WorldWideScience

Sample records for volumetric moisture content

  1. Study on Volumetric Moisture Content of Soil Shallow Landslide during Precipitation Process%降雨过程中土质浅层滑体体积含水量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤琴

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is one of the main inducing factors to landslide geological hazard, especially for the soil landslide. During the last rainfall process, the shallow part of the soil landslide will he saturated immediately and the temporary saturated zone is formed, which would lead the matric suction of the shallow landslide body reduction and slipping. While, the volumetric moisture content is the main index reflecting the variation of temporary saturated zone.Taking the participation-induced soil shallow landslide as an example in this paper, the temporary saturated zone of shallow landslide body was simulated by the Geo-slope software during 6d last rainfall. Meanwhile, the 4 points' volumetric moisture contents are analyzed from the back of the landslide to the front, which are near the slope surface and their depths are less than 5m, and the landslide stabilities are calculated during 6 days last rainfall. At last, the changing model of volumetric moisture content in soil landslide is put forward when the shallow sliding occurred during the continuous precipitation process.%降雨是滑坡地质灾害的主要诱发因素之一,尤其是对于土质滑坡,连续的降雨能够使得土质滑坡浅表层滑体迅速饱和形成暂态饱和区,从而导致浅表层土质滑体的基质吸力降低,引起浅层滑动,而反映土体中暂态饱和区变化的主要指标为士体体积含水量.该文选取某一降雨诱发型土体滑坡为例,采用Geo-slope软件模拟连续降雨6d条件下土质浅层滑体内的暂态饱和区变化情况,并分析由滑坡后缘至前缘4个靠近地表(深度小于5m)点的体积含水量变化趋势以及连续6d降雨过程中浅层滑体的稳定性变化趋势,提出了降雨人渗过程中土质滑坡发生浅层滑动的体积含水量变化模式.

  2. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  3. Analysis of the relationship between the volumetric soil moisture content and the NDVI from high resolution multi-spectral images for definition of vineyard management zones to improve irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.; Ramos, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    As suggested by previous research in the field of precision viticulture, intra-field yield variability is dependent on the variation of soil properties, and in particular the soil moisture content. Since the mapping in detail of this soil property for precision viticulture applications is highly costly, the objective of the present research is to analyse its relationship with the normalised difference vegetation index from high resolution satellite images to the use it in the definition of vineyard zonal management. The final aim is to improve irrigation in commercial vineyard blocks for better management of inputs and to deliver a more homogeneous fruit to the winery. The study was carried out in a vineyard block located in Raimat (NE Spain, Costers del Segre Designation of Origin). This is a semi-arid area with continental Mediterranean climate and a total annual precipitation between 300-400 mm. The vineyard block (4.5 ha) is planted with Syrah vines in a 3x2 m pattern. The vines are irrigated by means of drips under a partial root drying schedule. Initially, the irrigation sectors had a quadrangular distribution, with a size of about 1 ha each. Yield is highly variable within the block, presenting a coefficient of variation of 24.9%. For the measurement of the soil moisture content a regular sampling grid of 30 x 40 m was defined. This represents a sample density of 8 samples ha-1. At the nodes of the grid, TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer) probe tubes were permanently installed up to the 80 cm or up to reaching a contrasting layer. Multi-temporal measures were taken at different depths (each 20 cm) between November 2006 and December 2007. For each date, a map of the variability of the profile soil moisture content was interpolated by means of geostatistical analysis: from the measured values at the grid points the experimental variograms were computed and modelled and global block kriging (10 m squared blocks) undertaken with a grid spacing of 3 m x 3 m. On the

  4. Opto-thermal Moisture Content and Moisture Depth Profile Measurements in Organic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Peng; GUO Xin-xin; CUI Ying-xin; Robert E. Imhof; Dane Bicanic

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements. In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture content of fruit (tomato, grape, etc. ) skins, and to study the relationship between fruits ripening process and their surface moisture and moisture depth profiles.

  5. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  6. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  7. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548..., AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement...

  9. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  10. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  11. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during cracking. Thirteen .... moisture were determined from the weight lost (ASAE, 1983;. Ajibola et al. .... measurement-Grains and Seeds, American Society of. Agricultural ...

  12. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References

  13. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  14. Nonlinear Effect of Moisture Content on Effective Thermal Conductivity of Building Materials with Different Pore Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Ma, Chao; Wang, Dengjia; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the quantitative relationship between the effective thermal conductivity and the moisture content of a material is required to accurately calculate the envelope heat and mass transfer and, subsequently, the building energy consumption. We experimentally analyzed the pore size distributions and porosities of common building materials and the influence of the moisture content on the effective thermal conductivity of building materials. We determined the quantitative relationship between the effective thermal conductivity and moisture content of building materials. The results showed that a larger porosity led to a more significant effect of the moisture content on the effective thermal conductivity. When the volumetric moisture content reached 10 %, the thermal conductivities of foam concrete and aerated concrete increased by approximately 200 % and 100 %, respectively. The effective thermal conductivity increased rapidly in the low moisture content range and increased slowly in the high moisture content range. The effective thermal conductivity is related to the moisture content of the materials through an approximate power function. As the moisture content in the walls of a new building stabilizes, the effective thermal conductivity of normal concrete varies only slightly, whereas that of aerated concrete varies more significantly. The effective thermal conductivity of the material is proportional to the relative humidity of the environment. This trend is most noticeable when the wall material is aerated concrete.

  15. Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content of rubberwood is an important factor influencing its physical and mechanical behaviours. This research aimed at quantifying effect of moisture content on physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood core. The specimens at various moisture contents were tested in compression and shear parallel to grain. Information was gathered to determine shrinkage, density and specific gravity of specimens. The equilibrium moisture content determined from desorption experiment, was well described by the Hailwood-Horrobin solution theory. Moisture content of 23+4% best represented the value of apparent fiber saturation point, Mp, determined from physical and mechanical properties data. Above Mp, values of all physical and mechanical properties examined were fairly constant. Maximum volumetric shrinkage from moisture content above Mp to an oven-dry condition was 8.2+1.8%. Specific gravity and density were 0.55+0.03 and 614+30 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content. Below Mp, ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain, ultimate shear stress parallel to grain, modulus of elasticity (MOE for compression parallel to grain, and shear modulus parallel to grain increased exponentially with decreasing moisture content. Shear strain at fracture and work to fracture of shear parallel to grain were found to increase as moisture content decreased below Mp and attained the maximum values at 20% and 12% moisture content, respectively. The values decreased with further lowering of the level of moisture content. Ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain was closely correlated with specific gravity and was more sensitive to changes in moisture content at higher specific gravity level.

  16. THE CLAY CONTENT EFFECT ON THE FORMATION OF SHALLOW MOLE DRAINAGE AND THE RATE OF LOWERING SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suharyatun

    2014-10-01

    loam soil did not infl uence the rate of lowering soil moisture content. Contrary, the mole drainage installed in clay soil has effected to increase the rate of lowering soil moisture content. Keywords: Mole drainage, soil moisture content, clay content

  17. Prediction of Dried Durian Moisture Content Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Marati; Purqon, Acep

    2016-08-01

    Moisture content has a crucial issue in post-harvest processing since it plays main role to estimate a quality of dried product. However, estimating the moisture content is difficult since it shows mathematically nonlinear systems and complex physical processes. We investigate the prediction of moisture content of dried product by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Our sample is a Bengkulu's local durian that is dried using a microwave oven. Our results show that ANN can predict the moisture content by performing with R2 value is 98.47%. Moreover, the RMSE values is 3.97% and MSE values is 0.16%. Our results indicate that ANN model have high capability for predicting moisture content and it is potentially applied in post-harvest product, especially in drying product quality control.

  18. Physical properties of coriander seeds at different moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Singh, K. K.; Kumar, R.

    2012-10-01

    Physical properties of coriander seeds were determined at moisture content of 3.5-17.7%, d.b. The major axis and 1 000 seeds mass were found to decrease nonlinearly with increase in seed moisture. The medium and minor axes, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, unit volume, surface area and angle of repose increased linearly. Bulk density decreased linearly, however the true density increased non-linearly. The coefficient of static friction increased nonlinearly for different surfaces with increase in moisture level and its maximum was found for plywood surface. The rupture force and energy absorbed decreased linearly with increasing moisture content.

  19. Moisture content effect on ultrasonic velocity in Goupia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ultrasound waves on a Brazilian hardwood, Goupia glabra, to evaluate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic technique to the moisture content in wood. The velocity of ultrasonic wave is sensitive to the material's quality-determining factors; hence, this technique is an important industrial tool to improve the quality control of processes. The nature of the response of velocity of sound to changes in moisture content led us to conclude that moisture gradients during drying exert a dominating effect. The ultrasonic velocity was measured both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of Goupia glabra during drying from green to 6% moisture content. The results of this study showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in moisture content of lumber during drying. The velocity under dry conditions was always higher than the velocity under more humid conditions, in both directions of propagation.

  20. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  1. Spectrum properties analysis of different soil moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shenghui; Hu, Bo; Lin, Fan

    2009-10-01

    Soil moisture content is one of the most important factors in soil business. The basic of detecting soil moisture content using remote sensing technology is to analyze the relationship between soil moisture content and emissivity. In this paper, based on the analysis of spectrum collection and processing by a portable spectrometer, a set of measure schemes were first established which can accurately measure the reflectivity and emissivity of soil spectrum with different moisture content in near-infrared and thermal infrared bands. Then we selected different bare soil areas as the areas for survey, and studied the relationship of different moisture content and the spectrum curve in the soil both of the same kind and of different kind (like the soil whose structure has been modified caused by the change of organic matter contents or soil particle size). Finally, we emphasized on the quantitative relationship between soil reflectivity & emissivity and soil moisture content using the test data, and establish a model depicting the quantitative relationship above in near-infrared and thermal infrared bands.

  2. Moisture content - RTD results and status of the standardisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, P.D. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Vejle (Denmark). Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning; Samuelsson, R.; Jirjis, R.; Burvall, J. [Swedish University of Agricultural Science, (Sweden). Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry; Hartmann, H.; Boehm, T. [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany); Temmerman, M.; Rabier, F. [Department Genie Rural, Gembloux (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    Biofuels are a heterogeneous group. It is ranging from well-defined upgraded fuels such as wood- or strawpellets with low moisture content, narrow bulk density range and uniform size distribution to forest chips produced of different raw materials with moisture content up to around 60 %, a wide-range bulk density and size distribution. The aim with this research is: - to study different chemical methods for determination of the water content and non-water losses in comparison with the oven drying method (reference method). - testing of rapid on-site moisture measurement equipment using the drying oven method as reference (rapid-MC methods). The results from the reference method are used in drafting of a reference method for determination of moisture content in solid biofuels [4] whereas the results from rapid-MC methods are used as knowledge basis for best practice guidelines. (orig.)

  3. Effect of moisture content on textural attributes of dried figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sara; Maftoon-Azad, Neda; Farahnaky, Asgar; Hosseini, Ebrahim; Badii, Fojan

    2014-10-01

    Due to their soft texture consumers prefer moist figs, which has motivated fig processors to increase the production of this product. However, as water enhances the browning reaction rate, moisture content optimisation of moist figs is very important. Processed figs must have suitable texture softness with browning kept to a minimum. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of moisture content on the textural attributes of dried figs. Hardness, compression energy, gradient, gumminess and chewiness of fig samples decreased with moisture content exponentially, whereas the trend of springiness and cohesiveness with change of moisture content was nearly constant. Moreover, in the texture profile analysis plot of rehydrated figs, the presence of negative area is an indication of adhesiveness which was zero in control dried figs. The results of the texture profile analysis tests proved the existence of a critical moisture content of about 18.4%, above which no significant effect of moisture content on textural parameters was found. The glass-rubber transition results from differential scanning calorimeter may explain the different texture profile analysis attributes of dried figs compared with rehydrated figs.

  4. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  5. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters’ protective clothing (FPC during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  6. Accuracy and functionality of hand held wood moisture content meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsen, H.; Tarvainen, V. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Materials and Products, Wood Technology

    2000-09-01

    The main task of VTT in this EU project was to test and improve the reliability and performance of moisture content meters. A total of 16 resistance type and 6 capacitance type hand-held moisture meters were included in the test series. Test samples of the most important European species (pine, spruce, birch, oak, beech, alder, larch) were obtained from all over Europe. The total survey included about 2,700 pieces for comparative testing. The test material was conditioned to three different moisture contents (8 - 10%, 12 - 14% and 16 - 18%). The moisture gradients in the test specimens were small due to the long conditioning time lasting at least 1 year. The effects of various factors, such as moisture content, species, and temperature, on the electrical resistance of conditioned wood were studied. In the laboratory tests, the resistance - moisture content curves for different species from different countries were determined using conditioned wood material. The species corrections (resistance curves) are quite similar for different counties. Only the resistance curve for Maritime Pine differs clearly from the other resistance curves for the pine species originating from the different countries. The wood temperature corrections are about 0.1 - 0.15% units/deg C which has to be considered when the moisture content of wood is measured at temperatures other than 20 deg C. The other properties of wood, such as sapwood/heartwood and density, do not have a significant effect on resistance values. There were no significant resistance differences related to the type of electrodes, distances between electrodes, and different measuring direction. The commercial instruments for the determination of wood moisture content were tested with respect to accuracy, reliability and ergonomy. The moisture meters were tested both under laboratory and industrial conditions. Most of the resistance meters show a systematic deviation from the actual moisture content because of incorrect MC

  7. Device Comparison for Determining Field Soil Moisture Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The gas stove is small and portable requiring only unleaded fuel, a heating pan, and a balance which are relatively simple to transport to the...gravimetric, electrical, chemical, and nuclear. Gravimetric devices and techniques tested were the laboratory oven, gas stove and fry pan, standard microwave... gas stove with fry pan technique. Results of the moisture content tests are presented and include (a) comparison of the individual moisture

  8. Moisture Content Determination Using Microstrip Fractal Resonator Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beulah Jackson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for determining the moisture content in spices by means of compact microstrip fractal resonator. The proposed resonator is designed at 1 GHz using FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.6. A resonator sensor in the shape of fractal designed using the tool ADS and working at 0.9 GHz to 3 GHz band is demonstrated. The relative shift in frequency and attenuation was observed to vary with respect to the moisture content/permittivity of the test material independent of its density.

  9. Simultaneous Moisture Content and Mass Flow Measurements in Wood Chip Flows Using Coupled Dielectric and Impact Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengmin Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An 8-electrode capacitance tomography (ECT sensor was built and used to measure moisture content (MC and mass flow of pine chip flows. The device was capable of directly measuring total water quantity in a sample but was sensitive to both dry matter and moisture, and therefore required a second measurement of mass flow to calculate MC. Two means of calculating the mass flow were used: the first being an impact sensor to measure total mass flow, and the second a volumetric approach based on measuring total area occupied by wood in images generated using the capacitance sensor’s tomographic mode. Tests were made on 109 groups of wood chips ranging in moisture content from 14% to 120% (dry basis and wet weight of 280 to 1100 g. Sixty groups were randomly selected as a calibration set, and the remaining were used for validation of the sensor’s performance. For the combined capacitance/force transducer system, root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP for wet mass flow and moisture content were 13.42% and 16.61%, respectively. RMSEP using the combined volumetric mass flow/capacitance sensor for dry mass flow and moisture content were 22.89% and 24.16%, respectively. Either of the approaches was concluded to be feasible for prediction of moisture content in pine chip flows, but combining the impact and capacitance sensors was easier to implement. In situations where flows could not be impeded, however, the tomographic approach would likely be more useful.

  10. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall.

  11. Effect of moisture content on the ultrasonic acoustic properties of wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huimin Yang; Lei Yu; Lihai Wang

    2015-01-01

    We determined the ultrasonic velocity and en-ergy attenuation value of three tree species (basswood, elm, and fir) 1 per tree in different moisture content levels, using RSM-SY5 ultrasonic testing instrument, and analyzed the regularity of ultrasonic velocity and energy attenuation values with moisture content, respectively. The ultrasonic velocity of the three species decreased as moisture content increased, with the turning point at 32% of moisture content. When the moisture content was more than 32%, the growth curve of ultrasonic wave velocity was flattened. The moisture contents of all three species increased under the any point moisture content of 1–60%. The differen-tiation degrees of energy attenuation value of three species were higher than the corresponding ultrasonic wave ve-locity, when the moisture content was less than 15%. The differentiation degrees of the energy attenuation value of three species was higher than the corresponding ultrasonic velocity, when the moisture content was more than 15%.

  12. Distribusi Moisture Content Pada Zona Perakaran Tanaman (Zona Tidak Jenuh Perkebunan Teh Gambung, Bandung Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Candra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on moisture content distribution in the root zone is intended to determine the moisture content in accordance with tea plant and its distribution pattern. Measurement of moisture content by using gypsum block as media liaison between the soil and water in the soil moisture is conducted by means Bouyoucos Soil Meter. Moisture content is obtained by performing measurements on a laboratory and field scale. Laboratory scale test is emphasized on calibration of the gypsum block to be applied in the measurement field. Site measurement was made in three drill holes, each 150 cm in depth, which are at peak, slopes and valleys in the study area that had been predetermined. The result of research shown that high moisture content about 50% –95% which tends to increase downward modeling on moisture content has similar result to the \\ field measurement. Tea plants needed of relative large moisture content, since it requires a moisture content continuosly and yields of tea leave.

  13. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Material on Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser technology has been used in industrial processes for several decades. The most advanced development and implementation took place in laser welding and cutting of metals in automotive and ship building industries. However, there is high potential to apply laser processing to other materials in various industrial fields. One of these potential fields could be paper industry to fulfill the demand for high quality, fast and reliable cutting technology. Difficulties in industrial application of laser cutting for paper industry are associated to lack of basic information, awareness of technology and its application possibilities. Nowadays possibilities of using laser cutting for paper materials are widened and high automation level of equipment has made this technology more interesting for manufacturing processes. Promising area of laser cutting application at paper making machines is longitudinal cutting of paper web (edge trimming). There are few locations at a paper making machine where edge trimming is usually done: wet press section, calender or rewinder. Paper web is characterized with different moisture content at different points of the paper making machine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content of paper material on laser cutting parameters. Effect of moisture content on cellulose fibers, laser absorption and energy needed for cutting is described as well. Laser cutting tests were carried out using CO2 laser.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electromagnetic techniques for moisture content determination of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Hübner, Christof

    2010-08-01

    Based on a short introduction to the dielectric properties of water and aqueous solutions, this review summarizes current techniques of electromagnetic aquametry. The techniques described here include time-domain and frequency-domain procedures, enabling moisture determination in a broad spectral range from millihertz to terahertz frequencies. In this review, quasi-static capacitance and impedance approaches as well as microwave and submillimetre wave reflection, transmission and resonant methods are presented. Sensor configurations and electronic measurement setups, including remote sensing, are discussed briefly. A broad spectrum of applications is introduced to show the extended usability of electromagnetic techniques of moisture content determination. The dielectric properties of some reference materials, suitable for the calibration of sensors and of electronic measurement devices, are tabulated. Reference is also made to some dielectric models of water-containing materials and to superior evaluation routines.

  15. Determination of the moisture content in the fluoride oxide fluxes of electroslag remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Feoktistov, N. A.; Pivovarova, K. G.; Deryabin, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    ANF-32 flux has been studied with regard to the moisture content both after storage and upon operation. A simple and reliable procedure for the determination of the moisture content in ESR fluxes is proposed, and recommendations are given on monitoring the moisture content in calcined fluxes. The main sources of crystallization water of hydration are hydrogen sources.

  16. In-situ characterization of soil moisture content using a monopole probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnard, F. M.; Guilbert, V.; Fauchard, C.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, a microwave non-destructive experimental tool based on a monopole antenna is used for the determination of the complex permittivity of soils. The monopole mounted on a ground plane is buried in the soil, and its reflection coefficient measured at the feed point by a vector network analyzer (VNA) depends on the dielectric properties of the surrounding medium at a given frequency. In particular, this study is focused on the evaluation of the change of dielectric properties of different soils with the moisture content. In general, the dependence of the dielectric properties of a soil with the antenna reflection coefficient is nonlinear in nature, and the solution of the inverse problem requires a sophisticated algorithm. Thus, we have used two types of modeling, analytical (Wu's approach) and numerical (FDTD), to further understand the influence of fundamental parameters (antenna geometry and soil properties) on the frequency response of the antenna reflection coefficient. These models have allowed us to develop a novel inverse algorithm for the determination of the mean real permittivity based on the position of the antenna resonant frequencies in a wide frequency range. Moreover, a high resolution algorithm based on the Prony's approach has been developed in order to fit the complex reflection coefficient and determine afterwards the complex permittivity and the volumetric moisture content of a soil. Experimental results from different types of sands have been analyzed.

  17. Radon diffusion coefficients in soils of varying moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristodoulou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Pavlides, S.

    2009-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the Earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the atmosphere. Due to its unique properties, soil gas radon has been established as a powerful tracer used for a variety of purposes, such as exploring uranium ores, locating geothermal resources and hydrocarbon deposits, mapping geological faults, predicting seismic activity or volcanic eruptions and testing atmospheric transport models. Much attention has also been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through soils. Among other factors, the importance of soil moisture in such studies has been largely highlighted and it is widely accepted that any measurement of radon transport parameters should be accompanied by a measurement of the soil moisture content. In principle, validation of transport models in the field is encountered by a large number of uncontrollable and varying parameters; laboratory methods are therefore preferred, allowing for experiments to be conducted under well-specified and uniform conditions. In this work, a laboratory technique has been applied for studying the effect of soil moisture content on radon diffusion. A vertical diffusion chamber was employed, in which radon was produced from a 226Ra source, was allowed to diffuse through a soil column and was finally monitored using a silicon surface barrier detector. By solving the steady-state radon diffusion equation, diffusion coefficients (D) were determined for soil samples of varying moisture content (m), from null (m=0) to saturation (m=1). For dry soil, a D value of 4.1×10-7 m2s-1 was determined, which increased moderately by a factor of ~3 for soil with low moisture content, i.e. up to m ~0.2. At higher water fractions, a decrease

  18. Soil Moisture Content Monitoring Based on ERS Wind Scatterometer Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ming; SHI Jian-cheng; SHAO Yun; LIU Wei

    2005-01-01

    The ERS-1/2 wind scatterometer (WSC) has a low resolution cell of about 50 km but provides a high repetition rate (<4 d) and can make measurements at multiple incidence angles. In order to estimate effective surface reflectivity (related to soil moisture content) over bare soil using WSC data, an original methodology based on the advance integral equation model (AIEM) is presented, which takes advantage of its multiple view angular characteristics. This method includes two steps. First, a simplified two-parameter surface scattering model is calibrated by AIEM simulated-database over a wide parameter space. Second, regression analyses are carried out using the simulated database to build the relation between those parameters of our model at different incident angles from two observations of Mid and Fore beams. From the model simulated database, our technique works quite well in estimating Γ0. The possibility of applying the model to retrieve soil moisture is investigated using a set of data collected from the Intensive Observation Period field campaign in 1998 of the Asian Monsoon Experiment Tibet (GAME-Tibet). The retrieved values obtained for the bare land surface are consistent with ground measurements collected in these areas and the correlation coefficient between retrieved soil moisture and the measured one reaches 0.65.

  19. Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Kasama, Hirotaka; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles, currently under discussion by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) requires 2 methods: one for fried noodles and the other for nonfried noodles. The method to determine the moisture content of fried noodles by drying at 105 degrees C for 2 h used in the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) system of Japan can be applied to this purpose. In the present study, the JAS method for fried noodles was modified to be suitable for nonfried noodles by extending the drying time to 4 h. An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate interlaboratory performance statistics for these 2 methods. Ten participating laboratories each analyzed 5 test materials of fried and nonfried noodles as blind duplicates. After removal of outliers statistically, the repeatability (RSDr) and the reproducibility (RSD(R)) of these methods were 1.6-2.6 and 3.9-4.8% for fried noodles, and 0.3-1.5 and 1.3-2.9% for nonfried noodles, respectively.

  20. Water content influence on thermal and volumetric properties of wheat starch gelatinization under 10 MPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowska, Marta; Randzio, Stanislaw L

    2010-02-01

    A transitiometric in situ analysis of wheat starch aqueous suspensions heated over a temperature range from 285 K to 415 K under isobaric conditions of 10 MPa is presented. Measurements were performed at four selected water concentrations: 56.0%, 64.7%, 73.5%, and 82.4% weight/water. Thermal and volumetric properties and their water content dependencies have been determined for three successive starch phase transformations occurred during wheat starch gelatinization.

  1. Engineering properties of sunflower seed: Effect of dehulling and moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study diagnosed engineering properties on varying moisture content of sunflower seed and kernel from 7.6 to 25% (wet basis. On increasing moisture, dimensional values increased for both seed and kernel. Bulk density, true density and porosity were found higher for kernel as compared to seed at each moisture content. On increasing the moisture content from 7.6 to 25%, true density, porosity and thousand kernel weight increased. Coefficient of static friction on plywood was found maximum for kernel at 25% moisture content, while it was minimum for seed on glass at 7.6% moisture content. The angle of repose was maximum for kernel as compared to seed. Initial cracking force, average rupture force and average rupture energy for seed and kernel decreased with an increase in the moisture content. The kernel was found to be more resistant to initial cracking than seed.

  2. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p......F value. Hereby, the Xw*-model implicitly assumes that a given particle size fraction creates an analogue pore size fraction and, also, is based on the validity of the well-known capillary law equation relating equivalent drained pore size to the soil-water matric potential. The Xw*-model was found...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...

  3. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  4. Effects of soil moisture content on upland nitrogen loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Xu, Xueting; Hao, Zengchao; Gao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, nitrogen (N) loss from upland fields has become one of the most important sources for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the relationships between soil hydrological processes and N loss in NPS pollution is vital for controlling the agricultural NPS pollution in upland fields. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of N loss with different moisture conditions in the freeze-thaw zone. The semi-distributed hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used in this study to simulate runoff and different forms of N loss, which provided a basis for analyzing characteristics of N loss in the study region. Results showed that the soil moisture content was an important factor affecting N loss in the study region. Different forms of N loss were also analyzed and it was found that N loss occurred primarily in the form of organic-N, which is likely due to the dominant role of erosion-induced pollution. This study provides useful information for preventing NPS pollution within the study region.

  5. Selective-plane illumination microscopy for high-content volumetric biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorty, Ryan; Huang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Light-sheet microscopy, also named selective-plane illumination microscopy, enables optical sectioning with minimal light delivered to the sample. Therefore, it allows one to gather volumetric datasets of developing embryos and other light-sensitive samples over extended times. We have configured a light-sheet microscope that, unlike most previous designs, can image samples in formats compatible with high-content imaging. Our microscope can be used with multi-well plates or with microfluidic devices. In designing our optical system to accommodate these types of sample holders we encounter large optical aberrations. We counter these aberrations with both static optical components in the imaging path and with adaptive optics. Potential applications of this microscope include studying the development of a large number of embryos in parallel and over long times with subcellular resolution and doing high-throughput screens on organisms or cells where volumetric data is necessary.

  6. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  7. Study on the Relationship between the Moisture Content of Brown Rice and Milling Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Shigang; JIA Fuguo; NAN Jingfu

    2006-01-01

    An experiment about rice milling was made to study on the relationship between the different moisture content of brown rice and the energy consumption, the broken rice rate, the crack rate and the head rice yield. It could be concluded that the head rice yield increased at first falls and then along with the raise of moisture content and it could reach the maximum 70.78% when moisture content was 15.5%; the energy consumption of rice milling decreased along with the increase of moisture contents; the broken rice rate fell at first and then increased along with the raise of moisture contents and it could reach the minimum 4.28% when the moisture content was 15.5%.

  8. MULTIFREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DETERMINING THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF LIQUID EMULSIONS BY THE METHOD OF RESONANCE DIELCOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    obtained. The value of the volumetric moisture in the transformer oil was measured. Originality. New multifrequency algorithms for determining the moisture content by the resonance dielcometric method have been proposed, investigated and practically realized. A generalized metrological characteristic for an algorithm with four frequencies is obtained. Metrological characteristics of algorithms for three and two frequencies are obtained. The problem of «uncertainty of varieties» was solved. Recommendations for increasing the sensitivity of dielcometric resonance moisture meters are developed and implemented. Practical value. The results of this work allow to solve the problem of «variability of varieties», increase sensitivity and accurately determine the moisture content in most nonpolar liquid dielectrics to a value of 10-5. This is applicable in a large field of electrical engineering, machine building, oil refining and the chemical industry.

  9. Nondestructive analysis of in-shell peanuts for moisture content using a custom built NIR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Custom made NIR spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of two different market types namely Virginia and Valencia. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis). Samples from the different moisture levels were separated i...

  10. [Effect of moisture content on anaerobic methanization of municipal solid waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Bouchez, Théodore

    2009-03-15

    Biogas production, gas and liquid characteristics were investigated for comparing the effect of moisture content on methanization process of MSW with different compositions of food waste and cellulosic waste. Batch reactors were used to study the anaerobic methanization of typical Chinese and French municipal solid waste (MSW) and cellulosic waste with different moisture content, as 35%, field capacity (65%-70%), 80%, and saturated state (> 95%). The results showed that for the typical Chinese and French waste, which contained putrescible waste, the intermediate product, VFA, was diluted by high content of water, which helped to release the VFA inhibition on hydrolysis and methanization. Mass amount of methane was produced only when the moisture content of typical French waste was higher than 80%, while higher content of moisture was needed when the content of putrescible waste was higher in MSW, as > 95% for typical Chinese waste. Meanwhile the methane production rate and the ultimate cumulated methane production were increased when moisture content was leveled up. The ultimate cumulated methane production of the typical French waste with saturated state was 0.6 times higher than that of the waste with moisture content of 80%. For cellulosic waste, high moisture content of cellulosic materials contributed to increase the attachment area of microbes and enzyme on the surface of the materials, which enhance the waste hydrolysis and methanization. When the moisture content of the cellulosic materials increased from field capacity (65%) to saturated state (> 95%), the ultimate cumulated methane production increased for 3.8 times.

  11. Use of Temperature and Humidity Sensors to Determine Moisture Content of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of tea moisture content is important for processing and storing tea. The moisture content of tea affects the quality and durability of the product. Some electrical devices have been proposed to measure the moisture content of tea leaves but are not practical. Their performance is influenced by material density and packing. The official oven method is time-consuming. In this study, the moisture content of Oolong tea was measured by the equilibrium relative humidity technique. The equilibrium relative humidity, and temperature, of tea materials were measured by using temperature and relative humidity sensors. Sensors were calibrated, and calibration equations were established to improve accuracy. The moisture content was calculated by using an equilibrium moisture content model. The error of the moisture content determined with this method was within 0.5% w.b. at moisture <15% w.b. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the performance of the humidity sensor had a significant effect on the accuracy of moisture determination.

  12. EFFECTS OF INITIAL MOISTURE CONTENT ON THE PRODUCTION AND QUALITY PROPERTIES OF SOLID BIOFUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Matúš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content of densified biomass is a limit parameter influencing the quality of the solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as the production process of this biofuel. The paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of moisture content of densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs. Experiments based on the single-axis densification of spruce sawdust were realized by hydraulic piston press, where the densified logs were produced under room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the quality properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, were studied. The results show the necessary moisture ranges for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel.

  13. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Lærke, Poul Erik; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Heating value and fuel quality of wood is closely connected to moisture content. In this work the variation of moisture content (MC) of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow shoots is described for five clones during one harvesting season. Subsequently an appropriate sampling procedure minimising...

  14. Microwave Nondestructive Sensing of Moisture Content in Shelled Peanuts Independent of Bulk Density with Temperature Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric methods for rapid and nondestructive sensing of moisture content in shelled peanuts from free-space measurement of attenuation and phase shift, and their corresponding dielectric properties at 10 GHz, are presented. These methods provide moisture content independent of bulk density and c...

  15. Determination of Tracer Arrival Times and Volumetric Contents of Clay and Mineral Fines Using Visible NearInfrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Møldrup, Per; Karup, Dan;

    to give rapid and accurate predictions of soil functional properties related to texture and organic matter, such as water retention and compaction. We evaluated visNIR spectroscopy as a rapid and indirect method for predicting selected BTC tracer mass arrival times (TMATs) and the volumetric contents...... and volumetric contents of clay and mineral fines were correlated to spectral data with partial least squares regression on a calibration set (133 samples) and then tested on a validation set (44 samples). We obtained accurate visNIR predictions of the 5% TMAT and volumetric contents of clay and mineral fines....... VisNIR predictions of later TMATs of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50% showed decreasing accuracy with increasing TMAT, which probably reflect decreasing correlation with soil texture....

  16. Effect of Moisture Content on Thermal Properties of Porous Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Vejmelková, Eva; Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Keppert, Martin; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of characteristic types of porous building materials are determined in the whole range of moisture content from dry to fully water-saturated state. A transient pulse technique is used in the experiments, in order to avoid the influence of moisture transport on measured data. The investigated specimens include cement composites, ceramics, plasters, and thermal insulation boards. The effect of moisture-induced changes in thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity on the energy performance of selected building envelopes containing the studied materials is then analyzed using computational modeling of coupled heat and moisture transport. The results show an increased moisture content as a substantial negative factor affecting both thermal properties of materials and energy balance of envelopes, which underlines the necessity to use moisture-dependent thermal parameters of building materials in energy-related calculations.

  17. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed.

  18. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels produced with veneer inclusion and different types of adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different statistical models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels exposed to different conditions of air temperature and relative humidity, And also to evaluate the influence of the adhesive and veneer inclusion in the equilibrium moisture content. The panels were produced with three different adhesive types (phenol-formaldehyde - FF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde - MUF, and phenol-melamine-urea-formaldehyde - PMUF and with and without veneer inclusion. The evaluation of the equilibrium moisture content of the panels was carried out at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C and relative humidity of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. The modeling of equilibrium moisture content was performed using the statistical non-linear and polynomial models. In general, the polynomial models are most indicated for determining the equilibrium moisture content of OSB. The models adjusted only with air relative humidity presented the best precision measurements. The type of adhesive affected the equilibrium moisture content of the panels, being observed for adhesives PMUF and FF the same trend of variation, and the highest values obtained for the panels produced with adhesive MUF. The veneer inclusion decreased the equilibrium moisture content only in the panels with MUF adhesive.

  19. Experimental Study on the Softening Characteristics of Sandstone and Mudstone in Relation to Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-chen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of fluid-solid coupling during immersion is an important topic of investigation in rock engineering. Two rock types, sandstone and mudstone, are selected in this work to study the correlation between the softening characteristics of the rocks and moisture content. This is achieved through detailed studies using scanning electron microscopy, shear tests, and evaluation of rock index properties during exposure to different moisture contents. An underground roadway excavation is simulated by dynamic finite element modeling to analyze the effect of moisture content on the stability of the roadway. The results show that moisture content has a significant effect on shear properties reduction of both sandstone and mudstone, which must thus be considered in mining or excavation processes. Specifically, it is found that the number, area, and diameter of micropores, as well as surface porosity, increase with increasing moisture content. Additionally, stress concentration is negatively correlated with moisture content, while the influenced area and vertical displacement are positively correlated with moisture content. These findings may provide useful input for the design of underground roadways.

  20. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  1. Effect of Different Moisture Contents on Crystallized State of Microwave Modified Tapioca Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dong-Mei; YANG Lian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Effect of microwave modification on tapioca starch at different moisture contents was studied with polarized light microscope. It was observed that loss of birefringence was initiated at hilum of granule. The polarization cross of most granules had become somewhat unclear, and reduction in clarity of the polarization cross was proportioned with the moisture contents of native starch as modification by microwave. When the moisture contents reached to 35.0%, the polariza- tion cross of most granules was lost, and the critical point of native starch was 30% in microwave modification.

  2. Impacts of Soil Moisture Content and Vegetation on Shear Strength of Unsaturated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-hong; ZHANG Jian-guo; ZHANG Jian-hui; LIU Shu-zhen; WANG Cheng-hua; XIAO Qing-hua

    2005-01-01

    It is analyzed that the impacts of vegetation type and soil moisture content on shear strength of unsaturated soil through direct shearing tests for various vegetation types, different soil moisture contents and different-depth unsaturated soil. The results show that the cohesion of unsaturated soil changes greatly, and the friction angle changes a little with soil moisture content. It is also shown that vegetation can improve shear strength of unsaturated soil, which therefore provides a basis that vegetation can reinforce soil and protect slopes.

  3. Determination of moisture content in masonry materials. Calibration of some direct methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binda, L.; Squarcina, T.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1996-01-01

    The presence of moisture in masonry wails is always a direct or indirect source of damace: the aesthetics of the building, the performance of the materials and the in-door hvgrothermic conditions can heavily change when the moisture content exceeds the normal hygroscopic value. The determination of

  4. Detection of Veneer Moisture Content by Surface-circle-shaped Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa Chao; Du Hongbo; Zhang Biguang; Wang Guozhu

    2003-01-01

    This paper, with veneer as a particularly detected target, deals with a new method for detecting veneer moisture content. Surface resistance is measured by the fixed pressure, circle-shaped point and surface-touched detector. With the help of the computer, the veneer moisture and its distribution will be detected in a faster way with no harm to the veneer surface.

  5. An experimental study of temperature and moisture content of wet porous materials under short-pulsed laser heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renxi Jin; Xiulan Huai

    2005-01-01

    The measurements of temperature and moisture content of a wet porous material were accomplished on the micro-seconds scale. The temperature wave was observed when the wet porous material was heated by short-pulsed laser with high power. It firstly revealed that the moisture content of wet porous material rapidly rises twice in one laser irradiation. The influences of laser parameters, the thickness and initial moisture content of the wet porous material on its temperature and moisture content were investigated.

