall also increased the relative contribution of recall skill to decision-making accuracy although the gains in explained variance were modest and of debatable functional significance.

  11. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  12. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  13. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  14. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  15. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  16. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  17. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall.

  18. Canadian Energy Pipeline Association - second report to the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the Canadian pipeline industry's initiatives to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was presented. The commitment of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) and its 11 member companies to the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge Program which aims to stabilize GHG emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000, was reaffirmed. At the same time, questions were raised about whether the absolute reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels is a realistic or desirable goal for the Canadian transmission pipeline industry, given the increased demand for Canadian gas and petroleum products both domestically and internationally. it was argued that the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge Program must recognize the differing abilities of Canada's economic sectors to achieve absolute reductions in greenhouse gas emissions

  19. Voluntary business activities to mitigate climate change: Case studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary business activities, such as the voluntary action plans conducted by comprehensive business associations in Japan to reduce environmental damage, are viable policy instruments alongside regulations and economic incentives (e.g. taxes and emissions trading schemes). This paper examines three case studies in which voluntary activities have played a successful role in mitigating climate change. Based on interviews with business organisations together with a literature review and data analysis, we show why businesses are motivated to take socially responsible actions and describe the major benefits of such activities. One of the important benefits of voluntary activities is their flexibility in phasing measures. This flexibility is greatly appreciated, since industries are able to retain control of their responses to future uncertainties, which allows them to tackle climate change issues aggressively. We conclude that voluntary activities have been more environmentally effective than alternative policy measures under a proper institutional framework, which consists of effective motivation mechanisms for businesses, governmental measures to encourage their compliance, and capable industrial associations that can lessen the transaction costs both of the government and of industry. - Highlights: • Businesses are well motivated to take suitable, technologically feasible actions. • Capability of industrial associations is a key to successful voluntary activities. • Flexibility allows businesses to manage uncertainty and aim for ambitious goals

  20. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this…

  1. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned...

  2. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  3. Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon; Lelièvre, Anna

    2009-09-01

    We consider how theories of serial recall might apply to other short-term memory tasks involving recall of order. In particular, we consider the possibility that when participants are cued to recall an item at an arbitrary position in a sequence, they covertly serially recall the list up to the cued position. One question is whether such "scanning" is articulatory in nature. Two experiments are presented in which the syllabic length of words preceding and following target positions were manipulated, to test the prediction of an articulatory-based mechanism that time to recall an item at a particular position will depend on the number of preceding long words. Although latency was dependent on target position, no word length effects on latency were observed. Additionally, the effects of word length on accuracy replicate recent demonstrations in serial recall that recall accuracy is dependent on the word length of all list items, not just that of target items, in line with distinctiveness assumptions. It is concluded that if scanning does occur, it is not carried out by covert or overt articulation.

  4. Recalling what was where when seeing nothing there

    OpenAIRE

    Staudte, Maria; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2016-01-01

    So-called ?looks-at-nothing? have previously been used to show that recalling what also elicits the recall of where this was. Here, we present evidence from an eye-tracking study which shows that disrupting looks to ?there? does not disrupt recalling what was there, nor do (anticipatory) looks to ?there? facilitate recalling what was there. Therefore, our results suggest that recalling where does not recall what.

  5. Support for Voluntary Euthanasia with No Logical Slippery Slope to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that acceptance of voluntary euthanasia does not generate commitment to either non-voluntary euthanasia or euthanasia on request. This is accomplished through analysis of John Keown's and David Jones's slippery slope arguments, and rejection of their view that voluntary euthanasia requires physicians to judge patients as better off dead. Instead, voluntary euthanasia merely requires physicians to judge patients as within boundaries of appropriate deference. This paper develops two ways of understanding and defending voluntary euthanasia on this model, one focused on the independent value of patients' autonomy and the other on the evidence of well-being provided by patients' requests. Both avoid the purported slippery slopes and both are independently supported by an analogy to uncontroversial elements of medical practice. Moreover, the proposed analyses of voluntary euthanasia suggest parameters for the design of euthanasia legislation, both supporting and challenging elements of existing laws in Oregon and the Netherlands.

  6. Voluntary eyeblinks disrupt iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E; Irwin, David E

    2006-04-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether eyeblinks interfere with cognitive processing. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a partial-report iconic memory task in which a letter array was presented for 106 msec, followed 50, 150, or 750 msec later by a tone that cued recall of onerow of the array. At a cue delay of 50 msec between array offset and cue onset, letter report accuracy was lower when the participants blinked following array presentation than under no-blink conditions; the participants made more mislocation errors under blink conditions. This result suggests that blinking interferes with the binding of object identity and object position in iconic memory. Experiment 2 demonstrated that interference due to blinks was not due merely to changes in light intensity. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that other motor responses did not interfere with iconic memory. We propose a new phenomenon, cognitive blink suppression, in which blinking inhibits cognitive processing. This phenomenon may be due to neural interference. Blinks reduce activation in area V1, which may interfere with the representation of information in iconic memory.

  7. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  8. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  9. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  10. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  11. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...

  12. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  13. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  14. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; S?rqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure?whe...

  15. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  16. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  17. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  18. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the food...

  19. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  20. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  1. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed... communication should not contain irrelevant qualifications, promotional materials, or any other statement that...

  2. Attentional Processing and Recall of Emotional Words

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga Carou, Isabel; Redondo, Jaime; Piñeiro, Ana; Padrón, Isabel; Fernández-Rey, José; Alcaraz, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the attention paid to words of different emotional value. A dual-task experimental paradigm was employed, registering response times to acoustic tones which were presented during the reading of words. The recall was also evaluated by means of an intentional immediate recall test. The results reveal that neither the emotional valence nor the arousal of words on their own affected the attention paid by participants. Only in the third exper...

  3. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kerr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24, were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01, detailed description (p < 0.05 and portion size matching (p < 0.05. Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods. The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05 and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8% compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  4. Positive demonstration of initiatives under the voluntary climate change challenge program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, J.; Hare, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions that have built up over a century is a long-term challenge which requires long-term, sustainable solutions. The solutions include the increasing need for Canadians to use less carbon intensive fuels, such as natural gas. There are no economically and socially acceptable quick fixes that will produce dramatic results on a large scale. The endorsement of the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge and Registry Program (VCR) by the Canadian Gas Association (CGA), and subsequent approval of the Memorandum of Understanding, are indicative of commitments by the Association and its member companies to environmentally responsible actions and measures to ensure efficient energy usage. While CGA and members continue to reduce emissions, it must be recognized that significant progress will take time. Given the benefits of a long-term sustainable approach, the Voluntary Challenge represents the most logical way to proceed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian sources without causing severe economic dislocation. (au) 26 refs

  5. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  6. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Analysis of the German market for voluntary carbon offsetting; Analyse des deutschen Marktes zur freiwilligen Kompensation von Treibhausgasemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Christian; Duwe, Sebastian; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [adelphi research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kleemann, Max; Krebs, Jan-Marten [sustainable AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In the past years the market for voluntary carbon offsetting has developed rapidly. Certificates sold on this market originate partly from the compliance market, i.e. from projects of the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation. Mostly, however, certificates stem from projects of the voluntary carbon market. Voluntary carbon offsetting can serve as another mechanism to efficiently prevent emissions, while at the same time achieving co-benefits. Very little is known however of the exact state of the voluntary carbon market, e.g. factors like business volume, market actors, origin of certificates or the efficacy of the voluntary market. Analyses of the market on the global market for voluntary offsetting do exist (ENDS, Hamilton et al. 2007, 2008, 2009); however they do not allow any conclusions for the market situation in Germany. This study aims at closing this gap. From the end of 2009 until the beginning of 2010 adelphi and sustainable interviewed providers of offset services, intermediaries, certifiers and consumers like businesses and public institutions on their activities in the voluntary carbon offset market in Germany. (orig.)

  8. Pictorial Detail and Recall in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Gary H.

    1982-01-01

    Specific comparisons for a categorized set of items indicated that recall of detailed drawings and outlines was superior to recall of words. For an uncategorized set, outlines were recalled significantly better than pictures and both were recalled better than words. (Author/PN)

  9. The Client's Perspective on Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.

  10. Review of voluntary and regulatory carbon reporting by companies around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, Sylvain; Decq, Juliette; Wang, Xin; Alberola, Emilie; Afriat, Marion; Gourdon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    What countries have instituted regulations requiring companies to measure their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? How could these regulations be strengthened to help meet the '2 deg. C' goal adopted by all member countries at the COP21 summit? In what ways do new French regulations on reporting of significant GHG emissions constitute a major advance in carbon reporting? To complement recent news focusing on reporting of carbon emissions in France, Carbone 4 offers its readers this review to put voluntary and regulatory carbon reporting mechanisms used by companies in a global perspective

  11. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  12. Reexposure Breeds Recall: Effects of Experience on 9-Month-Olds' Ordered Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Waters, Jennie M.; Bangston, Stephanie K.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments using deferred imitation tested whether multiple experiences were necessary, or merely facilitative, of 9-month-olds' long-term recall. Found that infants did not demonstrate recall of a multi-step sequence experienced one, two, or three times a month earlier. However, when re-exposed to the experience 1 week after the initial…

  13. Trunnion Failure of the Recalled Low Friction Ion Treatment Cobalt Chromium Alloy Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urish, Kenneth L; Hamlin, Brian R; Plakseychuk, Anton Y; Levison, Timothy J; Higgs, Genymphas B; Kurtz, Steven M; DiGioia, Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    Gross trunnion failure (GTF) is a rare complication in total hip arthroplasty (THA) reported across a range of manufacturers. Specific lots of the Stryker low friction ion treatment (LFIT) anatomic cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr) V40 femoral head were recalled in August 2016. In part, the recall was based out of concerns for disassociation of the femoral head from the stem and GTF. We report on 28 patients (30 implants) with either GTF (n = 18) or head-neck taper corrosion (n = 12) of the LFIT CoCr femoral head and the Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy femoral stems. All these cases were associated with adverse local tissue reactions requiring revision of the THA. In our series, a conservative estimate of the incidence of failure was 4.7% (n = 636 total implanted) at 8.0 ± 1.4 years from the index procedure. Failures were associated with a high-offset 127° femoral stem neck angle and increased neck lengths; 43.3% (13 of 30) of the observed failures included implant sizes outside the voluntary recall (27.8% [5 of 18] of the GTF and 75.0% [8 of 12] of the taper corrosion cases). Serum cobalt and chromium levels were elevated (cobalt: 8.4 ± 7.0 μg/mL; chromium: 3.4 ± 3.3 μ/L; cobalt/chromium ratio: 3.7). The metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated large cystic fluid collections typical with adverse local tissue reactions. During revision, a pseudotumor was observed in all cases. Pathology suggested a chronic inflammatory response. Impending GTF could be diagnosed based on aspiration of black synovial fluid and an oblique femoral head as compared with the neck taper on radiographs. In our series of the recalled LFIT CoCr femoral head, the risk of impending GTF or head-neck taper corrosion should be considered as a potential diagnosis in a painful LFIT femoral head and Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy THA with unknown etiology. Almost half of the failures we observed included sizes outside of the

  14. SEA Screening of voluntary Climate Change Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...

  15. ASPECTS REGARDING CORPORATE MANDATORY AND VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.

  16. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  17. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C.Y.; Applegate, Marissa C.; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the “fading embers” of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. PMID:28132858

  18. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Applegate, Marissa C; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M; Norman, Kenneth A

    2017-03-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the "fading embers" of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  20. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  1. The bible and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-03-15

    Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  2. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....

  3. Contribution from I4CE on how to address double counting within voluntary projects in Annex B countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucherot, Claudine; Grimault, Julia; Morel, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The development of voluntary offsetting projects in Annex B countries is hampered by one difficulty: in some cases, voluntary certification schemes require the cancellation of Kyoto units in the country hosting the project, equal to the emission reductions produced. Joint Implementation (JI) requires the cancellation of units in order to prevent the same reduction in emissions from being counted twice as part of meeting the Kyoto requirements: firstly and directly, in the form of joint implementation units (ERUs) and, secondly and indirectly, in the form of the Kyoto units resulting from a reduction in the host country's emissions which are listed in their UNFCCC inventory. However, under certain conditions, AAUs do not need to be cancelled to ensure the environmental integrity of international agreements. This is the case when carbon credits result from projects certified by voluntary schemes because these credits have no value in terms of Kyoto compliance. Above and beyond the problem of environmental integrity, the issue of double monetization of the same emission reduction is often raised. To address this dilemma, we must identify whether the aim of voluntary offsetting is to increase the country's efforts to reduce emissions or rather help it achieve its Kyoto targets

  4. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme.

  5. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.

  6. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  7. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category.

  9. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  10. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  11. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983.

  12. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  13. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  14. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  15. VOLUNTARY INTEREST ARBITRATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Birhanu is currently working as the Manager of the Legal Research and Advisory Division ... forth voluntary interest arbitration to the attention of lawyers, employees, .... being selective is a poor design since the basic rules of this law are not .... courts to review interest arbitrators decision on the merit by way of appeal.

  16. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... measures so that Contingency planning information can be shared with Participants to enable them to plan... Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) Table of Contents Abbreviations Definitions Preface I. Purpose II... of VISA Contingency Provisions A. General B. Notification of Activation C. Voluntary Capacity D...

  17. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  18. 25 CFR 38.14 - Voluntary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.14 Voluntary services. (a... receiving credit for their work (i.e., student teaching) from an education institution, the agreement will... Regulations Governing Responsibilities and Conduct. (e) Travel and other expenses. The decision to reimburse...

  19. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  20. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    that voluntary community work in relation to public urban regeneration is much more than the public’s engagement in project planning processes. Contrary to temporary urban regeneration projects, VCOs are much more permanently embedded in the neighbourhood, and volunteers are motivated by both self-interest...