  6. A HIGH SENSITIVE MICROWAVE MEASURING DEVICE OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT IN THE NON-POLAR DIELECTRIC LIQUIDS BASED ON AN INHOMOGENEOUS STEP COAXIAL RESONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rudakov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Objective is to create a moisture meter for non-polar liquid dielectrics with low volumetric moisture content of more than 10‑3 %. Methodology. Moisture measuring is based on dielcometric method. It is implemented as a resonant method of determining a capacitance measuring transducer. Measuring transducer capacitive type has a working and parasitic capacitance. It was suggested the definition of moisture on four of resonance frequencies: when the measuring transducer is turned off, one by one filled with air, «dry» and investigated liquid, to determine the parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and the parasitic capacitance of the measuring transducer and humidity. Measurement frequency was increased up to microwave range to increase the sensitivity. Measuring transducer with distributed parameters representing a step heterogeneous coaxial resonator is used by. This measuring transducer has a zero stray capacitance, because the potential electrode has a galvanic connection with an external coaxial electrode. Inductive ties loop is used to neglect parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and to increase the quality factor of the system. Measuring moisture is reduced to measuring the two frequencies of resonance frequency and «dry» and investigated liquid. Resonant characteristics transducer in a step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator have been investigated to determine the quality factor of filled with air and transformer oil, and experiments to measure the moisture content in transformer oil have been conducted. Results. Measuring transducer of distributed type is developed and researched – it is step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator. It has a smaller geometric length and larger scatter of the first and second resonant frequencies. Expression is obtained for determination of moisture on the basis of two resonant frequencies. The formula of the two frequencies to determine the moisture is correct. Resonant

  7. Relationships between evaporation and moisture content in historical masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Laura; Ortiz de Cosca, Raquel Otero; García-Morales, Soledad; Gomez-Heras, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The "materiaĺs evaporative behaviour" describe how on site materials evaporate in real conditions, not only due to indoor conditions (air temperature and humidity ratio, etc), but also because it is influenced by multiple factors (building systems, materials, environmental conditions, etc), some of which can difficult the evaporation process, such as as hygroscopic salts presence. This evaporative behaviour may or may not have a direct relation to the actual moisture within the walls. This paper presents thermohygrometric data and a electrical resistivity survey from a half-buried wall of the Hermit of Humilladero (Ávila, Spain 16th century), a building that displays intense moisture-related decay in that wall. Thermohygrometric data allowed characterising the evaporative behaviour while the resistivity survey allowed inferring the moisture in the masonry. Salt's presence was also mapped. These sets of data were statistically analysed to observe the significance of the correlation, if any and characterise the evaporative behaviour by discerning the different information obtained from each technique. The different measurements obtained by these techniques were combined using GIS software. This allowed obtaining maps that combine evaporation and moisture data represented by "factors" (i.e. a global value obtained as a sum of different properties). The combination of these tests allowed a better characterization and understanding of wetting and drying cycles aiming to develop a correct diagnosis system. Research funded by Madrid's Regional Government project Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914

  8. THE EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE WOOD ON LAYER PERFORMANCE OF WATER BORNE VARNISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sönmez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The test panels obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L. were initially adjusted to have 8%, 10%, and 12% moisture content in this study. One-component semi-matte and two-component water borne varnishes were applied on the surfaces in order to investigate the effect of the type and the moisture content of the wood on the hardness and the gloss values as well as the adhesion strength of the varnishes. The hardness of the test samples was evaluated based on the standard ANS/ISO1522, the gloss based on TS.4318 EN ISO 2813, and the adhesive strength based on ASTM D-4541. The results indicated that variations in the moisture content of the wood material adversely affected the layer performance of water-borne varnishes and that the best performance was obtained for the wood with moisture contents of 8% and 10%.

  9. Magnetic method for measuring moisture content using diamagnetic characteristics of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiji, Tsukada; Yasuaki, Matsunaga; Yuta, Nakamura; Ryota, Isshiki; Kayo, Fujimoto; Kenji, Sakai; Toshihiko, Kiwa

    2017-01-01

    Moisture content measurements of rice kernels and soil are important for agriculture. Therefore, in this study, a new measurement method using the diamagnetic characteristics of water was developed for measurements of the moisture content of rice kernels and soil. The magnetic characteristics of the samples were determined using a magnetometer developed by us based on a superconducting quantum interference device. Because of the diamagnetic characteristics of water, the susceptibility of rice kernels became more negative with increasing moisture content. In the case of soil, which is a mixture of diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials, a second-harmonic detection method using AC with DC bias magnetic field was applied to reduce the influence of the ferromagnetic signal. The intensity of the second-harmonic signal of a soil was determined to be proportional to its moisture content.

  10. The effect of moisture content on grinding process of wheat and maize single kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, M. I.; Pădureanu, V.; Canja, C. M.; Măzărel, A.

    2016-08-01

    The mechanical properties and the resistance of grains are key characteristics that enhance grinding behaviour of wheat and maize and are dependent on the moisture content of the grains. These properties were defined in the single-kernel compression test, and it seems that the qualities expressing the relations resulting during mechanical loads like mechanical and rheological properties are significant. The aim of the study reported here is to show the influence of moisture content on grinding process of wheat and maize single kernel. To show this influence it is necessary to study the physical and mechanical properties of wheat and maize single kernel at different moisture content 10%, 12%, 14%, 16%, 18% and 20%. The measurement results showed significant relationship between the cereal type, its resistance characteristics and the moisture content in the grinding process.

  11. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  12. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-06-11

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  13. Kernel and bulk density changes due to moisture content, mechanical damage, and insect damage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Danping

    2015-01-01

    Corn (Zea Mays), is one of the major grain crops in the world and moisture content, mechanical damage and insect damage are three factors that affect its quality. The primary goal of this thesis was to investigate the effects of moisture content, mechanical damage and insect damage on kernel and bulk density of corn. The study was conducted using two corn hybrids, Pioneer 1352 and Pioneer 1221, that were grown on Purdue Agronomy Farm for Research and Education (ACRE), manually picked and shel...

  14. Determination of moisture content of lyophilized allergen vaccines by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yiwu; Lai, Xuxin; Bruun, Susanne Wrang

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content is an important parameter for lyophilized vaccines. Currently, Karl Fischer titration is widely used for moisture determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, sample destructive and requires environment polluting reagents, as well as the results rely...... on the random samplings. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy was used as a fast, non-invasive and non-destructive method to determine the moisture content in lyophilized allergy vaccines. Five different vaccine products were investigated, which contained water in the range of 0.17-1.51% (w/w, KF...

  15. Prediction of moisture content of alfalfa using density-independent functions of microwave dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bijay L.; Wood, Hugh C.; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2005-05-01

    The use of density-independent functions of the dielectric properties of chopped alfalfa, calculated from microwave reflection coefficients from 300 MHz to 18 GHz, was studied for determining moisture content in the range from 12% to 73%, wet basis, at bulk densities from 0.139 to 0.716 g cm-3 at 20 °C. Prediction of moisture content with worst-case relative errors of about 3% or less over the range from 20% to 73% confirmed promising prospects for use of such density-independent functions for reliable moisture measurement for important plant materials.

  16. Hemp yarn reinforced composites – III. Moisture content and dimensional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Lilholt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive set of experimental data it is demonstrated that the moisture properties of aligned hemp fibre yarn/thermoplastic matrix composites are showing low moisture sorption capacity and low dimensional changes. Using a reference humidity of 65% RH, and a common span of ambient...... content of the composites is shown to be well predicted by a mixtures relationship using the measured moisture contents of the constituents. The dimensional changes of the composites are well predicted by micromechanical models of the transverse and axial hygral strains....

  17. A simple rectangular microstrip technique for determination of moisture content in Hevea rubber latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Nor Zakiah; Abbas, Zulkifly; Norimi, Amizadillah Md; Yahaya, Muhamad Zamri; Razak, Nik Noor Ashikin Abd; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim

    2015-08-01

    A simple rectangular microstrip sensor for determination of moisture content in Hevea Rubber Latex is presented in this paper. The microstrip patch sensor was designed to operate at microwave frequency range from 1 to 5 GHz on a RT/Duroid substrate with 6.15 ±0.015 permittivity and 1.27 mm thickness. The width and length of the rectangular patch antenna was 18 mm and 38 mm, respectively. The reflection coefficient of the sensor loaded with Hevea latex at various percentages of moisture content from approximately 36.1% to 88.6 %. Calibration equations have been established between moisture content and phase of reflection coefficient at several selected frequencies. These equations were used to predict the amount of moisture content on Hevea latex based on the measured reflection coefficient values. The actual values of moisture content were obtained using standard oven drying method. The lowest mean relative error between actual and predicted moisture contents was 0.04 at 1 GHz.

  18. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal parameters at a tropical station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, Neena; Biju, V.; Renuka, G.

    2014-06-01

    Half hourly data of soil moisture content, soil temperature, solar irradiance, and reflectance are measured during April 2010 to March 2011 at a tropical station, viz., Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India (76°59'E longitude and 8°29'N latitude). The monthly, seasonal and seasonal mean diurnal variation of soil moisture content is analyzed in detail and is correlated with the rainfall measured at the same site during the period of study. The large variability in the soil moisture content is attributed to the rainfall during all the seasons and also to the evaporation/movement of water to deeper layers. The relationship of surface albedo on soil moisture content on different time scales are studied and the influence of solar elevation angle and cloud cover are also investigated. Surface albedo is found to fall exponentially with increase in soil moisture content. Soil thermal diffusivity and soil thermal conductivity are also estimated from the subsoil temperature profile. Log normal dependence of thermal diffusivity and power law dependence of thermal conductivity on soil moisture content are confirmed.

  19. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal parameters at a tropical station

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neena Sugathan; V Biju; G Renuka

    2014-07-01

    Half hourly data of soil moisture content, soil temperature, solar irradiance, and reflectance are measured during April 2010 to March 2011 at a tropical station, viz., Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India (76° 59’E longitude and 8°29’N latitude). The monthly, seasonal and seasonal mean diurnal variation of soil moisture content is analyzed in detail and is correlated with the rainfall measured at the same site during the period of study. The large variability in the soil moisture content is attributed to the rainfall during all the seasons and also to the evaporation/movement of water to deeper layers. The relationship of surface albedo on soil moisture content on different time scales are studied and the influence of solar elevation angle and cloud cover are also investigated. Surface albedo is found to fall exponentially with increase in soil moisture content. Soil thermal diffusivity and soil thermal conductivity are also estimated from the subsoil temperature profile. Log normal dependence of thermal diffusivity and power law dependence of thermal conductivity on soil moisture content are confirmed.

  20. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Christian; Poë, Simon; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one left unvegetated. Water content reflectometers were located at three different soil depths to measure the soil moisture profile and to record temporal changes in moisture content at a five-minute resolution. The moisture content vertical profiles varied consistently, with slightly elevated moisture content levels being recorded at the deepest substrate layer in the vegetated systems. Daily moisture loss rates were influenced by both temperature and moisture content, with reduced moisture loss/evapotranspiration when the soil moisture was restricted. The presence of vegetation resulted in higher daily moisture loss. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed moisture content data can be accurately simulated using a hydrologic model based on water balance and two conventional Potential ET models (Hargreaves and FAO56 Penman-Monteith) combined with a soil moisture extraction function. Configuration-specific correction factors have been proposed to account for differences between green roof systems and standard reference crops.

  1. Effect of grain moisture content during milling on pasting profile and functional properties of amaranth fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vishnuswamy Preetham; Dharmaraj, Usha; Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of functional properties of milled fractions of grain amaranth may be useful to decide the end uses of the grain. Hence, pasting profiles of amaranth fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture contents were studied in relation with their starch profile and also with their swelling power and solubility indices. It was observed that, for flour fraction, the viscosity parameters were lowest at 14-16 % moisture content. Swelling power and solubility indices of the samples varied as a function of grain moisture content. The middling fraction also showed similar pasting pattern with the variation of grain moisture content. The seed coat fractions showed higher gelatinization temperature compared to that of fine flour and middling fractions. However, starch content of the fine seed coat fraction was comparable with that of the flour and middling fractions. The coarse seed coat fraction showed lower viscosity parameters than the other samples. Viscosity parameters correlated well among themselves while, they did not show significant correlation with the starch content. However, the viscosity parameters showed negative correlation with the soluble amylose content. The study revealed that, the fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture content show differential pasting profiles and functional properties.

  2. [Soil moisture content and fine root biomass of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations at different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xi-Hao; Chen, Qiu-Bo; Hua, Yuan-Gang; Yang, Li-Fu; Wang, Zhen-Hui

    2011-02-01

    By using soil core sampling method, this paper studied the soil moisture regime of rubber plantations and the fine root biomass of Hevea brasiliensis in immature period (5 a), early yielding period (9 a), and peak yielding period (16 a). With the increasing age of rubber trees, the soil moisture content of rubber plantations increased but the fine root biomass decreased. The soil moisture content at the depth of 0-60 cm in test rubber plantations increased with soil depth, and presented a double-peak pattern over the period of one year. The fine root biomass of rubber trees at different ages had the maximum value in the top 10 cm soil layers and decreased with soil depth, its seasonal variation also showed a double-peak pattern, but the peak values appeared at different time. Soil moisture content and soil depth were the main factors affecting the fine root biomass of H. brasiliensis.

  3. Impact of biocatalyst and moisture content on toluene/xylene mixture biofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Klapková

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the influence of microbial inoculation on degradation efficiency. Three biofilters were used for the treatment of waste gas. A mixture of compost and perlite (8:2 served as the packing material. One biofilter was inoculated with a constructed microbial population. The second remained uninoculated, having the natural population present in the compost. The third biofilter was uninoculated and the packing material was sterilized. The degradation ability of the uninoculated biofilter started to drop after 18 days, while the removal efficiency of inoculated biofilter was stable. The sterile biofilter proved to have no removal efficiency. Moisture content of the packing and ability of the packing to keep moisture was tested. The results showed a significant dependence of the degradation efficiency on the packing moisture content, with highest removal efficiency observed at 70 % moisture content.

  4. Impact of biocatalyst and moisture content on toluene/xylene mixture biofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapková Eva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the influence of microbial inoculation on degradation efficiency. Three biofilters were used for the treatment of waste gas. A mixture of compost and perlite (8:2 served as the packing material. One biofilter was inoculated with a constructed microbial population. The second remained uninoculated, having the natural population present in the compost. The third biofilter was uninoculated and the packing material was sterilized. The degradation ability of the uninoculated biofilter started to drop after 18 days, while the removal efficiency of inoculated biofilter was stable. The sterile biofilter proved to have no removal efficiency. Moisture content of the packing and ability of the packing to keep moisture was tested. The results showed a significant dependence of the degradation efficiency on the packing moisture content, with highest removal efficiency observed at 70 % moisture content.

  5. Determination of moisture content of lyophilized allergen vaccines by NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiwu; Lai, Xuxin; Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Ipsen, Henrik; Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Løwenstein, Henning; Søndergaard, Ib; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2008-02-13

    Moisture content is an important parameter for lyophilized vaccines. Currently, Karl Fischer titration is widely used for moisture determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, sample destructive and requires environment polluting reagents, as well as the results rely on the random samplings. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy was used as a fast, non-invasive and non-destructive method to determine the moisture content in lyophilized allergy vaccines. Five different vaccine products were investigated, which contained water in the range of 0.17-1.51% (w/w, KF). Different data pre-treatments, wavelength selection and partial least squares regression were applied to construct calibration models. Multi-products model and product-specific models were obtained, which show the possibility of NIR as a rapid method to discriminate whether moisture content fit into the specifications of a pharmaceutical company.

  6. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H.; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg- 1, respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer

  7. A Study on the Application of Near Infrared Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging for Monitoring Moisture Content and Water Activity in Low Moisture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content and water activity are key parameters in predicting the stability of low moisture content products. However, conventional methods for moisture content and water activity determination (e.g., loss on drying method, ‎Karl Fischer titration, dew point method are time consuming, demand specialized equipment and are not amenable to online processing. For this reason they are typically applied at-line on a limited number of samples. Near infrared hyperspectral chemical imaging is an emerging technique for spatially characterising the spectral properties of samples. Due to the fast acquisition of chemical images, many samples can be evaluated simultaneously, thus providing the potential for online evaluation of samples during processing. In this study, the potential of NIR chemical imaging for predicting the moisture content and water activity of a selection of low moisture content food systems is evaluated.

  8. Mapping Spatial Moisture Content of Unsaturated Agricultural Soils with Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, O.; Goldshleger, N.; Basson, U.; Reshef, M.

    2016-06-01

    Soil subsurface moisture content, especially in the root zone, is important for evaluation the influence of soil moisture to agricultural crops. Conservative monitoring by point-measurement methods is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we represent an active remote-sensing tool for subsurface spatial imaging and analysis of electromagnetic physical properties, mostly water content, by ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection. Combined with laboratory methods, this technique enables real-time and highly accurate evaluations of soils' physical qualities in the field. To calculate subsurface moisture content, a model based on the soil texture, porosity, saturation, organic matter and effective electrical conductivity is required. We developed an innovative method that make it possible measures spatial subsurface moisture content up to a depth of 1.5 m in agricultural soils and applied it to two different unsaturated soil types from agricultural fields in Israel: loess soil type (Calcic haploxeralf), common in rural areas of southern Israel with about 30% clay, 30% silt and 40% sand, and hamra soil type (Typic rhodoxeralf), common in rural areas of central Israel with about 10% clay, 5% silt and 85% sand. Combined field and laboratory measurements and model development gave efficient determinations of spatial moisture content in these fields. The environmentally friendly GPR system enabled non-destructive testing. The developed method for measuring moisture content in the laboratory enabled highly accurate interpretation and physical computing. Spatial soil moisture content to 1.5 m depth was determined with 1-5% accuracy, making our method useful for the design of irrigation plans for different interfaces.

  9. MAPPING SPATIAL MOISTURE CONTENT OF UNSATURATED AGRICULTURAL SOILS WITH GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shamir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil subsurface moisture content, especially in the root zone, is important for evaluation the influence of soil moisture to agricultural crops. Conservative monitoring by point-measurement methods is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we represent an active remote-sensing tool for subsurface spatial imaging and analysis of electromagnetic physical properties, mostly water content, by ground-penetrating radar (GPR reflection. Combined with laboratory methods, this technique enables real-time and highly accurate evaluations of soils' physical qualities in the field. To calculate subsurface moisture content, a model based on the soil texture, porosity, saturation, organic matter and effective electrical conductivity is required. We developed an innovative method that make it possible measures spatial subsurface moisture content up to a depth of 1.5 m in agricultural soils and applied it to two different unsaturated soil types from agricultural fields in Israel: loess soil type (Calcic haploxeralf, common in rural areas of southern Israel with about 30% clay, 30% silt and 40% sand, and hamra soil type (Typic rhodoxeralf, common in rural areas of central Israel with about 10% clay, 5% silt and 85% sand. Combined field and laboratory measurements and model development gave efficient determinations of spatial moisture content in these fields. The environmentally friendly GPR system enabled non-destructive testing. The developed method for measuring moisture content in the laboratory enabled highly accurate interpretation and physical computing. Spatial soil moisture content to 1.5 m depth was determined with 1–5% accuracy, making our method useful for the design of irrigation plans for different interfaces.

  10. Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opaliński, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

  11. Moisture content evaluation of biomass using CFD approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bartzanas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In grass conservation systems, drying in the field is an essential process upon which the quality and quantity of the material to be conserved is dependent on. In this study a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, previously validated, was used to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the field drying process of cut grass under different weather conditions and structural specifications of the grass. The use of the CFD model depicts the climate heterogeneity in the grass area with a special focus on moisture distribution, influence of the weather conditions, in order to create the possibility of applying the model as a decision support tool for an enhanced treatment of the grass after cutting.

  12. Using GPS Interferometric Reflectometry to estimate soil moisture and vegetation water content fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, C. C.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Braun, J. J.; Shreve, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    High-precision GPS receivers can be used to estimate fluctuations in near surface soil moisture, snow and vegetation water content. This approach, referred to as GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR), relates precise changes in the geometry of reflected GPS signals to observe soil moisture and snow while simultaneously using signal attenuation and diffuse scattering to infer changes in vegetative state. Previous remote sensing research has shown that microwave signals (e.g., L-band) are optimal for measuring hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture, and because GPS satellites transmit similar signals, they can be useful for sensing water in the environment. In addition, standard GPS antenna configurations that are used in NSF's Plate Boundary Observatory network yield sensing footprints of ~1000 m2. Given this sensitivity, hundreds of GPS receivers that exist in the U.S. could be used to provide near-real time estimates of soil moisture and vegetation water content for satellite validation, drought monitoring and related studies. A significant obstacle to using L-band (or similar) signals for remote sensing is differentiating the effects of soil moisture and vegetation on the retrieval of hydrologic variables. This same challenge exists when using GPS-IR data. We have established nine research sites with identical GPS and hydrologic infrastructure to study this problem. These sites span a wide range of soil, vegetation, and climate types. In addition to daily GPS and hourly soil moisture data, we have collected weekly vegetation water content samples at all sites. Our data demonstrate that soil moisture fluctuations can be estimated from GPS-IR records when vegetation water content is low (moisture and vegetation signals and quantifying errors in our retrieval algorithm.

  13. Methodology of image analysis for study of the vertisols moisture content

    OpenAIRE

    Cumbrera Gonzalez, Ramiro Alberto; Milán Vega, Humberto; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The main problem to study vertical drainage from the moisture distribution, on a vertisol profile, is searching for suitable methods using these procedures. Our aim was to design a digital image processing methodology and its analysis to characterize the moisture content distribution of a vertisol profile. In this research, twelve soil pits were excavated on a ba re Mazic Pellic Vertisols ix of them in May 13/2011 and the rest in May 19 /2011 after a moderate rainfall event. Digi...

  14. Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified Lime (Citrus aurantifolia L) juice at different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) juice were evaluated at different moisture contents ranging from 30.37 % to 89.30 % (wet basis) corresponding to a water activity range of 0.835 to 0.979. The thermophysical properties evaluated were density, Newtonian viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. The investigation showed that density and Newtonian viscosity of enzyme clarified lime juice decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in moisture content and water activity, whereas thermal conductivity and specific heat increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in moisture content and water activity and the thermal diffusivity increased marginally. Empirical mathematical models were established relating to thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified lime juice with moisture content/water activity employing regression analysis by the method of least square approximation. Results indicated the existence of strong correlation between thermophysical properties and moisture content/water activity of enzyme clarified lime juice, a significant (p < 0.0001) negative correlation between physical and thermal properties was observed.

  15. A Hysteresis Model Suitable For Numerical Simulation Of Moisture Content in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content in wood depends not only on the current relative humidity in the ambient air but also on the history of the relative humidity variations. This hysteresis dependency of sorption in wood implies that in the worst case the moisture content for a given relative humidi...... temperatures. These features make the model relatively easy to implement into a numerical method, e.g. the Finite Element Method....... may deviate by 30-35%. While researchers seem to have reached a general agreement on the hypothesis for the sorption hysteresis phenomenon, only a few models describing the phenomenon are available. Current models as the independent domain model have numerical deficiencies and drawbacks. This paper...... presents a new hysteresis model, which mathematically resolves in closed form expressions, with the current relative humidity and moisture content as the only input parameters. Furthermore, the model has the advantage of being applicable to different sorption isotherms, i.e. different species and different...

  16. Preservation of roasted and ground coffee during storage Part 1: Moisture content and repose angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study evaluates the influence of the level of roasting and the grind size on the moisture content and repose angle of coffee during storage. Raw coffee beans (Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, hulled and dried, were roasted to two different levels: medium light (SCAA#65 and moderately dark (SCAA#45. The beans were then ground into three different grind sizes: fine (0.59 mm, medium (0.84 mm and coarse (1.19 mm. An additional coffee lot was kept whole. Following grinding, samples were stored at two different temperatures (10 and 30 ºC and analyzed after five different storage durations (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days. The moderately dark roast was found to have a lower moisture content. Finely ground samples had higher angles of repose. It is concluded that the grind size, level of roasting and duration of storage significantly affect the moisture content and angle of repose of coffee.

  17. The Characteristic Relationship Between Oil Uptake and Moisture Content during the High Temperature Immersion Frying of Thin Potato Crisps%高温油炸薄薯片过程中油的吸收和水分流失间的特性关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher R. Southern; CHEN Xiaodong(陈晓东); Mohammed M. Farid

    2004-01-01

    Thin potato crisps (2mm) were fried at 170℃, 180℃ and 190℃ for various times from 10s to 180s inclusive. It was found that definite oil uptake, moisture loss trends exist during the frying process. No significant difference in the oil uptake or moisture loss rates between flat-cut and ridge-cut crisps exists. Also found in this study was that an increased oil temperature promoted higher moisture loss rates. In turn, the higher moisture loss rates contributed to a higher oil uptake rate. It was found, based on the volumetric plots of oil content vs. water content, that the oil uptake rate was proportional to the moisture loss rate. As a result, it has been shown that there is a possibility of having a characteristic curve of oil uptake against moisture content.

  18. Reduction of adsorption capacity of coconut shell activated carbon for organic vapors due to moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Hironobu; Furuse, Mitsuya; Takano, Tsuguo

    2010-01-01

    In occupational hygiene, activated carbon produced from coconut shell is a common adsorbent material for harmful substances including organic vapors due to its outstanding adsorption capacity and cost advantage. However, moisture adsorption of the carbon generally decreases the adsorption capacity for organic vapors. In a previous report, we prepared several coconut shell activated carbons which had been preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities and measured the breakthrough times for 6 kinds of organic vapor, in order to clarify the effect of preliminary moisture content in activated carbon on the adsorption capacity in detail. We found that the relative percent weight increase due to moisture adsorption of the carbon specimen had a quantitative effect, reducing the breakthrough time. In this report, we carried out further measurements of the effect of moisture content on the adsorption of 13 kinds of organic vapor, and investigated the relationship between moisture adsorption and the reduction of the breakthrough time of activated carbon specimens. We also applied the data to the Wood's breakthrough time estimation model which is an extension of the Wheeler-Jonas equation.

  19. Temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships in municipal solid waste for the interpretation of bulk electrical resistivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilawski, Tamara; Dumont, Gaël; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Landfills pose major environmental issues including long-term methane emissions, and local pollution of soil and aquifers but can also be seen as potential energy resources and mining opportunities. Water content in landfills determine whether solid fractions can be separated and recycled, and controls the existence and efficiency of natural or enhanced biodegradation. Geophysical techniques, such as electrical and electromagnetic methods have proven successful in the detection and qualitative investigation of sanitary landfills. However, their interpretation in terms of quantitative water content estimates makes it more challenging due to the influence of parameters such as temperature, compaction, waste composition or pore fluid. To improve the confidence given to bulk electrical resistivity data and to their interpretation, we established temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships that we tested on field and laboratory electrical resistivity measurements. We carried out two laboratory experiments on leachates and waste samples from a landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium. We determined a first relationship between temperature and electrical resistivity with pure and diluted leachates by progressively increasing the temperature from 5°C to 65°C, and then cooling down to 5°C. The second relationship was obtained by measuring electrical resistivity on waste samples of different volumetric water contents. First, we used the correlations obtained from the experiments to compare electrical resistivity measurements performed in a landfill borehole and on reworked waste samples excavated at different depths. Electrical resistivities were measured every 20cm with an electromagnetic logging device (EM39) while a temperature profile was acquired with optic fibres. Waste samples were excavated every 2m in the same borehole. We filled experimental columns with these samples and measured electrical resistivities at laboratory temperature

  20. Nondestructive Estimation of Moisture Content, pH and Soluble Solid Contents in Intact Tomatoes Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Anisur Rahman; Lalit Mohan Kandpal; Santosh Lohumi; Kim, Moon S.; Hoonsoo Lee; Changyeun Mo; Byoung-Kwan Cho

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to evaluate chemical components such as moisture content (MC), pH, and soluble solid content (SSC) in intact tomatoes by using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 1000–1550 nm. The mean spectra of the 95 matured tomato samples were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and multivariate calibration models were built by using partial least squares (PLS) regression with different preprocessing spectra. The results showed tha...

  1. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  2. Effect of equilibrium moisture content on barrier, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Loredo, Rocío Yaneli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana Inés; Morales-Sánchez, Eduardo; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos Alberto; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    Water molecules modify the properties of biodegradable films obtained from hydrophilic materials. Most studies dealing with thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of hydrophilic films are carried out under one relative humidity (RH) condition. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the moisture content on the thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan films under several RH conditions. Microclimates, obtained with saturated salt solutions were used for conditioning samples and the properties of the films were evaluated under each RH condition. Chitosan films absorbed up to 40% of moisture at the higher RH studied. The percentage of elongation and the water vapour permeability increased while tensile strength, Young's modulus and glass transition temperature decreased, when the moisture content increased. The results suggest that the water molecules plasticized the polymer matrix, changing the properties when the films were in contact with high RH environments.

  3. Dead fuel moisture estimation with MSG-SEVIRI data. Retrieval of meteorological data for the calculation of the equilibrium moisture content

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada; Chuvieco, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2010 In this study we propose to use remote sensing data to estimate hourly meteorological data and then assess the moisture content of dead fuels. Three different models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) were applied together with remotely sensed retrieved air temperature and relative humidity. The input data were acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite, from whi...

  4. Laboratory experiments on rainfall-induced flowslide from pore pressure and moisture content measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hakro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During or immediately after rainfall many slope failures have been observed. The slope failure occurred due to rainfall infiltration that rapidly increase the pore pressure and trigger the slope failure. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the rainfall-induced slope failure, but the mechanism of slope failure is still not well clarified. To investigate mechanism of rainfall-induced slope failure laboratory experiments have been conducted in flume. The slope was prepared with sandy soil in flume with constant inclination of 45°, because most of rainfall-induced slope failure occurred in sandy soil and on steep slope. The hydrological parameters such as pore pressure and moisture content were measured with piezometers and advanced Imko TDRs respectively. The slope failure occurred due to increase in moisture content and rise in pore pressure. During the flowslide type of slope failure the sudden increase in pore pressure was observed. The higher moisture content and pore pressure was at the toe of the slope. The pore pressure was higher at the toe of the slope and smaller at the upper part of the slope. After the saturation the run-off was observed at the toe of the slope that erodes the toe and forming the gullies from toe to upper part of the slope. In the case antecedent moisture conditions the moisture content and the pore pressure increased quickly and producing the surface runoff at the horizontal part of the slope. The slope having less density suffer from flowslide type of the failure, however in dense slope no major failure was occurred even at higher rainfall intensity. The antecedent moisture accompanied with high rainfall intensity also not favors the initiation of flowslide in case of dense slope. The flowslide type of failure can be avoided by controlling the density of soil slope. Knowing such parameters that controls the large mass movement helpful in developing the early warning system for flowslide type of

  5. Modelling moisture content and dry matter loss during storage of logging residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbakk, Tore; Hoeiboe, Olav Albert (Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)); Dibdiakova, Janka (Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., Aas (Norway)); Nurmi, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland))

    2011-04-15

    To achieve optimal utilisation of logging residues for energy, it is important to know how different handling and storage methods affect fuel properties. The aim of this study was to model how the moisture content and dry matter losses of logging residues develop during storage. Logging residues were collected from five different stands of spruce and pine during different seasons of the year and stored in the same location. The logging residues were stored in covered piles of bundled residues and loose residues. Only minor differences were found in the moisture content profiles between piles of bundles and loose residues. Logging residues located in the centre of both types of piles had considerably lower moisture content than the outer parts. The moisture content significantly affected dry matter loss, with the highest dry matter losses being found in the samples with the least favourable drying conditions. The dry matter losses varied between 1 and 3% per month. Significantly higher dry matter losses were found in the spruce bundles than in the pine bundles. Seasoned logging residues had the lowest dry matter loss, while the logging residues harvested and piled in the autumn had the highest loss

  6. Effects of heat treatment and moisture contents on interactions between lauric acid and starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fengdan; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Huang, Qiang; Jane, Jay-lin

    2014-08-06

    This study aimed to understand the effects of the moisture content of granular normal cornstarch (NC), heat treatment at 80 °C, and order of adding lauric acid (LA) to starch before or after the heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of the starch. LA was added to NC priority heated with different moisture contents (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) or added to dried NC and then heated with different moisture contents. The hydrothermal/LA treatments increased the pasting temperature but decreased the peak viscosity of the NC. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the addition of LA retarded gelatinization. The hydrothermal/LA treatments changed the X-ray pattern of the NC to a mixture of A- and V-type patterns. The thermal property and digestibility analysis showed that 40% was the optimum moisture content for the formation of the amylose-LA complex and adding LA prior to heating the NC favored the formation of slowly digestible starch.

  7. Microwave sensing of moisture content and bulk density in flowing grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content and bulk density were determined from measurement of the dielectric properties of flowing wheat kernels at a single microwave frequency (5.8 GHz). The measuring system consisted of two high-gain microwave patch antennas mounted on opposite sides of rectangular chute and connected to...

  8. Stress Wave E-Rating of Structural Timber—Size and Moisture Content Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of cross sectional size and moisture content on stress wave properties of structural timber in various sizes and evaluate the feasibility of using stress wave method to E-rate timber in green conditions. Four different sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) square timbers were...

  9. Nondestructive Measurement of Water Content and Moisture Migration of Unsaturated Red Clays in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the moisture migration mechanism of the unsaturated red clays, which are sensitive to water content change and widely distributed in South China, and then rationally use them as a filling material for highway embankments, a method to measure the water content of red clay cylinders using X-ray computed tomography (CT was proposed and verified. Then, studies on the moisture migrations in the red clays under the rainfall and ground water level were performed at different degrees of compaction. The results show that the relationship between dry density, water content, and CT value determined from X-ray CT tests can be used to nondestructively measure the water content of red clay cylinders at different migration time, which avoids the error reduced by the sample-to-sample variation. The rainfall, ground water level, and degree of compaction are factors that can significantly affect the moisture migration distance and migration rate. Some techniques, such as lowering groundwater table and increasing degree of compaction of the red clays, can be used to prevent or delay the moisture migration in highway embankments filled with red clays.

  10. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim of this ...... conditions with minimal standard error, (2) specimens with low initial moisture content to avoid unwanted wood mass loss over time, (3) a relative humidity upper limit that avoids drift above 95 %, and (4) extrapolation of data to humidity approaching 100 %.......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  11. Portable six-port reflectometer for determining moisture content of biomass material

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portable six-port reflectometer (SPR) for determining moisture content of biomass material is proposed for the first time in this paper. The proposed system consists of a 5.13 GHz reflectometer used with an open-ended half-mode substrateintegrated waveguide (HMSIW) sensor. The complex permittivity...

  12. Density-independent algorithm for sensing moisture content of sawdust based on reflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A density-independent algorithm for moisture content determination in sawdust, based on a one-port reflection measurement technique is proposed for the first time. Performance of this algorithm is demonstrated through measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust with an open-ended haft-mode s...

  13. Sensitivity of LISEM predicted catchment discharge to initial soil moisture content of soil profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Sheikh; E. van Loon; R. Hessel; V. Jetten

    2010-01-01

    This study conducts a broad sensitivity analysis, taking into account the influence of initial soil moisture content in two soil layers, layer depths, event properties, and two infiltration models. A distributed hydrology and soil erosion model (LISEM) is used. Using the terrain data from the Catsop

  14. Relationship Between Kernel Moisture Content and Water Activity in Different Maturity Stages of Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water activity (aw) and moisture content (KMC) of individual peanut kernels representing five different maturity stages were measured during a period of late-season drought stress leading up to normal harvest time. Curves were generated describing the relationship between aw and KMC for yellow 1...

  15. Equilibrium moisture content during storage, manufacturing, and shipping of Bolivian wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar A. Espinoza; Brian H. Bond; Joseph R. Loferski

    2007-01-01

    After lumber is kiln-dried it is important to keep its moisture content (MC) as close as possible to its target value during all stages of production to assure final product quality. Knowledge of climate conditions at all stages of the manufacturing process is essential to provide a good control of lumber MC. This study is the first step to provide Bolivian companies...

  16. The influence of ultra-low moisture content on the seed viability of rice in store

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHIJuzhen; BIXinhua

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of ultra-low moisture content and the rate of desiceation on rice seed viability and physiological property by desiccating using four kinds of desiooants (phosphorus pentoxide, calcium oxide, calcium chloride and silica gel) with different dosage.

  17. Technical note: Equilibrium moisture content of kabuli chickpea, black sesame, and white sesame seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame and chickpeas are important crops for Ethiopia as both are major exports providing small farmers and the country much revenue. There is a lack of information on fundamental equilibrium moisture content (EMC) relationships for these products which would help facilitate better monitoring and st...

  18. Force Restore Technique for Ground Surface Temperature and Moisture Content in a Dry Desert System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.

    2000-01-01

    The level of the surface temperature as well as surface moisture content is important for the turbulent transports of sensible and latent heat, respectively, but this level is also crucial for the survival of shrubs, plants, insects, and small animals in a desert environment. To estimate the surface

  19. 9 CFR 113.29 - Determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desiccated biological products. 113.29 Section 113.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... biological products. Methods provided in this section must be used when a determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the...

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of seasonal changes in live fuel moisture content and leaf dry mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Philip E. Dennison; W. Matt Jolly; Rachael C. Kropp; Simon C. Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Live fuel moisture content (LFMC), the ratio of water mass to dry mass contained in live plant material, is an important fuel property for determining fire danger and for modeling fire behavior. Remote sensing estimation of LFMC often relies on an assumption of changing water and stable dry mass over time. Fundamental understanding of seasonal variation in plant water...

  1. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  2. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S.

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in T g and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged. PMID:25642454

  3. Resistant starch contents of native and heat-moisture treated jackfruit seed starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S; Kittipongpatana, Nisit

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20-25%, together with temperatures 80-110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm(-1) suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in T g and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  4. Estimation of Moisture Content of Forest Canopy and Floor from SAR Data Part I: Volume Scattering Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    To understand and predict the functioning of forest biomes, their interaction with the atmosphere, and their growth rates, the knowledge of moisture content of their canopy and the floor soil is essential. The synthetic aperture radar on airborne and spaceborne platforms has proven to be a flexible tool for measuring electromagnetic back- scattering properties of vegetation related to their moisture content.

  5. Time to ignition is influenced by both moisture content and soluble carbohydrates in live Douglas fir and Lodgepole pine needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Jolly; Sara McAllister; Mark Finney; Ann Hadlow

    2010-01-01

    Living plants are often the primary fuels burning in wildland fire but little is known about the factors that govern their ignition behavior. Moisture content has long been hypothesized to determine the characteristics of fires spreading in live fuels but moisture content alone fails to explain observed differences in the ignition of various species at different times...

  6. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  7. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  8. Roasting and aroma formation: effect of initial moisture content and steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Kaegi, Ruth; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2008-07-23

    Initial moisture of green coffee may vary as a function of green coffee processing and storage conditions. The impact of initial moisture and steam treatment on roasting behavior and aroma formation was investigated. Steam treated coffees as well as coffees with initial moisture content of 5.10, 10.04, and 14.70 g water per 100 g wb were roasted. Light and dark roasting trials were carried out using a fluidizing-bed roaster with a batch size of 100 g of green beans. Differences in roast coffee attributes, that is, color, density, and organic roast loss, and odorant concentrations were more marked in light roasted than in dark roasted coffees. The results of roasting steam treated coffee suggest that this step affects roasting behavior primarily by extracting some aroma precursor compounds.

  9. Application of neural networks to determine moisture content on humidity-attenuated NIR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); Philipp, B.L. [ICF Kaiser, Richland, WA (United States); Thompson-Bachmeier, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Moisture has been identified as one of the critical tank waste parameters that impacts the safety status of the wastes, particularly tanks containing ferro/ferricyanide materials. Since water content is affected by a number of factors, including gravity, one hypothesis, currently being tested by Westinghouse Hanford`s Waste Tank Safety organization, is that the surface of the waste contains a minimum of water compared to the material deeper in the tank. Assuming this hypothesis is correct, a minimum internal waste water content will be obtained by measuring the surface water content. Near infrared analysis is a nondestructive technique that takes advantage of the tendency of water molecules to absorb specific wavelengths of NIR energy. When a sample containing water is exposed to those wavelengths, a certain portion of the energy will be absorbed by the water, and the remainder will be reflected. By measuring the reflected energy, the concentration of water in the sample can be determined. An initial investigation into the feasibility of remote sensing for hot cell and waste tank applications was performed at the University of Washington`s Center for Process Analytical Chemistry (CPAC) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The BY-104 waste tank simulant test data showed that for these samples, ten percent of the incident radiation is scattered. When collected, this signal is available for determining moisture content because the moisture content of the waste affects the scattering. However, atmospheric relative humidity causes a signal attenuation that will impact any in situ measurements being obtained. For simulation, this spectra was used along with software generated atmospheric transmission data from 0-60 meters to produce a modified sample set. These data are analyzed using a backpropagation neural network algorithm to construct a model that would predict surface moisture content.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE AXIAL GAP VS FIBERBOARD MOISTURE CONTENT IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    The fiberboard assembly within a 9975 shipping package contains a modest amount of moisture, which can migrate to the cooler regions of the package when an internal heat load is present. Typically, this leads to increased moisture levels in the bottom fiberboard layers, along with elevated chloride levels which can leach from the fiberboard. Concerns have been raised that this condition could lead to corrosion of the stainless steel drum. It has been postulated that checking the axial gap at the top of the package against the current 1 inch maximum criterion provides a sufficient indication regarding the integrity of the fiberboard and drum. This report estimates the increase in axial gap that might be expected for a given moisture increase in the bottom fiberboard layers, and the likelihood that the increase will create a nonconforming condition that will lead to identification of the moisture increase. Using data relating the fiberboard moisture content with the degree of compaction under load, the present analysis indicates that the axial gap will increase by 0.282 inch as the bottom fiberboard layers approach the saturation point. This increase will cause approximately 58% of packages with otherwise nominal package component dimensions to fail the axial gap criterion, based on a survey of axial gap values recorded in K-Area surveillance activities. As the moisture content increases above saturation, the predicted increase in axial gap jumps to 0.405 inch, which would result in 92% or more of all packages failing the axial gap criterion. The data and analysis described in this report are specific to cane fiberboard. While it is expected that softwood fiberboard will behave similarly, such behavior has not yet been demonstrated.

  11. Study of the Impact of Initial Moisture Content in Oil Impregnated Insulation Paper on Thermal Aging Rate of Condenser Bushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyuan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the impact of moisture on the correlated characteristics of the condenser bushings oil-paper insulation system. The oil-impregnated paper samples underwent accelerated thermal aging at 130 °C after preparation at different initial moisture contents (1%, 3%, 5% and 7%. All the samples were extracted periodically for the measurement of the moisture content, the degree of polymerization (DP and frequency domain dielectric spectroscopy (FDS. Next, the measurement results of samples were compared to the related research results of transformer oil-paper insulation, offering a theoretical basis of the parameter analysis. The obtained results show that the moisture fluctuation amplitude can reflect the different initial moisture contents of insulating paper and the mass ratio of oil and paper has little impact on the moisture content fluctuation pattern in oil-paper but has a great impact on moisture fluctuation amplitude; reduction of DP presents an accelerating trend with the increase of initial moisture content, and the aging rate of test samples is higher under low moisture content but lower under high moisture content compared to the insulation paper in transformers. Two obvious “deceleration zones” appeared in the dielectric spectrum with the decrease of frequency, and not only does the integral value of dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ reflect the aging degree, but it reflects the moisture content in solid insulation. These types of research in this paper can be applied to evaluate the condition of humidified insulation and the aging state of solid insulation for condenser bushings.

  12. Research on the Estimation Model of Soil Moisture Content Based on the Characteristics of Thermal Infrared Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; XU; Jianjun; JIANG

    2013-01-01

    With the portable Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the reflectance spectra of soil samples with different moisture content are measured in laboratory for expounding the characteristic of radiation in the thermal infrared part of the spectrum with different soil moisture content. A model of estimating the moisture content in soil is attempted to make based on Moisture Diagnostic Index (MDI). In general,the spectral characteristic of soil emissivity in laboratory includes the following aspects.Firstly,in the region of 8.0-9.5 μm,along with the increase of soil moisture content,the emissivity of soil increases to varying degrees. The spectral curves are parallel relatively and have a tendency to become horizontal and the absorbed characteristic of reststrahlen is also weakened relatively with the increase of soil moisture in this region.Secondly,in the region of 11.0-14.0 μm,the emissivity of soil has a tendency of increasing.There is an absorption value near about 12.7 μm. As the soil moisture content increases,the depth of absorption also increases. This phenomenon may be caused by soil moisture absorption. Methods as derivative, difference and standardized ratio transformation may weaken the background noise effectively to the spectrum data. Especially using the ratio of the emissivity to the average of 8-14 μm may obviously enhance the correlation between soil moisture and soil emissivity. According to the result of correlation analysis, the 8.237 μm is regarded as the best detecting band for soil moisture content. Moreover,based on the Moisture Diagnostic Index ( MDI) in the 8.194-8.279 μm, the logarithmic model of estimating soil moisture is made.

  13. Development of a Method to Estimate Moisture Diffusivity as a Function of Local Moisture Content for the Numerical Simulation of Food Drying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongchanh, Kinnaleth; Kudo, Kazuhiko; Konishi, Yasuyuki; Ariyadi, Suwono; Halim, Abdurrachim

    A method to estimate the moisture diffusivity (Dm) of fish-sausage is given as a function of local moisture content. The correlation of the moisture diffusivity is determined by matching the time history of the numerically estimated average moisture content and that obtained from an experiment. The simulation is based on a semi-two dimensional heat and mass transfer analysis with shrinkage and variable thermal properties. The data of the sausage's properties and its shrinkage during the course of drying are obtained from the experiment. The drying air conditions are 50±2oC of temperature and 0.67±0.02 m/s of velocity with 5.1-6.2% of RH. The size of the specimen is approximately 70, 100 and 10 mm of width, length and thickness, respectively. The calculated result of the drying curve using obtained Dm, local gives an error less than ±1.5%.

  14. QTLs and analysis of the candidate gene for amylose, protein, and moisture content in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ester; Choi, Yun-Sik; Chung, Il Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we determined using NIRS the heritability percentage of amylose, protein, and moisture content in polished and unpolished rice in a CNDH population derived from a cross between Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice varieties. The results revealed a higher heritability percentage for the amylose content and compromised heritability for protein and moisture contents. We also conducted QTL analysis of rice for these major components and identified their chromosomal locations on a physical map. We found a total of four QTLs affecting the amylose, protein, and moisture contents of grain on chromosome 7. We constructed physical maps of seven DNA markers responsible for amylose content, six responsible for protein content, and three responsible for moisture content. Furthermore, we classified these genes according to their functions and found 17 genes (over 77%) to be involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, two genes (about 9%), each related to cell function and abiotic stress, and one gene (about 5%) involved in redox signaling.

  15. Determination of low levels of amorphous content in inhalation grade lactose by moisture sorption isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenbroek, Jasper; Hebbink, Gerald A; Ziffels, Susanne; Steckel, Hartwig

    2010-08-16

    Alpha-lactose monohydrate is widely used as an excipient in dry powder inhalers, and plays a very important role in the efficiency of the drug delivery. Due to the processing, low levels of amorphous lactose could be present in the blends. Varying amounts could have a strong effect on the efficiency of drug delivery of the powder blends. Therefore, the accurate measurement of low levels of amorphous lactose content is very important. A new method was developed to measure the amorphous content, based on dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). In contrast to the traditional re-crystallization approach of amorphous lactose, the new method is based on moisture sorption isotherms. Moisture sorption isotherms of blends of crystalline alpha-lactose and freeze-dried or spray-dried amorphous lactose were measured. By fitting the data with a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) isotherm, a linear correlation was found between measured and actual amorphous content for the whole range of 0.1-100%. Differences between freeze-dried and spray-dried lactose, due to different molecular arrangements, could be removed by a preconditioning the samples at 35% RH prior to the isotherm measurement. It was shown that accurate determination of very low concentrations of amorphous lactose content is possible using moisture sorption isotherm analyses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dielectric constant obtained from TDR and volumetric moisture of soils in southern Brazil Constante dielétrica obtida com TDR e a umidade volumétrica de solos do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodrigo Kaiser

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is the property which most greatly influences the soil dielectric constant, which is also influenced by soil mineralogy. The aim of this study was to determine mathematical models for soil moisture and the dielectric constant (Ka for a Hapludalf, two clayey Hapludox and a very clayey Hapludox and test the reliability of universal models, such as those proposed by Topp and Ledieu and their co-workers in the 80's, and specific models to estimate soil moisture with a TDR. Soil samples were collected from the 0 to 0.30 m layer, sieved through a mesh of 0.002 m diameter and packed in PVC cylinders with a 0.1 m diameter and 0.3 m height. Seven samples of each soil class were saturated by capillarity and a probe composed of two rods was inserted in each one of them. Moisture readings began with the saturated soil and concluded when the soil was near permanent wilting point. In each step, the samples were weighed on a precision scale to calculate volumetric moisture. Linear and polynomial models were adjusted for each soil class and for all soils together between soil moisture and the dielectric constant. Accuracy of the models was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, the standard error of estimate and the 1:1 line. The models proposed by Topp and Ledieu and their co-workers were not adequate for estimating the moisture in the soil classes studied. The adjusted linear and polynomial models for the entire set of data of the four soil classes did not have sufficient accuracy for estimating soil moisture. The greater the soil clay and Fe oxide content, the greater the dielectric constant of the medium for a given volumetric moisture. The specific models, θ = 0.40283 - 0.04231 Ka + 0.00194 Ka² - 0.000022 Ka³ (Hapludox θ = 0.01971 + 0.02902 Ka - 0.00086 Ka² + 0.000012 Ka³ (Hapludox -PF, θ = 0.01692 - 0.00507 Ka (Hapludalf and θ = 0.08471 + 0.01145 Ka (Hapludox-CA, show greater accuracy and reliability for estimating soil

  17. Cloud-based application for rice moisture content measurement using image processing technique and perceptron neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Febus Reidj G.; Padilla, Dionis A.; Hortinela, Carlos C.; Bucog, Krissel C.; Sarto, Mildred C.; Sia, Nirlu Sebastian A.; Chung, Wen-Yaw

    2017-02-01

    This study is about the determination of moisture content of milled rice using image processing technique and perceptron neural network algorithm. The algorithm involves several inputs that produces an output which is the moisture content of the milled rice. Several types of milled rice are used in this study, namely: Jasmine, Kokuyu, 5-Star, Ifugao, Malagkit, and NFA rice. The captured images are processed using MATLAB R2013a software. There is a USB dongle connected to the router which provided internet connection for online web access. The GizDuino IOT-644 is used for handling the temperature and humidity sensor, and for sending and receiving of data from computer to the cloud storage. The result is compared to the actual moisture content range using a moisture tester for milled rice. Based on results, this study provided accurate data in determining the moisture content of the milled rice.

  18. Experimental Study of High Moisture Content Gas Flow Across a Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. M. Christopher; GUO Liang(郭亮)

    2003-01-01

    The Nusselt number for cross flow of a mixture of air and vapor over a cylinder was measured at moderate Reynolds numbers (3000-7000) for temperatures from 300℃ to 700℃ and for vapor mass fractions of 0.18-0.35. Results are also presented for a set of three cylinders aligned perpendicular to the flow for the same range of conditions. The effect of the vapor concentration and temperature on the convection coefficients was investigated to develop a modified Zhukauskas correlation. The results show that the Nusselt number increases as the moisture content increases and that the increase is more than could be accounted for by typical models for the property variations of mixtures. The exponent of the vapor concentration term in the modified correlation is 0.145 for the entire data set indicating the importance of the property variation due to the moisture content.

  19. A NEW INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING LOCAL MOISTURE CONTENTS IN MOIST POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ji-tian; WANG Ji-hao; GUI Ke-ting; SHI Ming-heng

    2005-01-01

    A new instrument was developed for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media based on the needle-type capacitance sensor and single-chip microprocessor technique. The working principle, the structure and characteristics of the hardware and software of the instrument were presented. The dynamic response characteristics and reliability of the instrument were experimentally determined. As an example, the instrument was employed to measure the heat and mass transport properties of a moist porous material. The experimental results show that the instrument can be used for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media and would be an effective tool for determining the heat and mass transport properties in moist porous media.

  20. Moisture Content Impact on Mechanical Properties of Selected Cohesive Soils from the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship Southern Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezowicz Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations of shearing resistance and compressibility of fine-grained cohesive soil from the southern part of the wielkopolskie voivodeship in relation to the increasing moisture content are presented. The analysis of two series of samples, using soil paste for the consistency index of 0.9 and 0.4–0.3 was carried out. The results imply that the increasing moisture content causes a decrease in the angle of shearing resistance and cohesion and is also reflected in the higher compressibility of the soil. It was observed that regardless of the soil consistency, the angle of shearing resistance decreases and the cohesion value and the oedometric modulus of primary (consolidation and secondary compressibility grows with the increase in the clay fraction.

  1. Rapid determination of moisture content in paper materials by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    This paper describes a new method for the rapid determination of the moisture content in paper materials. The method is based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) at a temperature above the boiling point of water, from which an integrated water loss from the tested sample due to evaporation can be measured and from which the moisture content in the sample can be determined. The results show that the new method has a good precision (with the relative standard deviation <0.96%), high sensitivity (the limit of quantitation=0.005%) and good accuracy (the relative differences <1.4%). Therefore, the method is quite suitable for many uses in research and industrial applications.

  2. Influence of moisture content and temperature on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of rice flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of four types of rice flours and one type of rice protein were determine at temperatures ranging from 4.8 to 36.8 C, bulk densities 535 to 875.8 kg/m3, and moisture contents 2.6 to 16.7 percent (w.b.), using a KD2 Thermal Properties Analyzer. It was ...

  3. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on Solar Drying Ratefor Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Wood drying is one of the most important process links in wood products processing.However, the existing drying methods mainly depend on heat to desiccate wood, which makes wooddrying consume roughly 40% - 70% of the total energy in the entire wood process. Using solar energyfor drying is greatly significant in two aspects of energy conservation and environment protection. Themoisture content (MC) of lumber affects not only the target value of wood drying, but also the heattransfer properties, moisture rate...

  4. Cellulose kraft pulp reinforced polylactic acid (PLA composites: effect of fibre moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Retulainen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available PLA offers a competitive and CO2 neutral matrix to commonly used polyolefin polymer based composites. Moreover, the use of PLA reduces dependency on oil when producing composite materials. However, PLA has a tendency of hydrolytic degradation under melt processing conditions in the presence of moisture, which remains a challenge when processing PLA reinforced natural fibre composites. Natural fibres such as cellulose fibres are hygroscopic with 6–10 wt% moisture content at 50–70% relative humidity conditions. These fibres are sensitive to melt processing conditions and fibre breakage (cutting also occur during processing. The degradation of PLA, moisture absorption of natural fibres together with fibre cutting and uneven dispersion of fibres in polymer matrix, deteriorates the overall properties of the composite. In the given research paper, bleached softwood kraft pulp (BSKP reinforced PLA compounds were successfully melt processed using BSKP with relatively high moisture contents. The effect of moist BSKP on the molecular weight of PLA, fibre length and the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. By using moist never-dried kraft pulp fibres for feeding, the fibre cutting was decreased during the melt compounding. Even though PLA degradation occurred during the melt processing, the final damage to the PLA was moderate and thus did not deteriorate the mechanical properties of the composites. However, comprehensive moisture removal is required during the compounding in order to achieve optimal overall performance of the PLA/BSKP composites. The economic benefit gained from using moist BSKP is that the expensive and time consuming drying process steps of the kraft pulp fibres prior to processing can be minimized.

  5. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  6. Surface-to-food pesticide transfer as a function of moisture and fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderheide, Anne P; Bernard, Craig E; Hieber, Thomas E; Kauffman, Peter E; Morgan, Jeffrey N; Melnyk, Lisa Jo

    2009-01-01

    Transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods may result in excess dietary exposure in children (i.e., beyond that inherent in foods due to agricultural application). In this study, transfer was evaluated as a function of the moisture and fat content of various foods. Surfaces chosen for investigation were those commonly found in homes and included Formica, ceramic tile, plastic, carpet, and upholstery fabric. Each surface type was sprayed with an aqueous emulsion of organophosphates, fipronil, and synthetic pyrethroids. In the first phase of the study, multiple foods (apples, watermelon, wheat crackers, graham crackers, white bread, flour tortillas, bologna, fat-free bologna, sugar cookies, ham, Fruit Roll-ups, pancakes, and processed American cheese) were categorized with respect to moisture and fat content. All were evaluated for potential removal of applied pesticides from a Formica surface. In the second phase of the study, representative foods from each classification were investigated for their potential for pesticide transfer with an additional four surfaces: ceramic tile, plastic, upholstery, and carpet. Moisture content, not fat, was found to be a determining factor in most transfers. For nearly all surfaces, more efficient transfer occurred with increased hardness (Formica and ceramic tile). Comparatively, the polymer composition of the plastic delivered overall lower transfer efficiencies, presumably due to an attraction between it and the organic pesticides of interest.

  7. Relationship between moisture content and electrical impedance of carrot slices during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Ákos; Hlaváčová, Zuzana; Vozáry, Eszter; Staroňová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of food materials can give information about the inner structure and physiological state of biological tissues. Generally, the process of drying of fruits and vegetables is followed by weight loss. The aim of this study was to measure the impedance spectra of carrot slices during drying and to correlate impedance parameters to moisture content in different drying periods. Cylindrical slices were cut out from the carrot root along the axis. The slices were dried in a Venticell 111 air oven at 50°C. The weight of the slices was measured with a Denver SI-603 electronic analytical and precision balance. The weighing of the samples was performed every 30 min at the beginning of drying and every 60 min after the process. The moisture content of the samples was calculated on wet basis. The magnitude and phase angle of electrical impedance of the slices were measured with HP 4284A and 4285A precision LCR meters in the frequency range from 30 Hz to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz to 30 MHz, respectively, at voltage 1 V. The impedance measurement was performed after weighting. The change in the magnitude of impedance during drying showed a good correlation with the change in the moisture content.

  8. Precipitation extreme changes exceeding moisture content increases in MIROC and IPCC climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Emori, Seita

    2010-01-12

    Precipitation extreme changes are often assumed to scale with, or are constrained by, the change in atmospheric moisture content. Studies have generally confirmed the scaling based on moisture content for the midlatitudes but identified deviations for the tropics. In fact half of the twelve selected Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) models exhibit increases faster than the climatological-mean precipitable water change for high percentiles of tropical daily precipitation, albeit with significant intermodel scatter. Decomposition of the precipitation extreme changes reveals that the variations among models can be attributed primarily to the differences in the upward velocity. Both the amplitude and vertical profile of vertical motion are found to affect precipitation extremes. A recently proposed scaling that incorporates these dynamical effects can capture the basic features of precipitation changes in both the tropics and midlatitudes. In particular, the increases in tropical precipitation extremes significantly exceed the precipitable water change in Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), a coupled general circulation model with the highest resolution among IPCC climate models whose precipitation characteristics have been shown to reasonably match those of observations. The expected intensification of tropical disturbances points to the possibility of precipitation extreme increases beyond the moisture content increase as is found in MIROC and some of IPCC models.

  9. Influence of salinity and moisture content in electrical resistivity tomography readings in geomaterials used in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Fort, Rafael; Garcia Morales, Soledad

    2014-05-01

    Wetness and salts are among the main agents hindering the performance of any porous building material. There are a number of techniques based on electrical properties for the detection of these agents in buildings, such as portable moisture meters and electric resistivity tomography (ERT). These methods are used to locate wet areas based on the lower electrical resistivity wet materials have in relation to dry ones. However, as both moisture and salts contribute to low resistivity readings, the ERT readings may have a degree of uncertainty. This research aims to study the contribution of salinity and moisture content on the readings of ERT by testing laminated gypsum boards in the laboratory with solutions with different compositions (i.e. sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate and a mixture of both) and concentrations of salts. An industrial product, such as the laminated gypsum board, was chosen to minimize the effects that heterogeneities in composition and physical properties could have in the ERT readings and facilitate the interpretation of the wetness/salt content difference. Gypsum board was soaked with a fixed amount of the chosen solutions and several ERT transects were performed with a GeoTom device (Geolog2000) while drying. Results show the influence salinity of solutions have in drying process, and how the salt content remaining within the pores of geomaterials impact on ERT results. Research funded by Geomateriales (S2009/MAT-16) and CEI Moncloa (UPM, UCM, CSIC) through a PICATA contract and the equipment from RedLAbPAt Network

  10. Organic matter and soil moisture content and double cropping with organic matter sourceplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Double cropping of coffee with organic matter source plants is thought to increase organic matter content of soil. This study examined the effect of double cropping of coffee and organic matter source plants on soil organic matter content and yield of coffee plants. Arabica coffee trees in Andungsari Experimental Station (Bondowoso district, 1400 m asl. and climate type C; and Robusta coffee trees in Sumberasin Experimental Station (Malang district, 550 m asl. and climate type C, were used as experimental sites of this study which lasted for five years. Organic matter source plants consisted of some species that can be routinedly pruned and surface applied to coffee soil, and other creeping species that not being pruned, however the organic matter source derived from their fallen leaves. Application of farm manure and control (neither organic matter source plants nor farm yard manure were used as comparison treatments. Results indicate that Ramayana (Cassia spectabilis had vigorus growth resulting in greater biomass production compared to lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala, mogania (Moghania macrophylla and even kaliandra (Calyandra calothyrsus which produced greater biomass among organic matter source plants grown in Arabica coffee farming. Double cropping of coffee with organic matter source plants did not affect soil organic matter content of Arabica and Robusta coffee farmings, though farm yard manure application increased soil organic matter content and soil bulk density, especially of Robusta coffee farm. Soil moisture content examined in dry season was not affected by double cropping. In contrary, Robusta coffee farm applied with farm yard manure had higher soil moisture content. At Arabica coffee farm, double cropping did not influence green coffee yield, on the other hand Ramayana reduced green coffee yield of Robusta coffee while farm yard manure increased the yield.Keywords : Coffeea arabica, Coffeea canephora, organic matter, soil

  11. Influence of moisture content and temperature on the dielectric permittivity of zeolite NaY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Markus; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Roland, Ulf

    2011-03-07

    The influence of moisture content and temperature on the dielectric permittivity (complex resistance) of the zeolite NaY was investigated for a fixed radio frequency (RF) of 13.56 MHz. Sealed glass tubes containing zeolite with defined moisture contents were simultaneously heated in a homogeneous high-frequency electromagnetic field. The dielectric loss factor, i.e. the imaginary part of the permittivity ε(r)″, was calculated from the obtained heating rates. On the basis of the resulting values for various moisture contents and temperatures and utilizing the knowledge of elementary cation hopping processes occurring at low and high frequencies (LF and HF) from the literature, a new model was introduced for the description of dielectric radio-frequency heating of moist zeolites. Since adsorption of water is correlated with an enhancement of the activation energy of the cations on SII sites, cations in the zeolite NaY are moving from SII sites to unoccupied SIII sites when the water content is increasing. Thus, four different transfer processes for the cations have to be considered in total. On the basis of these assumptions, the resulting dielectric loss factor ε(r)″ as a function of water content and temperature for a fixed frequency of 13.56 MHz was modelled. The experimental data are in good agreement with the values obtained from the model. Especially, the measured pronounced maximum of dielectric loss at temperatures below 300 °C and water contents below 4 wt.-% can be explained by the new model.

  12. Effects of soil moisture content and tractor wheeling intensity on traffic-induced soil compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman AHMADI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction causes deleterious effects on physical and mechanical proprieties of agricultural soils. In order to investigate the effect of soil moisture content and tractor wheeling intensity on traffic-induced soil compaction, this study was carried out on a field with clay loam soil. Soil dry bulk density and hydraulic conductivity as well as emergence percentage of corn seedlings and dry mass of the sampled mature plants were considered the dependent variables of the experiment. Independent variables consisted of soil moisture content with five levels (12, 15, 17, 19, and 21%, traffic intensity with three levels (four, two, and zero passes of tractor wheel (tractor model: John Deere 3350 from the entire area of the plot, and soil sampling depth with three levels (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. According to the results of this study, gradual increase in soil water content generally resulted in an increase in soil bulk density; moreover, increasing the tractor wheeling intensity from 0 to 4 passes increased bulk density by 13%. Furthermore, the driest soil water content had the highest and the wettest soil water content had the lowest emergence percentage of corn seedlings among the treatments; moreover, traffic intensity treatment inversely affected the emergence percentage of corn seedlings and the dry mass of mature plants. To sum up, these results indicate that, for improving water permeability and reducing dry bulk density of the examined clay loam soil, as well as better emergence of corn seedlings and ultimately increasing crop yield, it is recommended to avoid wheeling when soil moisture content is high, reduce the number of machinery wheel passes from the farm as low as possible, and restrict the wheel passes to fixed strips along the field, whenever possible.

  13. Higher moisture content is associated with greater emissions of DEHP from PVC wallpaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Liu, Yu-Chun; Lee, Chia-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Su, Huey-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Water damage and moisture in buildings may become more prevalent due to the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation and flooding events resulting from climate change. However, the effects of moisture levels on phthalate emissions from building materials are still underreported. This study aims to evaluate the effect of moisture content (MC) on the level of di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) emitted from plastic wallpaper (0.22wt% DEHP) within 15 days in a closed chamber. A scenario of short-term exposure to DEHP in buildings suffering from water damage was simulated. Experiments, controlled at 100% relative humidity (RH) of air and 28°C, were conducted under the following three conditions: (I) without wallpaper (control chamber), (II) dry wallpaper (MC at 3.57%) and (III) damp wallpaper (MC at 52.31%). Air and dust samples were collected at the elapsed time of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 15 days, and the wipe sample was collected on the last day. Higher DEHP concentrations were found to be emitted into the air and adsorbed on the dust for wallpapers with higher MC%. DEHP levels in the air exhibited an increasing trend with the length of the experiment. Overall, it was found that approximately 35.31% more total DEHP mass was released into the air, dust and wipe samples from damp wallpapers compared to dry wallpapers. It is concluded that DEHP emissions from plastic materials are affected by the inner moisture percentage.

  14. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings and the abi......The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings...... are exposed. This study examines the data from the first five years of outdoor exposure using data from a test rack with a water-borne acrylic coating and a test rack with ICP coating for case studies. The moisture content data was converted into weekly average and weekly variation values which gave a deeper...... insight into the performance of the tested systems. The first was used to check for moisture build-up in the construction whereas the latter gave an indication of the gradual degradation of the coating itself, i.e. the degree of cracking. A linear tendency with time was found for all tested systems...

  15. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  16. Microwave Dielectric Sensing of Moisture Content in Shelled Peanuts Independent of Bulk Density and with Temperature Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dielectric method for rapid and nondestructive sensing of moisture content in shelled peanuts from free space measurement of attenuation, phase shift, and their corresponding dielectric properties at microwave frequencies is presented. Results of moisture prediction with three density-independent...

  17. The impact of vertical measurement depth on the information content of soil moisture for latent heat flux estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using ground-based soil moisture and latent/sensible heat fluxes observations acquired from the Ameriflux Network, we calculate the mutual information (MI) content between multiple soil moisture variables and evaporative fraction (EF) to examine the existence of information in vertically-integrated ...

  18. Moisture Content Numerical Simulation on Structural Damage of Hot Mix Asphaltic Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abejide, O. S.; Mostafa, M. M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the merits of road transportation in the economy and communication activities of the modern societies, it is imperative to design a safe, stable, efficient and cost effective road that will lead to increased economic development and growth of the South African nation. Although, the overarching effect of failed roads has in many ways led to increased travel time, loss of life and property; leading to reduced driver control on failed road sections (riding quality). Thus, time rate delamination of flexible pavement is a major focus of this study. Since structural collapse in a flexible pavement structure is caused by the evolution of different types of damage mechanisms; fatigue cracking, advanced crushing, temperature variation, and delamination. The effect of moisture content on HMA was analysed. The analysis from the multi-layered elastic model indicates that increase in moisture content in the underlying layer of HMA pavement results to increase in the strain of the individual layers and culminates to a decrease in the structural carrying capacity of the pavement with respect to number of load cycles that can be carried on the HMA pavement. This study shows a clear relationship between the moisture/saturation coefficient and the Elastic Modulus of the underlying geometric material layer properties of the pavement during the service life of the pavement.

  19. Effect of Superheated Steam Treatment on Changes in Moisture Content and Colour Properties of Coconut Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mah Sook Yun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying is one of the methods to preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of food. Coconut meat was sliced and dried using superheated steam oven at 140°C, 160°C and 180°C. Drying was carried out at different drying time (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. The effect of drying temperature and time on the moisture content and colour properties (L, a, b and BI of the coconut slices were studied. The temperature and time significantly (p < 0.05 affected the moisture loss and colour values of coconut slices during superheated steam drying. The moisture content decreased with increased drying temperature and time. The values of L decreased with drying temperature and time. The a and b value of coconut slice dried at 140°C decreased initially then increased with time. Coconut slices dried at 160°C had their a values increased up to 20 minutes then decreased and b values increased up to 20 minutes then fluctuated. The a and b values of coconut slices dried at 180°C showed fluctuation. BI values of coconut slices increased with increasing drying time and temperature.

  20. Effect of moisture content on selected physicochemical properties of two commercial hen egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-05-01

    After short-term storage at 23°C, selected physicochemical properties of two hen egg white powders (with and without hydrolysis) were studied. Overall, the effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of Hydrolysed Egg White powder (HEW) was more severe than those of Dried Egg White powder (DEW). The denaturation temperature (Td) and its enthalpy change (ΔHd) of ovalbumin in DEW followed an exponential model, as well as the Td of HEW. The Gordon-Taylor equation modelled well the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of HEW and DEW. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model fitted well to the type II moisture sorption isotherm. At the critical moisture content (12.0%, dry basis), compared with DEW, the colour of HEW began to darken dramatically and its hardness started to change significantly. These changes were closely related to the inherent characteristics of the two products. The mechanisms relevant to these physicochemical changes were discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Non-destructive evaluation of moisture content in wood using ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reci, Hamza; Chinh Maï, Tien; Sbartaï, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Kiri, Emanuela

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory measurements, carried out to study how the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signal is affected by moisture variation in wood material. The effects of the wood fibre direction, with respect to the polarisation of the electromagnetic field, are investigated. The relative permittivity of wood and the amplitude of the electric field received by the radar are measured for different humidity levels using the direct-wave method in wide angle radar reflection configuration, in which one GPR antenna is moved while the other is kept in a fixed position. The received signal is recorded for different separations between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Dielectric constants estimated from direct waves are compared to those estimated from reflected waves: direct and reflected waves show different behaviour when the moisture content varies, due to their different propagation paths.

  2. Evaluation of soil pH and moisture content on in-situ ozonation of pyrene in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Teasley, S; Ubaka-Blackmoore, N; Masten, S J

    2009-08-15

    In this study, pyrene spiked soil (300 ppm) was ozonated at pH levels of 2, 6, and 8 and three moisture contents. It was found that soil pH and moisture content impacted the effectiveness of PAH oxidation in unsaturated soils. In air-dried soils, as pH increased, removal increased, such that pyrene removal efficiencies at pH 6 and pH 8 reached 95-97% at a dose of 2.22 mg O(3)/mg pyrene. Ozonation at 16.2+/-0.45 mg O(3)/ppm pyrene in soil resulted in 81-98% removal of pyrene at all pH levels tested. Saturated soils were tested at dry, 5% or 10% moisture conditions. The removal of pyrene was slower in moisturized soils, with the efficiency decreasing as the moisture content increased. Increasing the pH of the soil having a moisture content of 5% resulted in improved pyrene removals. On the contrary, in the soil having a moisture content of 10%, as the pH increased, pyrene removal decreased. Contaminated PAH soils were stored for 6 months to compare the efficiency of PAH removal in freshly contaminated soil and aged soils. PAH adsorption to soil was found to increase with longer exposure times; thus requiring much higher doses of ozone to effectively oxidize pyrene.

  3. Relationship between Nacl Concentration of the Irrigation Water and the Plants Moisture Content of Four Antiphylloxeric Rootstocks of Grapevine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FATBARDHA SHPATI; LUSH SUSAJ; ELISABETA SUSAJ

    2016-01-01

    Study for the relationship between whole plant moisture content and the shoot hardwood cuttings and NaCl concentration of four antiphylloxeric rootstocks of grapevine was conducted during 2014 -2015...

  4. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    ... %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM...

  5. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: the influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Berretta, C; Poe, S.; Stovin, V.

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one lef...

  6. The influence of ripening process on moisture in fat-free matter and fat content of the Trappist cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the influence of ripening proces on moisture in fat-freematter and fat content of Trappist cheese has been investigated. In dairy company (Lura, Bjelovar) the natural ripening process of rind Trappist cheese occurs. Afterwards, the cheese is packaged into shrinkable plastic pouch and the rindless cheese is produced. The obtained results are statistically processed. The above mentioned ripening process has a significant influence on moisture content of the fat-free matter and is ...

  7. Investigation of Analytical Techniques for the Rapid Determination of the Moisture Content of NOL 130 Primer Mix and Lead Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    the presence of NOL 130 6 Determination of moisture content of dextrinated lead azide 14 containing known amounts of water, by the Karl Fisher method...maLhiod, extraction mode 8 Determinatiov) of moisture content of special purpose and 16 dextrinated lead atide, containing known amounts of water by the...water in special purpose and dextrinated lead azides were determined by the method described in the experimen- tal section of this report, data shown

  8. Relationship between Nacl Concentration of the Irrigation Water and the Plants Moisture Content of Four Antiphylloxeric Rootstocks of Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATBARDHA SHPATI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Study for the relationship between whole plant moisture content and the shoot hardwood cuttings and NaCl concentration of four antiphylloxeric rootstocks of grapevine was conducted during 2014 -2015 at the Experimental Base of the Agricultural University of Tirana. Rooted rootstock’s cuttings were irrigated using normal tap water up to July 20, and, after that, for 45 days, were irrigated using sodium chloride solucion in six different concentrations [control (normal tap water, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 10000 ppm]. Obtained results showed that with the increase of NaCl concentration, the whole plant moisture content and the hardwood cuttings, was decreased for all rootstocks under study. For the same NaCl concentration, the moisture content of the entire plants and shoot hardwood cuttings were different for different rootstocks. Ranking of rootstocks, according to the plant moisture content, was 1103P (83.2-83.6%, followed by 140Ru (79.5-79.8%, SO4 (79.3-79.5% and Kober 5BB (79.03-79.2%. The moisture content of shoot hardwood cuttings was lower than moisture content of the whole plant. Ranking of the rootstocks, according to the moisture content of hardwood cuttings, was 1103P (58.2-58.4%, 140Ru (59.8-59.9%, Kober 5BB (55.6-55.9% and SO4 (54.9-55%. Ampelographic assessment of the resistance of the rootstocks to chlorides (salt was carried out using OIV Code 402. Rootstock SO4 was more sensitive and less resistant to sodium chloride concentration compare to 1103 P, 140Ru and Kober 5BB. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.01 in plant moisture content between NaCl treatments and tested rootstocks.

  9. [Responses of Agriophyllum squarrosum phenotypic plasticity to the changes of soil nutrient and moisture contents and population density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-xin; Zhao, Xue-yong; Zhang, Hong-xuan; Luo, Ya-yong; Mao, Wei

    2008-12-01

    This paper studied the phenotypic plasticity of Agriophyllum squarrosum under effects of soil nutrient and moisture contents and population density. The results showed that with the increase of soil nutrient content, the root/shoot ratio of A. squarrosum was decreased from 0.135 to 0.073. However, soil moisture content and population density had less effect on the root/shoot ratio. The plasticity of reproductive allocation of A. squarrosum as responding to the changes of soil nutrient and moisture contents was a "real plasticity", and the allocation was negatively correlated with soil nutrient content but positively correlated with soil moisture content. When soil nutrient content was high or moisture content was low, the reproductive allocation of A. squarrosum changed larger with plant size. Population density had no effects on the reproductive allocation, while plant size conditioned the allocation. Among the three test affecting factors, soil nutrient content had the greatest effects on the morphological characters and biomass of A. squarrosum.

  10. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  11. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    . All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being normally distributed to having more preferential characteristics along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines...... (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curve (BTC), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability...

  12. Effect Of Preheating And Different Moisture Content Of Input Materials On Durability Of Pellets Made From Different Phytomass Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macák Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the storage process on the durability of pellets made of different types of biomass (lucerne hay, maize stover, wheat straw, miscanthus, prickly lettuce for energy purposes. Pellets were produced on a hydraulic press that allowed modifying the size of pellets. The durability of pellets was measured on a special testing instrument according to the ASAE S269.4 (2007 standard method. The pellets used in the test were produced by pressing without preheating and with preheating. Durability rating was expressed as the ratio of the original mass of pellets and the mass of pellets remaining on a 17 mm opening sieve after tumbling. Storage negatively affected the durability of pellets made without preheating for all the types of biomass materials in different moisture contents. On the other hand, there was some positive response to storing of pellets made with preheating. The durability of pellets made of maize stover, wheat straw and miscanthus in the moisture content of 5 % increased with storing.