  1. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  2. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  3. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  4. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  5. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jeremy R; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organised, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g., "cat" and "dog") is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield, 1953; Bousfield & Sedgewick, 1944; Cofer, Bruce, & Reicher, 1966). Measuring semantic clustering effects requires making assumptions about which words participants consider to be similar in meaning. However, it is often difficult to gain insights into individual participants' internal semantic models, and for this reason researchers typically rely on standardised semantic similarity metrics. Here we use simulations to gain insights into the expected magnitudes of semantic clustering effects given systematic differences between participants' internal similarity models and the similarity metric used to quantify the degree of semantic clustering. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

  6. When Do First Letters Mnemonics Aid Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. E.; Cook, N.

    1978-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of the first letter mnemonic technique is confused. There are at least three studies showing no effect, and one where an improvement in recall occurred. Reports two experiments which attempted to locate the conditions under which the first letter mnemonic is effective. (Author/RK)

  7. [Analysis of intrusion errors in free recall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2017-06-01

    Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so. Bivariate regression analyses revealed that participants who committed intrusion errors were more deficient on measures of eight-word recognition memory, delayed visual recognition and tests of executive control (the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale and the ADST-Graphical Sequences as measures of response inhibition). Using hierarchical multiple regression, only free recall and delayed visual recognition retained an independent effect in the association with intrusion errors, such that deficient scores on tests of episodic memory were sufficient to explain the occurrence of intrusion errors. Measures of inhibitory control did not add significantly to the explanation of intrusion errors in free recall, which makes insufficient strength of memory traces rather than a primary deficit in inhibition the preferred account for intrusion errors in free recall.

  8. Working Memory and Binding in Sentence Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A. D.; Hitch, G. J.; Allen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To…

  9. Accessibility Limits Recall from Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Swan, Garrett; Wilson, Daryl E.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate limitations of accessibility of information in visual working memory (VWM). Recently, cued-recall has been used to estimate the fidelity of information in VWM, where the feature of a cued object is reproduced from memory (Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009; Wilken & Ma, 2004; Zhang & Luck, 2008). Response…

  10. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kaynak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall phenomenon is an acute, egzematous reaction that develops throughout a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the administration of docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. We report a 52-year-old woman with breast cancer who received locoregional radiotherapy followed by trastuzumab monotherapy. Three day after the first cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis developed in the previously irradiated skin.

  11. Rehearsal and recall in immediate memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F.

    1961-01-01

    Experiments on the influence of rehearsal on the retention and recoil of digit combinations are described, from the results of which it appears that a rehearsal period facilitates recall by producing a transition from immediate to permanent memory. It further seems that some parts of the material

  12. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  13. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  14. Task Context and Organization in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

  15. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  16. Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary counseling and ... Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: A case control study. ... Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.

  20. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  1. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE OF TWO STAGES IN FREE RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Tarnow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I find that exactly two stages can be seen directly in sequential free recall distributions. These distributions show that the first three recalls come from the emptying of working memory, recalls 6 and above come from a second stage and the 4th and 5th recalls are mixtures of the two.A discontinuity, a rounded step function, is shown to exist in the fitted linear slope of the recall distributions as the recall shifts from the emptying of working memory (positive slope to the second stage (negative slope. The discontinuity leads to a first estimate of the capacity of working memory at 4-4.5 items. The total recall is shown to be a linear combination of the content of working memory and items recalled in the second stage with 3.0-3.9 items coming from working memory, a second estimate of the capacity of working memory. A third, separate upper limit on the capacity of working memory is found (3.06 items, corresponding to the requirement that the content of working memory cannot exceed the total recall, item by item. This third limit is presumably the best limit on the average capacity of unchunked working memory.The second stage of recall is shown to be reactivation: The average times to retrieve additional items in free recall obey a linear relationship as a function of the recall probability which mimics recognition and cued recall, both mechanisms using reactivation (Tarnow, 2008.

  2. 75 FR 47607 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a.... Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None...

  3. 77 FR 36566 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs...

  4. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey... forms of information. Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and...

  5. 75 FR 27563 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... collection requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB...

  6. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  7. Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)

  8. How to Respond to an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... managing your emotions appropriately and being proactive. Behavioral Management Plan Your best plan of action is to ... recall for all patients. The recall of 1 brand of ICD does not mean that there is ...

  9. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  10. Monkeys Recall and Reproduce Simple Shapes from Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    If you draw from memory a picture of the front of your childhood home, you will have demonstrated recall. You could also recognize this house upon seeing it. Unlike recognition, recall demonstrates memory for things that are not present. Recall is necessary for planning and imagining, and can increase the flexibility of navigation, social behavior, and other cognitive skills. Without recall, memory is more limited to recognition of the immediate environment. Amnesic patients are impaired on r...

  11. Recall, Recognition, and the Measurement of Memory for Print Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Bagozzi; Alvin J. Silk

    1983-01-01

    The recall and recognition of people for 95 print ads were examined with an aim toward investigating memory structure and decay processes. It was found that recall and recognition do not, by themselves, measure a single underlying memory state. Rather, memory is multidimensional, and recall and recognition capture only a portion of memory, while at the same time reflecting other mental states. When interest in the ads was held constant, however, recall and recognition did measure memory as a ...

  12. On Recall Rate of Interest Point Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    in relation to the number of interest points, the recall rate as a function of camera position and light variation, and the sensitivity relative to model parameter change. The overall conclusion is that the Harris corner detector has a very high recall rate, but is sensitive to change in scale. The Hessian......In this paper we provide a method for evaluating interest point detectors independently of image descriptors. This is possible because we have compiled a unique data set enabling us to determine if common interest points are found. The data contains 60 scenes of a wide range of object types......, and for each scene we have 119 precisely located camera positions obtained from a camera mounted on an industrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D ground truth. We have investigated a number of the most popular interest point detectors. This is done...

  13. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  14. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall have an electronic means to identify recalled vehicles based on lists of VINs with unresolved... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that vehicles..., receive the required repairs. States shall require that owners of recalled vehicles have the necessary...

  15. Eye Movements and Overt Rehearsal in Word Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselman, Ralph E.; Bellezza, Francis S.

    1977-01-01

    Rates of overt rehearsal and eye movement were compared to each other, and were also compared as predictors of immediate and delayed recall. Concludes that total looking time was the best predictor of long-term retention and that recall performance following overt rehearsal was different from recall performance following silent study. (Editor/RK)

  16. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the basis of total service during the recall period and months of marriage during such period. If the... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a...

  17. Reconstructive Recall of Linguistic Style. Technical Report No. 286.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.; Hay, Anne E.

    A study investigated reconstructive recall for linguistic style. It was hypothesized that (1) features of linguistic style would be more difficult to recall than underlying content, (2) reconstructive errors would include stylistic forms recalled as standard forms when subjects lacked productive control of a particular feature of a style, and (3)…

  18. Media exposure and sponsor recall: Cricket World Cup 2003 | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...

  19. Consumers recall and recognition for brand symbols

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Hasan, Syed Akif; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    Brand Symbols are important for any brand in helping consumers to remember one’s brand at the point of purchase. In advertising different ways are used to grab attention in consumers’ mind and majorly it’s through brand recall and recognition. This research captivates the Brand Symbol concept and determines whether symbols play an important role in creating a differential impact with other brands. Secondly, it also answers that whether brand symbol is the cause of creating positive associatio...

  20. Accelerating Deep Learning with Shrinkage and Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shuai; Vishnu, Abhinav; Ding, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Deep Learning is a very powerful machine learning model. Deep Learning trains a large number of parameters for multiple layers and is very slow when data is in large scale and the architecture size is large. Inspired from the shrinking technique used in accelerating computation of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm and screening technique used in LASSO, we propose a shrinking Deep Learning with recall (sDLr) approach to speed up deep learning computation. We experiment shrinking Deep Lea...

  1. Priming effect on word reading and recall

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Isabel Hub; Luegi, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on priming as a function of exposure to bimodal stimuli of European Portuguese screen centred single words and isolated pictures inserted at the screen’s right upper corner, with four kinds of word-picture relation. The eye movements of 18 Portuguese native university students were registered while reading four sets of ten word-picture pairs, and their respective oral recall lists of words or pictures were kept. The results reveal a higher phonological primin...

  2. Initialization Errors in Quantum Data Base Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Natu, Kalyani

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between initialization error and recall of a specific memory in the Grover algorithm for quantum database search. It is shown that the correct memory is obtained with high probability even when the initial state is far removed from the correct one. The analysis is done by relating the variance of error in the initial state to the recovery of the correct memory and the surprising result is obtained that the relationship between the two is essentially linear.

  3. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  4. Stressors and Coping among Voluntary Sports Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, AJ; Didymus, F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching has been identified as a naturally stressful occupation. Coaches must be able to competently and effectively manage stress that is inherent in competitive sport and perform under pressure. Yet, limited research exists that has explored coaches’ experiences of psychological stress. The research that does exist has mainly focused on full-time, elite coaches who represent just 3% of the coaching workforce in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Despite the voluntary coaching wo...

  5. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  6. Aging and interference in story recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Iris; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: According to inhibitory deficit theory, older adults should be more impaired by visual distractors than younger adults when reading texts. Studies using a multiple-choice recognition test to examine age differences in the impairment of text comprehension due to distractor words yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, younger participants and older participants were required to read short texts comprising unrelated, related, or no distractor words. Visual acuity was equated between groups. Text recall was assessed using a gist-based propositional scoring procedure. There were pronounced age differences in reading with distraction. Older adults were slowed down more than younger adults by the presence of distractor words when reading. Furthermore, older adults' story recall was clearly impaired by the presence of distractor material, whereas younger adults' recall performance was not. In addition, older adults were more likely to make intrusion errors. Consistent with inhibitory deficit theory, the findings suggest that older adults were less able than younger adults to establish a correct mental representation of the target text when distractors were present. Furthermore, older adults were more likely than younger adults to build up incorrect memory representations that comprise distractor concepts. Thus, there are pronounced age differences in the impairment of text comprehension by distracting information.

  7. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  8. The Effects of Automobile Recalls on the Severity of Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Benitez-Silva; Yong-Kyun Bae

    2010-01-01

    The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has substantially increased over the last two decades, and after a record of over 30 million cars recalled in 2004, in the last few years it has consistently reached between 15 and 17 million, and in 2009 alone 16.4 million cars were recalled. Toyota's recall crisis in 2010 illustrates how recalls can affect a large number of American drivers and the defects connected to them can result in loss of life and serious accidents. However, in spite of th...

  9. Age differences in recall and predicting recall of action events and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Miszczak, L; Hubley, A M; Hultsch, D F

    1996-03-01

    Age differences in recall and prediction of recall were examined with different memory tasks. We asked 36 younger (19-28 yrs) and 36 older (60-81 yrs) women to provide both global and item-by-item predictions of their recall, and then to recall either (a) Subject Performance Tasks (SPTs), (b) verb-noun word-pairs memorized in list-like fashion (Word-Pairs), or (c) nonsense verb-noun word-pairs (Nonsense-Pairs) over three experimental trials. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that these tasks would vary in relative difficulty and flexibility of encoding. The results indicated that (a) age differences in global predictions (task specific self-efficacy) and recall performance across trials were minimized with SPT as compared with verbal materials, (b) global predictions were higher and more accurate for SPT as compared to verbal materials, and (c) item-by-item predictions were most accurate for materials encoded with the most flexibility (Nonsense Pairs). The results suggest that SPTs may provide some level of environmental support to reduce age differences in performance and task-specific self-efficacy, but that memory monitoring may depend on specific characteristics of the stimuli (i.e., flexibility of encoding) rather than their verbal or nonverbal nature.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1724-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission data vehicle selection. 86... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  11. Product Recall Policies and Their Improvement in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huh Kyungok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate recall policies for product safety in Korea and make suggestions for future improvements. Problematic issues in current recall policies are reviewed and analyzed. Based on survey results and previous studies, this article discusses the consumer perception of a recall. Consumers tend to regard a recall as a signal of poor quality. Furthermore, regulatory differences and weak penalties remain as obstacles to improving the recall system. Suggestions for the betterment of recall policies are derived from consultations with an expert panel and the application of other appropriate methods. At first, despite an increasing number of recall cases in Korea, it turns out that consumers are not highly sensitive to recalls, although their perceptions are mostly negative. Secondly, regulatory inconsistencies and difference problems are primarily attributable to the existence of many separate rules and regulations by product category. Thirdly, the information concerning recalls is limited, which creates an inefficient environment in which manufacturers are reluctant to voluntarily recall a defective product and consumer participation rates are too low. Therefore, the government should induce consumers to have more positive perceptions of recalls whilst concurrently reinforcing the related rules and regulations in accordance with international standards.

  12. Mobil Oil Canada annual progress report to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Mobil Oil Canada has prepared estimates of its emissions of major greenhouse gases for the years 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997. While the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) encouraged an inventory of emissions for 1990 to the present, data are not present for earlier than 1994. An inventory summary is included that outlines the quantity of emissions due to the following sources for each facility: combustion of fuel gas for heaters, boilers and compressors, flaring and venting of natural gas, and consumption of coal generated electricity. For all Mobil operated facilities in 1997, GHG emissions existed in the following fractions: 43% due to fuel gas use, 42% due to gas flaring and venting, and 15% from electricity consumption. In 1996, emissions were more evenly distributed amongst the three major sources. A discussion is included of emissions produced and energy used by each process type with data shown in tables. This includes: heavy oil facilities, light oil facilities, sulfur recovery facilities, a sour gas facility, a sweet gas facility, and a thermal heavy oil facility. Various projects were undertaken at each Mobil operated facility to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions. A summary of the fuel gas, electricity and emission savings for each facility is described, as well as the main actions responsible for each emission saving. These cover: light oil facilities, sulfur recovery facilities, a thermal heavy oil facility, a conventional heavy oil facility, a sweet gas facility, and a sour gas facility. 5 tabs., 9 figs

  13. Ninth report to Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the concrete actions that the oil and gas pipeline industry has taken to limit the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canada's transmission pipeline network, which is a vital component of Canada's energy infrastructure. It outlines the technical and economic expertise that has been acquired by the industry over its 9 year implication in Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. The industry has modified operating procedures, conducted research and development work and implemented innovative technologies to manage GHG emissions produced by pipeline operations. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) believes that Canada and the international community should consider the development of frameworks other than the Kyoto Protocol for reducing global GHG emissions and that all targets and actions for reducing GHG emissions should be credible and achievable. Carbon dioxide is the major target for the pipeline industry, because it is the largest component of direct GHG emissions. Other targets include methane, nitrous oxide and indirect emissions produced by thermal power plants that sell electricity to pipeline companies. CEPA emphasized that these targets should not put Canada at a competitive disadvantage with major trading partners in the United States. This report described emerging technologies aimed at reducing or offsetting GHG emissions. Flexible mechanisms such as emissions trading that will help companies achieve cost-effective and verifiable GHG emissions reductions were also described. 2 figs

  14. Effects of instructions and cue subjectiveness on specificity of autobiographical memory recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.