  13. Effect of Moisture Content and Storage Time on Sweet Corn Waste Silage Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthit PANYASAK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effect of moisture content in sweet corn waste and fermentation period on silage quality. Three pressure levels of 0, 0.6675 and 1.0013 N/cm2 for 1 min were assigned to sweet corn waste obtained from the sweet corn factory. Four fermentation periods at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days were assigned on silage for the 3´4 factorial experimental design. The results showed that the level of pressure yielded different values (p < 0.01, for the dry matter, moisture, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, gross energy, lactic acid, acetic acid and the butyric acid, except crude protein, fat, ash and pH content. It was found that dry matter, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and gross energy increased when the level of pressure increased. The period of fermentation had a significant effect (p < 0.01 on chemical composition. The pH levels were high at 30 days of fermentation and decreased at longer periods up to 90 days. We concluded that sweet corn waste silage with higher dry matter content and being fermented for 30 days contained the highest nutritive values among all treatments combinations.

  14. Reprint of “Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Christian; Poë, Simon; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-08-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one left unvegetated. Water content reflectometers were located at three different soil depths to measure the soil moisture profile and to record temporal changes in moisture content at a five-minute resolution. The moisture content vertical profiles varied consistently, with slightly elevated moisture content levels being recorded at the deepest substrate layer in the vegetated systems. Daily moisture loss rates were influenced by both temperature and moisture content, with reduced moisture loss/evapotranspiration when the soil moisture was restricted. The presence of vegetation resulted in higher daily moisture loss. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed moisture content data can be accurately simulated using a hydrologic model based on water balance and two conventional Potential ET models (Hargreaves and FAO56 Penman-Monteith) combined with a soil moisture extraction function. Configuration-specific correction factors have been proposed to account for differences between green roof systems and standard reference crops.

  15. Desulphurisation of high moisture content fuel-gases derived from low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, S.; Anderson, B. [HRL Technology, Mulgrave, Vic. (Australia); Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Regenerable sulphur sorbent materials have been developed specifically for fluidised-bed desulphurisation of high moisture content fuel-gases derived from the gasification of low-rank coals. Selection of the most appropriate sorbents was based on thermodynamic limitations, strength/attrition resistance, reactivity and sulphur capacity. Pilot-scale tests showed that sorbents based on iron and copper were able to reduce the level of H{sub 2}S in the fuel-gas (up to 2.5 MPa, 350 C) from about 3000 ppmv to less than 100 ppmv. (orig.)

  16. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  17. Fuel moisture content analysis as a basis for process monitoring of a BioGrate boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Boriouchkine, Alexander; Zakharov, Alexey; Jämsä-Jounela, Sirkka-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the utilization of first principle models of a BioGrate boiler in a disturbance analysis study. The study focuses on the effect of fuel moisture content on the fuel combustion, since it is the most significant disturbance source in the boiler operation. The dynamic model of a BioGrate boiler, upon which the study is based, is heterogeneous, including solid and gas phases. Furthermore, the model considers chemical reactions in both gas and solid phases. In addition, fuel m...

  18. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  19. Temporal moisture content variability beneath and external to a building and the potential effects on vapor intrusion risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Weaver, James W

    2007-06-15

    Migration of vapors from organic chemicals residing in the subsurface into overlying buildings is known as vapor intrusion. Because of the difficulty in evaluating vapor intrusion by indoor air sampling, models are often employed to determine if a potential indoor inhalation exposure pathway exists and, if such a pathway is complete, whether long-term exposure increases the occupants' risk for cancer or other toxic effects to an unacceptable level. For site-specific vapor intrusion assessments, moisture content is, at times, determined from soil cores taken in open spaces between buildings. However, there is little published information on how moisture content measured outside a building structure compares with the moisture content directly beneath the building - where the values are most critical for vapor intrusion assessments. This research begins to address these issues by investigating the movement of soil moisture next to and beneath a building at a contaminated field site and determining the effect on vapor intrusion risk assessment. A two-dimensional, variably-saturated water flow model, HYDRUS-2D, is used with 2 years of hourly, local rainfall data to simulate subsurface moisture content in the vicinity of a hypothetical 10 x 10-m building slab at a contaminated field site. These moisture content values are used in vapor intrusion risk assessment simulations using the Johnson and Ettinger model with instantaneous and averaged moisture contents. Results show that vapor intrusion risk assessments based on moisture content determined from soil cores taken external to a building structure may moderately-to-severely underestimate the vapor intrusion risk from beneath the structure. Soil under the edges of a slab may be influenced by rainfall events and may show reduced vapor intrusion risk as a consequence. Data from a building instrumented with subslab moisture probes showed results similar to the modeling, but with a smaller difference between the subslab and

  20. Temporal moisture content variability beneath and external to a building and the potential effects on vapor intrusion risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, Fred D. [National Research Council (United States); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecosystems Research Division, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605-2700 (United States); Weaver, James W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecosystems Research Division, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605-2700 (United States)]. E-mail: Weaver.Jim@epa.gov

    2007-06-15

    Migration of vapors from organic chemicals residing in the subsurface into overlying buildings is known as vapor intrusion. Because of the difficulty in evaluating vapor intrusion by indoor air sampling, models are often employed to determine if a potential indoor inhalation exposure pathway exists and, if such a pathway is complete, whether long-term exposure increases the occupants' risk for cancer or other toxic effects to an unacceptable level. For site-specific vapor intrusion assessments, moisture content is, at times, determined from soil cores taken in open spaces between buildings. However, there is little published information on how moisture content measured outside a building structure compares with the moisture content directly beneath the building - where the values are most critical for vapor intrusion assessments. This research begins to address these issues by investigating the movement of soil moisture next to and beneath a building at a contaminated field site and determining the effect on vapor intrusion risk assessment. A two-dimensional, variably-saturated water flow model, HYDRUS-2D, is used with 2 years of hourly, local rainfall data to simulate subsurface moisture content in the vicinity of a hypothetical 10 x 10-m building slab at a contaminated field site. These moisture content values are used in vapor intrusion risk assessment simulations using the Johnson and Ettinger model with instantaneous and averaged moisture contents. Results show that vapor intrusion risk assessments based on moisture content determined from soil cores taken external to a building structure may moderately-to-severely underestimate the vapor intrusion risk from beneath the structure. Soil under the edges of a slab may be influenced by rainfall events and may show reduced vapor intrusion risk as a consequence. Data from a building instrumented with subslab moisture probes showed results similar to the modeling, but with a smaller difference between the

  1. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  2. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L

    1998-11-01

    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  3. Fat and Moisture Content in Chinese Fried Bread Sticks: Assessment and Rapid Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fried bread sticks (FBS are one of the most widely consumed deep fried food products in China. Understanding the fat and moisture content in FBS will help consumers make healthy food choices as well as assist food processors to provide FBS with desirable quality. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared methods (FT-NIR were developed for determining fat and moisture content in FBS collected from 123 different vendors in Shanghai, China. FBS samples with minimum sample preparation (either finely or coarsely ground were used for NIR analyses. Spectra of FBS were treated with different mathematic pretreatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and fat (7.71%–30.89% or moisture (17.39%–32.65% content in FBS. Finely ground samples may lead to slightly more robust PLS models, but the particle sizes of ground FBS samples did not seriously affect the predictability of the models with appropriate mathematical treatments. The fat and moisture content in FBS predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (fat, R2=0.965; moisture, R2=0.983, which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of fat and moisture content in FBS.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  5. Drying characteristics and equilibrium moisture content of steam-treated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pak Sui; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Larsson, Sylvia H

    2012-07-01

    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.) particles were exposed to high pressure saturated steam (200 and 220 °C for 5 and 10 min) to improve the durability and hydrophobicity of pellets produced from them. Depending on treatment severity, the moisture content of the particles increased from 10% to 36% (wet basis). Douglas fir particles steam-treated at 220 °C for 10 min had the fastest drying rate of 0.014 min(-1). The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of steam-treated samples decreased with increasing steam temperature and treatment time. The Giggnheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) equilibrium model gave a good fit with the equilibrium data with R(2) = 0.99. The adsorption rate of untreated pellets exposed to humid air (30 °C, 90% RH) for 72 h was 0.0152 min(-1) while that of steam-treated pellets ranged from 0.0125 to 0.0135 min(-1) without a clear trend with steam treatment severity. These findings are critical to develop durable and less hygroscopic pellets.

  6. Thermophysical properties of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius: experimental determination and effect of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Augusto Perussello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about thermophysical properties of foods is especially important in thermal processing, influencing the design, optimization and cost reduction of the process, as well as the quality and safety of the final product. This article deals with the determination of some thermophysical properties of yacon, namely, specific mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity during the osmo-convective drying. Yacon is a root with approximately 90% w.b. of moisture content, whose high concentration of fructooligosacharydes and antioxidants has gained attention in the food research field. Yacon slices were osmotically dehydrated for 2 hours in a sucralose solution and then dried in a convective tray dryer for 2 hours, varying the osmotic solution’s temperature and stirring rate and temperature of the drying air. All thermophysical properties were determined during the drying process at 30-minute intervals. The thermophysical properties were determined not only experimentally but also calculated by models available in literature based on the product’s centesimal composition. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and predicted results was obtained. Further, empirical models obtained by nonlinear regression were successfully fitted to the experimental data, as a function of moisture content, within a 94% - 3% w.b. range.

  7. Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelos, M S; Freire, J T

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C and D), the sorption isotherms were obtained at air temperature of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C by using the static method. This permits one to investigate which model can relate the equilibrium moisture content of the mixture with that of a pure component through the mass fraction of each component in the mixtures. The results show that the experimental data can be well described by the weighted harmonic mean model. This suggests that the mean equilibrium moisture content of the carton-packaging mixture presents a non-linear relationship with each single, pure compound.

  8. Chemical Analysis Method for Carbon Bearing Refractory Products——Determination of Magnesium Oxide Content by CyDTA Volumetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    @@ GB/T 13246 - 91 1 Scope This standard specifies the method summary, reagents, apparatus, sampling, procedure, test results calculation and permissible tolerance of the determination of magnesium oxide by CyDTA volumetric method. This standard applies to the determination of magnesium oxide content in between 60% and 85% in magnesia-carbon bricks

  9. Lipid and moisture content modeling of amphidromous Dolly Varden using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, J.T.; Margraf, F.J.; Carlson, J.G.; Sutton, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological well-being or condition of fish is most commonly estimated from aspects of individual morphology. However, these metrics may be only weakly correlated with nutritional reserves stored as lipid, the primary form of accumulated energy in fish. We constructed and evaluated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) models as an alternative method of assessing condition in amphidromous Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma collected from nearshore estuarine and lotic habitats of the Alaskan Arctic. Data on electrical resistance and reactance were collected from the lateral and ventral surfaces of 192 fish, and whole-body percent lipid and moisture content were determined using standard laboratory methods. Significant inverse relationships between temperature and resistance and reactance prompted the standardization of these data to a constant temperature using corrective equations developed herein. No significant differences in resistance or reactance were detected among spawning and nonspawning females after accounting for covariates, suggesting that electrical pathways do not intersect the gonads. Best-fit BIA models incorporating electrical variables calculated from the lateral and ventral surfaces produced the strongest associations between observed and model-predicted estimates of proximate content. These models explained between 6% and 20% more of the variability in laboratory-derived estimates of proximate content than models developed from single-surface BIA data and 32% more than models containing only length and weight data. While additional research is required to address the potential effects of methodological variation, bioelectrical impedance analysis shows promise as a way to provide high-quality, minimally invasive estimates of Dolly Varden lipid or moisture content in the field with only small increases in handling time.

  10. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine.

  11. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng-Choon Tan, Adrian; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements.

  12. Lactose and galactose content in cheese results in overestimation of moisture by vacuum oven and microwave methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H; Rankin, S A; Fonseca, L M; Milani, F X

    2014-05-01

    Moisture determination in cheese is a critical test for regulatory compliance, functionality, and economic reasons. Common methods for moisture determination in cheese rely upon the thermal volatilization of water from cheese and calculation of moisture content based on the resulting loss of mass. Residual sugars, such as lactose and galactose, are commonly present in cheeses at levels ranging from trace amounts to 5%. These sugars are capable of reacting with other compounds in cheese, especially under the thermal conditions required for moisture determination, to yield volatile reaction products. The hypothesis of this work is that residual sugars in cheese will be converted into volatile compounds over the course of moisture determination at a level sufficient to result in overestimated cheese moisture. A full-factorial statistical design was used to evaluate the effects of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and all interactions. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella cheeses were prepared with 1, 3, and 5% added lactose or galactose, and subjected to either vacuum oven or microwave-based moisture determination methods. Browning index and colorimetry were measured to characterize the color and extent of browning. Volatile analyses were performed to provide chemical evidence of the reactions proposed. The presence of residual sugars altered moisture calculations as a function of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and numerous interactions. At higher concentrations of residual sugar, the percentage moisture determinations were increased by values of up to 1.8. Measures of browning reactions, including browning index, colorimetry, and volatile profiles demonstrate that the proposed browning reactions played a causative role. This work establishes the need to consider cheese type, sugar type, sugar levels, and method type as a means of more accurately determining moisture levels.

  13. The influence of ripening process on moisture in fat-free matter and fat content of the Trappist cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of ripening proces on moisture in fat-freematter and fat content of Trappist cheese has been investigated. In dairy company (Lura, Bjelovar the natural ripening process of rind Trappist cheese occurs. Afterwards, the cheese is packaged into shrinkable plastic pouch and the rindless cheese is produced. The obtained results are statistically processed. The above mentioned ripening process has a significant influence on moisture content of the fat-free matter and is 5.34 % higher for the Trappist cheese in plastic pouch in comparison to rind Trappist cheese, while the fat content is 6.13 higher for the rind Trappist cheese.

  14. Effect of air moisture content on adhesion to dentine: a comparison of dental air/water syringe tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A; Bennani, V; Chandler, N; Hanlin, S; Lowe, B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the spray pattern and air moisture content produced by single-use syringe and multiple-use syringe tips. The drying efficacy was evaluated by analyzing the spray and by detecting the presence of moisture in the air blast through the tips. Single-use tips had a more consistent spray pattern and produced a moisture-free airflow compared to the multiple-use tips. The differences were statistically significant. Adhesion to dentine between tooth preparations dried with the two tips was evaluated using a tensile test. The differences were statistically insignificant.

  15. A fast TDR-inversion technique for the reconstruction of spatial soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schlaeger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial moisture distribution in natural soil or other material is a valuably information for many applications. Standard measurement techniques give only mean or punctual results. Therefore a new inversion algorithm has been developed to derive moisture profiles along single TDR sensor-probes. The algorithm uses the full information content of TDR reflection data measured from one or both sides of an embedded probe. The system consisting of sensor probe and surrounded soil can be interpreted as a nonuniform transmission-line. The algorithm is based on the telegraph equations for nonuniform transmission-lines and an optimization approach to reconstruct the distribution of the capacitance and effective conductance along the transmission-line with high spatial resolution. The capacitance distribution can be converted into permittivity and water content by means of a capacitance model and dielectric mixing rules. Numerical investigations have been carried out to verify the accuracy of the inversion algorithm. Single- and double-sided time-domain reflection data were used to determine the capacitance and effective conductance profiles of lossless and lossy materials. The results show that single-sided reflection data are sufficient for lossless (or low-loss cases. In case of lossy material two independent reflection measurements are required to reconstruct a reliable capacitance profile. The inclusion of an additional effective conductivity profile leads to an improved capacitance profile. The algorithm converges very fast and yields a capacitance profile within a sufficiently short time. The additional transformation to the water content requires no significant calculation time.

  16. Dead fuel moisture estimation with MSG-SEVIRI data. Retrieval of meteorological data for the calculation of the equilibrium moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada;

    2010-01-01

    In this study we propose to use remote sensing data to estimate hourly meteorological data and then assess the moisture content of dead fuels. Three different models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) were applied together with remotely sensed retrieved air temperature and relative...... humidity. The input data were acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite, from which air temperature and relative humidity were estimated every 15 min. Air temperature estimations are based on the Temperature......-Vegetation Index (TVX) algorithm. This algorithm exploits the inverse linear relationship between the land surface temperature and the vegetation fractional cover. This relationship was evaluated in a spatial window where the meteorological forcing is assumed to be constant. To estimate the vapour pressure...

  17. Dead fuel moisture estimation with MSG-SEVIRI data. Retrieval of meteorological data for the calculation of the equilibrium moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    and validate the vapour pressure models. Finally air temperature and vapour pressure were combined to calculate the EMC for dead fuels and the transfer of errors of these estimates have been assessed with ground meteorological data for three different EMC models. Promising results were obtained, with mean......In this study we propose to use remote sensing data to estimate hourly meteorological data and then assess the moisture content of dead fuels. Three different models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) were applied together with remotely sensed retrieved air temperature and relative......-Vegetation Index (TVX) algorithm. This algorithm exploits the inverse linear relationship between the land surface temperature and the vegetation fractional cover. This relationship was evaluated in a spatial window where the meteorological forcing is assumed to be constant. To estimate the vapour pressure...

  18. Energy consumption during impact cutting of canola stalk as a function of moisture content and cutting height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azadbakht

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study surveys the needed energy for cutting canola stems in different levels of cutting height and moisture content. The canola was harvested from the experimental farm in Gorgan, Iran. Test device fabricated and then calibrated. The device works on the principle of conservation of energy. The tests were repeated 15 times for any level of moisture content and cutting height and they were analyzed using split plot design. The results showed the effect of height and moisture content on cutting energy is significant (P < 1%, but their interaction is not significant. The highest cutting energy was 1.1 kJ in 25.5 (w.b.% moisture content and 10 cm cutting height. Also the minimum cutting energy was 0.76 kJ in 11.6 (w.b.% moisture content and 30 cm cutting height. Blade velocity was 2.64 m/s in cutting moment.

  19. Evaluation of gravimetric ground truth soil moisture data collected for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, 1978 Colby, Kansas, aircraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, L. M.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture data acquired to support the development of algorithms for estimating surface soil moisture from remotely sensed backscattering of microwaves from ground surfaces are presented. Aspects of field uniformity and variability of gravimetric soil moisture measurements are discussed. Moisture distribution patterns are illustrated by frequency distributions and contour plots. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation relative to degree of wetness and agronomic features of the fields are examined. Influence of sampling depth on observed moisture content an variability are indicated. For the various sets of measurements, soil moisture values that appear as outliers are flagged. The distribution and legal descriptions of the test fields are included along with examinations of soil types, agronomic features, and sampling plan. Bulk density data for experimental fields are appended, should analyses involving volumetric moisture content be of interest to the users of data in this report.

  20. Detecting moisture content of soil by transmission-type ground penetrating radar%透射式探地雷达探测土壤含水率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武彦斌; 崔凡; 王磊; 陈佳; 李媛媛

    2014-01-01

    sides of the media during the detection. The multiple reflected waves using the reflector-type GPR detection can recede effectively. Thus, the wave velocity can be calculated much more precisely, and thereby, the estimation of moisture content is more accurate. In this study, a 900 kHz transmitting antenna was improved for the CT GPR detection, and a physical model was established to simulate loam and sandy soil with different unsaturated moisture content in order to test the possibility of the CT GPR for soil moisture detection. After the take-off point was selected, the absolute take-off time and apparent take-off time were calculated. The difference of both was considered as actual wave travel time. According to the formula, wave velocity = wave velocity in air / root of dielectric constant, the dielectric constant could be calculated. Different models including the linear regression model, quadratic polynomial model, exponential function model, logarithmic function model, and cube polynomial model were established to describe the relationship between the dielectric constant and volumetric moisture content. Based on the determination coefficient and error, the best model was selected and used for soil moisture detection in a verification experiment. In the verification experiment, the soil samples were taken from Inner Mongolia of China and detected by the TDR and oven-drying method. The results showed that the cube polynomial in the same form as the Topp equation had the best goodness-of-fit. The equation used for sandy soil samples detection yielded closer detection results (R2=0.982) with the oven-drying method than with the TDR method (R2=0.867). The equation used for loam soil samples detection yielded closer detection results (R2=0.987) as well. This indicated that it is possible to use these relation models for accurate estimation of moisture contents of sandy soil and loam soil. For determination of moisture content in sandy soils, the relative error averaged

  1. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  2. Effects of Soil Moisture Content on Groundwater Electrical Resistivity Values in Irrigation Paddy Scheme, Tanjong Karang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmala Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT analyses have been conducted in Irrigation Paddy Scheme, Tanjong Karang, Malaysia as part of investigation on groundwater potential aquifer to provide an alternative water resource for paddy irrigation. Based on recent studies on groundwater resistivity in paddy field, irrigation system mentioned as soil moisture content was observed to affect the value of electrical resistivity and subsurface geological profile resulted from ERT analysis. The objective of this study was to proof any correlation between soil moisture content and electrical resistivity values and to determine at what level of soil moisture content which will be the best condition to conduct ERT survey. ERT analysis was conducted by using ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000 of Wenner-Schlumberger array with 5.0 meter and 10.0 meter for minimum and maximum electrode spacing. Visually, based on subsurface geological profile resulted from ERT analysis soil moisture content affected (changed electrical resistivity values. With all different treatments of soil moisture ranged from 16.96% to 27.50%, electrical resistivity values decreased in certain points and in certain depth along with the increase of soil moisture content. This was proofed by ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range tests showing that Pr > F value was less than 0.0001. Further on Chi-square test showed that at soil moisture level of 22.54%, it was the best condition which gave more correct counts of electrical resistivity values compared to well lithology. This was assumed to be the best condition to conduct ERT survey.

  3. Effects of drought season length on live moisture content dynamic in Mediterranean shrubs: 8 years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Bortolu, Sara; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of Mediterranean vegetation communities. In this kind of vegetation, live fuel is a relevant component of the available fuel which catches fire and, consequently, its water content plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread. In live plant, water content patterns are related to both environmental conditions (e.g. meteorological variables, soil water availability) and ecophysiological characteristics of the plant species. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The aims of this work were to analyse the influence of both weather seasonality and inter-annual weather variability on live fuel moisture content within and among some common Mediterranean species, and to investigate the effects of prolonged drought season on live moisture content dynamic. The study was carried out in North Sardinia (Italy). Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of two really common and flammable Mediterranean shrub species (Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis) were performed periodically for 8 years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Relationships between live fuel moisture content and environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture) were investigated and effects of different lengths of drought season on LFMC pattern were analysed. Results showed that distribution and amount of rainfall affected seasonal variation of live fuel moisture content. In particular more prolonged drought seasons caused a longer period in which LFMC was below 95 -100% that is commonly considered as

  4. Effect of thermal pretreatment on equilibrium moisture content of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Tapas C; Coronella, Charles J; Vasquez, Victor R

    2011-04-01

    The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of raw lignocellulosic biomass, along with four samples subjected to thermal pretreatment, was measured at relative humidities ranging from 11% to 97% at a constant temperature of 30 °C. Three samples were prepared by treatment in hot compressed water by a process known as wet torrefaction, at temperatures of 200, 230, and 260 °C. An additional sample was prepared by dry torrefaction at 300 °C. Pretreated biomass shows EMC below that of raw biomass. This indicates that pretreated biomass, both dry and wet torrefied, is more hydrophobic than raw biomass. The EMC results were correlated with a recent model that takes into account additional non-adsorption interactions of water, such as mixing and swelling. The model offers physical insight into the water activity in lignocellulosic biomass.

  5. Nondestructive Estimation of Moisture Content, pH and Soluble Solid Contents in Intact Tomatoes Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to evaluate chemical components such as moisture content (MC, pH, and soluble solid content (SSC in intact tomatoes by using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 1000–1550 nm. The mean spectra of the 95 matured tomato samples were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and multivariate calibration models were built by using partial least squares (PLS regression with different preprocessing spectra. The results showed that the regression model developed by PLS regression based on Savitzky–Golay (S–G first-derivative preprocessed spectra resulted in better performance for MC, pH, and the smoothing preprocessed spectra-based model resulted in better performance for SSC in intact tomatoes compared to models developed by other preprocessing methods, with correlation coefficients (rpred of 0.81, 0.69, and 0.74 with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.63%, 0.06, and 0.33% Brix respectively. The full wavelengths were used to create chemical images by applying regression coefficients resulting from the best PLS regression model. These results obtained from this study clearly revealed that hyperspectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for the nondestructive prediction of chemical components in intact tomatoes.

  6. Changes in the Bioactive Compounds Content of Soybean as a Function of Grain Moisture Content and Temperature during Long-Term Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Paraginski, Ricardo Tadeu; Monks, Jander Luis Fernandes; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    Soybean is a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, isoflavones, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The amount of bioactive compounds in freshly harvested soybeans and their derived products has been determined; however, when they are used in the food industry, soybeans are generally stored prior to being processed. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean moisture content (12%, 15%, and 18%) and storage temperature (11, 18, 25, and 32 °C) on the free phenolic, total flavonoid, vanillic acid, total carotenoid, and δ- and γ-tocopherol content of soybeans stored for 12 mo. Moreover, the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities of phenolic extracts were determined. There was an increase in free phenolics and total flavonoids in the stored grains compared with the grains on the 1st d of storage. Vanillic acid showed a decrease in soybeans stored at 15% and 18% moisture content and 25 or 32 °C, which indicated some degradation into other metabolites. Total carotenoid content decreased as a function of storage temperature and showed some temperature-dependent degradation. The δ- and γ-tocopherol content also tended to decrease in grains stored at 15% or 18% moisture content or 25 or 32 °C, regardless of the moisture content studied.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation of Simauang paddy grains with different moisture contents by means of spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makky, Muhammad; Santosa, Putri, Renny Eka; Nakano, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    Fragmentation of paddy grains can be accelerated by the treatments and process during harvest, field-handling, drying, transportation, and upon milling. The main cause of shattering among others is the moisture content (MC) of the grains. Higher MC prompts the grain to be more fragile. In general, paddy grains with 13-14% MC are ideal for post-harvest processing. The objective of this study is to measure MC of intact paddy grain from c.v. Simauang by means of nondestructive evaluation using UV-VIS-NIR spectral assessment. The paddy grains samples with identical MC were put into 5mm quartz cuvette, and measured using UV-1600 spectrophotometer. The electromagnetic radiation absorbance under consideration upon spectral measurement fell between 190 and 1100nm. The grains' actual MC then measured by primary method, based on weight measurement e.g. oven method. The samples are paddy grains which just had been harvested. Samples were then dried until its MC reduced by 2% before the measurements replicated. The measurements were stopped when the grain MC reached 9%. In this study, the Spectral data of the grains then preprocessed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) before correlated with its moisture contents by Multi-layer-Perceptron Artificial-Neural-Network (MLP ANN) method. The developed model produce coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.975, relative error of 0.1% and area under ROC curve of 1, indicating that the MC of paddy grains c.v. Simauang can be precisely identified by means of nondestructive evaluation using spectral analysis.

  8. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  9. [A Novel Method of Soil Moisture Content Monitoring by Land Surface Temperature and LAI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-ling; Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-11-01

    Land surface temperature (Ts) is influenced by soil background and vegetation growing conditions, and the combination of Ts and vegetation indices (Vis) can indicate the status of surface soil moisture content (SMC). In this study, Advanced Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (ATVDI) used for monitoring SMC was proposed on the basis of the simulation results with agricultural climate model CUPID. Previous studies have concluded that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) easily reaches the saturation point, andLeaf Area Index (LAI) was then used instead of NDVI to estimate soil moisture content in the paper. With LAI-Ts scatter diagram established by the simulation results of CUPID model; how Ts varied with LAI and SMC was found. In the case of the identical soil background, the logarithmic relations between Ts and LAI were more accurate than the linear relations included in Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), based on which ATVDI was then developed. LAI-Ts scatter diagram with satellite imagery were necessary for determining the expression of the upper and lower logarithmic curves while ATVDI was used for monitoring SMC. Ts derived from satellite imagery were then transformed to the Ts-value which has the same SMC and the minimum LAI in study area with look-up table. The measured SMC from the field sites in Weihe Plain, Shanxi Province, China, and the products of LAI and Ts (MOD15A2 and MOD11A2, respectively) produced by the image derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) were collected to validate the new method proposed in this study. The validation results shown that ATVDI (R² = 0.62) was accurate enough to monitor SMC, and it achieved better result than TVDI. Moreover, ATVDI-derived result were Ts values with some physical meanings, which made it comparative in different periods. Therefore, ATVDI is a promising method for monitoring SMC in different time-spatial scales in agricultural fields.

  10. Application of Effective Media Theory for Determination of Thermal Properties of Hollow Bricks as a Function of Moisture Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Fiala, Lukáš; Vejmelková, Eva; Černý, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The effective thermal conductivity and effective specific heat capacity of hollow brick blocks are investigated as a function of moisture content. While the effective specific heat capacity as a heat storage parameter is calculated using the linear theory of mixtures, the effective thermal conductivity as a heat transport parameter is analyzed using the effective media theory. At first, the effective thermal conductivity of the dry hollow brick block is calculated using a combination of properties of the brick body and air cavities, and verified using experimental data. Then, the effective thermal conductivity of the brick body is analyzed as a function of moisture content both theoretically and experimentally, and appropriate homogenization formulas are identified. Finally, the effective thermal conductivity of the whole hollow bricks is expressed as a function of moisture content from the dry state to water saturation.

  11. EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT AND PARTICLE SIZE ON BULK DENSITY, POROSITY, PARTICLE DENSITY AND COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION OF COIR PITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.I.Neethi Manickam,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coir pith can be used as fuel in loose form or in briquettes. Bulk density, coefficient of friction, porosity and particle density affects densification and combustion of coir pith. The moisture content and particle size ranges were 10.1 to 60.2%w.b. and 0.098 to 0.925mm respectively. Porosity was varied from 0.623 to 0.862 and the particle density was varied from 0.939 to 0.605 gm/cc for the above ranges of moisture content and particle size. Bulk density was in the range of 0.097 to 0.341gm/cc. The coefficient of friction against mild steel was in the range of 0.5043 to 0.6332. Models were developed to find out bulk density, porosity, particle density and coefficient of friction for different moisture content and particle size.

  12. The Effect of Urea Fertilization Method and Moisture Content at Harvest Time on Mechanical Properties of Dried Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kordi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of grain are influenced by various factors including soil nutrients and grain moisture content at harvest time. In order to reduce mechanical losses, the design of different processing operations should be performed based on the knowledge of factors influencing the mechanical properties. The effects of urea fertilization methods and grain moisture content at harvest time on mechanical properties of dried corn were investigated in a field experiment as a strip split plot with four replications based on randomized complete block design at Khorram Abad Agricultural Research Station in 2010. The investigated factors were urea fertilization methods (urea foliar application and urea side-dress application, grain moisture content at harvest time (20, 30 and 40% and four corn hybrids (NS 640, Konsur 580, Jeta 600 and control SC 704. The moisture content of dried grains due to different absorption property of the treatments was about 7±1 percent. The results showed that the interaction of fertilization methods and hybrid was significant (P < 0.05 for grain toughness. However, the grain moisture content at harvest time had significant effect on all studied traits except on grain firmness. The highest maximum fracture force, displacement at the maximum rupture force, energy consumption at maximum force point, specific deformation, rupture power and toughness were obtained at 20% grain’s moisture content Also, the results showed that NS hybrid had the highest maximum rupture force (219 N, displacement at the maximum fracture force (0.37 mm, energy consumption at maximum force (42.51 mj, rupture power (3.89 . 10-3W and toughness (0.33 mj mm-3.

  13. Validation of a multipoint near-infrared spectroscopy method for in-line moisture content analysis during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Toiviainen, Maunu; Lehtonen, Marko; Järvinen, Kristiina; Paaso, Janne; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2014-07-01

    This study assessed the validity of a multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for in-line moisture content analysis during a freeze-drying process. It is known that the moisture content affects the stability of a freeze-dried product and hence it is a major critical quality attribute. Therefore assessment of the validity of an analytical method for moisture content determination is vital to ensure the quality of the final product. An aqueous sucrose solution was used as the model formulation of the study. The NIR spectra were calibrated to the moisture content using partial least squares (PLS) regression with coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) titration as the reference method. Different spectral preprocessing methods were compared for the PLS models. A calibration model transfer protocol was established to enable the use of the method in the multipoint mode. The accuracy profile was used as a decision tool to determine the validity of the method. The final PLS model, in which NIR spectra were preprocessed with standard normal variate transformation (SNV), resulted in low root mean square error of prediction value of 0.04%-m/v, i.e. evidence of sufficient overall accuracy of the model. The validation results revealed that the accuracy of the model was acceptable within the moisture content range 0.16-0.70%-m/v that is specific for the latter stages of the freeze-drying process. In addition, the results demonstrated the method's reliable in-process performance and robustness. Thus, the multipoint NIR spectroscopy method was proved capable of providing in-line evaluation of moisture content and it is readily available for use in laboratory scale freeze-drying research and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Ito, Masanori; Wada, Koichi; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met) using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG) process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64), polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC) were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water) and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  15. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64, polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  16. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  17. Effect of different types of plastic packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of pistachio nuts during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 °C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material.

  18. Burn effects on soil properties associated to heat transfer under contrasting moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badía, David; López-García, Sergio; Martí, Clara; Ortíz-Perpiñá, Oriol; Girona-García, Antonio; Casanova-Gascón, José

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the topsoil thickness affected by burning under contrasting soil moisture content (field capacity versus air-dried conditions). A mollic horizon of an Aleppo pine forest was sampled and burned in the laboratory, recording the temperature continuously at the topsoil surface and at soil depths of 1, 2, and 3cm. Changes in soil properties were measured at 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4cm. Both the maximum temperature and the charring intensities were significantly lower in wet soils than in air-dried soils up to 3cm in depth. Moreover, soil heating was slower and cooling faster in wet soils as compared to dry soils. Therefore, the heat capacity increase of the soil moistened at field capacity plays a more important role than the thermal conductivity increase on heat transfer on burned soils. Burning did not significantly modify the pH, the carbonate content and the chroma, for either wet or dry soil. Fire caused an immediate and significant decrease in water repellency in the air-dried soil, even at 3cm depth, whereas the wet soil remained hydrophilic throughout its thickness, without being affected by burning. Burning depleted 50% of the soil organic C (OC) content in the air-dried soil and 25% in the wet soil at the upper centimeter, which was blackened. Burning significantly decreased the total N (TN) content only in the dry soil (to one-third of the original value) through the first centimeter of soil depth. Soluble ions, measured by electrical conductivity (EC), increased after burning, although only significantly in the first centimeter of air-dried soils. Below 2cm, burning had no significant effects on the brightness, OC, TN, or EC, for either wet or dry soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition.

  20. [Effect of moisture content on vigor of Cyathula officinalis seeds and its anti-aging mechanism analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Mei; Pei, Jin; Wang, Li; Wu, Yi-Yun; Lv, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Effects of nine different moisture contents on vigor of Cyathula officinalis seeds and its anti-aging mechanism were studied by artificial accelerated aging through high temperature and wet. The research results showedthat seed vigor were generally decreased after artificial aging; in general, seed vigor and its anti-aging ability are relatively stronger within the scope of 6.55%-4.78% moisture content, the increase range of seed conductivity, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content,and reduce amplitude of activityof dehydrogenase , superoxide dismutaseare alllower as well. And when the moisture content reduced to 5.77%, all of the germination tests index of the non-aged seeds are the highest, and the activity of peroxidase the lowest,conductivity of leaching solution relatively low, activity of dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase the highest,and catalase activityrelatively high.Therefore, in the low temperature germplasm preservation of C. officinalis seeds, the seed moisture content should be controlled close to the range of (5.70±1)% to keep higher vigor and anti-aging ability. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Improving Estimates of Root-zone Soil Water Content Using Soil Hydrologic Properties and Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D. C.; Miller, D. A.; Singha, K.; Davis, K. J.; Smithwick, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Newly defined relationships between remotely sensed soil moisture and soil hydraulic parameters were used to develop fine-scale (100 m) maps of root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) content at the regional scale on a daily time-step. There are several key outcomes from our research: (1) the first multi-layer regional dataset of soil hydraulic parameters developed from gSSURGO data for hydrologic modeling efforts in the Chequemegon Ecosystem Atmospheric Study (ChEAS) region, (2) the operation and calibration of a new model for estimating soil moisture flow through the root-zone at eddy covariance towers across the U.S. using remotely sensed active and passive soil moisture products, and (3) region-wide maps of estimated root-zone soil moisture content. The project links soil geophysical analytical approaches (pedotransfer functions) to new applications in remote sensing of soil moisture that detect surface moisture (~5 cm depth). We answer two key questions in soil moisture observation and prediction: (1) How do soil hydrologic properties of U.S. soil types quantitatively relate to surface-to-subsurface water loss? And (2) Does incorporation of fine-scale soil hydrologic parameters with remotely sensed soil moisture data provide improved hindcasts of in situ RZSM content? The project meets several critical research needs in estimation of soil moisture from remote sensing. First, soil moisture is known to vary spatially with soil texture and soil hydraulic properties that do not align well with the spatial resolution of current remote sensing products of soil moisture (~ 50 km2). To address this, we leveraged new advances in gridded soil parameter information (gSSURGO) together with existing remotely sensed estimates of surface soil moisture into a newly emerging semi-empirical modeling approach called SMAR (Soil Moisture Analytical Relationship). The SMAR model was calibrated and cross-validated using existing soil moisture data from a portion of AMERIFLUX tower sites and

  2. Interrill erosion, runoff and sediment size distribution as affected by slope steepness and antecedent moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Defersha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a two-phase process consisting of the detachment of individual particles and their transport by erosive agents such as flowing water. The rate at which erosion occurs depends upon the individual as well as interactive effects of different parameters responsible for soil erosion. The study discusses results of a laboratory analysis and evaluates the effect of slope steepness and antecedent moisture content on sediment yield (wash and runoff rate. Interrill sediment yield, splash detachment, runoff, and sediment size distribution were measured in laboratory erosion pans under simulated total duration of 90 min. Rainfall intensity at 120 mm/hr, 70 mm/hr, and 55 mm/hr were applied sequentially at 9, 25, and 45% slope steepness for three soils (Alemaya Black soil, Regosols, and Cambisols varied from clay to sandy clay loam in texture with wet and dry antecedent water contents. As slope steepness increased from 9 to 25% splash increased for five treatments and decreased for the remaining treatment; washed sediment increased for all treatments. As slope increased from 25 to 45% splash decreased for five treatments but increased for one treatment, and washed sediment increased for three treatments but decreased for the other three treatments. Pre-wetting decreased splash detachment for all soil treatments and rate of reduction was high for the highly aggregated soil, Alemaya Black soil and low for the less aggregated soil Regosols. Splash sediment and sediment yield was not correlated. Change in splash with increase in slope steepness was also not correlated with change in sediment yield. Change in runoff rate with increase in slope steepness was correlated (r=0.66 with change in sediment yield. For Alemaya Black soil and Regosols, splashed sediment size distribution was correlated with washed sediment size distribution. Interrill erosion models that include runoff and rainfall intensity parameters were a better fit for these data

  3. Theory and practice concerning classification for expansive soils using standard moisture absorption water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Hailin; CHENG; Ping; YANG; Yang; WU; Wanping

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of expansive soils have shown that the standard moisture absorption water content (SMA) of expansive soils has a good linear relationship with montmorillonite content, cation exchange capacity, specific surface, and it also presents a linear relationship tendency to plastic index and free swell ratio. All this indicates that the above SMA is of clear significance in physics. The plastic index can better reflect the interaction extent between composition and dispersing character of grains, cation and clay minerals. Consequently, SMA can reflect the basic essential properties of expansive soils. On the basis of the classification results that have been published in literature and in consideration of the succession to the classification results for the free swell ratio, this paper puts forward three indexes, i.e. the SMA, plastic index and free swell ratio to classify expansive soils. The tests proposed for the classification indexes are easy to operate, simple in testing device and last a short time. Compared with the latest issued "Classification Standard Code for Rocks and Soils of Railway Projects" (TB10077-2001), the method proposed in this paper is more convenient and reasonable, and can be popularized, when environment conditions ripen, for the application in field of exploration and design of highway in the areas surrounded by expansive soils.

  4. Rapid selection of a representative monitoring location of soil water content for irrigation scheduling using surface moisture-density gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Ibrahim; Janat, Mussadak; Makhlouf, Mohsen; Hamdan, Altayeb

    2016-10-01

    Establishing a representative monitoring location of soil water content is important for agricultural water management. One of the challenges is to develop a field protocol for determining such a location with minimum costs. In this paper, we use the concept of time stability in soil water content to examine whether using a short term monitoring period is sufficient to identify a representative site of soil water content and, therefore, irrigation scheduling. Surface moisture-density gauge was used as a means for measuring soil water content. Variations of soil water content in space and time were studied using geostatistical tools. Measuring soil water content was made at 30 locations as nodes of a 6×8 m grid, six times during the growing season. A representative location for average soil water content estimation was allocated at the beginning of a season, and thereafter it was validated. Results indicated that the spatial pattern of soil water content was strongly temporally stable, explained by the relationship between soil water content and fine soil texture. Two field surveys of soil water content, conducted before and after the 1st irrigation, could be sufficient to allocate a representative location of soil water content, and for adequate irrigation scheduling of the whole field. Surface moisture-density gauge was found to be efficient for characterising time stability of soil water content under irrigated field conditions.

  5. The Effect of Moisture Content of Maize Grits on Physicochemical Properties of Its Puffed Food Products Properties of Its Puffed Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different levels of moisture content of maize grits (10, 13, 16 and 19% as an attribute of physicochemical properties of extruder-derived puffed products, was investigated. The results showed that with increasing maize grits' moisture content, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI were decreased. Moreover, with changing in feed moisture content from 10 to 16%, the volume and sectional expansion index (SEI increased but further increase of moisture content to 19% caused a reduction in these parameters. The textural tests also revealed that with increase in moisture content, the compression energy (Nmm, maximum force (N and time to achieve the first major peak (s were increased but the number of peaks was decreased. With increase in the moisture content, specific mechanical energy (SME was decreased, due probably to the reduction in the viscosity of melt. With increase in the moisture content the L and b values were increased but the value of the samples were decreased due to the reduction of Maillard reaction rate. Our data confirms that the moisture content of maize grits may play an important role in the quality of produced extruded snacks and a high quality product can be achieved by optimizing this parameter. In this research, the maximum volume of the extruder product was obtained in 16% of moisture level.

  6. Automatic determination of moisture content in biofuels based on NIR-measurements; Automatisk fukthaltsbestaemning av biobraenslen med NIR-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wiklund, Sven Erik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert [Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The determination of moisture content of biofuel is of large importance for the energy sector. The used methods for moisture determination are based on fuels samples taken from the bulk followed by drying and weighing. To be able to instead determine the moisture content based on a method with good accuracy and with a short response time would be a large improvement. Both for the fuel sampling and the following analysis there are Swedish standards but concerning the fuel sampling the standards are often not followed. The main reason is the difficulties to sample fuel samples from different depth from a delivery. This is one of the reasons that some plants have installed mechanical samplers but the investment cost for these is relatively high. The aim of this project was to investigate the use of the NIR-method for automatic moisture determination in biofuels. Within the project the NIR-method was used to determine the moisture content on withdrawn fuel samples, in addition the possibility to integrate the NIR-method in an automatic sampling system is also described. A large number of samples, in total over 200 samples, have been evaluated with the NIR-method and compared with the reference method, oven drying and gravimetric determination of moisture content. That the NIR-method can be used to determine moisture content in a number of well defined materials have previously been shown. In this report it has moreover been shown that the method can be used under the conditions at the fuel delivery station and for a large spectrum of biofuels. The accuracy that can be achieved with the NIR-method is in the same magnitude as the standard method, i.e. the reference method used for the measurements. Altogether this shows that the NIR-method is an interesting alternative for integration in an automatic measurement system for determination of fuel moisture content in biofuels. To be able to use the NIR-method for automatic determination of fuel moisture content at the

  7. Effects of biofilter media depth and moisture content on removal of gases from a swine barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongshuai; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Shang, Bin; Yin, Fubin; Zhang, Wanqin; Zhou, Tanlong

    2017-04-28

    Media depth (MD) and moisture content (MC) are two important factors that greatly influence biofilters performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of MC and MD on removing ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from swine barns. Biofiltration performance of different MDs and MCs combination based on the mixed medium of wood chips and compost were monitored. A 3×3 factorial design was adopted, which included three levels of the two factors (MC: 45%, 55%, and 67% (wet basis); MD: 0.17, 0.33, and 0.50 m). Results indicated that high MC and MD could improve NH3 removal efficiency, but increase outlet N2O concentration. When MC was 67%, the average NH3 removal efficiency of three MDs (0.17, 0.33, and, 0.50 m) ranged from 77.4% to 78.7%; and the range of average H2S removal efficiency dropped from 68.1%-90.0% (1-34 days of the test period) to 36.8%-63.7% (35-58 days of the test period); and the average outlet N2O concentration increased by 25.5%-60.1%. When MC was 55%, the average removal efficiency of NH3, H2S, and N2O for treatment with 0.33 m MD was 72.8%±5.9%, 70.9%±13.3%, and ?18.9%±8.1%, respectively; and the average removal efficiency of NH3, H2S, and N2O for treatment with 0.50 m MD was 77.7%±4.2%, 65.8%±13.7%, and ?24.5%±12.1%, respectively. When MC was 45%, the highest average NH3 reduction efficiency among three MDs was 60.7% for 0.5 m MD, and the average N2O removal efficiency for three MDs ranged from ?18.8% to ?12.7%. In addition, the pressure drop of 0.33 m MD was significantly lower than that of 0.50 m MD (P biofilters with three different media depths (0.17, 0.33, and 0.50 m) and three different media moisture contents (45%, 55%, and 67% (wet basis)) were compared to remove gases from a swine barn. Using wood chips and compost mixture as the biofilters media, combination of 0.33 m media depth and 55% media moisture content is recommended to obtain good reduction of NH3 and H2S, and

  8. The Predication of Relationship Between Harvesting Moisture Content and The Most Convenient Rice Moisture After Drying to Obtained The Highest Head Rice Yield When Rice is Dried in Drying Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ulger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is dried after harvesting and milled before consumption. But cracklings occur on rice while rice isbeing dried with hot weather. Depending on cracking amount milling rice yield will be high or low. In orderto minimize breakage during the drying process, the relationship between harvesting grain moisture contentand storage moisture content was examined. Thus the highest head rice yield could be obtained. For thatobject , rice samples that were harvested in different harvested moisture content, were dried with hot weatherin prototype dryer which was designed for this object. Rice samples were dried to different moisture andhead rice yield was predicated after drying process , thus the moisture of dried rice which was obtainedmaximum head rice yield was found.According to the data, relationship between harvesting moisture content and the moisture of dried rice onprototypes drying machine is significant as statistical. A regression equation was obtained with data fromdrying process. With this equation, the most convenient moisture to obtained highest head rice yield afterdrying can be predicted. “The most convenient rice moisture after drying =( 4.66 + 0.59 x Harvestingmoisture content±0.54”.

  9. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, K., E-mail: tsukada@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T. [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Bito, Y. [Central Research Lab., Hitachi. Ltd., 1-280 Higashi-Koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization-magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  11. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days.

  12. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  13. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the simultaneous determination of Density and Moisture Content in Porous Structural Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Jensen, Signe Kamp; Gerward, Leif

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the dual-energy x-ray equipment, which consists of a x-ray source, filters and a detector. The x-ray beam can be moved automatically in two dimensions relative to a fixed specimen. The purpose of the equipment is to measure simultaneously the density and moisture content...

  14. Influence of Bravo fungicide applications on wood density and moisture content of Swiss needle cast affected Douglas-fir trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; Barbara L. Gartner; Doug Maguire; Alan. Kanaskie

    2003-01-01

    Wood density, moisture content, tracheld width and cell wall size were examined in trees from plots that were sprayed for 5 years with chlorothalonil (Bravo ®) fungicide to reduce the impact of Swiss needle-cast (SNC) and from trees in adjacent unsprayed plots. The unsprayed (more heavily diseased) trees had significantly narrower sapwood, narrower growth tings, lower...

  15. Impact of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Acorn quality is an integral part of artificial oak regeneration. Progeny from individual mother trees of similar geographic areas frequently exhibited a wide range of germination percentage. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of acorn moisture content (MC) at sowing on germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  16. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  17. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seed for Biodiesel Production: Effect of Moisture Content of Jatropha Seed and Co-solvent Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dani Supardan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one among the promising renewable fuels, holding various advantages compared with fossil fuel. In this study, reactive extraction of jatropha seed for biodiesel production was investigated. The effect of moisture content of jatropha seeds and cosolvent concentration was examined to determine the best performance of the biodiesel production yield. The co-solvent used is hexane. Design of experiments (DOE was used to study the effect of moisture content of jatropha seed and co-solvent of hexane concentration on the yield of biodiesel. Generally, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and co-solvent concentration affected biodiesel production yield. The experimental result also shows that the transesterification rate was improved when compared to the system without co-solvents. It was found that the production of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 68.3% biodiesel yield at the following reaction conditions, i.e. moisture content of jatropha seed of 1% and hexane to oil ratio of 6.9 (w/w.

  18. Determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol through intact glass vials using NIR micro-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rodrigo Muzzio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of moisture content in lyophilized solids is fundamental to predict quality and stability of freeze-dried products, but conventional methods are time-consuming, invasive and destructive. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a fast, inexpensive, noninvasive and nondestructive method for determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol, based on an NIR micro-spectrometer instead of a conventional NIR spectrometer. Measurements of lyophilized mannitol were performed through the bottom of rotating glass vials by means of a reflectance probe. The root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (R²pred, yielded by the pre-treatments and calibration method proposed, was 0.233% (w/w and 0.994, respectively.A determinação do conteúdo de umidade em sólidos liofilizados é fundamental para se prever a qualidade e a estabilidade de produtos liofilizados, mas os métodos convencionais consomem muito tempo, são invasivos e destrutivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver e otimizar um método rápido, econômico, não invasivo e não destrutivo para a determinação do conteúdo de umidade em manitol liofilizado, com base em microespectrômetro de infravermelho próximo ao invés de um espectrômetro de infravermelho próximo convencional. As medidas de manitol liofilizado foram realizadas através do fundo de recipiente de vidro em rotação por meio de sonda de reflectância. A raíz do erro médio padrão de predição (RMSEP e o coeficiente de correlação (R²pred obtidos pelo prétratamento e pelo método de calibração proposto foram, respectivamente, 0,233% (p/p e 0,994.

  19. Characterizing the toughness of an epoxy resin after wet aging using compact tension specimens with non-uniform moisture content

    KAUST Repository

    Quino, Gustavo

    2014-11-01

    Characterizing the change in toughness of polymers subjected to wet aging is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the testing samples. Indeed, as wet aging is guided by a diffusion/reaction process, compact tension samples (defined by the ASTM D5045 standard), which are relevant for toughness characterization but are somewhat thick, display a non-uniform moisture content over the bulk material. We define here a rigorous procedure to extract meaningful data from such tests. Our results showed that the relation between the moisture uptake of the whole sample and the measured toughness was not a meaningful material property. In fact, we found that the measured toughness depended on the locally varying moisture uptake over the cracking path. Here, we propose a post-processing technique that relies on a validated reaction/diffusion model to predict the three-dimensional moisture state of the epoxy. This makes identification of the variation in toughness with respect to the local moisture content possible. In addition, we analyze the fracture surface using micrography and roughness measurements. The observed variations in toughness are correlated with the roughness in the vicinity of the crack tip. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights rese.

  20. Effect of edible coating ingredients incorporated into predusting mix on moisture content, fat content and consumer acceptability of fried breaded product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnuch Raksakulthai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of edible coatings and their concentrations on moisture and fat contents of fried breaded potato were investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, methylcellulose (MC or wheat gluten (WG were incorporate into predusting mix to achieve coating material concentration of 3-12% (w/w. Blanched potatoes were first coated with predusting mix and followed sequentially by battering, breading and deep frying at 170°C for 3 min. Moisture and fat contents in the core and crust of sample and intact samples were determined. It was found that HPMC and MC could reduce moisture loss and fat absorption than WG. Predusting mix with 6% MC was the most effective to retain moisture and reduce fat absorption. This predusting mix was then applied to commercial breaded shrimps. In both prefried and fried products, treated breaded shrimps had more moisture and less fat than untreated breaded shrimps. They also were lower in product hardness and crust hardness than untreated samples. Sensory evaluation showed that treated and untreated shrimp samples had similar rating for appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall. Treated breaded shrimp was acceptable to the consumers. The application of edible coatings into predusting mix can be easily introduced into the production process and is beneficial to both food industry and consumers.

  1. Fuel moisture content estimation: a land-surface modelling approach applied to African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.; Spessa, A.; Kaduk, J.; Balzter, H.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the importance of fire to the global climate system, in terms of emissions from biomass burning, ecosystem structure and function, and changes to surface albedo, current land-surface models do not adequately estimate key variables affecting fire ignition and propagation. Fuel moisture content (FMC) is considered one of the most important of these variables (Chuvieco et al., 2004). Biophysical models, with appropriate plant functional type parameterisations, are the most viable option to adequately predict FMC over continental scales at high temporal resolution. However, the complexity of plant-water interactions, and the variability associated with short-term climate changes, means it is one of the most difficult fire variables to quantify and predict. Our work attempts to resolve this issue using a combination of satellite data and biophysical modelling applied to Africa. The approach we take is to represent live FMC as a surface dryness index; expressed as the ratio between the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land-surface temperature (LST). It has been argued in previous studies (Sandholt et al., 2002; Snyder et al., 2006), that this ratio displays a statistically stronger correlation to FMC than either of the variables, considered separately. In this study, simulated FMC is constrained through the assimilation of remotely sensed LST and NDVI data into the land-surface model JULES (Joint-UK Land Environment Simulator). Previous modelling studies of fire activity in Africa savannas, such as Lehsten et al. (2008), have reported significant levels of uncertainty associated with the simulations. This uncertainty is important because African savannas are among some of the most frequently burnt ecosystems and are a major source of greenhouse trace gases and aerosol emissions (Scholes et al., 1996). Furthermore, regional climate model studies indicate that many parts of the African savannas will experience drier and warmer conditions in future

  2. Optimisasi Suhu Pemanasan dan Kadar Air pada Produksi Pati Talas Kimpul Termodifikasi dengan Teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT (Optimization of Heating Temperature and Moisture Content on the Production of Modified Cocoyam Starch Using Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the physically starch modification technique is heat-moisture treatment (HMT. This technique can increase the resistance of starch to heat, mechanical treatment, and acid during processing.  This research aimed to find out the influence of heating temperature and moisture content in the modification process of cocoyam starch  with HMT techniques on the characteristic of product, and then to determine the optimum heating temperature and moisture content in the process. The research was designed with a complete randomized design (CRD with two factors factorial experiment.  The first factor was temperature of the heating consists of 3 levels namely 100 °C, 110 °C, and 120 °C. The second factor was the moisture content of starch which consists of 4 levels, namely 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 %. The results showed that the heating temperature and moisture content significantly affected water content, amylose content and swelling power of modified cocoyam starch product, but the treatment had no significant effect on the solubility of the product. HMT process was able to change the type of cocoyam starch from type B to type C. The optimum heating temperature and water content on modified cocoyam starch production process was 110 °C and 30 % respectively. Such treatment resulted in a modified cocoyam starch with moisture content of 6.50 %, 50,14 % amylose content, swelling power of 7.90, 0.0009% solubility, paste clarity of 96.310 % T, and was classified as a type C starch.   ABSTRAK Salah satu teknik modifikasi pati secara fisik adalah teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pati terhadap panas, perlakuan mekanik, dan asam selama pengolahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan kadar air pada proses modifikasi pati talas kimpul dengan teknik HMT terhadap karakteristik produk, dan selanjutnya menentukan suhu dan kadar air yang optimal dalam proses tersebut. Penelitian ini dirancang

  3. Characterizing the moisture content of tea with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using wavelet transform and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong; Qiu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yanchao

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the moisture content (MC) of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in the 325-1,075 nm range with a field portable spectroradiometer. Then wavelet transform (WT) and multivariate analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of the relationship between MC and spectral data. Three feature extraction methods including WT, principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) were used to explore the internal structure of spectral data. Comparison of those three methods indicated that the variables generated by WT could efficiently discover structural information of spectral data. Calibration involving seeking the relationship between MC and spectral data was executed by using regression analysis, including partial least squares regression, multiple linear regression and least square support vector machine. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between MC and spectral data (r = 0.991, RMSEP = 0.034). Moreover, the effective wavelengths for MC measurement were detected at range of 888-1,007 nm by wavelet transform. The results indicated that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tea is highly correlated with MC.

  4. Influence of moisture content on microbial activity and silage quality during ensilage of food processing residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Yates, Matthew; Aung, Hnin; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Yu, Chaowei; Guo, Hongyun; Zhang, Ruihong; Vandergheynst, Jean; Jenkins, Bryan M

    2011-10-01

    Seasonally produced biomass such as sugar beet pulp (SBP) and tomato pomace (TP) needs to be stored properly to meet the demand of sustainable biofuel production industries. Ensilage was used to preserve the feedstock. The effect of moisture content (MC) on the performance of ensilage and the relationship between microorganism activities and MC were investigated. For SBP, MC levels investigated were 80, 55, 30, and 10% on a wet basis. For TP, MC levels investigated were 60, 45, 30, and 10%. Organic acids, ethanol, ammonia, pH and water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) were measured to evaluate the silage quality. Ensilage improved as the MC decreased from 80 to 55% for SBP and from 60 to 45% for TP. When the MC decreased to 30%, a little microbial activity was detected for both feedstocks. Storage at 10% MC prevented all the microbial activity. The naturally occurring microorganisms in TP were found to preserve TP during silage and were isolated and determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results suggest that partial drying followed by ensilage may be a good approach for stabilization of food processing residues for biofuels production.

  5. Characterizing the Moisture Content of Tea with Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Using Wavelet Transform and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the moisture content (MC of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in the 325–1,075 nm range with a field portable spectroradiometer. Then wavelet transform (WT and multivariate analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of the relationship between MC and spectral data. Three feature extraction methods including WT, principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA were used to explore the internal structure of spectral data. Comparison of those three methods indicated that the variables generated by WT could efficiently discover structural information of spectral data. Calibration involving seeking the relationship between MC and spectral data was executed by using regression analysis, including partial least squares regression, multiple linear regression and least square support vector machine. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between MC and spectral data (r = 0.991, RMSEP = 0.034. Moreover, the effective wavelengths for MC measurement were detected at range of 888–1,007 nm by wavelet transform. The results indicated that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tea is highly correlated with MC.

  6. Rapid Prediction of Moisture Content in Intact Green Coffee Beans Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Adnan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content (MC is one of the most important quality parameters of green coffee beans. Therefore, its fast and reliable measurement is necessary. This study evaluated the feasibility of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and non-destructive prediction of MC in intact green coffee beans of both Coffea arabica (Arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta species. Diffuse reflectance (log 1/R spectra of intact beans were acquired using a bench top Fourier transform NIR instrument. MC was determined gravimetrically according to The International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6673. Samples were split into subsets for calibration (n = 64 and independent validation (n = 44. A three-component partial least squares regression (PLSR model using raw NIR spectra yielded a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.80% MC; a four component PLSR model using scatter corrected spectra yielded a RMSEP of 0.57% MC. A simplified PLS model using seven selected wavelengths (1155, 1212, 1340, 1409, 1724, 1908, and 2249 nm yielded a similar accuracy (RMSEP: 0.77% MC which opens the possibility of creating cheaper NIR instruments. In conclusion, NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy appears to be suitable for rapid and reliable MC prediction in intact green coffee; no separate model for Arabica and Robusta species is needed.

  7. Rapid Prediction of Moisture Content in Intact Green Coffee Beans Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Adnan; Hörsten, Dieter von; Pawelzik, Elke; Mörlein, And Daniel

    2017-05-19

    Moisture content (MC) is one of the most important quality parameters of green coffee beans. Therefore, its fast and reliable measurement is necessary. This study evaluated the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and non-destructive prediction of MC in intact green coffee beans of both Coffeaarabica (Arabica) and Coffeacanephora (Robusta) species. Diffuse reflectance (log 1/R) spectra of intact beans were acquired using a bench top Fourier transform NIR instrument. MC was determined gravimetrically according to The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6673. Samples were split into subsets for calibration (n = 64) and independent validation (n = 44). A three-component partial least squares regression (PLSR) model using raw NIR spectra yielded a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.80% MC; a four component PLSR model using scatter corrected spectra yielded a RMSEP of 0.57% MC. A simplified PLS model using seven selected wavelengths (1155, 1212, 1340, 1409, 1724, 1908, and 2249 nm) yielded a similar accuracy (RMSEP: 0.77% MC) which opens the possibility of creating cheaper NIR instruments. In conclusion, NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy appears to be suitable for rapid and reliable MC prediction in intact green coffee; no separate model for Arabica and Robusta species is needed.

  8. Thermo-mechanical Densification of Populus tomentosa var. tomentosa with Low Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengyun Tu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used thermo-mechanical densification technology to compress low-moisture content (3~5% rapid-growth Populus tomentosa var. tomentosa trees to produce specimens with a low-compression ratio (small volume loss and a uniform density profile and desirable properties. Furthermore, the densified specimens were subjected to post-heat treatment at 180, 190, and 200 °C for 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively. Microscopic examination was performed to observe the changes that occurred in the wood vessels after densification. To determine the influence of post-heat treatment on the set recovery, the specimens were subjected to eight cycles of soaking and drying in 20 °C water and two cycles in boiling water. The density profile tendencies of the densified specimens were in accord with undensified specimens. Microscopic observation revealed that the deformations present in the densified wood resulted from the viscous buckling of cell walls without fracture. The volume of the void areas in the specimens decreased uniformly. Post-heat treatment can decrease compressive deformation, especially when applied at 200 °C for 4 h. After two boiling water cycles of soaking and drying, the densified wood still had a certain set recovery. Therefore, densified wood should be used sparingly in high temperature and high humidity environments.

  9. Free-space reflection method for measuring moisture content and bulk density of particulate materials at microwave frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxiao; Han, Bing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    A measurement system based on free-space reflection method is designed for simultaneous and independent determination of moisture content and bulk density of particulate materials. The proposed system consists of microwave cavity oscillator, horn antenna, slide rail, sample holder, mixer, and digital meter. Sand and rice with different moisture contents and bulk densities are chosen as samples. Calibration models for moisture content and bulk density are proposed according to the measurement of the position of the minimum of the traveling-standing wave and the ratio of the maximum-to-minimum field strength of the traveling-standing wave at different temperatures. The moisture constant, ranging from 0% to 24.6%, is obtained with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.982 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) value of less than 0.695%. The bulk density, ranging from 0.501 g/cm3 to 1.822 g/cm3, is determined with a R2 ≥ 0.961 and a SEP value ranging from 0.0144 g/cm3 to 0.0382 g/cm3 for different samples.

  10. INFLUENCE OF FAT AND MOISTURE CONTENT ON FOODS ON TRANSFER OF PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfer efficiencies (%) of eight pesticides from a Formica surface to 13 different foods were measured to estimate dietary exposure potential from contacts prior to consumption. the foods were categorized into four groups: 1) high fat, high moisture; 2) low fat, high moisture;...

  11. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  12. Basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood infected with the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria Reva; Luı´s Fonseca; Jose´ L. Lousada; Isabel Abrantes; Anto´ nio R. Figueiredo; Domingos X. Viegas

    2015-01-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphe-lenchus xylophilus, has become one of the most severe threats to pine forest worldwide. Nematodes, migrating through resin canals and feeding on the living cells, induce rapid metabolic changes in ray parenchyma cells, create cavitation areas, decrease xylem water content and oleo-resin exudation, and cause necrosis of parenchyma and cambial cells. This study focused on the impact of PWN infection on technological parameters of wood and evalu-ated the impact of anatomic and biochemical incidences of tree defense reactions on basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood. Samples of infected and uninfected wood were studied. The presence of nematodes reduced wood basic density by 2% and decreased the total content of extractives in infected wood as compared with uninfected (5.98 and 8.90% of dry wood mass, respectively). Extractives in infected trees had inverse distribution along the trunk as compared with uninfected trees. The adsorption isotherms for infected and uninfected wood had similar positioning. We recorded differences (some statistically significant) in the equilibrium moisture content of infected and uninfected wood under varying environmental conditions. Despite the verified differences in wood basic density, extractive con-tent and moisture sorption properties, the overall conclu-sion is that the PWN had a slight impact on these characteristics of wood.

  13. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  14. A soil moisture climatology of Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, S.E.; Isard, S.A. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ten years of soil moisture measurements (biweekly from March through September and monthly during winter) within the top 1 m of soil at 17 grass-covered sites across Illinois are analyzed to provide a climatology of soil moisture for this important Midwest agricultural region. Soil moisture measurements were obtained with neutron probes that were calibrated for each site. Measurement errors are dependent upon the volumetric water content with errors less than 20 percent when soil moisture is above 0 percent of soil volume. Single point errors in moisture measurements from the top 1 m of soil range from 6 percent to 13 percent when volumetric soil moisture is 30 percent of soil volume. The average depletion in moisture between winter and summer over the 10-year period for the top 2 m of soil in Illinois was 72.3 mm. Three-quarters of this decrease occurred above 0.5 m and only 5 percent occurred between the 1.0-m and 2.0-m depths. The average moisture decrease between winter and summer during a wet year (1985) and a drought year (1988) in the top 2 m of soil was 64 percent and 204 percent of the average for the 10-year period, respectively. Seasonal means in soil moisture averaged for the state show the effects of different seasons and soil types on soil moisture. In the winter and spring a latitudinal gradient exists with the wetter soils in the southern part of the state. During summer and autumn there is a longitudinal gradient with the wetter soils in the eastern half of the state. The longitudinal gradient is closely associated with the depth of loess deposits.

  15. Dependence of Microcrack Behavior in Wood on Moisture Content during Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM system was developed not only to observe the microcracks on the surface of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don in situ at the cellular level but also to obtain information about the moisture content (MC of the wood surface by measuring the change in its electrical resistivity. The sequential images and changes in the electrical resistivity of the wood surface indicated that microcracks formed between the tracheid and ray parenchyma in the latewood region at >1.0E + 07 Ω/sq (square. Microcracks formed when the MC of the wood surface was below the fiber saturation point determined through regression analysis of the surface electrical resistivity and MC. Most of the microcracks develop when the surface electrical resistivity ranged from 3.95E + 10 to 3.60E + 12 Ω/sq. When the surface MC was ~2.5%, microcracks closed and the surface electrical resistivity was either ~1.00E + 15 Ω/sq or outside the measurement range. The modified CLSM and the method to measure the MC of the wood surface can be used to acquire information about the surface MC in specific areas shown in CLSM images. The findings indicated that the MC of the surface of the wood plays an important role in suppressing the emergence of microcracks in drying wood. The modified CLSM system and the method of measuring the MC of the surface of wood can be used to efficiently evaluate methods of drying wood and the quality of dried wood.

  16. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as an alternative to determine dielectric constant of potatoes at various moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Grace; Rungraeng, Natthakan; Han, Jung H; Jun, Soojin

    2014-02-01

    The dielectric (DE) properties, specifically the DE constant (ε') and loss factor (ε''), were measured for vacuum-dried and freeze-dried potato samples at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz over a range of different moisture contents (MCs) using a DE probe and also a 2-probe electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Third-order polynomial models (ε' = f₁(MC); and ε'' = f₂(MC)) at room temperature were developed for regression analysis. Additionally, at various temperatures (T), biphasic 3rd-order polynomial models (ε' = f₁(MC, T); and ε'' = f₂(MC, T)) were obtained to determine ε' and ε'' as a function of MC and T using measured data. The vacuum-dried potato sample showed a good fitness of ε' and ε'' (R² = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively) to the regression model with the range of MCs from 18% to 80% (w/w), while the freeze-dried potato sample showed a good fitness of ε' and ε'' to the 1st-phase regression model with MC 50% w/w (R² = 0.94 to 0.96). EIS measurements were also used to obtain correlation impedances for ε' and ε'' determined by the DE probe method. The resulted regression analysis meets the demands for simple, rapid, and accurate assessment for transient values of ε' and ε'' of food products during dehydration/drying processes. The EIS method was verified to be a successful alternative to direct measurements of ε' and ε''.

  17. Determination of the moisture content of Nordic spruce wood through cone heater experiments and an integral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony; Jørgensen, M.; Svensson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The combination of cone heater experiments and an integral model was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. Nine specimens of Nordic spruce were pre-heated to 105°C in a convective oven for durations ranging from 0 days (no drying) and up to 63 days...... in increments of 7 days. The fuel moisture content was measured by weighting the specimens before and after the pre-heating. A mass loss cone was used to determine the time for piloted ignition of each specimen. A high-flux asymptotic solution from an integral model permitted to determine that the ignition...... is developed that can be used to determine the time to ignition of a piece of wet spruce, and it is suggested that this method can be used for establishing similar equations for other types of moist wood....

  18. [Inhibitory effect of DMPP on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content, pH and organic matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Li-Li; Gong, Ping; Dong, Xin-Xin; Nie, Yan-Xia

    2012-10-01

    A laboratory incubation test with meadow brown soil was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content (40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum field capacity), pH (4, 7 and 10), and organic matter (retained and removal). With the decrease of soil moisture content, the degradation of DMPP in soil tended to slow down, and the oxidation of soil NH4+ was more inhibited. At pH 10, more DMPP was remained in soil, and had the greatest inhibitory effect; at pH 7 and pH 4, the DMPP was lesser remained, with a smaller inhibitory effect. The removal of organic matter prolonged the remaining time of DMPP in soil, and decreased the apparent soil nitrification rate significantly.

  19. Performance evaluation of two types of heated cables for distributed temperature sensing-based measurement of soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfeng Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS using heated cables has been recently developed for distributed monitoring of in-situ soil moisture content. In this method, the thermal and electrical properties of heated cables have a significant influence on the measurement accuracy of soil moisture content. In this paper, the performances of two heated cables, i.e. the carbon-fiber heated cable (CFHC and the metal-net heated cable (MNHC, are studied in the laboratory. Their structures, uniformity in the axial direction, measurement accuracy and suitability are evaluated. The test results indicate that the MNHC has a better uniformity in the axial direction than CFHC. Both CFHC and MNHC have high measurement accuracy. The CFHC is more suitable for short-distance measurement (≤500 m, while the MNHC can be used for long-distance measurement (>500 m.

  20. Predicting Soil Moisture in the Field from Amplitude Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kayssi, A. W.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements of amplitude temperature and soil moisture content of sandy loam and silty clay loam soils were conducted in Al-Mada'in Research Station south of Baghdad during the period from the 1st of February to the 30th of April, 2004. Exponential regression relations were developed between amplitude temperature and volumetric moisture content for soil depths of 0.5, 3.0, 7.5 and 15cm below surface, which was highly significant (R2>0.96). A good linear regression between measured and predicted soil moisture contents was deduced for each depth (r>0.97). Soil moisture content was successfully predicted from the regression line when amplitude temperature was known.

  1. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; Arman, M; Ibrahim, M; Shafique, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  2. Evaluation of different approaches for identifying optimal sites to predict mean hillslope soil moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kaihua; Zhou, Zhiwen; Lai, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Feng, Huihui

    2017-04-01

    The identification of representative soil moisture sampling sites is important for the validation of remotely sensed mean soil moisture in a certain area and ground-based soil moisture measurements in catchment or hillslope hydrological studies. Numerous approaches have been developed to identify optimal sites for predicting mean soil moisture. Each method has certain advantages and disadvantages, but they have rarely been evaluated and compared. In our study, surface (0-20 cm) soil moisture data from January 2013 to March 2016 (a total of 43 sampling days) were collected at 77 sampling sites on a mixed land-use (tea and bamboo) hillslope in the hilly area of Taihu Lake Basin, China. A total of 10 methods (temporal stability (TS) analyses based on 2 indices, K-means clustering based on 6 kinds of inputs and 2 random sampling strategies) were evaluated for determining optimal sampling sites for mean soil moisture estimation. They were TS analyses based on the smallest index of temporal stability (ITS, a combination of the mean relative difference and standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD)) and based on the smallest SDRD, K-means clustering based on soil properties and terrain indices (EFs), repeated soil moisture measurements (Theta), EFs plus one-time soil moisture data (EFsTheta), and the principal components derived from EFs (EFs-PCA), Theta (Theta-PCA), and EFsTheta (EFsTheta-PCA), and global and stratified random sampling strategies. Results showed that the TS based on the smallest ITS was better (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3) than that based on the smallest SDRD (RMSE = 0.034 m3 m-3). The K-means clustering based on EFsTheta (-PCA) was better (RMSE sampling design stratified by the land use was more efficient than the global random method. Forty and 60 sampling sites are needed for stratified sampling and global sampling respectively to make their performances comparable to the best K-means method (EFsTheta-PCA). Overall, TS required only one site, but its

  3. Effects of compressive force, particle size and moisture content on mechanical properties of biomass pellets from grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahab [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Tabil, Lope G. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, (Canada). Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Mechanical properties of wheat straw, barley straw, corn stover and switchgrass were determined at different compressive forces, particle sizes and moisture contents. Ground biomass samples were compressed with five levels of compressive forces (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 4400N) and three levels of particle sizes (3.2, 1.6 and 0.8mm) at two levels of moisture contents (12% and 15% (wet basis)) to establish compression and relaxation data. Compressed sample dimensions and mass were measured to calculate pellet density. Corn stover produced the highest pellet density at low pressure during compression. Compressive force, particle size and moisture content significantly affected the pellet density of barley straw, corn stover and switchgrass. However, different particle sizes of wheat straw did not produce any significant difference on pellet density. The relaxation data were analyzed to determine the asymptotic modulus of biomass pellets. Barley straw had the highest asymptotic modulus among all biomass indicating that pellets made from barley straw were more rigid than those of other pellets. Asymptotic modulus increased linearly with an increase in compressive pressure. A simple linear model was developed to relate asymptotic modulus and maximum compressive pressure. (author)

  4. Estimation of moisture and oil content of in-shell nuts with a capacitance sensor using discrete wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya; Govindarajan, K. N.; Butts, Chris L.; Subbiah, Jeyam

    2009-03-01

    Moisture and oil contents are important quality factors often measured and monitored in the processing and storage of food products such as corn and peanuts. For estimating these parameters for peanuts nondestructively a parallel-plate capacitance sensor was used in conjunction with an impedance analyzer. Impedance, phase angle and dissipation factor were measured for the parallel-plate system, holding the in-shell peanut samples between its plates, at frequencies ranging between 1MHz and 30 MHz in intervals of 0.5 MHz. The acquired signals were analyzed with discrete wavelet analysis. The signals were decomposed to 6 levels using Daubechies mother wavelet. The decomposition coefficients of the sixth level were passed onto a stepwise variable selection routine to select significant variables. A linear regression was developed using only the significant variables to predict the moisture and oil content of peanut pods (inshell peanuts) from the impedance measurements. The wavelet analysis yielded similar R2 values with fewer variables as compared to multiple linear and partial least squares regressions. The estimated values were found to be in good agreement with the standard values for the samples tested. Ability to estimate the moisture and oil contents in peanuts without shelling them will be of considerable help to the peanut industry.

  5. Investigation of Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity of Rasa Grape (Vitis Vinifera L. as a Function of Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Khodaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan Rasa grape is one of the delicious and sweet fruits with black color. It contains vitamins E, C and some protectors such as antioxidants. In order to design equipments and facilities for drying, preservation and processing of Rasa grape, it is necessary and important to know about its specific heat and thermal conductivity. In this paper the specific heat and thermal conductivity of Rasa grape were studied. The method of mixtures and hot wire as a heating source was used for measuring the specific heat and thermal conductivity, respectively. The experimental variables were temperature at four levels of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and moisture content at four levels of 22.36, 37.56, 52.13 and 71.53%. The results showed that the specific heat and thermal conductivity of Rasa grape increased linearly from 1.6523 kJ kg-1°C-1 to 3.3253 kJ kg-1°C-1 and 0.1252 W m-1°C-1 to 0.4202 W m-1°C-1 respectively, with increasing moisture content and temperature. The results also showed that the effect of moisture content on increasing the specific heat and thermal conductivity was more significant than that from temperature rise.

  6. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  7. Analysis of moisture content, acidity and contamination by yeast and molds in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rubia Ananias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of mold of environmental origin in honey affects its quality and leads to its deterioration, so yeasts and molds counts have been used as an important indicator of hygiene levels during its processing, transportation and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of yeasts and molds contamination and their correlation with moisture and acidity levels in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil. In 20% of the samples, the yeasts and molds counts exceeded the limit established by legislation for the marketing of honey in the MERCOSUR, while 42.8% and 5.7% presented above-standard acidity and moisture levels, respectively. Although samples showed yeasts and molds counts over 1.0 x 10² UFC.g-1, there was no correlation between moisture content and the number of microorganisms, since, in part of the samples with above-standard counts, the moisture level was below 20%. In some samples the acidity level was higher than that established by legislation, but only one sample presented a yeasts and molds count above the limit established by MERCOSUR, which would suggest the influence of the floral source on this parameter. In general, of the 35 samples analyzed, the quality was considered inadequate in 45.7% of cases.