  15. Estimating recreational harvest using interview-based recall survey: Implication of recalling in weight or numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2013-01-01

    on interviewed-based surveys where fishers are asked to recall harvest within a given timeframe. However, the importance of whether fishers are requested to provide figures in weight or number is unresolved. Therefore, a recall survey aiming at estimating recreational harvest was designed, such that respondents...... could report harvest using either weight or numbers. It was found that: (1) a preference for reporting in numbers dominated; (2) reported mean individual weight of fish caught, differed between units preferences; and (3) when an estimate of total harvest in weight are calculated, these difference could...

  16. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.

  17. Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers voluntary challenge action plans - 1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has helped 85 of its' 170 member companies to develop climate change management policies. CAPP believes that participation through a voluntary approach allows for the development of creative, cost-effective solutions without the associated costs of regulatory measures for government and industry. Industry efforts to reduce greenhouse gases have focused primarily on five areas. These were: (1) energy efficiency, (2) methane capture and recovery, (3) acid gas injection, (4) co-generation, (5) and other actions. Petroleum industry accomplishment in 1996 were reported. In terms of future plans, it was asserted that CAPP member companies will continue to broaden and deepen their commitment to the voluntary challenge. Technological enhancements that increase production efficiency, also have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and for this reason, CAPP will undertake assessment of their greenhouse gas emission potential. Further, it was noted that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the upstream petroleum industry will likely increase because overall production is expected to increase through the year 2000. However, much of this increased production will be exported to the United States, and will help them to reduce their carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. Since climate change is a global issue, it requires global solutions, hence increasing production efficiency may be viewed as an appropriate response to the climate change issue. Statistical information regarding Canada's natural gas and crude oil production, and the impact that the VCR program has had on the industry to date, was reviewed. 13 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Voluntary euthanasia: ethical concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Chaloner, C

    Euthanasia is a highly emotive and contentious subject, giving rise to a great deal of debate. However, despite its frequent exposure in public and professional media, there appears to be a lack of clarity about the concepts and definitions used in the euthanasia debate. This suggests that discussions on this subject are inadequately informed and ineffectual. The ethical focus of the euthanasia debate concerns the moral legitimacy of 'voluntary euthanasia'. This article provides an overview and clarification of some of the key ethical issues at the centre of that debate.

  19. Mediation –Voluntary or Mandatory Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROSU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Part of modifications brought through 370/2009 Act to the 192/2006 Law concerning mediation and structure of mediator profession have been interpreted as establishing a preliminary mediation procedure before intimating the courts of law, in civil and commercial matters. This interpretation is in excess of operative legal provisions. Although the law in modified form stipulates the compulsoriness of judicial authorities and other jurisdictional bodies to inform the parties about the possibility and the dvantages of using mediation procedure and the obligation to guide the parties to resort at mediation, this circumstances does not affect the mediation particular voluntary nature.

  20. Memory as a hologram: an analysis of learning and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Donald R J; Mewhort, D J K

    2015-03-01

    We present a holographic theory of human memory. According to the theory, a subject's vocabulary resides in a dynamic distributed representation-a hologram. Studying or recalling a word alters both the existing representation of that word in the hologram and all words associated with it. Recall is always prompted by a recall cue (either a start instruction or the word just recalled). Order of report is a joint function of the item and associative information residing in the hologram at the time the report is made. We apply the model to archival data involving simple free recall, learning in multitrial free recall, simple serial recall, and learning in multitrial serial recall. The model captures accuracy and order of report in both free and serial recall. It also captures learning and subjective organisation in multitrial free recall. We offer the model as an alternative to the short- and long-term account of memory postulated in the modal model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Price, environment and security: Exploring multi-modal motivation in voluntary residential peak demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamfi, Samuel; Krumdieck, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Peak demand on electricity grids is a growing problem that increases costs and risks to supply security. Residential sector loads often contribute significantly to seasonal and daily peak demand. Demand response projects aim to manage peak demand by applying price signals and automated load shedding technologies. This research investigates voluntary load shedding in response to information about the security of supply, the emission profile and the cost of meeting critical peak demand in the customers' network. Customer willingness to change behaviour in response to this information was explored through mail-back survey. The diversified demand modelling method was used along with energy audit data to estimate the potential peak load reduction resulting from the voluntary demand response. A case study was conducted in a suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand, where electricity is the main source for water and space heating. On this network, all water heating cylinders have ripple-control technology and about 50% of the households subscribe to differential day/night pricing plan. The survey results show that the sensitivity to supply security is on par with price, with the emission sensitivity being slightly weaker. The modelling results show potential 10% reduction in critical peak load for aggregate voluntary demand response. - Highlights: → Multiple-factor behaviour intervention is necessarily for effective residential demand response. → Security signals can achieve result comparable to price. → The modelling results show potential 10% reduction in critical peak load for aggregate voluntary demand response. → New Zealand's energy policy should include innovation and development of VDR programmes and technologies.

  2. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  3. Keberadaan Corporate Governance Dan Kondisi Financial Distressed Terhadap Voluntary Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Riesanti Edie

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm's operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997).Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdi...

  4. Algorithm for recall of HIV reactive Indian blood donors by sequential immunoassays enables selective donor referral for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakral B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.

  5. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  6. Children's Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katie S; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7-13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker's perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer's perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD.

  7. KEBERADAAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN KONDISI FINANCIAL DISTRESSED TERHADAP VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesanti Edie Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm’s operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997.Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdisclosure. This research used a sample of manufacture fi rms listed in Indonesian stockexchange. Based on data processing using sample above, we found that corporate governance andfi nancial distress could be associated with the voluntary disclosure level.

  8. Voluntary Work: Between Citizenship and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Barreiro Carballal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the appearance of a series of new political subjects in democratic society at the change of the millennium, political subjects that the author considers of substantial importance in the realm of Constitutional Law. These include National Law 6/1996 concerning voluntary work, the variety of laws concerning voluntary work and finally the Organic Law, which regulates the Right to Association of March 7 2002. These are all clear examples of the recent and intense interest by the part of the administration in colonizing this until recently ignored territory. In Spain, it has been curious to note how the protagonists have changed in the debate about political participation. In the 1970s, it was seen that only parties and unions could transform society. In the 1980s, the new social movements were the only voices capable of correcting savage capitalism. Since the 1990s, only volunteers are understood to be capable of offering a bit of hope to the cloudy realm of social and political participation.

  9. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  10. The Effect of Semantic Categorisation on Recall Memory in Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Channon

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different parts of the lists revealed that the control group derived greater benefit from semantic relatedness in recall of items from the middle positions. This effect was not shown by the amnesic group, who showed similar U-shaped serial position curves for recall of all three lists, and appeared to use a more passive recall strategy than the control group. The findings are discussed in relation to our current understanding of amnesic deficits.

  11. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [11C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24. The association between 5-HT 4R binding...... and affective verbal memory was evaluated using a linear latent variable structural equation model. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association across all regions between 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory performances for positive (p = 5.5 × 10-4) and neutral (p = .004) word recall......BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining...

  12. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    OpenAIRE

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effects of arousing commercials on liking and recall are moderated by age. An experiment (N = 66) indeed demonstrated that older adults showed more liking of calm commercials and better recall of the bra...

  13. The Effect of Semantic Categorisation on Recall Memory in Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley Channon; Irene Daum

    2000-01-01

    Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different part...

  14. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin eLehmann

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insi...

  15. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than$100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  16. Orienting task effects on text recall in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E W; Dixon, R A; Nowak, C A; Hultsch, D F

    1982-09-01

    This investigation examined the effects of orienting task-controlled processing on the text recall of younger (18 to 32 years), middle-aged (39 to 51 years), and older (59 to 76 years) adults. The participants were presented with a 500-word narrative text. Three groups performed orienting tasks (syntactic, stylistic, advice) within an incidental memory paradigm. A fourth group was asked for intentional recall. Analysis indicated a significant age by orienting task interaction. Younger adults recalled more propositions when recall was intentional or when it was preceded by a deep-orienting task than when it was preceded by a shallow-orienting task. Middle-aged and older adults recalled more propositions when recall was intentional than when it was incidental, regardless of the depth of the orienting task. There were no significant differences in intentional recall. In addition, a significant age x orienting task x propositional level interaction indicated that younger adults recalled more of the main ideas of the text following deep processing, whereas the middle-aged and older adults recalled more of these ideas following intentional processing.

  17. The effects of free recall testing on subsequent source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Marsh, Richard L; Meeks, Joseph T; Clark-Foos, Arlo; Hicks, Jason L

    2010-05-01

    The testing effect is the finding that prior retrieval of information from memory will result in better subsequent memory for that material. One explanation for these effects is that initial free recall testing increases the recollective details for tested information, which then becomes more available during a subsequent test phase. In three experiments we explored this hypothesis using a source-monitoring test phase after the initial free recall tests. We discovered that memory is differentially enhanced for certain recollective details depending on the nature of the free recall task. Thus further research needs to be conducted to specify how different kinds of memorial details are enhanced by free recall testing.

  18. Norms for CERAD Constructional Praxis Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Burchett, Bruce M.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Rexroth, Daniel F.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Recall of the 4-item constructional praxis measure was a later addition to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. Norms for this measure, based on cognitively intact African Americans age ≥70 (Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project, N=372), European American participants age ≥66 (Cache County Study of Memory, Health and Aging, N=507), and European American CERAD clinic controls age ≥50 (N=182), are presented here. Performance varied by site; by sex, education and age (African Americans in Indianapolis); education and age (Cache County European Americans; and only age (CERAD European American controls). Performance declined with increased age, within age with less education, and was poorer for women. Means, standard deviations, and percentiles are presented separately for each sample. PMID:21992077

  19. A Review of Economic Factors Influencing Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in the Property Sector of Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, J. U.; Aliagha, G. U.; Buang, A.

    2016-02-01

    Global warming has consequences on the environment and economy; this led to the establishment of United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. These two agreements were to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions which are responsible for climate change and global warming. Developing countries under the protocol are not obligated to reduce or disclosure GHG emission, so their participation in the protocol is on voluntary mitigation bases. This study intends to examine economic factors that influence voluntary carbon disclosure in the property sub-sector of developing countries based on annual report of listed property companies in Malaysia. Signaling theory addresses the problem of information asymmetry in the society. Disclosure is an effective tool to overcome information imbalance among different market participants. The study hypothesizes that the economic factors that influence voluntary carbon information disclosure in developing countries are: [1] the company's size; this is because a large-sized company have more resources to cover the cost of reducing pollution. [2] The company's gearing status; where there is no sufficient information disclosure in a highly geared company will result to an increased agency cost. [3] Profitability; profits grants companies a pool of resources for mitigation activities and environmental reporting. Also, carbon disclosure acts as a means for achieving public confidence and legitimacy. [4] Liquidity: Companies that are highly liquid will disclosure more information to distinguish themselves from other companies that are less liquidity. This is correlated to environmental disclosure. [5] Financial slack affects companies’ ability to participate in green technology projects that enable a reduction in emission.

  20. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  1. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has not...

  2. Voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among high school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-09-24

    Sep 24, 2012 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Voluntary .... cigarettes, alcohol or going to night clubs before their majority and these activities are associated with sexual activity. ... Ngwakongnwi E, Quan H. Sex differentials in the use of centres for voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Cameroon. Afr J AIDS ...

  3. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Costly Disclosures in a Voluntary Disclosure Model with an Opponent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes voluntary disclosure equilibria when the voluntary disclosure model presented inWAGENHOFER (1990) is modified so as to include fixed disclosure costs as used in VERRECCHIA (1983). It turns out that incorporating both disclosure and proprietary costs rules out full disclosure

  5. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, ...

  6. Efficiency of voluntary closing hand and hook prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,

  7. Voluntary chemical castration of a mental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1988-06-04

    Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.

  8. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...... builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will.  But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection between free will and action. This is also the case for volunteers. The loose-coupled connection...

  9. Communication and patient participation influencing patient recall of treatment discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Glaser, Emma; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse

    2017-08-01

    Patient recall of treatment information is a key variable towards chronic disease (CD) management. It is unclear what communication and patient participation characteristics predict recall. To assess what aspects of doctor-patient communication predict patient recall of medication information. To describe lifestyle treatment recall, in CD primary care patients. Observational study within a RCT. Community-based primary care (PC) practices. Family physicians (n=18): practicing >5 years, with a CD patient caseload. Patients (n=159): >40 years old, English speaking, computer literate, off-target hypertension, type II diabetes and/or dyslipidaemia. Patient characteristics: age, education, number of CDs. Information characteristics: length of encounter, medication status, medication class. Communication variables: socio-emotional utterances, physician dominance and communication control scores and PACE (ask, check and express) utterances, measured by RIAS. Number of medication themes, dialogue and initiative measured by MEDICODE. Recall of CD, lifestyle treatment and medication information. Frequency of lifestyle discussions varied by topic. Patients recalled 43% (alcohol), 52% (diet) to 70% (exercise) of discussions. Two and a half of six possible medication themes were broached per medication discussion. Less than one was recalled. Discussing more themes, greater dialogue and patient initiative were significant predictors of improved medication information recall. Critical treatment information is infrequently exchanged. Active patient engagement and explicit conversations about medications are associated with improved treatment information recall in off-target CD patients followed in PC. Providers cannot take for granted that long-term off-target CD patients recall information. They need to encourage patient participation to improve recall of treatment information. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported

  11. The value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecchia...... 1983). Our results indicate that more voluntary disclosure does not improve the association between current returns and future earnings; i.e. current returns do not reflect more future earnings news. This finding raises the question whether voluntary information in the annual report contains value...... relevant information about future earnings or if investors are simply not capable of incorporating voluntary information in the firm value estimates. Key words: Disclosure, future earnings, informativeness...