  8. Analysis of moisture content, acidity and contamination by yeast and molds in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananias, Karla Rubia; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; de Moura, Celso José

    2013-01-01

    The development of mold of environmental origin in honey affects its quality and leads to its deterioration, so yeasts and molds counts have been used as an important indicator of hygiene levels during its processing, transportation and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of yeasts and molds contamination and their correlation with moisture and acidity levels in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil. In 20% of the samples, the yeasts and molds counts exceeded the limit established by legislation for the marketing of honey in the MERCOSUR, while 42.8% and 5.7% presented above-standard acidity and moisture levels, respectively. Although samples showed yeasts and molds counts over 1.0 × 10(2) UFC.g(-1), there was no correlation between moisture content and the number of microorganisms, since, in part of the samples with above-standard counts, the moisture level was below 20%. In some samples the acidity level was higher than that established by legislation, but only one sample presented a yeasts and molds count above the limit established by MERCOSUR, which would suggest the influence of the floral source on this parameter. In general, of the 35 samples analyzed, the quality was considered inadequate in 45.7% of cases.

  9. Relative permeability of fractured wellbore cement: an experimental investigation using electrical resistivity monitoring for moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, W.; Rod, K. A.; Strickland, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Permeability is a critical parameter needed to understand flow in subsurface environments; it is particularly important in deep subsurface reservoirs where multiphase fluid flow is common, such as carbon sequestration and geothermal reservoirs. Cement is used in the annulus of wellbores due to its low permeable properties to seal aquifers, reducing leaks to adjacent strata. Extreme subsurface environments of CO2 storage and geothermal production conditions will eventually reduce the cement integrity, propagating fracture networks and increasing the permeability for air and/or water. To date, there have been no reproducible experimental investigations of relative permeability in fractured wellbore cement published. To address this gap, we conducted a series of experiments using fractured Portland cement monoliths with increasing fracture networks. The monolith cylinder sides were jacketed with heavy-duty moisture-seal heat-shrink tubing, then fractured using shear force applied via a hydraulic press. Fractures were generated with different severity for each of three monoliths. Stainless steel endcaps were fixed to the monoliths using the same shrink-wrapped jacket. Fracture characteristics were determined using X-ray microtomography and image analysis. Flow controllers were used to control flow of water and air to supply continuous water or water plus air, both of which were delivered through the influent end cap. Effluent air flow was monitored using a flow meter, and water flow was measured gravimetrically. To monitor the effective saturation of the fractures, a RCON2 concrete bulk electrical resistivity test device was attached across both endcaps and a 0.1M NaNO3 brine was used as the transport fluid to improve resistivity measurements. Water content correlated to resistivity measurements with a r2 > 0.96. Data from the experiments was evaluated using two relative permeability models, the Corey-curve, often used for modeling relative permeability in porous media

  10. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings...... and the ability of these to maintain the appearance of the surfaces, when the wood is used in service class 3 (EN 335-1 1992). A façade construction is exposed to weathering at the field test area of the Danish Technological Institute (near Copenhagen). In specific locations of the construction measurements...... of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...

  11. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p < 0.10) differences from the experimental results. Further study would include the sensory properties enhancement of extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  12. A New TDR-Waveform Approach Capable to Measure Soil Moisture Contents at Large Electrical Conductivity Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristi Matte, F.; Fierro, V.; Suarez, F. I.; Munoz, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key parameter in various disciplines, including hydrology, meteorology, agriculture, and mining. Nowadays, there are multiple methods to measure soil moisture. One of the most utilized methods is time domain reflectometry (TDR), which is an indirect method that uses electromagnetic waves to determine the water content of a soil. TDR methods have been widely used because they are non-invasive, easy to use, and have good accuracy in most of the soils. However, a major limitation of current TDR methods lies in the inability to use them in highly conductive saline soils - which are very common in arid and semi-arid regions. TDR methods fail in these soils mainly due to the extremely large signal attenuation along the sensors probes that preclude the detection of the end of the rods, invalidating the use of this methodology. In this work, we propose a new approach to analyze the TDR waveform that enables to use TDR methods at bulk electrical conductivities (BECs) higher than those specified by TDR manufacturers. We assessed the performance of the new approach with a commonly used TDR sensor in sandy soils that had saturated BECs between 1-12 dSm-1. It was found that the traditional methodology it is indeed incapable to estimate soil moisture contents for BECs higher than 4 dSm-1, while the new methodology doubles the actual BEC range with reliable and accurate measures with a maximum error of 6%. These results open a new window of monitoring moisture content in soils where current TDR methods are fairly inaccurate.

  13. Loss of phosphine from unsealed bins of wheat at six combinations of grain temperature and grain moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed; Pan

    2000-07-01

    Hard red winter wheat (1.4 t) at 11.1 or 13.5% moisture content (wet basis) and 20, 25, or 30 degrees C was fumigated with tablets of an aluminum phosphide formulation in unsealed, cylindrical grain bins of corrugated metal. The fumigant leakage rate was manipulated to approximate that commonly encountered in farm and commercial-scale bins of this type. Phosphine concentration profiles were recorded and phosphine loss and sorption were characterized to determine which conditions provided the greatest probability of successful fumigation in these bins. Phosphine leakage and sorption were both positively related to grain temperature and moisture content. The fumigant concentration profiles were compared with previously-published data relating temperature to the developmental rate and fumigant susceptibility of lesser grain borer eggs, which are phosphine-resistant but become less resistant as they age. The mean phosphine concentration observed at the time corresponding to one-half of the calculated egg development time was compared to the lethal concentration (LC(99)) for a 2-day exposure at each temperature-moisture combination. In the low-moisture grain at 20 degrees C, the observed fumigant concentration was below the lethal concentration, due to the long development time under these conditions. At 25 and 30 degrees C in the low-moisture wheat, the likelihood of complete kill appeared more favorable because the fumigant concentration remained above the published LC(99) for more than half of the egg development time. In the wheat with 13.5% moisture content, rapid fumigant sorption and loss resulted in phosphine concentrations below the LC(99) at one-half of the development time at 20 or 25 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, due to the very rapid development rate, the observed phosphine concentration exceeded the LC(99) half-way through the egg development period despite the rapid rate of fumigant sorption and loss. Repeated fumigation of the same grain reduced the rate

  14. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-12-15

    This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry.

  15. 容量法快速测定锰矿中二氧化硅含量%Determination of Silicon Dioxide Content in Manganese Ore by Volumetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慤; 邓军华; 王一凌; 王翠艳; 曲月华

    2012-01-01

    At present, fluoride potassium silicate Volumetric method analysis silica content in manganese ore has not reported, through experiments optimized the parameters of fluoride potassium silicate Volumetric method: melt-like way, sample weight, volume of acidified et. It can complete the rapid determination of silicon dioxide content in manganese ore. Measurement Results consistent with the certified value and the analysis to satisfy the GB/T 1509 - 2006 permission deviation request, The relative standard deviation of measurement results are less than 1 % .%目前利用氟硅酸钾容量法测定锰矿中二氧化硅含量还没有报道.采用硅氟酸钾容量法,通过称样量、融样方式、酸化体积等条件进行优化实验,实现了容量法快速测定锰矿中二氧化硅的含量.实验数据的相对标准偏差小于1%.测量值与认定值一致,测量结果满足GB/T 1509-2006《锰矿石 硅含量的测定 高氯酸脱水重量法》允许差的要求.

  16. Effect of sample moisture content on XRD-estimated cellulose crystallinity index and crystallite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Carlos Baez; Richard S. Reiner; Steve P. Verrill

    2017-01-01

    Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been the most widely used technique to investigate crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite size (L200) of cellulose materials, there are not many studies that have taken into account the role of sample moisture on these measurements. The present investigation focuses on a variety of celluloses and cellulose...

  17. EVALUATION OF RADON EMANATION FROM SOIL WITH VARYING MOISTURE CONTENT IN A SOIL CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes measurements to quantitatively identify the extent to which moisture affects radon emanation and diffusive transport components of a sandy soil radon concentration gradient obtained in the EPA test chamber. The chamber (2X2X4 m long) was constructed to study t...

  18. A technique to determine the electromagnetic properties of soil using moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. Coetzee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electromagnetic ground constants are required for applications such as modelling of ground wave propagation of radio signals and antennas above a real, imperfect earth and for use in geological surveys and agricultural applications. A simple method to determine the ground parameters (conductivity and relative dielectric constant for any radio frequency is outlined here. The method has been verified over the 2-30-MHz frequency range but should be applicable up to several GHz. First, a low cost, commercial soil moisture meter using time domain reflectometry techniques is used to determine the soil moisture percentage. Then previously published universal soil models implemented on a programmable calculator or a PC are used to calculate the required constants at the frequency of interest according to the measured moisture percentage. The results obtained by this method compare favourably with those obtained by the input impedance of a low horizontal dipole technique. The received signal strength of a ground wave, HF transmission also compares favourably with that predicted by GRWave using ground constants calculated by the soil moisture technique. This method offers significant advantages in terms of simplicity, speed and cost when compared with current techniques.

  19. Sensing the Moisture Content of Dry Cherries - A Rapid and Nondestructive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a parallel-plate capacitor with a single cherry fruit between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance C, was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture cont...

  20. Nondestructive Determination of Moisture Content in Dry Fruits by Impedance and Phase angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a cylindrical parallel-plate capacitor with dry fruits between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance, C was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture con...

  1. Inversion of Moisture Content of Forest Canopy and Floor from SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Several scattering mechanisms contribute to the total radar backscatter cross section measured by the synthetic aperture radar. These are volume scattering, trunk-ground double-bounce scattering, branch-ground double-bounce scattering, and surface scattering. All of these mechanisms are directly related to the dielectric constant of forest components responsible for that mechanism and their moisture.

  2. EVALUATION OF RADON EMANATION FROM SOIL WITH VARYING MOISTURE CONTENT IN A SOIL CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes measurements to quantitatively identify the extent to which moisture affects radon emanation and diffusive transport components of a sandy soil radon concentration gradient obtained in the EPA test chamber. The chamber (2X2X4 m long) was constructed to study t...

  3. Variation of equilibrium moisture content of heat-treated Couratari oblongifolia, Fraxinus excelsior, and Quercus rubra wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaofang Zhou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment may result in variation of wood equilibrium moisture content (EMC. During this study, tauari (Couratari oblongifolia, ash (Fraxinus excelsior, and oak (Quercus rubra woods were heat-treated at 190, 200, and 210ºC for 3 hours and then put into a conditioning chamber with a temperature from 30 to 75ºC and a relative humidity from 50 to 90%. The isothermal moisture adsorption curve was subsequently analyzed. Results indicated that the EMC of heat-treated wood was reduced by 23.4 to 37.4% compared to non-treated wood, but the EMC difference at different heat-treated temperatures for three hardwoods was quite small and the EMC of heat-treated wood was inversely proportional to their dry density.

  4. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying.

  5. Implications of moisture content determination in the environmental characterisation of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tomas, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-05-01

    The leachable contents of elements of environmental concern considered in the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal were determined in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum. To this end, leaching tests were performed following the standard EN-12457-4 which specifies the determination of the dry mass of the material at 105 deg. C and the use of a liquid to solid (L/S) ratio of 10 l kg{sup -1} dry matter. Additionally, leaching tests were also carried out taking into account the dry mass of the material at 60 deg. C and using different L/S ratios (2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 20 l kg{sup -1} dry matter). It was found that the dry mass determination at 105 deg. C turns out to be inappropriate for FGD gypsum since at this temperature gypsum transforms into bassanite, and so, in addition to moisture content, crystalline water is removed. As a consequence the moisture content is overvalued (about 16%), what makes consider a lower L/S ratio than that specified by the standard EN-12457-4. As a result the leachable contents in FGD gypsum are, in general, overestimated, what could lead to more strict environmental requirements for FGD gypsum when considering its disposal in landfills, specially concerning those elements (e.g., F) risking the characterisation of FGD gypsum as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes.

  6. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  7. Equilibrium moisture content of a crosslinked epoxy network via molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, M. T.; Staiger, M. P.; Bishop, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods for determining the solubility limit of water in a crosslinked epoxy network. Procedures are first presented for dynamically crosslinking an epoxy network consisting of diglycidyl ether bisphenol a (DGEBA) and isophorone diamine (IPD). Water molecules are then introduced into the crosslinked DGEBA-IPD structure. The excess chemical potential for the absorbed water was determined through combining thermodynamic integration and Widom’s test particle insertion methods. The limiting moisture uptake of the epoxy structure was determined through comparing the reduced chemical potential of the water held within the epoxy to that of pure water. The DGEBA-IPD epoxy system was found to have a moisture solubility of 3.50-3.75 wt.% when immersed in water at 300 K.

  8. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In order to fit low energy building policies and reduce environmental impact of buildings, construction materials must have good balance between thermal properties and embodied energy. By using such materials, reduction of both operational and embodied energy are achieved simultaneously. Hemp...... concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite...

  9. Investigation into the variations of moisture content of two buildings constructed with light earth walls

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhew, S; Griffiths, R; Morgan, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the background to light earth buildings and details a series of moisture measurements undertaken upon the clay and straw, (light earth) constructed walls of two UK based buildings. The methodology of measurement that was based upon previous studies undertaken on walls made from straw bales is described. A novel ‘in-wall’ wet heating system used in one of the two buildings allows the investigation of the effects of direct wall heating upon the distribution of moist...

  10. Relationships between GPP, Satellite Measures of Greenness and Canopy Water Content with Soil Moisture in Mediterranean-Climate Grassland and Oak Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Shishi Liu; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Roberts,Dar.A.; Chris J. Still

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the impact of soil moisture on gross primary production (GPP), chlorophyll content, and canopy water content represented by remotely sensed vegetation indices (VIs) in an open grassland and an oak savanna in California. We found for the annual grassland that GPP late in the growing season was controlled by the declining soil moisture, but there was a 10–20-day lag in the response of GPP to soil moisture. However, during the early and middle part of the growing season, solar ra...

  11. An Infra-Red Heating Based Fast Method of Moisture Content Measurement and Its Application to Measure Blend Proportion of Polyester-Viscose Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Kothari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content values of plain woven fabrics of polyester-viscose blended yarns were measured using standard conditioning procedures as well as a new method of preconditioning of samples using infra-red heating and subsequent conditioning in a desiccator for a specific conditioning time. The effects of drying time and conditioning time on measured moisture content values were studied and optimization of these parameters were done. Results of the moisture content measurement using these methods show a sufficiently linear relationship between measured moisture content and the proportion of viscose in the fabric samples. The regression analysis showed very high coefficients of determination (above 0.98 in all cases. Regression equations were used to predict the blend proportion of fabric samples from the moisture content data. It was found that even the moisture content values using a shorter conditioning time of 60 minutes and even 10 minutes yielded correct prediction with a maximum error of magnitude less than 3.0 in blend percentage values.

  12. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  13. Smoke emissions due to burning of green waste in the Mediterranean area: Influence of fuel moisture content and fuel mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihay-Felicelli, V.; Santoni, P. A.; Gerandi, G.; Barboni, T.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate emission characteristics in relation to differences in fuel moisture content (FMC) and initial dry mass. For this purpose, branches and twigs with leaves of Cistus monspeliensis were burned in a Large Scale Heat Release apparatus coupled to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. A smoke analysis was conducted and the results highlighted the presence of CO2, H2O, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, and non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). CO2, NO, and NO2 species are mainly released during flaming combustion, whereas CO, CH4, NH3, and NMOC are emitted during both flaming and smoldering combustion. The emission of these compounds during flaming combustion is due to a rich fuel to air mixture, leading to incomplete combustion. The fuel moisture content and initial dry mass influence the flame residence time, the duration of smoldering combustion, the combustion efficiency, and the emission factors. By increasing the initial dry mass, the emission factors of NO, NO2, and CO2 decrease, whereas those of CO and CH4 increase. The increase of FMC induces an increase of the emission factors of CO, CH4, NH3, NMOC, and aerosols, and a decrease of those of CO2, NO, and NO2. Increasing fuel moisture content reduces fuel consumption, duration of smoldering, and peak heat release rate, but simultaneously increases the duration of propagation within the packed bed, and the flame residence time. Increasing the initial dry mass, causes all the previous combustion parameters to increase. These findings have implications for modeling biomass burning emissions and impacts.

  14. Effect of extrusion temperature and moisture content of corn flour on crystallinity and hardness of rice analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Faleh Setia; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Budijanto, Slamet; Syah, Dahrul

    2015-12-01

    Rice analogues are food products made of broken rice and/or any other carbohydrate sources to have similar texture and shape as rice. They are usually made by hot extrusion processing. The hot extrusion process may change the crystallinity of starch and influence the characteristic of rice analogues. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effect of moisture content of incoming dough and temperature of extrusion process on the crystallinity and hardness of resulting rice analogues. The dough's were prepared by mixing of corn starch-flour with ratio 10/90 (w/w) and moisture content of 35%, 40% and 45% (w/w) and extrusion process were done at temperature of 70, 80, 90°C by using of twin screw extruder BEX-DS-2256 Berto. The analyses were done to determine the type of crystal, degree of crystallinity, and hardness of the resulting rice analogues. Our result showed that the enhancement of extrusion temperature from 70 - 90°C increased degree of crystallinity from 5.86 - 15.00% to 10.70 - 18.87% and hardness from 1.71 - 4.36 kg to 2.05 - 5.70 kg. The raising of dough moisture content from 35 - 45% decreased degree of crystallinity from 15.00 - 18.87% to 5.86 - 10.70% and hardness from 4.36 - 5.70 kg to 1.71 - 2.05 kg. The increase of degree of crystallinity correlated positively with the increase of hardness of rice analogues (r = 0.746, p = 0.05).

  15. A Novel Evaluation Tool for Enhancing the Selection of Natural Fibers for Polymeric Composites Based on Fiber Moisture Content Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. AL-Oqla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation tool for natural fibers’ capabilities based on moisture content criterion (MCC was developed and introduced as a new evaluation method. This MCC evaluation tool is designed to predict the behavior of the available natural fibers regarding distinctive desirable characteristics under the effect of the moisture absorption phenomenon. Here, the capabilities of different natural fiber types commonly used in industry, in addition to date palm fibers, were systematically investigated based on MCC. The results demonstrated that MCC is capable of predicting the relative reduction of fiber performance regarding a particular beneficial property because of the effect of moisture absorption. The strong agreements between the predicted values of MCC and results reported in the literature verify its usefulness as an evaluation tool and demonstrate its added value steps in predicting the relative behavior of fibers with a minimal range of errors compared with experimental measurements. Therefore, MCC is capable of better evaluating natural fibers regarding distinctive criteria in a systematic manner, leading to more realistic decisions about their capabilities and therefore enhancing the selection process for both better sustainable design possibilities and industrial product development.

  16. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the simultaneous determination of Density and Moisture Content in Porous Structural Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Jensen, Signe Kamp; Gerward, Leif

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the dual-energy x-ray equipment, which consists of a x-ray source, filters and a detector. The x-ray beam can be moved automatically in two dimensions relative to a fixed specimen. The purpose of the equipment is to measure simultaneously the density and moisture content......-ray measurements show good agreement with results from the two standard materials which imitate water in a porous material. On this background the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurement principle can be used on porous structural materials....

  17. Incorporating moisture content in modeling the surface energy balance of debris-covered Changri Nup Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Alexandra; Boone, Aaron; Morin, Samuel; Lejeune, Yves; Wagnon, Patrick; Dumont, Marie; Hawley, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers whose ablation zones are covered in supraglacial debris comprise a significant portion of glaciers in High Mountain Asia and two-thirds in the South Central Himalaya. Such glaciers evade traditional proxies for mass balance because they are difficult to delineate remotely and because they lose volume via thinning rather than via retreat. Additionally, their surface energy balance is significantly more complicated than their clean counterparts' due to a conductive heat flux from the debris-air interface to the ice-debris boundary, where melt occurs. This flux is a function of the debris' thickness; thermal, radiative, and physical properties; and moisture content. To date, few surface energy balance models have accounted for debris moisture content and phase changes despite the fact that they are well-known to affect fluxes of mass, latent heat, and conduction. In this study, we introduce a new model, ISBA-DEB, which is capable of solving not only the heat equation but also moisture transport and retention in the debris. The model is based upon Meteo-France's Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) soil and vegetation model, significantly adapted for debris and coupled with the snowpack model Crocus within the SURFEX platform. We drive the model with continuous ERA-Interim reanalysis data, adapted to the local topography (i.e. considering local elevation and shadowing) and downscaled and de-biased using 5 years of in-situ meteorological data at Changri Nup glacier [(27.859N, 86.847E)] in the Khumbu Himal. The 1-D model output is then evaluated through comparison with measured temperature in and ablation under a 10-cm thick debris layer on Changri Nup. We have found that introducing a non-equilibrium model for water flow, rather than using the mixed-form Richard's equation alone, promotes greater consistency with moisture observations. This explicit incorporation of moisture processes improves simulation of the snow-debris-ice column

  18. Competitive sorption of CO2 and CH4 on coals as a function of maturity and moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Alexej; Gensterblum, Yves; Kroos, Bernhard; Littke, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The competitive sorption of CH4 and CO2 from a two-component gas mixture on coals of different rank and moisture content has been studied at pressures up to 10 MPa. The aim of this study was to assess, the maximum sorption capacity as well as the selectivity of dry and moisturised coals of different rank with respect to sorption of CH4and CO2. The research addresses possible implications on Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery projects, where CO2is to be injected into coal seams to increase CH4production rates. The measurements were conducted using a manometric setup with continuous pressure and temperature recording and periodic analysis of gas compositions in the reference cell and the measuring cell throughout the duration of the experiment. Isotherms were determined with a gas mixture containing 70-80% CH4. Three isotherms were measured at three different moisture states for each of the three coal samples of different rank. A significant decrease of total excess sorption capacity was observed with increasing moisture content from the dry sample to the sample moisturised at 53% relative humidity (RH). The initial reduction of sorption capacity decreases with rank. Only a small further decrease occurred from 53% to the 97% RH moisturised coals. The effect of moisture on sorption capacity and selectivity is highly rank-dependent. In all cases the results show a preferential sorption of CO2from a binary CH4/CO2gas mixture at all three moisture states. Sorption capacity increases with rank for all but the dry state and in all cases the sample with the highest maturity shows the highest sorption capacity by far. Selectivity for CO2 decreases with increasing rank of the coal. The results of this study support that from the thermodynamic point of view coals have a tendency to selectively take up CO2under the conditions of ECBM recovery. The selectivity coefficients are important parameters for ECBM modelling and the design of production strategies.

  19. Toward the Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture Content Using Geostationary Satellite Data over Sparsely Vegetated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Leng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a novel bare surface soil moisture (SSM retrieval model developed from the synergistic use of the diurnal cycles of land surface temperature (LST and net surface shortwave radiation (NSSR (Leng et al. 2014. “Bare Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval from the Synergistic Use of Optical and Thermal Infrared Data”. International Journal of Remote Sensing 35: 988–1003., this paper mainly investigated the model’s capability to estimate SSM using geostationary satellite observations over vegetated area. Results from the simulated data primarily indicated that the previous bare SSM retrieval model is capable of estimating SSM in the low vegetation cover condition with fractional vegetation cover (FVC ranging from 0 to 0.3. In total, the simulated data from the Common Land Model (CoLM on 151 cloud-free days at three FLUXNET sites that with different climate patterns were used to describe SSM estimates with different underlying surfaces. The results showed a strong correlation between the estimated SSM and the simulated values, with a mean Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 0.028 m3·m−3 and a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.869. Moreover, diurnal cycles of LST and NSSR derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG satellite data on 59 cloud-free days were utilized to estimate SSM in the REMEDHUS soil moisture network (Spain. In particular, determination of the model coefficients synchronously using satellite observations and SSM measurements was explored in detail in the cases where meteorological data were not available. A preliminary validation was implemented to verify the MSG pixel average SSM in the REMEDHUS area with the average SSM calculated from the site measurements. The results revealed a significant R2 of 0.595 and an RMSE of 0.021 m3·m−3.

  20. Natural stone in ventilated façades: method for determining the appropriate moisture content for strength tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielba, C.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of the assumptions about moisture content on the design of ventilated façades with porous natural stone cladding. Moisture is shown to impact cladding strength and condition its dimensions. For this reason the performance of such façades when exposed to water should be analyzed more fully than specified in EN standards. An example is given of how to conduct such an analysis, along with guidelines for choosing a moisture content value that correctly reflects the absorption levels attainable in such façades. This value is then used to determine panel mechanical strength. Application of the method to three sandstones from Northeastern Spain showed the utility of the type of analysis proposed.El artículo muestra la influencia que tiene la consideración del contenido de humedad en el diseño de las fachadas trasventiladas hechas de piedra natural porosa. Se comprueba cómo este factor influye en la resistencia de las placas y condiciona sus dimensiones. Por ello se propone realizar un análisis más amplio del comportamiento frente al agua, que el propuesto por las normas EN. A través de un ejemplo, se muestra cómo realizar dicho análisis y se dan pautas para elegir un contenido de humedad que represente el grado de absorción que la piedra pueda alcanzar en este tipo de fachadas. Con este contenido, se determinarán las resistencias mecánicas de las placas. El estudio se ha aplicado a tres areniscas de la misma zona del noreste español, obteniendo resultados que demuestran la utilidad del análisis que se propone.

  1. Effects of hedgerow systems on soil moisture and unsaturated hydraulics conductivity measured by the Libardi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S . Prijono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hedgerow systems are the agroforestry practices suggesting any positive impacts and negative impacts on soil characteristics. This study evaluated the effects of hedgerows on the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil with the Libardi method approach. This study was conducted in North Lampung for 3 months on the hedgerow plots of Peltophorum dassyrachis (P, Gliricidia sepium (G, and without hedgerow plot (K, with four replications. Each plot was watered as much as 150 liters of water until saturated, then the soil surface were covered with the plastic film. Observation of soil moisture content was done to a depth of 70 cm by the 10 cm intervals. Soil moisture content was measured using the Neutron probe that was calibrated to get the value of volumetric water content. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil was calculated by using the Libardi Equation. Data were tested using the analysis of variance, the least significant different test (LSD, Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT, correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that the hedgerow significantly affected the soil moisture content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Soil moisture content on the hedgerow plots was lower than the control plots. The value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the hedgerow plots was higher than the control plots. Different types of hedgerows affected the soil moisture content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The positive correlation was found between the volumetric soil moisture content and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil.

  2. An extension of the talbot-ogden hydrology model to an affine multi-dimensional moisture content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2013-09-01

    The Talbot-Ogden hydrology model provides a fast mass conservative method to compute infiltration in unsaturated soils. As a replacement for a model based on Richards equation, it separates the groundwater movement into infiltration and redistribution for every time step. The typical feature making this method fast is the discretization of the moisture content domain rather than the spatial one. The Talbot-Ogden model rapidly determines how well ground water and aquifers are recharged only. Hence, it differs from models based on advanced reservoir modeling that are uniformly far more expensive computationally since they determine where the water moves in space instead, a completely different and more complex problem.According to the pore-size distribution curve for many soils, this paper extends the one dimensional moisture content domain into a two dimensional one by keeping the vertical spatial axis. The proposed extension can describe any pore-size or porosity distribution as an important soil feature. Based on this extension, infiltration and redistribution are restudied. The unconditional conservation of mass in the Talbot-Ogden model is inherited in this extended model. A numerical example is given for the extended model.

  3. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-01

    A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾ 12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  4. Statistical analysis of soil moisture content changes in Central Europe using GLDAS database over three past decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Kȩdzior, Mateusz

    2014-09-01

    This paper examine soil moisture trends changes in inhomogeneous area of Central European countries — Poland, the Czech Republic and neighbouring territories. The area suffered from the lack of large-scale soil parameters research. Most of them are limited to ground measurements performed for a small part of land. Although there were extensive water conditions studies performed for the whole Europe, such as drought analysis, they were focused on Western European countries, neglecting situation in Central Europe (taking exception to Austria). The NOAH model of Global Land Data Assimilation System database has been used as a data source. It delivers one degree spatial resolution data and variables which describe soil moisture values for four depth levels (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm and 100-200 cm). Data covering years 1979-2011 has been averaged in order to analyse summer and winter terms separately. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis have been prepared on the software Statistica, Research reveals that area is losing water content. Due to promising results of water content trend analysis, the authors plan to run a large-scale analysis using other variables from the GLDAS database, especially concerning soil temperature and evapotranspiration.

  5. A coupled melt-freeze temperature index approach in a one-layer model to predict bulk volumetric liquid water content dynamics in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water in snow rules runoff dynamics and wet snow avalanches release. Moreover, it affects snow viscosity and snow albedo. As a result, measuring and modeling liquid water dynamics in snow have important implications for many scientific applications. However, measurements are usually challenging, while modeling is difficult due to an overlap of mechanical, thermal and hydraulic processes. Here, we evaluate the use of a simple one-layer one-dimensional model to predict hourly time-series of bulk volumetric liquid water content in seasonal snow. The model considers both a simple temperature-index approach (melt only) and a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach that is able to reconstruct melt-freeze dynamics. Performance of this approach is evaluated at three sites in Japan. These sites (Nagaoka, Shinjo and Sapporo) present multi-year time-series of snow and meteorological data, vertical profiles of snow physical properties and snow melt lysimeters data. These data-sets are an interesting opportunity to test this application in different climatic conditions, as sites span a wide latitudinal range and are subjected to different snow conditions during the season. When melt-freeze dynamics are included in the model, results show that median absolute differences between observations and predictions of bulk volumetric liquid water content are consistently lower than 1 vol%. Moreover, the model is able to predict an observed dry condition of the snowpack in 80% of observed cases at a non-calibration site, where parameters from calibration sites are transferred. Overall, the analysis show that a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach may be a valid solution to predict average wetness conditions of a snow cover at local scale.

  6. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The rapid killing of various bacteria in contact with metallic copper is thought to be influenced by the influx of copper ions into the cells, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. This study showed that the kinetics of contact killing of copper surfaces depended greatly on the amount...... of moisture present, copper content of alloys, type of medium used, and type of bacteria. We examined antibiotic- and copper ion-resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pig farms following the use of copper sulfate as feed supplement. The results showed rapid killing...... of both copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium strains when samples in rich medium were spread in a thin, moist layer on copper alloys with 85% or greater copper content. E. coli strains were rapidly killed under dry conditions, while E. faecium strains were less affected. Electroplated copper...

  7. Umidade de equilíbrio de painéis de madeira Equilibrium moisture content of wood panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciane Angélica da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a determinação da umidade de equilíbrio de painéis de madeira numa câmara de climatização e comparação dos seus valores com os obtidos através da equação de Nelson. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade Experimental de Produção de Painéis de Madeira da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram utilizadas amostras de aglomerado, compensado multilaminado e sarrafeado, chapa dura, OSB (Oriented Strand Board , MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, HDF (High Density Fiberboard, madeira-cimento e madeira-pl��stico, sendo esses produtos de escala industrial e experimental. As dimensões dos corpos-de-prova foram de 2,60 cm de largura por 2,60 cm de comprimento. As espessuras foram aquelas mais utilizadas comercialmente de cada produto, sendo utilizadas cinco repetições por painel. Os corpos-de-prova foram pesados e levados para uma câmara de climatização, onde foram submetidos a diferentes condições de umidade relativa (90, 80, 70, 60, 50 e 40% e uma temperatura constante de 30 ºC. Determinaram-se a histerese e a umidade de equilíbrio, que variaram de 40 a 90%. Os resultados indicaram que a equação de Nelson se mostrou eficiente na estimativa da umidade de equilíbrio e que não existe em média diferença de histerese entre os produtos estudados, mostrando que todos apresentam a mesma estabilidade dimensional. Observou-se, também, que o revestimento dos painéis não afetou a umidade de equilíbrio.This study aimed at determining the equilibrium moisture content of wood panels in a climatization chamber and comparing the values of equilibrium moisture content found with those given by Nelson's equation. The research was developed at the Experimental Unit of Wood Panel Production of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Samples of particleboard, plywood, hardboard, OSB (Oriented Strand Board, MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, HDF (High Density Fiberboard, cement wood and plastic wood were taken both from

  8. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Paulick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3 and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

  9. Effects of "natural" water and "added" water on prediction of moisture content and bulk density of shelled corn from microwave dielectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O; Lewis, Micah A

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric properties of samples of shelled corn of "natural" water content and those prepared by adding water were measured in free space at microwave frequencies and 23 degrees C. Results of measurements of attenuation, phase shift and dielectric constant and loss factor at 9 GHz show no difference between the samples with "natural" water and those in which water was added artificially. Bulk densities and moisture contents predicted from calibration equations expressed in terms of dielectric properties of both natural and added water samples agreed closely, and standard errors were less than 1% for moisture content and relative error for bulk density was less than 5%.

  10. Onsite and online FT-NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of total nitrogen and moisture content in poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, E; Castaldelli, G; Ferrari, G; Marchetti, M G; Pedrini, P; Aschonitis, V G

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen and moisture of manure are highly variable parameters and depend on animal type, husbandry techniques, environmental conditions and storage time. The precision in manure dose estimation for crops fertilization depends on the total nitrogen and moisture content just before its incorporation in the field. The aim of the study is to develop a Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy method to determine the total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN%) and moisture (M%) of different types of poultry manure prior to land application. Samples covering a wide range of poultry types and different husbandry conditions were obtained from farms of North-Eastern Italy in order to develop the method. The method was calibrated (R(2) = 0.94 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.99 for M%) and validated (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.95 for M%) in the laboratory. An external validation was also performed in situ with independent samples, of similar origin to the previous data set, which were collected just before application in the field. Spectra acquisitions for these samples were carried out using the same instrumentation which was placed in a special vehicle for monitoring campaigns. The results showed satisfactory prediction accuracy (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.93 for M%). Finally, an additional analysis was performed to discriminate the different types of poultry effluents. The TKN and M measurements in the disposal areas indicated that current agronomic practices lead to more than double poultry manure oversupply. The proposed FT-NIR methodology aims to improve the current fertilization management and environmental protection by providing fast and precise estimations of poultry manure doses prior to land application.

  11. Variabilidad espacial y diaria del contenido de humedad en el suelo en tres sistemas agroforestales Spatial and daily variability of soil moisture content in three agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rivera Peña

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En seis puntos de tres transectos (102 m paralelos (9 m en tres sistemas de uso del terreno (Quesungual menor de dos años, SAQThe objective of this study was to determine the level of soil spatial variability in an area consisting of the land uses: Quesungual slash and mulch agroforestry system with less than two years (QSMAS<2, Slash-and-burn traditional system (SB and Secondary forest (SF. Soil samples were taken in three parallel transects of 102 m in length, separated 9 meters. The profile was sampled in the depths from 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm in 6 points (09, 11 am and 05 during 9 days. Coefficient of variation for soil properties varied for bulk density (0.76 and 15.1%, organic carbon (30.4 and 54.3%, volumetric moisture (9.5 and 23.5%, sand (12.8 and 22.5% and clay (14.0 and 29.2%. The geo-statistical analysis showed that the random component of the spatial dependence was predominant over the nugget effect. The functions of semivariograms, structured for each variable were used to generate maps of interpolated contours at a fine scale. The Moran (I autocorrelation indicated that sampling ranges less than 9 m would be adequate to detect spatial structure of the volumetric moisture variable.

  12. Organic matter and soil moisture content and double cropping with organic matter sourceplants

    OpenAIRE

    John Bako Baon; Aris Wibawa

    2005-01-01

    Double cropping of coffee with organic matter source plants is thought to increase organic matter content of soil. This study examined the effect of double cropping of coffee and organic matter source plants on soil organic matter content and yield of coffee plants. Arabica coffee trees in Andungsari Experimental Station (Bondowoso district), 1400 m asl. and climate type C; and Robusta coffee trees in Sumberasin Experimental Station (Malang district), 550 m asl. and climate type C, were used ...

  13. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  14. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content ; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van; Sariowan, S.V.; Gehrels, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test si

  15. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  16. The effects of dimensional mould sizes on volumetric shrinkage strain of lateritic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engbonye SANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional influences of specimen size on the volumetric shrinkage strain values of a lateritic soil for waste containment system have not been researched upon. Therefore, this paper presents the result of a laboratory study on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS of lateritic soil at three different dimensional sizes of mould (split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL, West African standard (WAS and British standard heavy (BSH respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2% to +6% optimum moisture content (OMC. At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS suggested by Tay et al., (2001. Based on the VSS values obtained if the CBR mould can be used to model site condition it is recommended for use to simulate site condition for Volumetric shrinkage strain for all molding water content and compactive effort.

  17. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  18. Effects of Preheating Temperature,Moisture and Sodium Metabisulfite Content on Property of Maize Flour Dough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Processing temperature,maze flour particle size,and level of water and sodium metabisulfite were varied during the preparation of maize noodles.Preheated to 90-95 ℃ a mixture of maize flour or meal,water(43%-45% moisture) and salt enabled the preparation of noodles using a pasta extruder.Maize flour with smaller particle size yielded better noodles than did maize meal.The addition of sodium metabisulfite enabled the production of noodles at lower processing temperatures; however,cooking losses increased.Processing maize flour with higher water absorption yielded noodles that required longer cooking time but with decreased losses.The functionalities of starch and protein in raw ingredients and in products were determined.Starch gelatinized and retorgraded during processing maize noodles,as indicated by changes in pasting viscosity curves.Maize proteins contributed to the increased viscosity of dough above 40 ℃.The increased integrity of cooked maize noodles,however,corresponded to the increased amounts of gelatinized and retrograded starch.

  19. Change in color and other fruit quality characteristics of tomato cultivars after hot-air drying at low final-moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashebir, Dereje; Jezik, Karoline; Weingartemann, Herbert; Gretzmacher, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the drying quality of three tomato cultivars (Amoroso, Berlinto and Messina) at low final-moisture content. Tomatoes were cut into slices and hot-air-dried from 92% (wet basis) to 12% final moisture content at 55 degrees C, 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C at 1.5 m/sec air flow. Color, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) and ascorbic acid (AA) content were measured in both fresh and dried tomatoes. Brightness of the dried tomato slices was significantly decreased, while intensity of the red and yellow colors and brightness of the red color (a*/b*) increased. Low overall color change (DeltaE) was obtained at the lowest drying temperature (55 degrees C). Messina and Amoroso showed a higher a* value and lower DeltaE, respectively. The TSS content was increased, while the TA and AA contents were decreased through drying. This study shows that it is possible to hot-air dry tomato slices to a final moisture content of 12% maintaining quality that is comparable with studies where the final-moisture content was higher (15% or more).

  20. The influence of the moisture content of microcrystalline cellulose on the coating process in a fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva O. S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the coating of microcrystalline cellulose with a polymeric suspension in a fluidized bed. The coating operation was carried out using a fluidized bed with top spraying by a double-fluid nozzle. The fluidized bed consists of a cylindrical column made of plexiglass with a height of 0.6 m and an inner diameter of 0.14 m. The polymeric coating suspension was formulated using Eudragit® as the basic component. As the quality of the coating product is greatly affected by the spraying characteristics, the influence of the flow rate of the coating suspension and the moisture content of the particles on the agglomeration index and efficiency of the process of coating microcrystalline cellulose was analyzed.

  1. Microstructure changes of on the extruded high-amylose bionanocomposites as affected by moisture content via synchrotron radiation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihua; Chaudhary, Deeptangshu

    2014-08-01

    The crystalline domain changes and lamellar structure observations of sorbitol-plasticized starch nanocomposite had been investigated via synchrotron. Strong interactions were found between amylose-sorbitol, resulting in reduced inter-helix spacing of the starch polymer. Achievable dspacing of nanoclay was confirmed to be correlated to the moisture content (mc) within the nanocomposites. SAXS diffraction patterns changed from circular (high mc samples) to elliptical (low mc samples), indicating the formation of long periodic structure and increased heterogeneities of the electron density within the samples. Two different domains sized at around 90 Å and 350 Å were found for the low mc samples. However, only the ~90 Å domain was observed in high mc samples. Formation of the 380 Å domain is attributed to the retrogradation behaviour in the absence of water molecules. Meanwhile, the nucleation effect of nanoclay is another factor leading to the emergence of the larger crystalline domain.

  2. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. A. Rashid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. The metal ions concentration either essential or non essential, critically affect the biological system of the human body. Here are many factors including the different types of pollution-fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides and other forms of air and water pollution etc.- that effect directly on metal ion concentration in Bougainvillea and indirectly in biological system if used traditionally as medicine.

  3. Spray chilling of deer carcasses--effects on carcass weight, meat moisture content, purge and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, E; Kemp, R M; leRoux, G J; Li, Y; Wu, G

    2010-12-01

    Twenty red deer carcasses were included in the study. Two treatments were applied to the carcasses; control (air chilling) and spray chilling (n=10 for each treatment). Carcass weight and temperature change were registered during over-night chilling. Meat moisture content was measured in the shoulder, loin, flap and leg before and after the chilling treatments; purge, cooking loss and tenderness were measured in loin samples stored at -1.5 °C for 3 and 9 weeks. Microbiological status was assessed on swabs taken at the lumbar end of the loin before and after the chilling treatments. Spray chilling reduced carcass weight loss significantly; air chilled and spray chilled carcasses lost 1 kg and less than 0.01 kg, respectively. No effects of spray chilling on tenderness, purge and cooking loss were found. Bacterial levels were low in general even after 9 weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage.

  4. Postmortem volumetric CT data analysis of pulmonary air/gas content with regard to the cause of death for investigating terminal respiratory function in forensic autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Postmortem CT (PMCT) is useful to investigate air/gas distribution and content in body cavities and viscera. The present study investigated the procedure to estimate total lung air/gas content and aeration ratio as possible indices of terminal respiratory function, using three-dimensional (3-D) PMCT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases without putrefactive gas formation (within 3 days postmortem, n=75), and analyzed the volumetric data with regard to the cause of death. When 3-D bilateral lung images were reconstructed using an image analyzer, combined lung volume was larger in drowning (n=12) than in alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8) and sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10), and intermediate in other cases, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), fire fatalities due to burns (n=6) and carbon monoxide intoxication (n=7), fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=7), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=7). Air/gas content of the lung as detected using HU interval between -2000 and -400 ('effective' lung aeration areas) and between -2000 and -191 (total lung aeration areas) as well as the ratios to total lung volume ('effective' and total lung aeration ratios, respectively) was higher in mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, fatal burns and hypothermia (cold exposure) than in SCD, and was intermediate in other cases. 'Effective' and total lung aeration ratios may be useful for comparisons between specific causes of death to discriminate between hypothermia (cold exposure) and drug intoxication, and between SCD and other causes of death, respectively. These findings provide interesting insights into potential efficacy of PMCT data analyses of lung volume and CT density as well as lung air/gas content and aeration ratio with regard to the cause of death, as possible indicators of terminal respiratory function, as part of virtual autopsy of the viscera in situ.

  5. Assessment of the variation of the moisture content in the Pinus pinaster Ait. using the non destructive GPR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez Barra, R.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content variations in wood have a significant influence in wood’s physicochemical properties, as well as in its electromagnetic properties and to specific effects upon waves’ characteristics. In particular, this paper focuses on the analysis of the Ground-penetrating Radar’s (GPR using an antenna of 1.6GHz central frequency capacity to register the velocity and the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves’ variation during the drying process of Pinus pinaster Ait timber joists. The results showed that when timber MC descends, the propagation velocity and amplitude of both the direct and the reflected wave increased. The high correlation found between the variables studied demonstrates GPR efficiency and the innovative application of this technique as a non-destructive evaluation tool for timber structures, particularly when studying its moisture content.La variación en el contenido de humedad (CH tiene una influencia significativa tanto en las propiedades físico- químicas de la madera, como en sus propiedades electromagnéticas y por tanto afecta a las características de la propagación de las ondas. En concreto, en este trabajo se estudia la capacidad del georradar (GR empleando una antena de 1.6GHz de frecuencia central para registrar las variaciones que se producen en la velocidad y en la amplitud de las ondas electromagnéticas cuando se propagan en unas viguetas de madera de Pinus pinaster Ait de uso estructural cuyo CH va disminuyendo. Se ha comprobado como cuando el CH descendía la velocidad de propagación y las amplitudes, tanto de la onda directa como de la reflejada aumentaba. Los altos factores de correlación encontrados demuestran que el GR es una técnica capaz de evaluar, de forma no destructiva, el CH de la madera de uso estructural.

  6. Model for on-line moisture-content control during solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.J.I.; Tramper, J.; Bakker, M.S.N.; Rinzema, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we describe a model that estimates the extracellular (nonfungal) and overall water contents of wheat grains during solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae, using on-line measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase. The model uses elemental ba

  7. The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemary Knight

    2003-12-28

    Water content is a critical parameter affecting both liquid-phase and vapor-phase contaminant transport in the vadose zone. This means that accurate estimates of in situ water content must be obtained in order to design for the appropriate handling or remediation of a contaminated region of the vadose zone. Traditional methods of sampling the subsurface by drilling and/or direct sampling are very time consuming, limited in terms of spatial coverage, and have the associated risk of contacting and increasing the size of the contaminated area. One solution is to use geophysical methods which can provide a high-resolution, non-invasive means of sampling or imaging the subsurface. The overall objective of our research, defined at the start of this project, was to advance the usefulness of radar methods (ground-based and borehole) as a means of characterizing water content in the vadose zone. We have met this objective by providing research results that can be used to (1) improve the accuracy of water content estimates from radar measurements; (2) provide estimates of the potential error in water content estimates from radar measurements; (3) improve the clarity of radar images; (4) develop large-scale models of the subsurface ''architecture'' using radar images; (5) develop ways of quantifying the spatial heterogeneity of the subsurface through analysis of radar images. We have also been able to identify the critical areas where more research is needed in order to be able to use radar methods most effectively as an accurate means of subsurface characterization.

  8. Relationships between soil moisture-holding properties and soil texture, organic matter content, and bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, H. C. F.

    1981-01-01

    Specimens from the surface horizon and the subsoil of 62 soil horizons in Hedmark and Oppland were investigated to study how the mechanical composition of the soil, the organic matter content and the bulk density affect their porosity and air capacity and their total and available water content. Most of the specimens belonged to the loam group, and a smaller number was from sandy and silty types of soil. Equations were established to make it possible to calculate the water retention curves and the amount of available water from the above mentioned parameters. As a rule, errors derived from the equations are no greater than those which are found in similar research in other countries.

  9. The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemary Knight

    2003-12-28

    Water content is a critical parameter affecting both liquid-phase and vapor-phase contaminant transport in the vadose zone. This means that accurate estimate of in situ water content must be obtained in order to design for the appropriate handling or remediation of a contaminated region of the vadose zone. Traditional methods of sampling the subsurface by drilling and/or direct sampling are very time consuming, limited in terms of spatial coverage, and have the associated risk of contacting and increasing the size of the contaminated area. One solution is to use geophysical methods which can provide a high-resolution, non-invasive means of sampling or imagin the subsurface.

  10. Stemflow variation in Mexico's northeastern forest communities: Its contribution to soil moisture content and aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    2011-09-01

    appear to explain the increase of the stemflow coefficient from trees to stands. Stemflow replenishes soil moisture on the average 4.5 (1.4) times larger than does incident rainfall in open soils and appear to contribute to aquifer recharge in temperate forests due to a combination of shallow soils, high infiltration fluxes and the stemflow volume generated during rainfalls with depths >15 mm. Tracing studies should be conducted to test the hypothesis of the stemflow contribution to aquifer recharge in temperate forests of northeastern Mexico.

  11. Influence of moisture absorption on the flexural properties of composites made of epoxy resin reinforced with low-content iron particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E SIDERIDIS; J VENETIS; E KYRIAZI; V KYTOPOULOS

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of moisture absorption on the mechanical properties of particulate composite materials isstudied. Moisture absorption constitutes a main parameter affecting the thermomechanical behaviour of composites, since itcauses plasticization of the polymer matrix with a concurrent swelling. In the present work, the influence of water absorptionon the flexural properties of particle-reinforced composites was thoroughly investigated. It was found that during the processof moisture absorption there exists a variation of the flexural properties closely related to the degradation of the mechanicalbehaviour of the composite, as well as the percentage amount of moisture absorbed. Experiments were carried out withcomposite made of epoxy resin reinforced with low-content iron particles. The variation of ultimate stress, breaking strain,deflection, elastic modulus and Poisson ratio due to water absorption was examined.

  12. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  13. Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization in amorphous sucrose and lactose at low moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedward, C J; MacNaughtan, W; Mitchell, J R

    2000-11-03

    Differential scanning calorimetry has been used in isothermal and non-isothermal modes to provide information on the crystallization of sucrose and lactose at low water contents. Using approaches previously applied to polymer crystallization an attempt has been made to combine the isothermal and non-isothermal data into a single curve. This is achieved by the use of appropriate shift factors in the time and temperature domains. This was successful for sucrose but not for lactose. It was suggested that this was because lactose crystallizes into multiple forms whereas sucrose crystallizes in a single form.

  14. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  15. A land surface soil moisture data assimilation framework in consideration of the model subgrid-scale heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is well known and widely used in land data assimilation for its high precision and simple operation. The land surface models used as the forecast operator in a land data assimilation system are usually designed to consider the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing. To neglect their effects could lead to some errors in soil moisture assimilation. The dual EnKF method is employed in soil moisture data assimilation to build a soil moisture data as- similation framework based on the NCAR Community Land Model version 2.0 (CLM 2.0) in considera- tion of the effects of the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing: Liquid volumetric soil moisture content in a given fraction is assimilated through the state filter process, while solid volumetric soil moisture content in the same fraction and solid/liquid volumetric soil moisture in the other fractions are optimized by the parameter filter. Preliminary experiments show that this dual EnKF-based assimilation framework can assimilate soil moisture more effectively and precisely than the usual EnKF-based assimilation framework without considering the model subgrid-scale heteroge- neity and soil water thawing and freezing. With the improvement of soil moisture simulation, the soil temperature-simulated precision can be also improved to some extent.

  16. A land surface soil moisture data assimilation framework in consideration of the model subgrid-scale heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN XiangJun; XIE ZhengHui

    2008-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is well known and widely used in land data assimilation for its high precision and simple operation. The land surface models used as the forecast operator in a land data assimilation system are usually designed to consider the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing. To neglect their effects could lead to some errors in soil moisture assimilation.The dual EnKF method is employed in soil moisture data assimilation to build a soil moisture data assimilation framework based on the NCAR Community Land Model version 2.0 (CLM 2.0) in consideration of the effects of the model subgrid-heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing: Liquid volumetric soil moisture content in a given fraction is assimilated through the state filter process,while solid volumetric soil moisture content in the same fraction and solid/liquid volumetric soil moisture in the other fractions are optimized by the parameter filter. Preliminary experiments show that this dual EnKF-based assimilation framework can assimilate soil moisture more effectively and precisely than the usual EnKF-based assimilation framework without considering the model subgrid-scale heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing. With the improvement of soil moisture simulation,the soil temperature-simulated precision can be also improved to some extent.

  17. Inference of Soil Hydrologic Parameters from Soil Moisture Monitoring Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, D. G.; Seyfried, M. S.; McNamara, J. P.; Hwang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important control on hydrologic function, as it governs flux through the soil and responds to and determines vertical fluxes from and to the atmosphere, groundwater recharge and lateral fluxes through the soil. Most physically based hydrologic models require parameters to represent soil physical properties governing flow and retention of vadose water. The presented analysis compares four methods of objective analysis to determine field capacity, plant extraction limit (or permanent wilting point) and field saturated soil moisture content from decadal records of volumetric water content. These values are found as either data attractors or limits in the VWC records and may vary with interannual moisture availability. Results are compared to values from pedotransfer functions and discussed in terms of historic methods of measurement in soil physics.

  18. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  19. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  20. A review of satellite-based methods of estimating live fuel moisture content for fire danger assessment: moving towards operational products

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary variables affecting ignition and spread of wildfire is fuel moisture content (FMC), which is the ratio of water mass to dry mass in living and dead plant material. Because dead FMC may be estimated from available weather data, remote sensing is needed to monitor the spatial distr...

  1. Moisture content, insect pests and mycotoxin levels of maize at harvest and post-harvest in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content, insect pest infestation and mycotoxin contamination of maize are challenges to food safety and security, especially in the tropics where maize is a staple grain. However, very little documentation is available on the impact of these factors on maize in Ghana. This study focused on ...

  2. Conservation agriculture and tillage effects on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Reyes, Manuel R.; Padre, R.; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a study to analyze the influence of conservation agriculture and tillage on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  3. Quantitative model prediction of the combined effect of moisture content and temperature on purple mudstone decay in south-western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Chen, Anqiang; Zhao, Jixia; Lu, Chuanhao; Liu, Gangcai

    2017-10-01

    Rock decay is mainly the result of the combined effects of moisture content and temperature, but little is known about the quantitative relationship between these variables and the rate of rock decay. In this study we develop quantitative calculation models of rock decay rate under laboratory conditions and validate the efficiency of these models by comparing the predicted rock decay mass and that measured for rock exposed in the field. Rainfall and temperature data in the field were standardised to a dimensionless moisture content and temperature variables, respectively, and then the predicted rock decay mass was calculated by the models. The measured rock decay mass was determined by manual sieving. Based on our previously determined relationship between a single factor (moisture content or temperature) and the rate of rock decay in the laboratory, power function models are developed. Results show that the rock decay mass calculated by the model was comparable with field data, with averaged relative errors of 1.53%, 9.00% and 11.82% for the Tuodian group (J3t), Matoushan group (K2m) and Lufeng group (J1l), respectively, which are mainly due to inaccurate transformation of field rainfall into the rock moisture content and artificial disturbance when the samples were sieved in the field. Our results show that the developed models based on laboratory-derived rates can accurately predict the decay rates of mudstones exposed in the field.

  4. Measurement of moisture, soluble solids, and sucrose content and mechanical properties in sugar beet using portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression, was used to predict the moisture, soluble solids and sucrose content and mechanical properties of sugar beet. Interactance spectra were acquired from both intact and sliced beets, using two portable spectrometers ...

  5. Non-destructive and rapid prediction of moisture content in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder using near-infrared spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated in...

  6. Hyperspectral prediction of soil organic matter contents under different soil moisture contents%含水率对土壤有机质含量高光谱估算的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司海青; 姚艳敏; 王德营; 刘影

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture content has great influence on the prediction accuracy of soil organic matter (SOM) content using hyperspectral data. The purpose of this study was to find the threshold of soil moisture content suitable for using hyperspectral data to predict SOM content. A total of 63 soil samples including black soil, chernozem and meadow soil were collected from crop fields in Lishu and Gongzhuling county, Jilin province and in Binxin county, Heilongjiang province. The soil samples were air-dried and sieved through a 2-mm sieve. SOM contents were measured in the laboratory. The soil samples were divided into two groups including 42 samples for calibration and 21 for validation. Reflectance of soil samples with over-dried, air-dried and 5% to 40% soil moisture contents (the interval of 5%) were measured using ASD Fieldspec Pro High Spectrometer in a dark room. Soil spectral reflectance (R) was mathematically transformed into first derivatives of reflectance (R’) and the logarithm of the inverse of the reflectance (Log (1/R)). SOM content spectral prediction models were set up respectively by using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The method of variable importance in projection (VIP) was used to analyze which spectral ranges were important to explain SOM content under different soil moisture contents by using PLSR. The results showed that soil spectral reflectance had a larger decline with soil moisture content increasing from 5% to 25%, but the decline trend slowed down when soil moisture content increased from 25% to 40%. That means the soil moisture content with less than 25% had more obvious effect on soil spectral reflectance change than soil moisture content with higher than 25%. With the increase of soil moisture content, moisture absorption valley appeared a large tendency on bands of 1 450 and 1 900 nm. It indicated that effects of soil moisture content on soil spectral reflectance happened mainly in the near infrared wavelength range. SOM

  7. 香菜的平衡含水率测定试验研究%Experimental Study on Determination of Equilibrium Moisture Content of Coriander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昆; 赵士杰; 滕竹竹

    2016-01-01

    In this paper , moisture absorption and desorption equilibrium moisture content of coriander were measured by the static method and the testing device of the DL104 type electric heating and air drying box while the environmental relative hu-midity changed from 10%to 95 %and the temperature was at different values such as 25℃and 35℃.The moisture desorption and absorption isotherms of coriander were plotted , the effects of temperature and environmental re-lative humidity on the equi-librium moisture content of coriander were analyzed and the safe storage condition of dried coriander was determined .The rus-ults show that the equilibrium moisture content of coriander exists moisture absorp-tion "lagging"phenomenon , the envir-onmental relative humidity has more important influence than temperature on the equilibrium moisture content of corian-der , the mildew phenomena will appear when the dry base moisture content of the sample was greater than 50%and the mil-dew phenomena will become serious when the environmental relative humidity is greater than 60%.%利用DL104 型电热鼓风干燥箱试验装置,采用静态法分别测得香菜在温度为25℃和35℃、相对湿度为10%~95%范围内的解吸和吸湿平衡含水率数据,绘制了相应的香菜解吸和吸湿等温线,分析了温度和环境相对湿度对香菜平衡含水率的影响,确定了香菜干制品的安全贮藏条件. 结果表明:香菜的平衡含水率存在吸湿"滞后"现象;环境相对湿度比温度对香菜平衡含水率的影响更大;当香菜样品干基含水率大于50%时,出现霉变现象;当环境相对湿度大于60%时,霉变现象严重.

  8. Effect of the slope and initial moisture content on soil loss, aggregate and particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Judit Alexandra; Jakab, Gergely; Szabó, Boglárka

    2015-04-01

    connected with the TC content of this fraction, but more research is needed. In agricultural areas micro aggregate fraction plays important role in nutrient supply thus understanding the erosion process is necessary because of the better protection in the future.

  9. Influence of moisture content on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in powdered red and black pepper spices by radio-frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-17

    The influence of moisture content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on heating rate, dielectric properties, and inactivation of foodborne pathogens was investigated. The effect of RF heating on the quality of powdered red and black pepper spices with different moisture ranges was also investigated. Red pepper (12.6%, 15.2%, 19.1%, and 23.3% dry basis, db) and black pepper (10.1%, 17.2%, 23.7%, and 30.5% db) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were treated in a RF heating system with 27.12 MHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on moisture content up to 19.1% (db) of red pepper and 17.2% (db) of black pepper, but there was a significant decrease in the heating rate when the moisture content was increased beyond these levels. The dielectric properties of both samples increased with a rise in moisture content. As the moisture content increased, treatment time required to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium by more than 7 log CFU/g (below the detection limit, 1 log CFU/g) decreased and then increased again without affecting product quality when the moisture content exceeded a level corresponding to the peak heating rate. RF treatment significantly (Pheating can be effectively used to not only control pathogens but also reduce moisture levels in spices and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on moisture content.

  10. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  11. The relation between moisture and liquid water content in fog - an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonser, S.; Griessbaum, F.; Chang, S.-C.; Chu, H.-S.; Hsia, Y.-J.; Klemm, O.

    2010-07-01

    In July 2009, microphysical measurements of orographic fog were performed above a montane cloud forest in north eastern Taiwan (Chilan mountain site). At this location, orographic fog appears almost every day. The goal of this work was to study the short term variations of the droplet size distribution (DSD), temperature, and relative humidity (RH), with a temporal resolution of 3 Hz. The relative humidity was calculated from precise temperature readings and absolute humidity (AH) measurements, recorded by a temperature sensor with an accuracy of 0.002°C (Model TR-1050, RBR Ltd.) and an infrared gas analyzer (Model Li-7500, LI-COR Biosciences), respectively. DSD's were measured by an optical droplet spectrometer (Model FM100, Droplet Measurement Technologies). It provides droplet spectra between 2 and 50 µm diameter. The liquid water content (LWC) of the fog was deduced from the measured DSD's. Data showed that orographic fog is composed of various air parcels of different size, RH and DSD. Three general types of fog parcels have been identified via the recorded DSD’s. DSD-type 1 is characterized by narrow spectra with maximum concentrations in the smallest size class and a continuous decrease towards greater diameters, DSD-type 2 represents slightly broader spectra with a plateau or second peak around 10 µm, and DSD-type 3 exhibits broad spectra with the droplet number concentrations peaking around 15 µm diameter. The appearance of the three different DSD-types is strongly related to RH and the general evolutional state of the fog. At the onset of a fog event, DSD’s are largely dominated by small droplets (DSD-type 1). Later on the spectra tend to become broader, RH shows relative low values, and DSD-type 3 is dominating the DSD’s. A statistical analysis of the characteristics of these parcels was performed and yielded large variability in persistence, RH, and LWC. DSD-type 2 showed the shortest durations and can, therefore, be regarded as a transitional

  12. 小麦秸秆含水率测量仪的设计与试验%Design and experiment on wheat straw moisture content meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文川; 刘驰; 杨军

    2013-01-01

    Faced with the worldwide shortage of forest resources, industry is showing increasing interest in using straw. Moisture content is listed as a main criterion in wheat straw consuming market. Not only since the unit price is based on weight, but also because moisture content is an important factor which affect straw products’ quality. Wheat straw is a main kind of straws all over the world. In order to detect moisture content of wheat straw conveniently, rapidly and precisely, a moisture content meter was designed with AT89S52 single-chip microcomputer as controller, parallel plate, DS18B20 and FSR402 as capacitance sensor, digital temperature sensor and pressure sensor to detect capacitance, temperature and bulk density of wheat straw, respectively. Liquid crystal display was adopted to show the obtained data. The meter’s accuracy on measuring capacitance, temperature and bulk density was tested. “Xinong 979”winter wheat straw was used as sample to study the influence of moisture content on output capacitance. The tests were set at five levels (10.6%, 13.6%, 15.6%, 17.3% and 19.6% in wet basis), temperature range from 5℃ to 35℃ with 5℃ interval, and three bulk density levels (generally from 77.2 kg/m3 to 103.6 kg/m3). The model describing capacitance and main factors was regressed. Newton iteration method was applied to program for predicting moisture content from obtained data. The model’s feasibility in predicting moisture content from 10%-20% at 5-35℃ was verified. The results indicated that the output voltages of designed circuits for sensing capacitance and pressure had good linear relationship with real capacitance and pressure values, with coefficients of determination higher than 0.996. The absolute temperature error was ±0.2℃. Over the investigated ranges of moisture content, temperature and bulk density, the obtained capacitance value increased with increasing moisture content, temperature and bulk density. The relationship between

  13. Study of the moisture content gradient in a cementitious material by measuring its impedance and gamma-densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilbaud, J. P.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The local water content in cementitious material depends on the equilibrium between its atmospheric environment and its bulk properties. So, the moisture profile in material can vary with time. The object of this study is to follow the change of this profile by measuring the electrical impedance of the material with pairs of small wires embedded at different depths. This method was applied to young cement paste specimens. The results obtained show that this method is quite satisfactory. The best frequency to be applied, is about 50 or 100 Hz. These results were compared with those obtained with gamma-densitometry.

    El agua contenida en los materiales en base cemento depende del equilibrio entre la atmósfera que le rodea y las propiedades de la matriz sólida. Por lo tanto el perfil de humedad en los materiales puede variar con el tiempo. La finalidad de este estudio es seguir los cambios en dicho perfil, a través de la medición de la impedancia eléctrica del material con varios pares de pequeños conductores situados a diferentes profundidadades. Este sistema se aplicó a diversas muestras de pasta de cemento Jóvenes. Los resultados obtenidos nos hacen ver que el método es satisfactorio, debiendo aplicarse a una frecuencia de 50 a 100 Hz. Dichos resultados se compararon con los obtenidos a través de la gammadensitometría.

  14. Germination of Styrax camporum Pohl. seeds in response to substrate types, moisture contents and the seed morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Edson; Nakamura, Adriana T; Takaki, Massanori

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the contributions of Styrax camporum seed morphology (size of seeds, presence or absence of endocarp attached to the seed), different substrates (filter paper, vermiculite, sand and the soils of cerrado s. str., cerradão and a riparian forest), different water potentials (0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4 and -0.5 MPa), light and temperature to seed germination. Seed size did not affect the germination percentage when seeds were sown on vermiculite. Seeds were affected by small variations in the moisture content of the tested substrates, showing a significant decrease in germination under water potentials lower than -0.1 MPa, close to the field capacity of cerrado s. str. soils. At the temperatures of 15 and 20°C, a significant decrease in germination was observed. Thus, the availability of water in cerrado soils associated to temperature modulate the distribution of germination in this species. Seed morphology contributes to the maintenance of seeds in the soil, and the lack of synchrony in seed germination spreads the distribution of germination in time. These peculiarities allow the emergency of seedlings at different time periods and establishment conditions, an adaptative response of S. camporum to the cerrado environment.

  15. Germination of Styrax camporum Pohl. seeds in response to substrate types, moisture contents and the seed morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Simão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the contributions of Styrax camporum seed morphology (size of seeds, presence or absence of endocarp attached to the seed, different substrates (filter paper, vermiculite, sand and the soils of cerrado s. str., cerradão and a riparian forest, different water potentials (0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4 and -0.5 MPa, light and temperature to seed germination. Seed size did not affect the germination percentage when seeds were sown on vermiculite. Seeds were affected by small variations in the moisture content of the tested substrates, showing a significant decrease in germination under water potentials lower than -0.1 MPa, close to the field capacity of cerrado s. str. soils. At the temperatures of 15 and 20°C, a significant decrease in germination was observed. Thus, the availability of water in cerrado soils associated to temperature modulate the distribution of germination in this species. Seed morphology contributes to the maintenance of seeds in the soil, and the lack of synchrony in seed germination spreads the distribution of germination in time. These peculiarities allow the emergency of seedlings at different time periods and establishment conditions, an adaptative response of S. camporum to the cerrado environment.

  16. Effects of Soil pH,Texture,Moisture,Organic Matter and Cadmium Content on Cadmium Diffusion Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUQI-TANG; J.L.MOREL; 等

    1994-01-01

    The supply of cadmium from soil to plant roots mainly depends on the diffusion prooess.This work was conducted to study the effects of some soil properties on cadmium diffusion coefficient (D) in soil. Measurements were made using the Shofield and Graham-Bryce's isotopic labelling method.Cadmium diffusion coefficients varied from 10-7to 10-9 cms2-1.Higher values were observed in acid sandy soils and lower values in calcareous clay soils.Liming an acid soil resulted in a substantial decrease of D.Addition of cadmium as nitrate salt generally increased D,while addition of sewage sludge and organic matter resulted in a significant decrease of cadmium diffusion.The rhizospheric activity also induced a moderate reduction in D.The relationships between D(10-9cms2-1)on the on hand and soil pH.moisture(Mc,g kg-1) ,organic matter(OM,g kg-1),clay(Cy,gkg-1)and cadmium content(Cd,mgkg-1) on the other were obtained by the multiple regression:D=182.1-29.91pH+0.210Mc-0.303OM+0.011Cy+1.64Cd(R2=0.859,n=22).

  17. Improvement of Soil Moisture Retrieval from Hyperspectral VNIR-SWIR Data Using Clay Content Information: From Laboratory to Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Oltra-Carrió

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the constraints and performance of SMC retrieval methodologies in the VNIR (Visible-Near InfraRed and SWIR (ShortWave InfraRed regions (from 0.4 to 2.5 µm when passing from controlled laboratory conditions to field conditions. Five different approaches of signal processing found in literature were considered. Four local criteria are spectral indices (WISOIL, NSMI, NINSOL and NINSON. These indices are the ratios between the spectral reflectances acquired at two specific wavelengths to characterize moisture content in soil. The last criterion is based in the convex hull concept and it is a global method, which is based on the analysis of the full spectral signature of the soil. The database was composed of 464 and 9 spectra, respectively, measured over bare soils in laboratory and in-situ. For each measurement, SMC and texture were well-known and the database was divided in two parts dedicated to calibration and validation steps. The calibration part was used to define the empirical relation between SMC and SMC retrieval approaches, with coefficients of determination (R2 between 0.72 and 0.92. A clay content (CC dependence was detected for the NINSOL and NINSON indices. Consequently, two new criteria were proposed taking into account the CC contribution (NINSOLCC and NINSONCC. The well-marked regression between SMC and global/local indices, and the interest of using the CC, were confirmed during the validation step using laboratory data (R² superior to 0.76 and Root mean square errors inferior to 8.3% m3∙m−3 in all cases and using in-situ data, where WISOIL, NINSOLCC and NINSONCC criteria stand out among the NSMI and CH.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  19. Quantitative evaluation of the effect of moisture contents of coconut shell activated carbon used for respirators on adsorption capacity for organic vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Hironobu; Furuse, Mitsuya; Takano, Tsuguo

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon is an elemental material used for hygienic applications, particularly as an adsorbent for harmful gases and vapors. In Japanese industrial and occupational hygiene, activated carbon produced from coconut shell is a traditional and popular adsorbent material due to its excellent adsorption ability and cost advantage. In this research, in order to clarify the effect of the preliminary content of moisture on the adsorption capacity in detail, we prepared several coconut shell activated carbons which were preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities. We measured their adsorption capacities as breakthrough times for 6 kinds of organic vapor, and attempted to determine the relationships between the relative weight increase of water adsorption and the decrease of adsorption capacities of the activated carbon specimens for the organic vapors. The procedure of the quantitative evaluation of the effect of moisture and the results are useful for practical applications of activated carbon, particularly those used as adsorbents in workplaces.

  20. Moisture content prediction in poultry litter using artificial intelligence techniques and Monte Carlo simulation to determine the economic yield from energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Contreras, José Octavio; Aguilar-Lasserre, Alberto Alfonso; Méndez-Contreras, Juan Manuel; López-Andrés, Jhony Josué; Cid-Chama, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process. Estimates of poultry litter production and heating value are made based on 4 different moisture content percentages (scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40%), and then a risk analysis is proposed using the Monte Carlo simulation to select the best investment alternative and to estimate the environmental impact for greenhouse gas mitigation. The results show that dry poultry litter (25%) is slightly better for combustion, generating 3.20% more energy. Reducing moisture from 40% to 25% involves considerable economic investment due to the purchase of equipment to reduce moisture; thus, when calculating financial indicators, the 40% scenario is the most attractive, as it is the current scenario. Thus, this methodology proposes a technology approach based on the use of advanced tools to predict moisture and representation of the system (Monte Carlo simulation), where the variability and uncertainty of the system are accurately represented. Therefore, this methodology is considered generic for any bioenergy generation system and not just for the poultry sector, whether it uses combustion or another type of technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination, by using GPR, of the volumetric water content in structures, sub-structures, foundations and soil - ongoing activities in Working Project 2.5 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Slob, Evert

    2015-04-01

    This work will endeavour to review the current status of research activities carried out in Working Project 2.5 'Determination, by using GPR, of the volumetric water content in structures, sub-structures, foundations and soil' within the framework of Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). Overall, the Project includes 55 Participants from over 21 countries representing 33 Institutions. By considering the type of Institution, a percentage of 64% (35 units) comes from the academic world, while Research Centres and Companies include, respectively, the 27% (15 units) and 9% (5 units) of Institutions. Geographically speaking, Europe is the continent most represented with 18 out of 21 countries, followed by Africa (2 countries) and Asia (1 country). In more details and according to the Europe sub-regions classification provided by the United Nations, Southern Europe includes 39% of countries, Western Europe 27%, while Northern and Eastern Europe are equally present with 17% of countries each. Relying on the main purpose of Working Project 2.5, namely, the ground-penetrating radar-based evaluation of volumetric water content in structures, substructures , foundations, and soils, four main issues have been overall addressed over the first two years of activities. The first one, has been related to provide a comprehensive state of the art on the topic, due to the wide-ranging applications covered in the main disciplines of civil engineering, differently demanding. In this regard, two main publications reviewing the state of the art have been produced [1,2]. Secondly, discussions among Working Group Chairs and other Working Project Leaders have been undertaken and encouraged to avoid the risk of overlapping amongst similar topics from other Working

  2. 冻融试验对土中含水量分布的影响%Freeze-Thaw Experiment Influence on Moisture Content Distrution of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成松; 何平; 程国栋; 顾同欣

    2004-01-01

    The silty clay and silty loam are two typical soil types obtained from two test sites along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The two types of soil have been designed various initial dry densities, water eontents, temperature conditions in repeated freezing and thawing tests with free access to water at the bottom. Afterfreeze-thaw cycles, the moisture content in the freeze-thaw zone increases more than that in the unfrozen zone to the peak approximately at the top of the samples. With comparison of the water contents in the frozen and thawed states, the moisture content in the upper freeze-thaw zone in the frozen state is greater than that in the thawed state, while that in unfrozen zone in the frozen state is smaller than that in the thawed state. Within the region of the frost front, the water content in frozen state is smaller than that in thawed state. These findings help to study the freeze-thaw mechanisms deeply and perfect the forecasting module of moisture transferring in freeze-thaw cycles.

  3. NIR technology for on-line determination of superficial a(w) and moisture content during the drying process of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Carles; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Muñoz, Israel; Comaposada, Josep

    2012-12-01

    Three different NIR equipment were evaluated based on their ability to predict superficial water activity (a(w)) and moisture content in two types of fermented sausages (with and without moulds on surface), using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The instruments differed mainly in wavelength range, resolution and measurement configuration. The most accurate equipment was used in a new experiment to achieve robust models in sausages with different salt contents and submitted to different drying conditions. The models developed showed determination coefficients (R(2)(P)) values of 0.990, 0.910 and 0.984, and RMSEP values of 1.560%, 0.220% and 0.007% for moisture, salt and a(w) respectively. It was demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be a suitable non-destructive method for on-line monitoring and control of the drying process in fermented sausages.

  4. Fiber Optic Thermo-Hygrometers for Soil Moisture Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Marco; Principe, Sofia; Consales, Marco; Parente, Roberto; Laudati, Armando; Caliro, Stefano; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2017-06-20

    This work deals with the fabrication, prototyping, and experimental validation of a fiber optic thermo-hygrometer-based soil moisture sensor, useful for rainfall-induced landslide prevention applications. In particular, we recently proposed a new generation of fiber Bragg grating (FBGs)-based soil moisture sensors for irrigation purposes. This device was realized by integrating, inside a customized aluminum protection package, a FBG thermo-hygrometer with a polymer micro-porous membrane. Here, we first verify the limitations, in terms of the volumetric water content (VWC) measuring range, of this first version of the soil moisture sensor for its exploitation in landslide prevention applications. Successively, we present the development, prototyping, and experimental validation of a novel, optimized version of a soil VWC sensor, still based on a FBG thermo-hygrometer, but able to reliably monitor, continuously and in real-time, VWC values up to 37% when buried in the soil.

  5. Fiber Optic Thermo-Hygrometers for Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Leone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the fabrication, prototyping, and experimental validation of a fiber optic thermo-hygrometer-based soil moisture sensor, useful for rainfall-induced landslide prevention applications. In particular, we recently proposed a new generation of fiber Bragg grating (FBGs-based soil moisture sensors for irrigation purposes. This device was realized by integrating, inside a customized aluminum protection package, a FBG thermo-hygrometer with a polymer micro-porous membrane. Here, we first verify the limitations, in terms of the volumetric water content (VWC measuring range, of this first version of the soil moisture sensor for its exploitation in landslide prevention applications. Successively, we present the development, prototyping, and experimental validation of a novel, optimized version of a soil VWC sensor, still based on a FBG thermo-hygrometer, but able to reliably monitor, continuously and in real-time, VWC values up to 37% when buried in the soil.

  6. Boiler control using on-line determination of moisture content for incoming fuel; Forskning kring pannstyrning med on-line fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelin, Anders; Dahlquist, Erik; Moden, Per Erik

    2008-10-15

    Incoming fuels to the biomass fueled boiler are the main source for uncertainties in the combustion process. Fuel quality has large impact on the combustion and the heat transfer in the boiler. There are several possibilities to control the boiler when the bed temperature varies. Flue gas recirculation is one of the variables used for control of the bed temperature in the boiler. Another parameter to use for controlling the bed temperature is to adjust the humidification of the combustion air. The parameter with the major influence on the bed temperature is the amount of primary air. These three parameters are all used as control variables for control of the bed temperature. One part of the study has been to investigate how much and how fast each parameter influences bed temperature and how the information of the moisture content in the incoming fuel can be used for feed-forward information for controlling bed temperature. At the reception terminal all the incoming deliveries are registered with quality and moisture content. This study has also investigated how to use the information about the moisture content of incoming fuel, based on NIR measurements on the fuel transported in to the boiler, and the fluctuation of the bed temperature. Another question is how to connect this information for the bed control. This part of the study is used to evaluate if the information to the operators about the moisture content from the NIR has affect on the variation of the bed temperature. A process model has been developed of the Bubbling Fluidised Bed boiler (BFB) that is one of the boilers at the power plant in Eskilstuna. The model has been used to analyze the process. Process models have become more common and important in the heat and power industry. Nowadays process models are used for training of the staff in simulators of the real plant and for offline tests of control systems

  7. Non-biased prediction of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen with vis-NIR spectroscopy, as affected by soil moisture content and texture

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Boyan Y.; Mouazen, Abdul Mounem

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of moisture content (MC) and texture on the prediction of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) with visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy under laboratory and on-line measurement conditions. An AgroSpec spectrophotometer was used to develop calibration models of OC and TN using laboratory scanned spectra of fresh and processed soil samples collected from five fields on Silsoe Farm, UK. A previously developed on-line vis-...