  12. Beliefs in and About God and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-06-01

    I use data from the General Social Survey to evaluate several hypotheses regarding how beliefs in and about God predict attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that certainty in the belief in God significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that belief in a caring God and in a God that is the primary source of moral rules significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that respondents' beliefs about the how close they are to God and how close they want to be with God predict negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' attitudes about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to their beliefs in and about God.

  13. Implementation of voluntary agreements for energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Low-energy efficiency and environmental pollution have long been taken as key problems of Chinese industry, although a number of command-and-control and economic instruments have been adopted in the last few decades. In this paper, policy and legislation development for voluntary agreements were summarized. The voluntary agreements pilot project in two iron and steel companies in Shandong Province as well as other cases were analyzed. In order to identify the existing problems in Chinese cases, comparison was made between China and industrialized countries in the practices of energy efficiency voluntary agreements. Based on the analysis, detained recommendations, including the use of supporting policies for voluntary agreements, were raised. It is expected that voluntary agreements could play a more important role in energy efficiency improvement of Chinese industry

  14. The influence of levels of processing on recall from working memory and delayed recall tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; McCabe, David P; Youngblood, Jessie L; Rose, Nathan S; Myerson, Joel

    2011-09-01

    Recent research in working memory has highlighted the similarities involved in retrieval from complex span tasks and episodic memory tasks, suggesting that these tasks are influenced by similar memory processes. In the present article, the authors manipulated the level of processing engaged when studying to-be-remembered words during a reading span task (Experiment 1) and an operation span task (Experiment 2) in order to assess the role of retrieval from secondary memory during complex span tasks. Immediate recall from both span tasks was greater for items studied under deep processing instructions compared with items studied under shallow processing instructions regardless of trial length. Recall was better for deep than for shallow levels of processing on delayed recall tests as well. These data are consistent with the primary-secondary memory framework, which suggests that to-be-remembered items are displaced from primary memory (i.e., the focus of attention) during the processing phases of complex span tasks and therefore must be retrieved from secondary memory. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 34148 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...) announces its adoption of three standards for the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification... DHS to develop and implement a Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification...

  16. Modeling recall memory for emotional objects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrøm, Martin

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether emotional memory (EM) of objects with self-reference in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be modeled with binomial logistic regression in a free recall and an object recognition test to predict EM enhancement. Twenty patients with AD and twenty healthy controls were studied. Six objects (three presented as gifts) were shown to each participant. Ten minutes later, a free recall and a recognition test were applied. The recognition test had target-objects mixed with six similar distracter objects. Participants were asked to name any object in the recall test and identify each object in the recognition test as known or unknown. The total of gift objects recalled in AD patients (41.6%) was larger than neutral objects (13.3%) and a significant EM recall effect for gifts was found (Wilcoxon: p recall and recognition but showed no EM enhancement due to a ceiling effect. A logistic regression showed that likelihood of emotional recall memory can be modeled as a function of MMSE score (p Recall memory was enhanced in AD patients for emotional objects indicating that EM in mild to moderate AD although impaired can be provoked with strong emotional load. The logistic regression model suggests that EM declines with the progression of AD rather than disrupts and may be a useful tool for evaluating magnitude of emotional load.

  17. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the

  18. The insurability of product recall in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insurers face growing difficulties with insuring food-related risks among others due to an increasing number of product recalls and an increasing amount of claims being pushed back into the chain. This paper focuses on the risk of product recall in dairy supply chains. The paper aims at providing

  19. Functional neuroimaging of sex differences in autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is episodic memory for personally experienced events. The brain areas underlying AM retrieval are known to include several prefrontal cortical and medial temporal lobe regions. Sex differences in AM recall have been reported in several behavioral studies, but the functional anatomical correlates underlying such differences remain unclear. This study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of AM recall between healthy male and female participants (n = 20 per group). AM recall in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words was compared to a semantic memory task involving the generation of examples from a category using emotionally valenced cues. Behaviorally, females recalled more negative and fewer positive AMs compared with males, while ratings of arousal, vividness, and memory age did not differ significantly between sexes. Males and females also did not differ significantly in their performance on control tasks. Neurophysiologically, females showed increased hemodynamic activity compared to males in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsal anterior insula, and precuneus while recalling specific AMs (all valences combined); increased activity in the DLPFC, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus while recalling positive AMs; and increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, amygdala, and temporopolar cortex when recalling negative AMs. When comparing positive to negative AMs directly, males and females differed in their BOLD responses in the hippocampus and DLPFC. We propose that the differential hemodynamic changes may reflect sex-specific cognitive strategies during recall of AMs irrespective of the phenomenological properties of those memories. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    obtained from maternal antenatal clinic and child's growth monitoring cards. ... There was strong correlation between recall and recorded birth weight (r2=0.79; p<0.01). ... The sample size was determined under the assumption that most women .... Other studies elsewhere showed high correlation between recalled and.

  1. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  2. Text Recall in Adulthood: The Role of Intellectual Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines age-related predictive relationships among an array of psychometric intellectual ability markers and text recall performance. Women from three age groups (ranging from 21 to 78 years) read and recalled four narratives at three delay intervals and completed a battery of intellectual ability tests. (Author/CB)

  3. Enhancing Free-Recall Rates of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Chechile, Nicholas A.; Loiselle, Raquel C.

    2001-01-01

    This study with 16 adolescents with mental retardation compared free-recall rates under two encoding conditions: (1) fade-in, initially presenting pictures out of focus then slowly fading them into focus; and (2) fade-out, slowly blurring originally clear pictures. Results indicated that free-recall rates were greater for the fade-in items for…

  4. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  5. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and....46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances to remove or correct a distributed product. A firm that does so because it believes the product to be...

  6. The Interaction of Color Realism and Pictorial Recall Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Louis H.

    This study investigated the interaction of variations in color realism on pictorial recall memory in order to better understand the effects of variations in color realism, and to draw comparisons between visual recall memory and visual recognition memory in terms of color information processing. Stimulus materials used were three sets of slides,…

  7. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  8. Nigerian mothers opinion of reminder/recall for immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-06-23

    Jun 23, 2013 ... Abstract Introduction: Reminder/recall interventions have been shown to improve im- munization coverage. The percep- tion of mothers/caregivers may influence the outcome of such interventions. The attitude of. Nigerian mothers to reminders/ recalls using cell phones was evaluated. Methods: This was a ...

  9. 75 FR 3355 - Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... they know have an interest in receiving the information in order to take advantage of social networking... 20814; telephone (301) 504-7520. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Introduction In the Federal Register of... Handbook. Recall templates and a recall checklist are also available to the public on the CPSC's Web site...

  10. Radiation recall cutaneous induced by chlorambucil. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei-Cas, Ignacio; Wright, Dolores; Rigo, Bettina; Cohen Sabban, Emilia; Lacasagne, Jorgelina; Pietropaolo, Nelida; Cabo, Horacio; Molina, Malena

    2005-01-01

    Radiation recall refers to a tissue reaction produced by the use of certain drugs, usually chemotherapeutic agents, in a previously irradiated area. We report a patient with cutaneous radiation recall associated with chlorambucil, drug previously unreported as a causative agent in the literature. (author) [es

  11. Temporal texture of associative encoding modulates recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon, Roni; Levy, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Binding aspects of an experience that are distributed over time is an important element of episodic memory. In the current study, we examined how the temporal complexity of an experience may govern the processes required for its retrieval. We recorded event-related potentials during episodic cued recall following pair associate learning of concurrently and sequentially presented object-picture pairs. Cued recall success effects over anterior and posterior areas were apparent in several time windows. In anterior locations, these recall success effects were similar for concurrently and sequentially encoded pairs. However, in posterior sites clustered over parietal scalp the effect was larger for the retrieval of sequentially encoded pairs. We suggest that anterior aspects of the mid-latency recall success effects may reflect working-with-memory operations or direct access recall processes, while more posterior aspects reflect recollective processes which are required for retrieval of episodes of greater temporal complexity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Frontoparietal cognitive control of verbal memory recall in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Novraj S; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-01

    Episodic memory retrieval is reliant upon cognitive control systems, of which 2 have been identified with functional neuroimaging: a cingulo-opercular salience network (SN) and a frontoparietal executive network (EN). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathology is distributed throughout higher-order cortices. The hypotheses were that this frontoparietal pathology would impair activity associated with verbal memory recall; and that central cholinesterase inhibition (ChI) would modulate this, improving memory recall. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study normal participants and 2 patient groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Activity within the EN and SN was observed during free recall of previously heard sentences, and related to measures of recall accuracy. In normal subjects, trials with reduced recall were associated with greater activity in both the SN and EN. Better recall was associated with greater activity in medial regions of the default mode network. By comparison, AD patients showed attenuated responses in both the SN and EN compared with either controls or MCI patients, even after recall performance was matched between groups. Following ChI, AD patients showed no modulation of activity within the SN, but increased activity within the EN. There was also enhanced activity within regions associated with episodic and semantic memory during less successful recall, requiring greater cognitive control. The results indicate that in AD, impaired responses of cognitive control networks during verbal memory recall are partly responsible for reduced recall performance. One action of symptom-modifying treatment is partially to reverse the abnormal function of frontoparietal cognitive control and temporal lobe memory networks. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  13. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice; Andersen, Emil; Hjordt, Liv V; McMahon, Brenda; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-04-01

    We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4 R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4 R binding and affective verbal memory recall. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4 R radioligand [ 11 C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24. The association between 5-HT 4 R binding and affective verbal memory was evaluated using a linear latent variable structural equation model. We observed a significant inverse association across all regions between 5-HT 4 R binding and affective verbal memory performances for positive ( p  = 5.5 × 10 -4 ) and neutral ( p  = .004) word recall, and an inverse but nonsignificant association for negative ( p  = .07) word recall. Differences in the associations with 5-HT 4 R binding between word categories (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) did not reach statistical significance. Our findings replicate our previous observation of a negative association between 5-HT 4 R binding and memory performance in an independent cohort and provide novel evidence linking 5-HT 4 R binding, as a biomarker for synaptic 5-HT levels, to the mnestic processing of positive and neutral word stimuli in healthy humans.

  14. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. PMID:23142268

  15. VOLUNTARY NOISE MAPPING FOR SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Poslončec-Petrić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the

  16. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  17. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  18. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  19. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  20. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Veridical and false recall in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-02-01

    This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and phonological associates (i.e., hybrid condition) of a single, unpresented critical "lure" word. Three parameters of recall performance were measured across these 3 conditions: (a) number of accurately recalled words, (b) order of recall (primacy vs. recency effect), and (c) number of critical lures produced (i.e., false memories). Significant group differences were noted in recall accuracy specific to list type and also list position as well as relative to critical lure productions. Results suggest that certain basic memory processes (i.e., recency effect) and the processing of gist semantic information are largely intact in adults who stutter, but recall of verbatim phonological information and subvocal rehearsal may be deficient.

  2. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hengeveld, Hester M E; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from this negative effect, collaboration may be beneficial in that group members remove errors from a collaborative report. Collaborative inhibition studies on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce. Therefore, the present study examined both collaborative inhibition and collaborative error reduction in the recall of the details of emotional material in a laboratory setting. Female undergraduates (n = 111) viewed a film clip of a fatal accident and subsequently engaged in either collaborative (n = 57) or individual recall (n = 54) in groups of three. The results show that, across several detail categories, collaborating groups recalled fewer details than nominal groups. However, overall, nominal recall produced more errors than collaborative recall. The present results extend earlier findings on both collaborative inhibition and error reduction to the recall of affectively laden material. These findings may have implications for the applied fields of forensic and clinical psychology.

  3. Monetary reward speeds up voluntary saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lewis L; Chen, Y Mark; Zhou, Wu; Mustain, William D

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown that reward contingency is critical for sensorimotor learning, and reward expectation speeds up saccades in animals. Whether monetary reward speeds up saccades in human remains unknown. Here we addressed this issue by employing a conditional saccade task, in which human subjects performed a series of non-reflexive, visually-guided horizontal saccades. The subjects were (or were not) financially compensated for making a saccade in response to a centrally-displayed visual congruent (or incongruent) stimulus. Reward modulation of saccadic velocities was quantified independently of the amplitude-velocity coupling. We found that reward expectation significantly sped up voluntary saccades up to 30°/s, and the reward modulation was consistent across tests. These findings suggest that monetary reward speeds up saccades in human in a fashion analogous to how juice reward sped up saccades in monkeys. We further noticed that the idiosyncratic nasal-temporal velocity asymmetry was highly consistent regardless of test order, and its magnitude was not correlated with the magnitude of reward modulation. This suggests that reward modulation and the intrinsic velocity asymmetry may be governed by separate mechanisms that regulate saccade generation.

  4. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  5. Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Should Government Facilitate Voluntary Pension Plans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Nielson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Several proposals have surfaced recently that government develop and offer some sort of voluntary pension plan (VPP. This paper examines areas of public policy on pensions where changes should take place with or without the development of a VPP, including those that promote greater harmonization, portability, and labour mobility. Similarly, the challenges of inertia and annuitization are areas in which a VPP is only one of several available policy devices. In the final analysis, two key arguments provide the only compelling reasons to support the establishment of large, economically efficient funds: that their assets could be managed professionally and efficiently and that they could reduce the distraction from employers’ primary goals. Neither of these arguments, however, offers convincing evidence that VPPs should be developed by government rather than by the private sector. Ultimately, the marketplace will determine whether the additional option of a VPP is needed and whether it is offered on terms that make it more attractive than the other available alternatives.

  7. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  8. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children's recall govern children's rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3) 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists.

  9. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLehmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children’s recall govern children’s rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists.

  10. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition, three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47 and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43 supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete

  11. Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Cole, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer

  12. Implementation of Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than 20 ... training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of CVCT in local ...

  13. Implementation of Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than ... to provide support, training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of ...

  14. Belief in Life After Death and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Research has documented associations among religious affiliation, religious practice, and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia, yet very few studies have investigated how particular religious beliefs influence these attitudes. I use data from the General Social Survey (GSS; N = 19,967) to evaluate the association between the belief in life after death and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that those who believe in life after death are significantly less likely than those who do not believe in life after death or those who doubt the existence of life after death to have positive attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' views about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to individuals' particular religious beliefs.

  15. Current concerns in involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus volunta...... concern related involuntary and voluntary memories. The findings support the view that involuntary and voluntary remembering is subject to similar motivational constraints.......Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...

  16. State of the Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.

  17. Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection Amongst Patients Booked for Surgical Operations. ... The effectiveness (yield) of lay counseling in HIV testing by resident doctors who have not ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Tsehaye Tewabe1, Bikes Destaw2, Mengesha Admassu2, Bayeh Abera3. Abstract. Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the cornerstones for successful implementation of .... mosquito bites and sharing toilets. Correct ...

  19. Voluntary codes: private governance, the public interest and innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Kernaghan

    2004-01-01

    This volume is a logical extension of the Office of Consumer Affairs' work in the area of voluntary codes that may assist all parties in developing a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses...

  20. Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanikkerem, Emre; Üstgörül, Sema; Karakus, Asli; Baydar, Ozge; Esmeray, Nicole; Ertem, Gül

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2015, comprising students of Ege University Nursing Faculty and Celal Bayar University School of Health, located in two different cities of Turkey. Data was collected with a three-part questionnaire, focussing on students' characteristics, the knowledge of abortion law in Turkey and attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis.. The mean score of students' attitude towards voluntary induced abortion was 39.8±7.9 which shows that nursing students moderately support abortion. Female students, students coming from upper class in society, and students who had higher family income and sexual experiences had more supportiveness attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion (pabortion.

  1. Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an analysis. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines ways in which the various sources of law can be modified in such ...

  2. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the effects of list length and output order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel

    2010-09-01

    In 4 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 1 and 15 words for tests of immediate memory. For all tasks, participants tended to initiate recall with the first word on the list for short lists. As the list length was increased, so there was a decreased tendency to start with the first list item; and, when free to do so, participants showed an increased tendency to start with one of the last 4 list items. In all tasks, the start position strongly influenced the shape of the resultant serial position curves: When recall started at Serial Position 1, elevated recall of early list items was observed; when recall started toward the end of the list, there were extended recency effects. These results occurred under immediate free recall (IFR) and different variants of immediate serial recall (ISR) and reconstruction of order (RoO) tasks. We argue that these findings have implications for the relationship between IFR and ISR and between rehearsal and recall. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Check (HC was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013. Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019; however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p < 0.001; and consumed less saturated fat and carbohydrates, and more protein and fibre (p < 0.05. Approximately 15% of HC restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that “self-selected” into the program.

  4. A voluntary nutrition labeling program in restaurants: Consumer awareness, use of nutrition information, and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christine M; Lillico, Heather G; Vanderlee, Lana; Hammond, David

    2016-12-01

    Health Check (HC) was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013). Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019); however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that "self-selected" into the program.

  5. Voluntary non-monetary approaches for implementing conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Dicks, Lynn V.; Herzon, Irina; Kukkala, Aija S.; Sutherland, William J.; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-01-01

    The voluntary non-monetary approach to conservation refers to actions that citizens or organizations could voluntarily implement in their area of influence without the incentive of monetary compensations. To be effectively implemented by untrained actors, actions should be clearly defined, straightforward to implement and not require specific scientific knowledge. The costs of actions should also be sufficiently affordable to be widely applied without monetary incentives. A voluntary non-mone...

  6. Comparative Research of Navy Voluntary Education at Operational Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    into a national and international market. This is especially effects land-grant institutions who can educate the citizens within their state by...RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS by Christopher B. Veenhuis March 2017 Thesis Co-Advisors: William Hatch Chad...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  7. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  8. Murdock free recall data: The initial recall search identifies the context by the location of the least remembered item and produces only better remembered items in proportion to the total recall difference.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The curious free recall data of Murdock (1962) shows an additional surprise that seems to have gone undetected until now: the probability of guessing an item in the initial recall is not identical to the overall free recall curve. Initial recall of an item is well correlated with the total recall of that item using a straight line but with an unexpected offset. The offset varies with the presentation rate and the total number of list items but in each case it is the same as the total recall ...

  9. Petro-Canada's 2001 report in support of Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    One of the leading oil and gas companies in Canada, Petro-Canada is committed to the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. In this document, the major initiatives undertaken by Petro-Canada with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were highlighted. The successes in improving energy efficiency in the process of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were reviewed. A major accomplishment in 2000 was the total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the operations of Petro-Canada that were below the level of 1990, even in the face of a one-third increase in production over the last ten years. As a result, a reduction in excess of 45,000 tonnes of ongoing annual emissions was achieved. The targets that were set are a one per cent reduction every year from 2000 to 2005 through reductions in fuel consumption. The Production Energy Intensity (PEI) of the upstream was improved in 2000 by 11 per cent when compared to 1999 value. Energy efficiency projects have been allocated a total of 4 million dollars in capital funds, and emerging technologies in alternate fuels are being monitored to enable Petro-Canada to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Several education projects are being funded to enhance public awareness of climate change issues. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. #DDOD Use Case: Consolidated reporting of medical device recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case request for consolidated, consistent reporting of medical device recalls. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case” is a request that was made by the...

  12. Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W R; Bowman, K; Mohler, L

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers rated a series of words for pleasantness while hearing a particular background music. The subjects in Experiment 1 received, immediately or after a 48-h delay, an unexpected word-recall test in one of the following musical cue contexts: same cue (S), different cue (D), or no cue (N). For immediate recall, context dependency (S-D) was significant but same-cue facilitation (S-N) was not. No cue effects at all were found for delayed recall, and there was a significant interaction between cue and retention interval. A similar interaction was also found in Experiment 3, which was designed to rule out an alternative explanation with respect to distraction. When the different musical selection was changed specifically in either tempo or form (genre), only pieces having an altered tempo produced significantly lower immediate recall compared with the same pieces (Experiment 2). The results support a stimulus generalization view of music-dependent memory.

  13. The effect of auditory stimulation on autobiographical recall in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N A; Valentine, E R

    2001-01-01

    Elderly individuals with mild-moderate ("high ability") or moderate ("low ability") dementia, answered autobiographical memory questions drawn from three life eras (remote, medium-remote, and recent), in familiar music, novel music, cafeteria noise or quiet. Recall was significantly better in the high-ability than the low-ability group, in sound than in quiet, and in music than in noise. Recall was significantly related to life era, declining from remote to recent memory. The superiority of recall in music compared with noise was apparent for recall from remote and medium-remote but not recent eras. The results are interpreted as favoring an explanation of the beneficial effect of auditory stimulation, predominantly in terms of enhanced arousal or attention deployment, with a possible subsidiary role for associative facilitation.

  14. Precision-Recall-Gain Curves:PR Analysis Done Right

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, Peter; Kull, Meelis

    2015-01-01

    Precision-Recall analysis abounds in applications of binary classification where true negatives do not add value and hence should not affect assessment of the classifier's performance. Perhaps inspired by the many advantages of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under such curves for accuracy-based performance assessment, many researchers have taken to report Precision-Recall (PR) curves and associated areas as performance metric. We demonstrate in this paper that thi...

  15. Selective Recall and Information Use in Consumer Preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Costley, Carolyn L; Brucks, Merrie

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between consumers' memory and use of information in judging brand preferences. The authors used ads to test hypotheses about how pictorial and verbal presentations of previously encountered information and the content of subsequently encountered information affect recall and information use in shaping brand preferences. Even when subjects more easily recalled.pictured attributes than verbally described attributes, this picture superiority effect did not in...

  16. Radiation recall supraglottitis. A hazard in head and neck chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenborn, P.A.; Postma, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The enhanced effects of chemotherapy on previously irradiated tissue have been well demonstrated. When chemotherapy is given some time after irradiation and elicits a tissue reaction in the radiation field, the reaction is termed radiation recall. We review known interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy and report, to our knowledge, the first case of a supraglottitis radiation recall reaction. Familiarity with this phenomenon and potential complications of chemotherapy following head and neck irradiation may expedite early diagnosis and appropriate lifesaving treatment

  17. Predicting Drug Recalls From Internet Search Engine Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Batches of pharmaceuticals are sometimes recalled from the market when a safety issue or a defect is detected in specific production runs of a drug. Such problems are usually detected when patients or healthcare providers report abnormalities to medical authorities. Here, we test the hypothesis that defective production lots can be detected earlier by monitoring queries to Internet search engines. We extracted queries from the USA to the Bing search engine, which mentioned one of the 5195 pharmaceutical drugs during 2015 and all recall notifications issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) during that year. By using attributes that quantify the change in query volume at the state level, we attempted to predict if a recall of a specific drug will be ordered by FDA in a time horizon ranging from 1 to 40 days in future. Our results show that future drug recalls can indeed be identified with an AUC of 0.791 and a lift at 5% of approximately 6 when predicting a recall occurring one day ahead. This performance degrades as prediction is made for longer periods ahead. The most indicative attributes for prediction are sudden spikes in query volume about a specific medicine in each state. Recalls of prescription drugs and those estimated to be of medium-risk are more likely to be identified using search query data. These findings suggest that aggregated Internet search engine data can be used to facilitate in early warning of faulty batches of medicines.

  18. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety.

  19. Memory recall in arousing situations - an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-07-24

    Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  20. The effect of age on word-stem cued recall: a behavioral and electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Alexandra; Ballesteros, Soledad; Fay, Séverine; Pouthas, Viviane

    2009-09-15

    The present study investigated the effects of aging on behavioral cued-recall performance and on the neural correlates of explicit memory using event-related potentials (ERPs) under shallow and deep encoding conditions. At test, participants were required to complete old and new three-letter word stems using the letters as retrieval cues. The main results were as follows: (1) older participants exhibited the same level of explicit memory as young adults with the same high level of education. Moreover older adults benefited as much as young ones from deep processing at encoding; (2) brain activity at frontal sites showed that the shallow old/new effect developed and ended earlier for older than young adults. In contrast, the deep old/new effect started later for older than for young adults and was sustained up to 1000 ms in both age groups. Moreover, the results suggest that the frontal old/new effect was bilateral but greater over the right than the left electrode sites from 600 ms onward; (3) there were no differences at parietal sites between age groups: the old/new effect developed from 400 ms under both encoding conditions and was sustained up to 1000 ms under the deep condition but ended earlier (800 ms) under the shallow condition. These ERP results indicate significant age-related changes in brain activity associated with the voluntary retrieval of previously encoded information, in spite of similar behavioral performance of young and older adults.

  1. Competence to consent to voluntary psychiatric hospitalization: a test of a standard proposed by APA. American Psychiatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, B C; Appelbaum, P S; Grisso, T

    1998-09-01

    In the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court's 1990 decision in Zinermon v. Burch, renewed attention has been given to capacities patients must have to be considered competent to consent to voluntary hospitalization. An American Psychiatric Association (APA) task force suggested that strong policy interests support the establishment of a low threshold for competence in this situation. The study examined whether, as previous research suggested, patients would have difficulty meeting even this lenient standard. One hundred voluntarily hospitalized psychiatric patients were read two brief paragraphs, one explaining the purposes of psychiatric hospitalization and and the other explaining policies for discharge. The paragraphs' readability measured about eighth-grade level. After each paragraph, participants were read two sets of questions, one testing recall of the presented information and the other testing recognition of the information in a true-false format. The scores of patients grouped by selected demographic and clinical variables were compared. The vast majority of patients were able to comprehend the information that the APA task force suggested was relevant to their decision. However, a subgroup of patients who were initially admitted involuntarily had significantly poorer performance and may constitute a group who need special educational efforts focused on the consequences of voluntary admission.

  2. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  3. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  4. Effects of language dominance on item and order memory in free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Baca, Yuzeth

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 144) performed free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction tasks in both English and Spanish. Long-term memory for both item and order information was worse in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1). Item scores exhibited a stronger disadvantage for the L2 in serial recall than in free recall. Relative order scores were lower in the L2 for all three tasks, but adjusted scores for free and serial recall were equivalent across languages. Performance of English-speaking monolinguals (N = 72) was comparable to bilingual performance in the L1, except that monolinguals had higher adjusted order scores in free recall. Bilingual performance patterns in the L2 were consistent with the established effects of concurrent task performance on these memory tests, suggesting that the cognitive resources required for processing words in the L2 encroach on resources needed to commit item and order information to memory. These findings are also consistent with a model in which item memory is connected to the language system, order information is processed by separate mechanisms and attention can be allocated differentially to these two systems.

  5. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  6. Recall initiation strategies must be controlled in training studies that use immediate free recall tasks to measure the components of working memory capacity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time.

  7. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... formula is sold or available for sale, post at the point of purchase of such formula a notice of such... recall communication shall be distinctive, and the content and extent of a recall communication shall be.... The recall communication shall instruct consignees to report back quickly to the recalling firm about...

  8. Relations among Metamemory, Rehearsal Activity and Word Recall of Learning Disabled and Non-Disabled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    In free recall of word lists involving different rehearsal strategies, more words were recalled by older (as against younger) children and by nondisabled (as against learning disabled) readers. Disabled readers tended to be nonstrategic recallers and less accurate estimators of their memory capacity. Recall differences were attributed to semantic…

  9. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

  10. Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Lori A.; Holt, Edward; Levenstein Carroll, Ghita

    2008-01-01

    Many consumers today are purchasing renewable energy in large part for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits that they provide. Emerging carbon regulation in the US has the potential to affect existing markets for renewable energy. Carbon cap-and-trade programs are now under development in the Northeast under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and in early stages of development in the West and Midwest. There is increasing discussion about carbon regulation at the national level as well. While renewable energy will likely benefit from carbon cap-and-trade programs because compliance with the cap will increase the costs of fossil fuel generation, cap-and-trade programs can also impact the ability of renewable energy generation to affect overall CO 2 emissions levels and obtain value for those emissions benefits. This paper summarizes key issues for renewable energy markets that are emerging with carbon regulation, such as the implications for emissions benefits claims and voluntary market demand and the use of renewable energy certificates (RECs) in multiple markets. It also explores policy options under consideration for designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and renewable energy markets to work together

  11. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  12. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  13. Fifth annual progress report for Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    will be greatly improved by access to the flexibility mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, and the implementation of a meaningful credit for early action programs in Canada. Suncor's emission control achievements to date are summarized, as well as the continued improvements in GHG emission performance that are planned for 2002. Data are summarized for the years: 1980-1998, 1998, 1999-2002, and 1999-2010, as well as its GHG control methods and management practices. The Voluntary Challenges and Initiatives and Registry Program complements Suncor's comprehensive and voluntary seven point action plan to address climate change which includes: management of their own greenhouse gas emissions, development of alternative and renewable energy sources of energy, environmental and economic growth, domestic and international offsets, constructive policy input, employee and public education, and measurement and public reporting on progress

  14. Situation models and memory: the effects of temporal and causal information on recall sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Aaron L; Read, Stephen J

    2007-10-01

    Participants watched an episode of the television show Cheers on video and then reported free recall. Recall sequence followed the sequence of events in the story; if one concept was observed immediately after another, it was recalled immediately after it. We also made a causal network of the show's story and found that recall sequence followed causal links; effects were recalled immediately after their causes. Recall sequence was more likely to follow causal links than temporal sequence, and most likely to follow causal links that were temporally sequential. Results were similar at 10-minute and 1-week delayed recall. This is the most direct and detailed evidence reported on sequential effects in recall. The causal network also predicted probability of recall; concepts with more links and concepts on the main causal chain were most likely to be recalled. This extends the causal network model to more complex materials than previous research.

  15. Goal-seeking neural net for recall and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Omid M.

    1990-07-01

    Neural networks have been used to mimic cognitive processes which take place in animal brains. The learning capability inherent in neural networks makes them suitable candidates for adaptive tasks such as recall and recognition. The synaptic reinforcements create a proper condition for adaptation, which results in memorization, formation of perception, and higher order information processing activities. In this research a model of a goal seeking neural network is studied and the operation of the network with regard to recall and recognition is analyzed. In these analyses recall is defined as retrieval of stored information where little or no matching is involved. On the other hand recognition is recall with matching; therefore it involves memorizing a piece of information with complete presentation. This research takes the generalized view of reinforcement in which all the signals are potential reinforcers. The neuronal response is considered to be the source of the reinforcement. This local approach to adaptation leads to the goal seeking nature of the neurons as network components. In the proposed model all the synaptic strengths are reinforced in parallel while the reinforcement among the layers is done in a distributed fashion and pipeline mode from the last layer inward. A model of complex neuron with varying threshold is developed to account for inhibitory and excitatory behavior of real neuron. A goal seeking model of a neural network is presented. This network is utilized to perform recall and recognition tasks. The performance of the model with regard to the assigned tasks is presented.

  16. Human figure drawings and children's recall of touching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie

    2009-12-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children's poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. Copyright 2009 APA

  17. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  18. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Handwriting versus Keyboard Writing: Effect on Word Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mangen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore effects of writing modality on word recall and recognition. The following three writing modalities were used: handwriting with pen on paper; typewriting on a conventional laptop keyboard; and typewriting on an iPad touch keyboard. Thirty-six females aged 19-54 years participated in a fully counterbalanced within-subjects experimental design. Using a wordlist paradigm, participants were instructed to write down words (one list per writing modality read out loud to them, in the three writing modalities. Memory for words written using handwriting, a conventional keyboard and a virtual iPad keyboard was assessed using oral free recall and recognition. The data was analyzed using non-parametric statistics. Results show that there was an omnibus effect of writing modality and follow-up analyses showed that, for the free recall measure, participants had significantly better free recall of words written in the handwriting condition, compared to both keyboard writing conditions. There was no effect of writing modality in the recognition condition. This indicates that, with respect to aspects of word recall, there may be certain cognitive benefits to handwriting which may not be fully retained in keyboard writing. Cognitive and educational implications of this finding are discussed.

  20. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-04-01

    Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. We constructed a recall questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions, completion items, and open-ended questions related to information about treatment and recommendations on how to handle side effects. Immediately after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment, 69 older patients (M = 71.8 years, SD = 4.1) completed the questionnaire. We checked recall against the actual communication in video recordings of the consultations. On average, 82.2 items were discussed during the consultations. The mean percentage of information recalled correctly was 23.2% for open-ended questions, 68.0% for completion items, and 80.2% for multiple-choice questions. Older cancer patients are confronted with a lot of information. Recall of information strongly depended on question format; especially active reproduction appeared to be poor. To improve treatment outcomes, it is important that cancer patients are able to actively retrieve knowledge about how to prevent and recognize adverse side effects and that this is checked by the health professional. We make suggestions on how to make information more memorable for older cancer patients.

  1. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  2. Effect of a synesthete's photisms on name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carol Bergfeld; Innis, Joanne; Westendorf, Taryn; Owsianiecki, Lauren; McDonald, Angela

    2006-02-01

    A multilingual, colored-letter synesthete professor (MLS), 9 nonsynesthete multilingual professors and 4 nonsynesthete art professors learned 30 names of individuals (first and last name pairs) in three trials. They recalled the names after each trial and six months later, as well as performed cued recall trials initially and after six months. As hypothesized, MLS recalled significantly more names than control groups on all free recall tests (except after the first trial) and on cued recall tests. In addition, MLS gave qualitatively different reasons for remembering names than any individual control participant. MLS gave mostly color reasons for remembering the names, whereas nonsynesthetes gave reasons based on familiarity or language or art knowledge. Results on standardized memory tests showed that MLS had average performance on non-language visual memory tests (the Benton Visual Retention Test-Revised--BURT-R, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test--CFT), but had superior memory performance on a verbal test consisting of lists of nouns (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test--RAVLT). MLS's synesthesia seems to aid memory for visually or auditorily presented language stimuli (names and nouns), but not for non-language visual stimuli (simple and complex figures).

  3. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005).

  4. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  5. Initial Free Recall Data Characterized and Explained By Activation Theory of Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr Eugen

    2011-01-01

    The initial recall distribution in a free recall experiment is shown to be predictably different from the overall free recall distribution including an offset which can cause the least remembered items to be almost completely absent from the first recall. Using the overall free recall distribution as input and a single parameter describing the probability of simultaneous reactivated items per number of items in the presented list, activation theory not only qualitatively but quantitatively d...

  6. Optimizing Design Efficiency of Free Recall Events for fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Öztekin, Ilke; Long, Nicole M.; Badre, David

    2010-01-01

    Free recall is a fundamental paradigm for studying memory retrieval in the context of minimal cue support. Accordingly, free recall has been extensively studied using behavioral methods. However, the neural mechanisms that support free recall have not been fully investigated due to technical challenges associated with probing individual recall events with neuroimaging methods. Of particular concern is the extent to which the uncontrolled latencies associated with recall events can confer suff...

  7. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: the differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J; Cleary, Anne M; Seger, Carol A

    2013-01-25

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  9. Enrollment in mental health courts: voluntariness, knowingness, and adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Hoover, Steven; Summers, Alicia; Steadman, Henry J

    2010-04-01

    Mental health courts (MHCs) are rapidly expanding as a form of diversion from jails and prisons for persons with mental illness charged with crimes. Although intended to be voluntary, little is known about this aspect of the courts. We examined perceptions of voluntariness, and levels of knowingness and legal competence among 200 newly enrolled clients of MHCs at two courts. Although most clients claimed to have chosen to enroll, at the same time, most claimed not to have been told the court was voluntary or told of the requirements prior to entering. The majority knew the "basics" of the courts, but fewer knew more nuanced information. A minority also were found to have impairments in legal competence. Implications are discussed.

  10. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  11. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...... the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...

  12. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  13. Voluntary agreement for the new energy and environmental policies goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaro, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of public policies innovative instruments based on market mechanisms and voluntary action by economical subjects meet a growing favour. This emerges also from the proceedings of the recent National Conference on Energy and the Environment, held in Rome in November 1998. From a planning policy, directly implemented by public bodies and often characterised by a strong rigidity, we are now passing to a new policy style, based on main trends and principles and implemented, at least in a priority way, through a mechanism of pacts and agreements among a variety of actors. This article, starting from an introduction on the nature and the functioning limits of voluntary agreements and, on these bases, presents some hypothesis on the ways and the necessary conditions to develop a concrete system of voluntary agreements in the country, in order to reach the new energy and environmental policies goals [it

  14. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  15. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  16. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval...... was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score > 22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88......%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS...

  17. Reduction and elimination of format effects on recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Krusemark, Daniel C

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the recall advantage of pictures and spoken words over printed words in working memory (Foos & Goolkasian, 2005; Goolkasian & Foos, 2002) could be reduced by manipulating letter case and sequential versus simultaneous presentation. Participants were required to remember 3 or 6 items presented in varied presentation formats while verifying the accuracy of a sentence. Presenting words in alternating uppercase and lowercase improved recall, and presenting words simultaneously rather than successively removed the effect of presentation format. The findings suggest that when forcing participants to pay attention to printed words you can make them more memorable and thereby diminish or remove any disadvantage in the recall of printed words in comparison with pictures and spoken words.

  18. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R.; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-01-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  19. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  20. Susceptibility of memory consolidation during lapses in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Vincenzo; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    Memories that can be recalled several hours after learning may paradoxically become inaccessible for brief periods after their formation. This raises major questions about the function of these early memory lapses in the structure of memory consolidation. These questions are difficult to investigate because of the lack of information on the precise timing of lapses. However, the use of a single-trial conditioning paradigm in Lymnaea solves this problem. Here we use electrophysiological and behavioural experiments to reveal lapses in memory recall at 30 min and 2 h post conditioning. We show that only during these lapses is consolidation of long-term memory susceptible to interruption by external disturbance. These shared time points of memory lapse and susceptibility correspond to transitions between different phases of memory that have different molecular requirements. We propose that during periods of molecular transition memory recall is weakened, allowing novel sensory cues to block the consolidation of long-term memory.

  1. A problem for the idea of voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N

    1999-01-01

    I question whether, in those cases where physician-assisted suicide is invoked to alleviate unbearable pain and suffering, there can be such a thing as voluntary euthanasia. The problem is that when a patient asks to die under such conditions there is good reason to think that the decision to die is compelled by the pain, and hence not freely chosen. Since the choice to die was not made freely it is inadvisable for physicians to act in accordance with it, for this may be contrary to the patient's genuine wishes. Thus, what were thought to be cases of voluntary euthanasia might actually be instances of involuntary euthanasia. PMID:10390679

  2. Voluntary vs directed siting -- or somewhere in-between?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1994-04-01

    Waste siting gridlock in the United States and Canada has led to experimentation with voluntary and hybrid or ``mixed mode`` siting. We review nuclear and hazardous waste voluntary siting (VS) results for selected cases in the U.S, and Canada. Findings indicate that VS is not a panacea, but that current siting efforts are inadequate tests of its potential. We suggest trials of improved VS protocols and more effort on hybrid approaches in which the developer chooses the site but is required to reach agreement on conditions with local stakeholders. Mixed mode siting may be better suited to the US context and its three-tiered governmental system.

  3. Voluntary CSR vs. mandatory CSR : the sound of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sarna, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) laws are an area of exploration and there is debate over preference to voluntary CSR laws or to mandatory CSR laws. The objective is to con-duct a micro-level study to explore the employee’s preferences for mandatory CSR laws or voluntary CSR laws. There is some existing literature on this topic at the macro-level and goal is to extend and contribute to the literature about this topic by studying the pref-erence at the micro-level. A qualitative study bas...

  4. Board composition, mimetic behaviour and corporate voluntary disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshayani Arshad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of board composition and mimetic behaviour on the extent and credibility of corporate voluntary disclosure. The investigation is based on the annual reports of 155 Malaysian listed companies during the period when these companies faced new corporate governance regulation. This study provides evidence that under the influence of dominant owners on board, management voluntary disclosure decisions are driven by incentives to conform when their company is structured to meet expectations of good corporate governance. Such incentive seems to override incentives to disclose credible information to outside investors

  5. Temporal-contextual processing in working memory: evidence from delayed cued recall and delayed free recall tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; McCabe, David P

    2012-02-01

    Three experiments are reported that addressed the nature of processing in working memory by investigating patterns of delayed cued recall and free recall of items initially studied during complex and simple span tasks. In Experiment 1, items initially studied during a complex span task (i.e., operation span) were more likely to be recalled after a delay in response to temporal-contextual cues, relative to items from subspan and supraspan list lengths in a simple span task (i.e., word span). In Experiment 2, items initially studied during operation span were more likely to be recalled from neighboring serial positions during delayed free recall than were items studied during word span trials. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the number of attentional refreshing opportunities strongly predicts episodic memory performance, regardless of whether the information is presented in a spaced or massed format in a modified operation span task. The results indicate that the content-context bindings created during complex span trials reflect attentional refreshing opportunities that are used to maintain items in working memory.

  6. Minimum alveolar concentration threshold of sevoflurane for postoperative dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, P; Perilli, V; Lai, C; Sacco, T; Modesti, C; Luca, E; De Santis, P; Sollazzi, L; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    Many factors affect postoperative dream recall, including patient characteristics, type of anesthesia, timing of postoperative interview and stress hormone secretion. Aims of the study were to determine whether Bispectral Index (BIS)-guided anesthesia might decrease sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) when compared with hemodynamically-guided anesthesia, and to search for a MAC threshold useful for preventing arousal, dream recall and implicit memory. One hundred thirty patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg kg(-1), fentanyl 3 mcg kg(-1) and cis-atracurium 0.15 mg kg(-1). For anesthesia maintenance, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a BIS-guided group in which sevoflurane MAC was adjusted on the basis of BIS values, and a hemodynamic parameters (HP)-guided group in which MAC was adjusted based on HP. An auditory recording was presented to patients during anesthesia maintenance. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening and approximately after 24 h. Mean sevoflurane MAC during auditory presentation was similar in the two groups (0.85 ± 0.16 and 0.87 ± 0.17 [P = 0.53] in BIS-guided and HP-guided groups, respectively). Frequency of dream recall was similar in the two groups: 27% (N. = 17) in BIS-guided group, 18% (N. = 12) in HP-guided group, P = 0.37. In both groups, dream recall was less probable in patients anesthetized with MAC values ≥ 0.9 (area under ROC curve = 0.83, sensitivity = 90%, and specificity = 49%). BIS-guided anesthesia was not able to generate different MAC values compared to HP-guided anesthesia. Independent of the guide used for anesthesia, a sevoflurane MAC over 0.9 was required to prevent postoperative dream recall.

  7. Voluntariness of consent to HIV clinical research: A conceptual and empirical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Obtaining voluntary informed consent for research participation is an ethical imperative, yet there appears to be little consensus regarding what constitutes a voluntary consent decision. An instrument to assess influences on participants' consent decision and perceived voluntariness was developed and piloted in two South African HIV clinical trials. The pilot study found high levels of perceived voluntariness. The feeling of having no choice but to participate was significantly associated with lower perceived voluntariness. Overall the data suggest that it is possible to obtain voluntary and valid consent for research participants in ethically complex HIV clinical trials in a developing country context.

  8. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  9. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  10. Working memory capacity and the spacing effect in cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter F; Godbole, Namrata R; Holden, Latasha R; Chang, Yoojin

    2018-07-01

    Spacing repetitions typically improves memory (the spacing effect). In three cued recall experiments, we explored the relationship between working memory capacity and the spacing effect. People with higher working memory capacity are more accurate on memory tasks that require retrieval relative to people with lower working memory capacity. The experiments used different retention intervals and lags between repetitions, but were otherwise similar. Working memory capacity and spacing of repetitions both improved memory in most of conditions, but they did not interact, suggesting additive effects. The results are consistent with the ACT-R model's predictions, and with a study-phase recognition process underpinning the spacing effect in cued recall.

  11. Simulated recalls of fish products in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Storøy, J.; Lievonen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Simulated recalls of fish products sampled in retailer shops were conducted in five Nordic countries to indicate the effectiveness and accuracy of chain traceability systems. The results suggested poor traceability practices at the vessels/auctions and revealed that batch sizes at the last...... traceable step of the raw material vary considerably. However, the existing traceable information seemed to be easily accessible. Altogether, the fish industry in the Nordic countries seems not to be fully prepared for a recall.. Improved traceability awareness and practices in the whole chain can limit...

  12. Suncor Energy Inc. seventh annual progress report : Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This document detailed the various initiatives implemented by Suncor Energy Inc. in light of Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. Project Millennium, which represents a 3.25 billion dollar expansion expected to lead to an increase production capacity for Oil Sands operations, was consolidated during 2000, along with the completion of restructuring, which led to the divestiture of conventional oil properties and the joint venture interest held by Suncor in the Stuart Oil Shale Project. In addition, there were some improvements made to the greenhouse gas management and reporting systems. Suncor is expected to invest funding in the order of 100 million dollars for the period 2000-2005 in the field of alternative and renewable energy. The reductions in greenhouse gas emissions achieved for the year 2000 were 404,000 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent. Each of these major endeavours was discussed in the document. tabs

  13. Effects of Level of Retrieval Success on Recall-Related Frontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Montaldi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to compare the neuroactivation produced by the cued recall of response words in a set of studied word pairs with that produced by the cued retrieval of words semantically related to unstudied stimulus words. Six of the 12 subjects scanned were extensively trained so as to have good memory of the studied pairs and the remaining six were minimally trained so as to have poor memory. When comparing episodic with semantic retrieval, the well-trained subjects showed significant left medial temporal lobe activation, which was also significantly greater than that shown by the poorly trained subjects, who failed to show significant medial temporal lobe activation. In contrast, the poorly trained subjects showed significant bilateral frontal lobe activation, which was significantly greater than that shown by the well-trained subjects who failed to show significant frontal lobe activation. The frontal activations occurred mainly in the dorsolateral region, but extended into the ventrolateral and, to a lesser extent, the frontal polar regions. It is argued that whereas the medial temporal lobe activation increased as the proportion of response words successfully recalled increased, the bilateral frontal lobe activation increased in proportion to retrieval effort, which was greater when learning had been less good.

  14. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  16. FAO -voluntary guidelines on national forest monitoring and its possible effect on measuring, reporting and verification for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ramirez-Zea

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 23rd session of the FAO-Committee on Forestry (COFO 23 held in July 2016, the voluntary guidelines on national forest monitoring were approved. These guidelines were generated to support FAO member countries on the starting-up and the implementation of their national forest monitoring systems (NFMS. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, the decision 1/CP.16 encouraged to developing country Parties to undertake actions for REDD+, and requested, inter alia: i to develop a forest reference emission level and/of forest reference level (FREL/REL as a baseline for the emission reductions report, and ii a transparent and robust NFMS. This paper examines the technical assessments from UNFCCC of the FREL/REL submitted by six countries in relation to technical needs for the NFMS setting up. The analysis suggests the need to improve the procurement of ground-base data, to comply the quality of the estimations on forest emission changes, to complete the carbon stocks estimations, and to estimate the associated uncertainties. The strategic and technical planning of the NFMS is also needed, to be able to reach the acceptable preparation level for measuring, reporting and verification system of REDD+, and the FAO voluntary guidelines are a helpful tool for the step-wise approach development.

  17. The contributions of encoding, retention, and recall to the Hebb effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Meyer, Nadine

    2009-10-01

    The article reports an experiment testing whether the Hebb repetition effect-the gradual improvement of immediate serial recall when the same list is repeated several times-depends on overt recall of the repeated lists. Previous reports which suggest that recall is critical confound the recall manipulation with retention interval. The present experiment orthogonally varies retention interval (0 or 9 s) and whether the list is to be recalled after the retention interval. Hebb repetition learning is assessed in a final test phase. A repetition effect was obtained in all four experimental conditions; it was larger for recalled than non-recalled lists, whereas retention interval had no effect. The results show that encoding is sufficient to generate cumulative long-term learning, which is strengthened by recall. Rehearsal, if it takes place in the retention interval at all, does not have the same effect on long-term learning as overt recall.

  18. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  19. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  20. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  1. Fear Of Stigmatization As Barrier To Voluntary Hiv Counselling And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify psychosocial correlates of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), with an emphasis on the association between fear of AIDS-related stigma and willingness to have an HIV test. Methods: The study was executed in Limpopo Province at University of ...

  2. Factors infuencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the factors influencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) by university students. This was done by undertaking an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The study revealed ...

  3. Making Sense of Voluntary Participation: A Theoretical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Vernon D.; Agnitsch, Kerry A.; Zhao, Lijun; Mullick, Rehan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community attachment on voluntary citizen participation in rural community improvement projects. We do so by modifying the original systemic model of community attachment (Kasarda and Janowitz 1974) and combining it with tenets of rational choice and social embeddedness theories. The modified model is then…

  4. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Sargeant, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also

  5. Voluntary Cancellation of a Pesticide Product or Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    A registrant can cancel the registration of a pesticide product or cancel a use from the product’s label at any time as stated in Section 6(f) of FIFRA. Learn how to request a voluntary cancellation or use deletion.

  6. 75 FR 57477 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Creighton Center for Health Services Research and Patient Safety (CHRP) Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  7. 75 FR 75473 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... entity of Harbor Medical, Inc., of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  8. 75 FR 75471 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of..., LLC of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement... or component organizations whose mission and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve...

  9. 75 FR 57281 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Organizations: Voluntary delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS ACTION: Notice... Patient Safety Corporation of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  10. 75 FR 75472 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of.... Patient Safety Group (A Component of Helmet Fire, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  11. 75 FR 57048 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  12. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  13. Voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local beliefs and practices about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) may influence uptake and effectiveness. Data were gathered through interviews with 40 people from four ethnically mixed fishing communities in Uganda. Some men believed that wound healing could be promoted by contact with vaginal fluids ...

  14. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

  15. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training : A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M.P.; Lange, J.F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the

  16. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  17. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.W.; Burgoon, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  18. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Karla

    Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  19. Early Experiences Implementing Voluntary School District Mergers in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John D.; Glesner, Talia J.; Meyers, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of an initiative to encourage voluntary school district mergers in Vermont. The law was intended to increase educational opportunities for Vermont students while reducing costs. Three research activities were conducted to understand how districts and supervisory unions around the state responded to the new…

  20. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly

  1. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E. G. G.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M. P.; Lange, J. F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L. P. S.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the

  2. 7 CFR 766.354 - Voluntary conveyance of chattel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) An Agency application form; (2) A current financial statement. If the borrower is an entity, all entity members must provide current financial statements; (3) Information on present and future... subpart B of 7 CFR part 1956 before or in conjunction with the voluntary conveyance offer if the value of...

  3. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. To facilitate VMMC scale-up, the World Health Organization is seeking circumcision techniques that are faster, easier, and safer than open surgical methods. Objective. To compare open surgical circumcision with suturing v.

  4. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  5. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  6. 21 CFR 20.113 - Voluntary product defect reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... confidential commercial or financial information and in § 20.63 for personal privacy. (b) If the report is... would identify the person submitting the report and any data or information falling within the exemption... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary product defect reports. 20.113 Section...

  7. 15 CFR 30.74 - Voluntary self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or any other agency of the United States Government, has learned the same or substantially similar... be deemed to have made a voluntary self-disclosure under this section unless the individual making... disclosure subsequently completes the narrative account required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the...

  8. RESEARCH Voluntary informed consent and good clinical practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of South Africa (1996) and applicable legislation, it is apparent that voluntary informed ... Seoul, 2008);4 Ethics in Health Research: Principles, Structures and. Processes (Department of Health 2004 – 'ethical guidelines' for the purpose of this ... workers have a legal duty to obtain a patient's informed consent for any medical ...

  9. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  10. Voluntary habitual dislocation of the hip in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H; Theander, G; Danielsson, L [Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and radiologic findings in a child with habitual voluntary dislocation of the hip are reported. Observations made in this case and in 6 others on record suggest that this rare condition is a specific pediatric entity with a good prognosis.

  11. Voluntary sport clubs and the social policy agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Magda; Slender, Hans; Wiggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Local governments, traditionally an important partner of voluntary sport clubs in the Netherlands, are increasingly influencing clubs into involvement in social projects and activities. Although it is not clear what contribution sports clubs can play in this social policy agenda, or whether this

  12. A dynamic analysis of voluntary agreement implementation in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Sosa, A.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive historical analysis of failure and success factors during the implementation phase of environmental voluntary agreements (VAs) in Mexico. Secondary source data suggest that over the past two decades, perceptions of VAs have changed, and the purpose of this paper was

  13. Demographics as predictors of practice of HIV voluntary counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the demographic variables predicting the practice of HIV Voluntary Counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. Thus, a descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were sampled from ...

  14. Voluntary Counselling And Testing (VCT) Among Urban Residents in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to two-thirds of all people living with HIV/AIDS. Nigeria has the third highest population of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is rapidly becoming an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention and care strategy.

  15. Force-directed design of a voluntary closing hand prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, H.; Herder, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a body-powered voluntary closing prosthetic hand. It is argued that the movement of the fingers before establishing a grip is much less relevant for good control of the object held than the distribution of forces once the object has been contacted. Based on this

  16. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  17. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  18. Development and Operation of a Voluntary Audit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jerome R.

    This report describes a voluntary audit program implemented by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The comprehensive audit program was developed to assure that all corporate programs adhere to the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness. The standards address issues which relate to all ETS activities such as accountability, confidentiality of…

  19. Human Economy and Entrepreneurial Learning in a Voluntary Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    2014-01-01

    "Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...

  20. Announcement, observation and honesty in the voluntary contributions game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denant-Boemont, L.; Masclet, D.; Noussair, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of pre-play announcements and ex-post observation of decisions on voluntary public good provision. We find that requiring announcements, in conjunction with making contribution decisions public, has a significantly positive effect on the average level of

  1. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: Similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Smith, Jessica; Hayes, Louise

    2009-07-01

    In five experiments, rehearsal and recall phenomena were examined using the free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of eight words, were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR, and rehearsed out loud during presentation. The patterns of rehearsal were similar in all the conditions, and there was little difference between recall in the precued and postcued conditions. In Experiment 2, both free recall and ISR were sensitive to word length and presentation rate and showed similar patterns of rehearsal. In Experiment 3, both tasks were sensitive to word length and articulatory suppression. The word length effects generalized to 6-item (Experiment 4) and 12-item (Experiment 5) lists. These findings suggest that the two tasks are underpinned by highly similar rehearsal and recall processes.

  2. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  3. Age Differences in Adults' Free Recall of Pictures and Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounard, Beverley Roberts; Keitz, Suzanne M.

    This study was designed to determine whether adults' memory for pictorial and word stimuli might be differentially affected by age. Twenty female secretaries, median age 22.1, and 20 female members of a senior citizens' center, median age 69.4, were asked to learn lists of pictorial and word stimuli under free recall conditions. Eight trials were…

  4. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the

  5. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  6. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  7. How Geographic Maps Increase Recall of Instructional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Raymond W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research on how geographic maps influence the recall of associated text and describes a theoretical model of map-text learning based on dual-coding theory and working memory operations. Instructional implications are explained, and recommendations for instructional applications are given. (Contains 84 references.) (LRW)

  8. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  9. The Endurance of Children's Working Memory: A Recall Time Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hamilton, Z.; Pirrie, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence…

  10. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall.

  11. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hengeveld, Hester M. E.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from

  12. Repeated Recall and PKM? Maintain Fear Memories in Juvenile Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chicora F.; Kabitzke, Patricia; Serrano, Peter; Egan, Laura J.; Barr, Gordon A.; Shair, Harry N.; Wiedenmayer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We examined the neural substrates of fear memory formation and maintenance when repeated recall was used to prevent forgetting in young animals. In contrast to adult rats, juveniles failed to show contextual fear responses at 4 d post-fear conditioning. Reconsolidation sessions 3 and 6 d after conditioning restored contextual fear responses in…

  13. Concreteness Effects in Text Recall: Dual Coding or Context Availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Extends an earlier study by using different materials, ratings for familiarity, and more stringent experimental controls. Finds concreteness effects in two experiments using undergraduate students. Suggests that familiarity and concreteness contribute separately to recall. Supports a dual coding theory. Discusses implications for text design. (RS)

  14. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  15. Dream Recall Frequency Among Patients in a Psychiatric Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim:The aim of this study was to find out if the frequency of dream recall among neuropsychiatric patients on psychotropic drugs was significantly different from that of healthy individuals. Methods: The study was done on 53 neuropsychiatric patients with different diagnoses who were on medication and 144 healthy ...

  16. Advance Organizers in Advisory Reports: Selective Reading, Recall, and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerwerf, Luuk; Cornelis, Louise; de Geus, Johannes; Jansen, Phidias

    2008-01-01

    According to research in educational psychology, advance organizers lead to better learning and recall of information. In this research, the authors explored advance organizers from a business perspective, where larger documents are read under time pressure. Graphic and verbal advance organizers were manipulated into six versions of an advisory…

  17. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  19. Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs…

  20. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully…

  1. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J. van; Meulen, N. van der; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, Th.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients’ recall of information after

  2. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J. van; Meulen, N. van der; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient

  3. Recall in older cancer patients: Measuring memory for medical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; van Weert, J.; van der Meulen, N.; van Dulmen, S.; Heeren, T.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient

  4. Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation.

  5. Advance organizers in advisory reports: Selective reading, recall, and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, L.; Cornelis, L.; de Geus, J.; Jansen, P

    2008-01-01

    According to research in educational psychology, advance organizers lead to better learning and recall of information. In this research, the authors explored advance organizers from a business perspective, where larger documents are read under time pressure. Graphic and verbal advance organizers

  6. Confidence Judgments in Children's and Adults' Event Recall and Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, Claudia M.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of 8- and 10-year-olds' and adults' metacognitive monitoring and control processes for unbiased event recall tasks and suggestibility. Findings suggested strong tendencies to overestimate confidence regardless of age and question format. Children did not lack principal metacognitive competencies when questions…

  7. Mental Imagery, Text Illustrations, and Children's Story Comprehension and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Linda B.; Jawitz, Paula Brooks

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the effects of instructions to induce mental imagery and attend to text illustrations on fourth graders' reading comprehension and recall of narrative text. Finds that images and illustrations independently enhanced reading performance and that, in combination, these two strategies resulted in impressive increases in children's…

  8. Awareness and the Effect of Rate Rehearsal on Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestner, Jane; Walter, Donald A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of time of awareness of a subsequent test of recall and the relationship of that awareness and rote rehearsal were studied by telling subjects which specific items to encode before the item's presentation (prior instructions) or after its rehearsal (postrehearsal instructions) and by varying rehearsal intervals for individual items.…

  9. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  10. The impact of cognitive load on delayed recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Portrat, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term retention of items studied in a working memory span task depends on the refreshing of memory items-more specifically, on the number of refreshing opportunities. However, it was previously shown that refreshing depends on the cognitive load of the concurrent task introduced in the working memory span task. Thus, cognitive load should determine the long-term retention of items assessed in a delayed-recall test if such retention relies on refreshing. In two experiments, while the amount of refreshing opportunities remained constant, we varied the cognitive load of the concurrent task by either introducing tasks differing in their attentional demands or varying the pace of the concurrent task. To verify that this effect was related to refreshing and not to any maintenance mechanism, we also manipulated the availability of subvocal rehearsal. Replicating previous results, increasing cognitive load reduced immediate recall. This increase also had a detrimental effect on delayed recall. Conversely, the addition of concurrent articulation reduced immediate but not delayed recall. This study shows that both working and episodic memory traces depend on the cognitive load of the concurrent task, whereas the use of rehearsal affects only working memory performance. These findings add further evidence of the dissociation between subvocal rehearsal and attentional refreshing.

  11. Proactive Interference in Short-Term Recognition and Recall Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Richard F.; Petrusic, William M.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of study was to (a) compare the rate of increase of proactive interference over the first few trials under recall and recognition memory test conditions, (2) determine the effects of two types of distractors on short-term recognition, and (3) test memory after proactive interference had reached a stable level under each of three test…

  12. Recall costs balanced against spoilage control in Dutch custard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuis, A G J; Reij, M W; Baritakis, K; Dang, M; van Wagenberg, C P A

    2010-06-01

    The relation between the moment at which a recall of Dutch custard is initiated and the direct costs of this recall was investigated. A simulation model of the custard supply chain was developed to compare scenarios with and without a quarantine of 48 h at the storage of the production plant. The model consists of 3 parts: 1) the distribution of a 24,000-L batch of custard over the supply chain over time is simulated; 2) the time to detect spoilage bacteria with a recontamination test procedure is simulated; and 3) the direct recall costs of custard over the different parts of the supply chain are calculated. Direct recall costs increase from about 25,000 euros/batch to 36,171 euros/batch from 57 to 135 h in the situation without quarantine and from 25,000 euros/batch to 36,648 euros/batch from 123 h to 163 h for the situation with quarantine. Then costs decrease because more and more custard is at the consumer level and only 0.13% of the consumers will ask for a refund. With low true contamination probabilities quarantine is not profitable, but at later detection moments with high probabilities it is. We conclude that a simulation model is a helpful tool to evaluate the efficiency of risk management strategies like end product testing and a quarantine situation. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images.

  14. A Stealth Drug Recall: Who Protects Consumers and Shareholders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Susanna; Lasher, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In September 2010, William Weldon, chief executive officer (CEO) and chairman of Johnson & Johnson (J&J), was called to testify in front of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform to explain the largest product recall in the 125-year history of the well-known pharmaceutical and consumer products company. This article presents a…

  15. Memory for Dialogue: Recalling an Anchor through Talk and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Pam

    This paper reports on a project involving student recall of the dialogue in a movie and retention of the "anchor," which in this case refers to a videotape recording of "To Kill a Mockingbird." The project looked at how students retained knowledge over a few days and what kind of activities resulted from expertise with an…

  16. Communicating with older cancer patients: impact on information recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis was to unravel the relationship between patient characteristics, communication between patient and clinician, and subsequent patient information recall in the context of medical consultations with older cancer patients. Chapter 2 reviewed the literature to explore age

  17. Scalability and Total Recall with Fast CoveringLSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Ninh Dang; Pagh, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) has emerged as the dominant algorithmic technique for similarity search with strong performance guarantees in high-dimensional spaces. A drawback of traditional LSH schemes is that they may have false negatives, i.e., the recall is less than 100%. This limits...

  18. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  19. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  20. Long-Term Recall of Event Sequences in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, Jean M.; McDonough, Laraine

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrated that 11-month olds can encode novel causal events from a brief period of observational learning and recall much of the information after 24 hours and after 3 months. The infants remembered more individual actions than whole sequences, but reproduced many of the events in their entirety after the long delay. (MDM)

  1. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  2. Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and options for Ghana. ... Voluntary counselling and HIV testing has become an integral part of HIV prevention ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. 78 FR 60020 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of... Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Customer Satisfaction Survey. DATES: Written comments should..., WV 26106-1328, (304) 480- 8150. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Voluntary Customer Satisfaction...

  4. 76 FR 62 - Interpretive Standards for Systemic Compensation Discrimination and Voluntary Guidelines for Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... 1250-ZA00 Interpretive Standards for Systemic Compensation Discrimination and Voluntary Guidelines for... Order 11246 with respect to Systemic Compensation Discrimination (Standards) and Voluntary Guidelines... Compensation Discrimination [[Page 63

  5. The voluntary safeguards offer of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    During negotiations of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concerns were expressed by non-nuclear-weapon States that their acceptance of Agency safeguards would put them at a disadvantage vis-a-vis the nuclear-weapon States. To allay these concerns, the United States and the United Kingdom in December 1967 made voluntary offers to accept Agency safeguards on their peaceful nuclear activities. Subsequently, France made a voluntary offer, the safeguards agreement for which was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in February 1978, with a view to encouraging acceptance of Agency safeguards by additional States. More recently, in February 1985 the Board approved the safeguards agreement for the voluntary offer of the USSR, made inter alia to encourage further acceptance of Agency safeguards. These safeguards agreements with nuclear-weapon-States have two important features in common: Namely, they result from voluntary offers to accept safeguards rather than from multilateral or bilateral undertakings, and they give the Agency the right but generally not an obligation to apply its safeguards. The agreements differ in certain respects, the most noteworthy of which is the scope of the nuclear activities covered by each offer. The agreements of the United States and United Kingdom are the broadest, covering all peaceful nuclear activities in each country. The safeguards agreement for the US voluntary offer has been in force since December 1980. Now is an appropriate time to review the experience with the agreement's implementation during its first four years, as well as its history and salient features

  6. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the likely direct and indirect effects of the actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (d... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... gases listed in the definition of “greenhouse gases” in § 300.2 are eligible for registration. (b...

  7. Which wider social roles? : An analysis of social roles ascribed to voluntary sports clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been established that voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) are ascribed a prominent social role by governments. Several scholars highlight the ascribed social values in sport policy to voluntary sports clubs and their possible implications for these voluntary organizations. Most of these

  8. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave bank...

  9. 15 CFR 764.8 - Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.8 Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott violations. This section... provisions. Voluntary self-disclosures are a mitigating factor with respect to any enforcement action that...

  10. 75 FR 60773 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency... concerns in the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program (PS-Prep...-53 (the 9/11 Act) mandated DHS to establish a voluntary private sector preparedness accreditation and...

  11. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  12. 31 CFR 353.64 - Payment, reinvestment, or exchange-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 353.64 Section 353.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations..., Incompetents, Aged Persons, Absentees, et al. § 353.64 Payment, reinvestment, or exchange—voluntary guardian of... recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds, if the total redemption...

  13. 31 CFR 315.64 - Payment, reinvestment, or exchange-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 315.64 Section 315.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... exchange—voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. (a) Payment of bonds. When an adult owner of bonds... an application for recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds...

  14. Distributed retrieval practice promotes superior recall of anatomy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L; Perez, Jose; Linderholm, Tracy

    2017-07-01

    Effortful retrieval produces greater long-term recall of information when compared to studying (i.e., reading), as do learning sessions that are distributed (i.e., spaced apart) when compared to those that are massed together. Although the retrieval and distributed practice effects are well-established in the cognitive science literature, no studies have examined their additive effect with regard to learning anatomy information. The aim of this study was to determine how the benefits of retrieval practice vary with massed versus distributed learning. Participants used the following strategies to learn sets of skeletal muscle anatomy: (1) studying on three different days over a seven day period (SSSS 7,2,0 ), (2) studying and retrieving on three different days over a seven day period (SRSR 7,2,0 ), (3) studying on two different days over a two day period (SSSSSS 2,0 ), (4) studying and retrieving on two separate days over a two day period (SRSRSR 2,0 ), and (5) studying and retrieving on one day (SRx6 0 ). All strategies consisted of 12 learning phases and lasted exactly 24 minutes. Muscle information retention was assessed via free recall and using repeated measures ANOVAs. A week after learning, the recall scores were 24.72 ± 3.12, 33.88 ± 3.48, 15.51 ± 2.48, 20.72 ± 2.94, and 12.86 ± 2.05 for the SSSS 7,2,0 , SRSR 7,2,0 , SSSSSS 2,0 , STSTST 2,0 , and SRx6 0 strategies, respectively. In conclusion, the distributed strategies produced significantly better recall than the massed strategies, the retrieval-based strategies produced significantly better recall than the studying strategies, and the combination of distributed and retrieval practice generated the greatest recall of anatomy information. Anat Sci Educ 10: 339-347. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment.

  16. Sex differences in memory estimates for pictures and words with multiple recall trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Marcos D

    2004-04-01

    Undergraduate students (23 men and 23 women) provided memory performance estimates before and after each of three recall trials involving 80 stimuli (40 pictures and 40 words). No sex differences were found across trials for the total recall of items or for the recall of pictures and words separately. A significant increase in recall for pictures (not words) was found for both sexes across trials. The previous results of Ionescu were replicated on the first and second recall trials: men underestimated their performance on the pictures and women underestimated their performance on the word items. These differences in postrecall estimates were not found after the third recall trial: men and women alike underestimated their performance on both the picture and word items. The disappearance of item-specific sex differences in postrecall estimates for the third recall trial does not imply that men and women become more accurate at estimating their actual performance with multiple recall trials.

  17. Categorization skills and recall in brain damaged children: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Muszkat, Mauro; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2009-09-01

    During development, children become capable of categorically associating stimuli and of using these relationships for memory recall. Brain damage in childhood can interfere with this development. This study investigated categorical association of stimuli and recall in four children with brain damages. The etiology, topography and timing of the lesions were diverse. Tasks included naming and immediate recall of 30 perceptually and semantically related figures, free sorting, delayed recall, and cued recall of the same material. Traditional neuropsychological tests were also employed. Two children with brain damage sustained in middle childhood relied on perceptual rather than on categorical associations in making associations between figures and showed deficits in delayed or cued recall, in contrast to those with perinatal lesions. One child exhibited normal performance in recall despite categorical association deficits. The present results suggest that brain damaged children show deficits in categorization and recall that are not usually identified in traditional neuropsychological tests.

  18. The development of the use of long-term knowledge to assist short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J E; Henry, L A; Smith, P T

    2000-05-01

    The influence of item familiarity upon memory span was examined in adults and children aged 5, 7, and 10 years by comparing the recall of words and nonwords. Using a probed recall task, both item recall and position recall were tested. The effect of familiarity upon item recall was found to develop with age, from no effects in the 5-year-olds to significant effects in the older children and adults. By contrast, no effect of familiarity was found at any age when recall of position was required. Dissociations between word length effects and familiarity effects supported the conclusion that the familiarity effect does not result from rehearsal. Several explanations for the source of the familiarity effect were examined, and the familiarity effect was attributed to a strategic redintegration or reconstruction process, which is necessary for item recall but not for position recall.

  19. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... medical devices to take timely action to correct violative devices or remove them from the marketplace...] Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft Guidance for... draft guidance entitled ``Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting...

  20. Reproducibility of two, three, four and five 24-hour recalls in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... participants' ability to accurately record or recall food consumption, describe food .... used.16 The accuracy of food item and portion size data captured for ..... Four 24-hour recalls are more practical and cost-effective, and carry.