  8. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Mekbib Atnaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs, shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF. EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm3. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm3, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm3 for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm3 was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values.

  9. Influence of fuel moisture content and reactor temperature on the calorific value of syngas resulted from gasification of oil palm fronds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm³. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm³, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm³) for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm³ was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values.

  10. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm3. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm3, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm3) for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm3 was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values. PMID:24578617

  11. Moisture content in Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) tissues: a reference base for conversion factors between dry and wet weight trace element concentrations in cetaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jian; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2003-03-01

    Conversion factors were developed for Dall's porpoise tissues to convert trace element concentrations between dry and wet weight basis. - Concentration of trace elements measured by dry weight basis has become more commonly used in recent studies on cetaceans than wet weight basis, which was used more in earlier studies. Because few authors present moisture content data in their papers, it is difficult to compare the concentrations of trace elements between various studies. Therefore, we felt that it would be useful if a reference conversion factor (CF) for tissue types could be found to convert between wet weight and dry weight data on trace element concentrations. We determined the moisture contents of 14 tissues of Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and then, calculated the CF values for those tissues. Because the moisture content of each tissue differs from other tissues, it is necessary to use a specific CF for each tissue rather than a general CF for several tissues. We have also found that CF values for Dall's porpoise tissues are similar to the same tissues in other cetaceans. Therefore CF values from Dall's porpoise can be reliably used to convert between wet and dry weight concentrations for other cetacean tissues as reference data.

  12. Suitable moisture content maintaining storage quality of oil-tea camellia seed%适宜含水率保持油茶籽贮藏品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚萍; 石晓丽; 姚小华; 费学谦; 郭少海; 罗凡

    2016-01-01

    为了确定油茶籽贮藏适宜的含水率,研究了在4℃,不同含水率(7%、10%、13%、16%、20%)油茶籽贮藏期间的品质变化。结果表明,较低的含水率能较好保持油茶籽的贮藏特性及营养品质。其中,含水率为7%的油茶籽贮藏效果较好,但与10%处理效果差异不明显(P>0.05)。在整个贮藏期,含水率为7%时油茶籽可溶性蛋白下降了13.05 mg/g,油酸含量下降了2.38%,酸值、过氧化值等品质指标上升速率较慢,同时能较好保持β-谷甾醇和角鲨烯等生物活性成分;其次是10%的含水率处理。而含水率为20%的油茶籽贮藏期间可溶性蛋白下降较快,贮藏结束时为25.47 mg/g,油茶籽劣变严重,所提取的油样品质变差,营养物质含量较少,因此含水率20%的油茶籽不适宜长期贮藏。综合考虑油茶籽品质因素和处理成本,认为控制含水率在10%以下能较好保持油茶籽的贮藏品质。该研究可为科学合理地贮藏油茶籽提供参考。%Camellia seed oil is a kind of high-quality plant oil and has rich unsaturated fatty acids, but it is prone to oxidize and deteriorate during storage and processing. The quality of camellia seed oil is not only closely related to the processing and storage technologies, but also associated with the quality of raw material. Every plant presents its suitable moisture content, and too much or too little moisture could affect its growth and quality. The appropriate moisture content is therefore essential for the quality control, bioactivity and components of camellia seed. In this study, the effects of different moisture levels (7%, 10%, 13%, 16% and 20%) on the quality and nutritional changes of oil-tea camellia seed were investigated during the storage. The results showed that the physiological and nutritional quality of camellia seed could be kept well at the lower water content. The soluble proteins of camellia seed with 7% moisture

  13. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a vital physical parameter of the active-layer in permafrost environments, and associated biological and geophysical processes operative at the microscopic to hemispheric spatial scales and at hourly to multidecadal time scales. While in-situ measurements can give the highest quality of information on a site-specific basis, the vast permafrost terrains of North America and Eurasia require space-based techniques for assessments of cause and effect and long-term changes and impacts from the changes of permafrost and the active-layer. Satellite-based 6.925 and 10.65 GHz sensor algorithmic retrievals of soil moisture by Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA-Aqua and follow-on AMSR2 onboard JAXA-Global Change Observation Mission - Water-1 are ongoing since July 2002. Accurate land-surface temperature and vegetation parameters are critical to the success of passive microwave algorithmic retrieval schemes. Strategically located soil moisture measurements are needed for spatial and temporal co-location evaluation and validation of the space-based algorithmic estimates. We compare on a daily basis ground-based (subsurface-probe) 50- and 70-MHz radio-frequency soil moisture measurements with NASA- and JAXA-algorithmic retrieval passive microwave retrievals. We find improvements in performance of the JAXA-algorithm (AMSR-E reprocessed and AMSR2 ongoing) relative to the earlier NASA-algorithm version. In the boreal forest regions accurate land-surface temperatures and vegetation parameters are still needed for algorithmic retrieval success. Over the period of AMSR-E retrievals we find evidence of at the high northern latitudes of growing terrestrial radio-frequency interference in the 10.65 GHz channel soil moisture content. This is an important error source for satellite-based active and passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture retrievals in Arctic regions that must be addressed. Ref: Muskett, R

  14. Uncertainty evaluation for determination of fluorine content by distillation-thorium nitrate volumetric method%蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定氟含量不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小霞

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty sources in determination of fluorine content of cryolite and aluminium fluoride by distillation-thorium nitrate volumetric method were analyzed.Evaluation for the uncertainty of each component was carried out by establishing the mathematic model,and the expanded uncertainty of fluorine content determination with distillation-thorium nitrate volumetric method was also calculated.Experimental principle:melt the sample with anhydrous sodium carbonate,separate fluoride through sulfuric acid-water vapor distillation,taking sodium alizarin sulfonate and methylene blue as indicators,using thorium nitrate standard solution to titrate fluorine content in the sample.Evaluation results indicated that,the expanded uncertainty of thorium nitrate volumetric method for the determination of fluorine content was 0.42%.%对蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定冰晶石及氟化铝中氟含量的不确定度来源进行分析,通过建立数学模型,评定各分量的不确定度,并计算蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定氟元素含量的扩展不确定度.实验原理:试样用无水碳酸钠熔融,经硫酸-水蒸气蒸馏分离氟后,以茜素磺酸钠和次甲基蓝作指示剂,用硝酸钍标准溶液滴定测定样品中氟含量.评定结果表明,蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定氟含量结果的扩展不确定度为0.42%.

  15. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong

    2000-01-01

    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  16. An investigation of the effects of spatial heterogeneity of initial soil moisture content on surface runoff simulation at a small watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Corradini, Corrado; Brocca, Luca; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2016-08-01

    In addition to the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, the initial soil moisture content, θi, is the quantity commonly incorporated in rainfall infiltration models for simulation of surface runoff hydrographs. Previous studies on the effect of the spatial heterogeneity of initial soil water content in the generation of surface runoff were generally not conclusive, and provided no guidance on designing networks for soil moisture measurements. In this study, the role of the spatial variability of θi at the small watershed scale is examined through the use of a simulation model and measurements of θi. The model combines two existing components of infiltration and surface runoff to model the flow discharge at the watershed outlet. The observed values of soil moisture in three experimental plots are combined to determine seven different distributions of θi, each used to compute the hydrographs produced by four different rainfall patterns for two initial conditions classified as "dry" soil and "wet" soil. For rainfalls events typically associated with floods, the spatial variability of θi at the watershed scale does not cause significant variations in surface runoff for initially dry or wet soils. Furthermore, when the main objective is to represent flood events a single ground point measurement of θi in each area with the same land use may suffice to obtain adequate outflow hydrographs at the outlet.

  17. Effect of different magnesium sources on digesta and excreta moisture content and production performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hangoor, E.; Linde, van der I.B.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing litter moisture is an effective measure to reduce the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Dietary mineral levels affect intestinal conditions with regard to osmolarity and water reabsorption. Magnesium is often used as a laxative, preventing reabsorption of water from the digesta, and as a con

  18. 基于温湿度传感器测量织物含水率%Measuring Moisture Content of Fabric with Temperature and Humidity Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来顺昌; 李霆

    2013-01-01

    Moisture content is a significant parameter throughout almost every process of textile industry. In this article, an online monitoring system was proposed based on temperature and humidity sensors for detecting fabric moisture according to ambient requirements. The results show that the system is easy to use, high precision, and suitable for process monitoring and scientific research.%含水率是纺织行业中一项重要参数,几乎贯穿于每一个工艺过程。本文根据现场环境要求,设计了一套基于温湿度传感器的在线检测系统,以实现对布匹含水率的检测。实验结果表明,该系统使用方便、精度高,适合于生产检测及科学研究。

  19. Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy K O; Beattie, Karen A; Bhargava, Aakash; Cheung, Marco; Webber, Colin E; Chettle, David R; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2015-10-01

    Conflicting evidence suggests that bone lead or blood lead may reduce areal bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about how lead at either compartment affects bone structure. This study examined postmenopausal women (N=38, mean age 76 ± 8, body mass index (BMI): 26.74 ± 4.26 kg/m(2)) within the Hamilton cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), measuring bone lead at 66% of the non-dominant leg and at the calcaneus using (109)Cadmium X-ray fluorescence. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters were obtained from peripheral quantitative computed tomography images (200 μm in-plane resolution, 2.3 ± 0.5mm slice thickness) of the same 66% site and of the distal 4% site of the tibia length. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and blood-to-bone lead partition coefficients (PBB, log ratio) were computed. Multivariable linear regression examined each of bone lead at the 66% tibia, calcaneus, blood lead and PBB as related to each of volumetric BMD and structural parameters, adjusting for age and BMI, diabetes or antiresorptive therapy. Regression coefficients were reported along with 95% confidence intervals. Higher amounts of bone lead at the tibia were associated with thinner distal tibia cortices (-0.972 (-1.882, -0.061) per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral) and integral volumetric BMD (-3.05 (-6.05, -0.05) per μg Pb/g of bone mineral). A higher PBB was associated with larger trabecular separation (0.115 (0.053, 0.178)), lower trabecular volumetric BMD (-26.83 (-50.37, -3.29)) and trabecular number (-0.08 (-0.14, -0.02)), per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral after adjusting for age and BMI, and remained significant while accounting for diabetes or use of antiresorptives. Total lead exposure activities related to bone lead at the calcaneus (8.29 (0.11, 16.48)) and remained significant after age and antiresorptives-adjustment. Lead accumulated in bone can have a mild insult on bone structure; but greater partitioning of lead

  20. Influence of Moisture Absorption and Content of Graphite Filler on Electrical Property of Sensors and Transducers Enclosures and Phenomena of Electrostriction in Glass- Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivamurthy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation E-glass epoxy composite filled with different amount of graphite particles were prepared by compression. Plain waived E-glass cloth with density 200g / meter square was used as reinforcement. Epoxy resin LY556 mixed with Hardener HT907 and accelerator DY063 in the ratio 100:80:2 were used as matrix. The graphite of 50 particle size was used as fillers. Four types of composites were prepared with different amount of graphite fillers viz 0 %, 3 %, 6 % and 9 % with unchanged reinforcement. After subjecting the samples to water absorption up to 96 hours in steps of 24 hrs, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ, dielectric constant and a. c. conductivity have been measured by using a LCR meter at two different frequencies (100 Hz and 1 kHz. Results show that tan δ direct constant, a.c. conductivity increases with increase in % of graphite in the composites at both high and low frequency for dry samples. Samples with 24 hrs moisture absorption showed approximately same result. After 48 hrs, tan δ values showed variations. However, the fluctuations were less at 6 % of graphite in all samples after 48 and 72 hrs of moisture absorption. Dielectric constant increases with increase in graphite % in composites at higher frequency and there was not much variation at low frequency. In all samples after 24 and 48 hrs of moisture absorption, dielectric constant decreases with increase in graphite loading. It is observed that dielectric constant increases in all samples after 72 hrs of moisture absorption as compared to dry samples. A c. conductivity increases with increase in % of graphite content in dry sample. Up to 6% a. c. conductivity increases after 24 and 48 hrs of immersion, after 72 hrs the trend is reversed. Since Fermi level is initially shifted towards the conduction band and then after 72 hrs of moisture absorption shifted towards the valence band. a. c. conductivity increases with increase in moisture content. The

  1. Determination of soil moisture distribution from impedance and gravimetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Stephen G.; Layman, Robert; Campbell, Jeffrey E.; Walsh, John; Mckim, Harlan J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily measurements of the soil dielectric properties at 5 and 10 cm were obtained at five locations throughout the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) test site during the 1987 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). An automated vector voltmeter was used to monitor the complex electrical impedance, at 10 MHz, of cylindrical volumes of soil delineated by specially designed soil moisture probes buried at these locations. The objective of this exercise was to test the hypothesis that the soil impedance is sensitive to the moisture content of the soil and that the imaginary part (that is, capacitive reactance) can be used to calculate the volumetric water content of the soil. These measurements were compared with gravimetric samples collected at these locations by the FIFE staff science team.

  2. Design and experiment of soybean moisture content meter%大豆水分测定仪的设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊显名; 唐绮雯; 张文涛; 王心芒; 聂君扬

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve convenient,fast and non⁃destructive detection of soybean moisture content,an soybean mois⁃ture content meter was designed,which takes STM32F103 as its controller,laser diode,detector and integrating sphere as its beam path system,and signal processing circuit and photoelectric converter as its circuit system. A multi⁃element mathematical model of yellow soybean moisture content and different wavelength light absorptivity was established by analyzing the luminous power absorption law of peak wavelength and the reference wavelength for yellow soybean moisture content. The reliability of the model was tested. The results show that the designed meter’s the absolute detection error in the range of 10.0%~20.0% of yel⁃low soybean moisture content is -0.9%~2.2% and its response time is less than 1.2 s.%为了实现大豆水分的便捷、快速和无损测量,基于近红外法设计一种以STM32F103为控制器,激光二极管、探测器和积分球为光路系统,信号处理电路和光电转换器为电路系统的大豆水分测定仪。以黄大豆为研究对象,通过试验分析黄大豆含水率对吸收峰波长和参考波长光功率吸收的规律,建立黄大豆含水率与不同波长光吸收率的多元多次数学模型,并对模型的可靠性进行了检验。实验结果表明,所设计测定仪在黄大豆含水率在10.0%~20.0%范围内的绝对测量误差为-0.9%~2.2%,响应时间小于1.2 s。

  3. Effects of soil type, moisture content, redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation on Kd values of radio-selenium in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Moore, J; Shaw, G

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the solid-liquid partitioning (K(d) value) of Se is of fundamental importance in assessing the risk associated with the disposal of radio-selenium-containing waste. Using a mini-column (rather than batch) approach, K(d) values for (75)Se were determined over time in relation to soil moisture content (field capacity or saturated), redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation (used to disrupt the soil microbial population) in three contrasting soil types: clay loam, organic and sandy loam. The K(d) values were generally in the range 50-500 L kg(-1), with mean soil K(d) increasing with increasing organic matter content. Saturation with water lowered the measured redox potentials in the soils. However, only in the sandy loam soil did redox potential become negative, and this led to an increase in (75)Se K(d) value in this soil. Comparison of the data with the Eh-pH stability diagram for Se suggested that such strong reduction may have been consistent with the formation of the insoluble Se species, selenide. These findings, coupled with the fact that methyl bromide fumigation had no discernible effect on (75)Se K(d) value in the sandy loam soil, suggest that geochemical, rather than microbial, processes controlled (75)Se partitioning. The inter-relations between soil moisture content, redox potential and Se speciation should be considered in the modelling and assessment of radioactive Se fate and transport in the environment.

  4. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  5. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  6. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for prediction of the moisture content and hardness of Pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a salted and roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. (Maghsudi, 2010; Kashaninejad et al. 2006. Roasting is one of the most important food processes which provides useful attributes to the product. One of the objectives of nut roasting is to alter and significantly enhance the flavor, texture, color and appearance of the product (Ozdemir, 2001. In recent years, spectral imaging techniques (i.e. hyperspectral and multispectral imaging have emerged as powerful tools for safequality inspection of various agricultural commodities (Gowen et al., 2007. The objectives of this study were to apply reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive determination of moisture content and hardness of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions. Materials and methods: Dried O’hadi pistachio nuts were supplied from a local market in Mashhad. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 5L of 20% salt solution for 20min (Goktas Seyhan, 2003. For roasting process, three temperatures (90, 120 and 150°C, three times (20, 35 and 50 min and three air velocities (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were applied. The moisture content of pistachio kernels was measured in triplicate using oven drying (3 gr samples at 105 °C for 12 hours. Uniaxial compression test by a 35mm diameter plastic cylinder, was made on the pistachio kernels, which were mounted on a platform. Samples were compressed at a depth of 2mm and speed of 30 mm min-1. A hyperspectral imaging system in the Vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm was employed. The spectral pre-processing techniques: first derivative and second derivative, median filter, Savitzkye-Golay, wavelet, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and standard normal variate transformation (SNV were used. To make models at PLSR and ANN methods, ParLeS software and Matlab R2009a were used, respectively. The coefficient

  7. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERING MOISTURE CONTENT ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MIDDLE GLUTEN WHEAT%润麦水分对中筋小麦品质特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓曦; 王绍文

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we selected five kinds of medium-gluten wheat to study the influences of tempering moisture content on the quality characteristics of the wheat flour by fixing the tempering time and temperature and changing the tempering moisture content. The results showed that the flour yield, the ash content, and the protein content were decreased with the increase of the tempering moisture content; the damage starch content had irregular change but was in the downward trend generally; the tempering moisture content was in positive correlation to the gluten index, the moisture holding capacity of gluten, the formation time, and the stability time, and was in negative correlation to the gluten content, the moisture absorption rate and the extensibility; except for the extensibility, the other tensile indexes were in significant or extremely significant positive correlation to the tempering moisture content.%选择5种中筋小麦,固定润麦时间与温度,改变润麦加水量,探讨不同润麦水分对小麦粉品质特性的影响.结果表明:随着润麦水分的增加,出粉率、灰分、蛋白质呈下降趋势;损伤淀粉变化并无规律性,但总体呈下降趋势;润麦水分与面筋指数、面筋持水率、形成时间、稳定时间正相关,与面筋含量、吸水率、延伸度负相关;除延伸度外,其余拉伸指标均与润麦水分显著或极显著正相关.

  8. Automatic moisture content determination on biomass with NIR and radio frequency spectroscopy; Automatisk fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraenslen med NIR samt radiofrekvent spektroskopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Nystroem, Jenny; Thorin, Eva; Paz, Ana de la [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology; Axrup, Lars [Stora Enso AB (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The goal with the project has been to evaluate two methods for determination of moisture content in biomass fuels and to determine if these methods can be used in practice in connection with delivery control of biomass at power plants. Tests have been performed with different biomass qualities and with two different measurement methods within a large moisture span, 0.6-72%. The two methods have been NIR (Near Infrared spectroscopy), and RF (Radio Frequency spectroscopy). The NIR-method is a surface analysis method, where hydro-carbons like wood have a different absorption pattern than water. The RF-method is a bulk method and utilizes that wood and water have different dielectric constants. Radio waves thus are affected differently by transportation through wet and dry biomass. In this project we have studied how representative sampling can be achieved from a large volume of delivered biomass fuel. We also have performed calibration with mixtures of the different fuels. Sampling has been performed by extracting biomass in a four meter long screw from the large volume as it is poured into a storage vessel. A conveyor belt is then transporting the material to the measurement systems. Two different NIR-instruments, DA (Diod Array) -NIR respective FT (Fourier Transform)- NIR, were placed above the conveyor belt. The material was collected from the belt into the measuring vessel for the RF, a 200 liter 'oil barrel'. The radio waves were sent from the transceiver into the sample from above without direct contact between the biomass and the transceiver antenna. Six different fuels were studied separately. Calibration was performed where the moisture content was varied by mixing relatively dry fuel with humidified biomass in different proportions a day before the measurements. Samples were taken from each mixture in connection with the measurements, from the conveyor belt. The samples were made in such a way that they represented the whole volume as good as

  9. 稻谷整粒与粉碎水分测试方法的对比分析%Comparison Analysis on Testing Methods of Rice Moisture Content by Using Whole and Ground Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉仑; 赵三琴; 邱威; 顾家冰; 丁为民; 李毅念; 夏立民

    2015-01-01

    通过连续测试在一定含水量区间内的稻谷籽粒含水量,对比分析国家标准稻谷粉碎测试与国外稻谷整粒测试所得的含水量。结果表明,稻谷经粉碎后测试含水量与整粒测试含水量在整个水分测试区间存在较大差异,整粒测试所得含水量大于粉碎测试所得含水量,并且随着稻谷籽粒含水量的降低2种测试方法间含水量差异性逐渐减小,直至稻谷含水量达到11%左右时2种测试方法间无差异。因此总体来说整粒测试方法所得稻谷含水量测定结果更准确可靠。%Two testing methods for rice moisture content including ground grain in national standard and whole grain in abroad were used in this research.Rice moisture content in a certain interval was tested using these two kinds of testing methods.Comparison analysis of tested moisture content was performed using two testing methods.Tested result manifested that there was large difference of rice moisture content in the test interval between ground grain and whole grain.Rice moisture content tested using ground grain was lower than that of whole grain.Difference of tested rice moisture content between ground grain and whole grain decreased gradually with rice moisture content lowering, and there was no difference of the tested rice moisture content between two testing methods when the rice moisture content lowered to about 11%.Therefore,tested result of rice moisture content using whole grain was more correct and reliable than that of using ground grain.

  10. Soil moisture variability and land use in a seasonally arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. G.; Ternan, J. L.; Fitzjohn, C.; de Alba, S.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.

    2003-02-01

    Soil moisture patterns were recorded for six different land uses, including oak forest, matorral scrub, olives, and a cultivated field, in central Spain during 1998-99. Volumetric water content was determined using time domain reflectometry at more than 140 sites in each, extending across a range of topographic units. Soil moisture content was a function of land use, with the oak forest being wetter than either the matorral shrubby area or the cultivated site. The spatial patterns for a wet period were kriged and are presented as interpolated contour plots. Geo-statistical analysis confirmed that the patterns were highly heterogeneous, as the variograms showed a pure nugget for each land use, except for the two olive sites, where some spatial structure could be observed. During the investigation the soils were in the dry state and the soil moisture distribution was controlled by local factors; it was not possible to determine which environmental factor had the most influence.

  11. The effect of slope steepness and antecedent moisture content on interrill erosion, runoff and sediment size distribution in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Defersha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a two-phase process consisting of the detachment of individual particles and their transport by the flowing water. This study discusses the results of laboratory experiments in which for three soils, the runoff depth, sediment yield, splash erosion and sediment size were measured. Rainfall intensity, slope and antecedent moisture contents were varied in the experiment. The soil types ranged from clay to sandy clay loam (Alemaya Black soil, Regosols and Cambisols. Rainfall was applied for six sequential 15-min periods with rainfall intensities varying between 55 and 120 mm h−1. The three slopes tested were 9, 25, and 45 %. Results show that as slope increased from 9 to 25 %, splash erosion and sediment yield increased. An increase in slope from 25 to 45 % generally decreases in splash erosion. Sediment yield for one soil increased and one soil decreased with slope and for the third soil the trend was different between the two initial moisture contents. Sediment yield was correlated (r = 0.66 with runoff amounts but not with splash erosion. Interrill erosion models that were based on the flowing water and rainfall intensity fitted the data better than when based on rainfall intensity solely. Models that assume a positive linear relationship between erosion and slope may overestimate sediment yield.

  12. Effect of the moisture content of forced hot air on the postharvest quality and bioactive compounds of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Manila).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of hot air treatments in controlling decay and insects in mango fruit has been demonstrated and has usually been assessed as a function of the temperature of the heated air and the duration of the treatment. However, the contribution of the moisture content of the heated air has received little attention, especially with regard to fruit quality. In this study, mango fruits (cv. Manila) at mature-green stage were treated with moist (95% relative humidity (RH)) or dry (50% RH) hot forced air (43 °C, at 2.5 m s(-1) for 220 min) and then held at 20 °C for 9 days and evaluated periodically. The heating rate was higher with moist air. Treatments with moist and dry air did not cause injury to the fruit. Treatment with moist air temporarily slowed down color development, softening, weight loss and β-carotene biosynthesis. This slowing down was clearly observed during the first 4-5 days at 20 °C. However, non-heated fruit and fruit heated with dry air showed similar quality at the end of storage. The moisture content of the heating air differentially modulated the postharvest ripening of 'Manila' mangoes. Moist air temporarily slowed down the ripening process of this mango cultivar. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Effect of the Moisture Content on the Oil Viscosity with Ultrasonic Irradiation%原油含水率对超声降粘的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳恩; 邓胜华; 杨长铭; 周克厚

    2001-01-01

    The oil viscosity reduction is studied by the experiments.The viscosity with different moisture content is investigated after the oil is irradiated by ultrasound.It is indicated that the oil-in-water emulsion is generated when the moisture content is 50 percents.The emulsion with reduced viscosity is unstable.When the surface active agent is mixed into the oil, the emulsion with slightly increases viscosity is stable.%根据实硷研究了超声波照射对原油的降粘作用。比较了在不同含水率下,经超声处理后原油粘度的变化情况。得出了当含水率为50%时,经超声处理后,原油可以形成水包油乳状液,其粘度能大幅度降低,但乳状液不稳定。在原油中掺入表面活性剂后,形成的乳状液稳定性增强,但其粘度有所增大。

  14. Manufacture and Incorporation of Liposome-Entrapped Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid into Model Miniature Gouda-Type Cheese and Subsequent Effect on Starter Viability, pH, and Moisture Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Lisa N; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2016-10-25

    Liposome-encapsulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was incorporated into a model miniature Gouda-type cheese (20 g) in order to assess its effect on rennet gelation, starter viability, pH, and moisture content. EDTA was encapsulated within 2 different food-grade proliposome preparations, Pro-Lipo Duo and Pro-Lipo C (50% and 40% unsaturated soybean phospholipids and 50% and 60% aqueous medium, respectively), using the following high-shear technologies: Ultra-Turrax (5000 rpm), 2-stage homogenization (345 bar), or microfluidization (690 bar). Liposome size distribution was affected by the high-shear technology employed with the proportion of large vesicles (>100 nm) decreasing in the order microfluidization Gouda-type cheese. Addition of liposome-encapsulated EDTA to milk during cheese making did not impact pH or rennet gel formation. No differences in composition or pH were evident in liposome-treated cheeses. The results of this study show that the incorporation of liposome-encapsulated EDTA into milk during cheese manufacture did not affect milk fermentation, moisture content, or pH, suggesting that this approach may be suitable for studying the effects of calcium equilibrium on the texture of brine-salted cheeses. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Parameterizing microphysical effects on variances and covariances of moisture and heat content using a multivariate probability density function: a study with CLUBB (tag MVCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.

    2016-11-01

    Microphysical processes, such as the formation, growth, and evaporation of precipitation, interact with variability and covariances (e.g., fluxes) in moisture and heat content. For instance, evaporation of rain may produce cold pools, which in turn may trigger fresh convection and precipitation. These effects are usually omitted or else crudely parameterized at subgrid scales in weather and climate models.A more formal approach is pursued here, based on predictive, horizontally averaged equations for the variances, covariances, and fluxes of moisture and heat content. These higher-order moment equations contain microphysical source terms. The microphysics terms can be integrated analytically, given a suitably simple warm-rain microphysics scheme and an approximate assumption about the multivariate distribution of cloud-related and precipitation-related variables. Performing the integrations provides exact expressions within an idealized context.A large-eddy simulation (LES) of a shallow precipitating cumulus case is performed here, and it indicates that the microphysical effects on (co)variances and fluxes can be large. In some budgets and altitude ranges, they are dominant terms. The analytic expressions for the integrals are implemented in a single-column, higher-order closure model. Interactive single-column simulations agree qualitatively with the LES. The analytic integrations form a parameterization of microphysical effects in their own right, and they also serve as benchmark solutions that can be compared to non-analytic integration methods.

  16. Soil moisture storage estimation based on steady vertical fluxes under equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrosiadi, Nino; Bishop, Kevin; Seibert, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable for hillslope and catchment hydrology. There are various computational methods to estimate soil moisture and their complexity varies greatly: from one box with vertically constant volumetric soil water content to fully saturated-unsaturated coupled physically-based models. Different complexity levels are applicable depending on the simulation scale, computational time limitations, input data and knowledge about the parameters. The Vertical Equilibrium Model (VEM) is a simple approach to estimate the catchment-wide soil water storage at a daily time-scale on the basis of water table level observations, soil properties and an assumption of hydrological equilibrium without vertical fluxes above the water table. In this study VEM was extended by considering vertical fluxes, which allows conditions with evaporation and infiltration to be represented. The aim was to test the hypothesis that the simulated volumetric soil water content significantly depends on vertical fluxes. The water content difference between the no-flux, equilibrium approach and the new constant-flux approach greatly depended on the soil textural class, ranging between ∼1% for silty clay and ∼44% for sand at an evapotranspiration rate of 5 mm·d-1. The two approaches gave a mean volumetric soil water content difference of ∼1 mm for two case studies (sandy loam and organic rich soils). The results showed that for many soil types the differences in estimated storage between the no-flux and the constant flux approaches were relatively small.

  17. Improved understanding of solute concentration-discharge dynamics through state-of-the-art antecedent moisture content (AMC) monitoring and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Brazier, R.; Quine, T.; Bol, R.; Orr, R.; Griffith, B.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between solute/sediment concentration and discharge (c-Q) can be neither understood nor predicted without full understanding of the antecedent moisture content (AMC). Many preceding studies have ignored this variable in part because of the problems associated with accurate and full documentation of AMC. This study presents new insights into the control of AMC on c-Q made possible through work on the uniquely well-instrumented 'NorthWyke Farm Platform' which was commissioned in April 2011 as a UK national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences for agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. The Farm Platform was designed into 15 hydrological units based on a predicted 50-year flood event, each with H-flume at catchment outlet. 9.2 km of French drains were installed at 800mm soil depth with perforated plastic drainage pipe installed to collect surface and near surface flow from the catchments. Each flume receives flow from 2 branches of each French drain system and discharges via concrete piping and a sampling pit. Where required the catchment is protected from groundwater seepage and surface runoff ingress from adjacent catchment with open ditches and sealed pipes. Discharge is measured at each flume with an ISCO bubbler flowmeter, and concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), total Phosphorus, chloride, pH and turbidity are monitored at 15 minutes intervals. In addition, rainfall, soil temperature and soil moisture are monitored at the same timestep. This study analyses discharge and soil moisture data alongside TOC, NO3-N and PO4-P at 15 min intervals in rain events between November 28 and December 13, 2011. Soil moisture exhibited moderately strong relationships with TOC and NO3 (r≥ -0.38; p≤0.05), but a weak one with PO4. Discharge, on the other hand, exhibited a weak (r ≤0

  18. Estimation of Soil Moisture Content from the Spectral Reflectance of Bare Soils in the 0.4–2.5 µm Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fabre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to compare the performance of new methods to estimate the Soil Moisture Content (SMC of bare soils from their spectral signatures in the reflective domain (0.4–2.5 µm in comparison with widely used spectral indices like Normalized Soil Moisture Index (NSMI and Water Index SOIL (WISOIL. Indeed, these reference spectral indices use wavelengths located in the water vapour absorption bands and their performance are thus very sensitive to the quality of the atmospheric compensation. To reduce these limitations, two new spectral indices are proposed which wavelengths are defined using the determination matrix tool by taking into account the atmospheric transmission: Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Linear correlation (NINSOL and Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Non linear correlation (NINSON. These spectral indices are completed by two new methods based on the global shape of the soil spectral signatures. These methods are the Inverse Soil semi-Empirical Reflectance model (ISER, using the inversion of an existing empirical soil model simulating the soil spectral reflectance according to soil moisture content for a given soil class, and the convex envelope model, linking the area between the envelope and the spectral signature to the SMC. All these methods are compared using a reference database built with 32 soil samples and composed of 190 spectral signatures with five or six soil moisture contents. Half of the database is used for the calibration stage and the remaining to evaluate the performance of the SMC estimation methods. The results show that the four new methods lead to similar or better performance than the one obtained by the reference indices. The RMSE is ranging from 3.8% to 6.2% and the coefficient of determination R2 varies between 0.74 and 0.91 with the best performance obtained with the ISER model. In a second step, simulated spectral radiances at the sensor level are

  19. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN, community level physiological profiling (CLPP, and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine changes during the growing season in the ecosystem profile in wheat fields subjected to wheat monoculture or wheat in annual rotation with medic/clover pasture. Statistical analyses showed that soil moisture had an over-riding effect on seasonal fluctuations in soil physicochemical and microbial populations. While within season soil microbial activity could be differentiated between wheat fields under rotational and monoculture management, these differences were not significant.

  20. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  1. Effects of Rainfall Intensity and Slope Gradient on Runoff and Soil Moisture Content on Different Growing Stages of Spring Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Mu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall-runoff process (RRP is an important part of hydrologic process. There is an effective measure to study RRP through artificial rainfall simulation. This paper describes a study on three growing stages (jointing stage, tasseling stage, and mature stage of spring maize in which simulated rainfall events were used to study the effects of various factors (rainfall intensity and slope gradient on the RRP. The RRP was tested with three different rainfall intensities (0.67, 1.00, and 1.67 mm/min and subjected to three different slopes (5°, 15°, and 20° so as to study RRP characteristics in semiarid regions. Regression analysis was used to study the results of this test. The following key results were obtained: (1 With the increase in rainfall intensity and slope, the increasing relationship with rainfall duration, overland flow, and cumulative runoff, respectively, complied with logarithmic and quadratic functions before reaching stable runoff in each growing stage of spring maize; (2 The runoff coefficient increased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope in each growing stages of spring maize. The relationship between runoff coefficient, slope, rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage was multivariate and nonlinear; (3 The runoff lag time decreased with the increase in rainfall intensity and slope within the same growing stage. In addition, the relationship between runoff lag time, slope, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and vegetation coverage could also be expressed by a multivariate nonlinear equation; (4 The descent rate of soil infiltration rate curve increased with the increased rainfall intensity and slope in the same growing stage. Furthermore, by comparing the Kostiakov, Horton, and Philip models, it was found that the Horton infiltration model was the best for estimating soil infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration under the condition of test.

  2. Effects of soil type, moisture content, redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation on K{sub d} values of radio-selenium in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, D.J. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: daniel.ashworth@ars.usda.gov; Moore, J. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Understanding the processes that determine the solid-liquid partitioning (K{sub d} value) of Se is of fundamental importance in assessing the risk associated with the disposal of radio-selenium-containing waste. Using a mini-column (rather than batch) approach, K{sub d} values for {sup 75}Se were determined over time in relation to soil moisture content (field capacity or saturated), redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation (used to disrupt the soil microbial population) in three contrasting soil types: clay loam, organic and sandy loam. The K{sub d} values were generally in the range 50-500 L kg{sup -1}, with mean soil K{sub d} increasing with increasing organic matter content. Saturation with water lowered the measured redox potentials in the soils. However, only in the sandy loam soil did redox potential become negative, and this led to an increase in {sup 75}Se K{sub d} value in this soil. Comparison of the data with the Eh-pH stability diagram for Se suggested that such strong reduction may have been consistent with the formation of the insoluble Se species, selenide. These findings, coupled with the fact that methyl bromide fumigation had no discernible effect on {sup 75}Se K{sub d} value in the sandy loam soil, suggest that geochemical, rather than microbial, processes controlled {sup 75}Se partitioning. The inter-relations between soil moisture content, redox potential and Se speciation should be considered in the modelling and assessment of radioactive Se fate and transport in the environment.

  3. Study on stability of strip coal pillar with different moisture content%不同含水率条带煤柱稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永杰; 赵南南; 马德鹏; 张福俊

    2016-01-01

    煤层的富水性明显影响高应力作用下条带煤柱的稳定性,为研究含水率对条带煤柱蠕变特性的影响,首先对不同含水率的煤样进行蠕变试验,结果表明,含水率对煤样蠕变特性具有明显的影响,含水率越大,煤样的蠕变变形量越大,其蠕变门槛值、蠕变强度及蠕变系数越低。蠕变试验拟合结果表明,采用改进的Burgers模型能够较好地描述煤的蠕变力学特性。以蠕变试验结果为基础,采用FLAC3D数值模拟软件对不同含水率条带煤柱的蠕变特性及稳定性进行了模拟分析。随含水率增大,应力峰值距煤壁距离增加,煤柱塑性区增大;同时,煤柱垂直应力变小,蠕变变形量增大,其承载能力降低,煤柱进入长期稳定状态的时间加长。数值模拟结果表明,在其他条件相同的情况下,煤柱含水率为0.78%,1.07%及1.36%时,煤柱塑性区宽度分别为10,12,16 m,其进入长期稳定状态的时间分别为18,24及36个月。%The stability of strip coal pillar under high stress is obviously affected by water abundance of coal seam. In order to study the influence of moisture content on creep characteristics of strip coal pillar, creep tests of coal specimens with different moisture content have been carried out firstly, and the results have revealed that moisture content has obvious influence on creep characteristics of coal speci-mens, to be more specific, with the increase of moisture content, the creep deformation gets bigger, but the creep threshold value, the creep strength and the creep coefficient get lower. The fitting results of creep tests have shown that the creep mechanical properties of coal can be well described with the im-proved Burgers model. Based on the creep test results, the creep characteristics and stability of strip coal pillar with different moisture content have been analyzed with the FLAC3D numerical simulation soft-ware. With

  4. Effects of soil moisture content on growth,biomass partition and nutrient uptake of tobacco%土壤水分对烤烟生长、物质分配和养分吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泺; 高明; 王子芳; 徐畅; 谢会川; 李常军

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different soil moisture contents on the nutrient uptake and growth of flue-cured tobacco were studied under the pot cultivation.The results show that with the increase of soil moisture content,the height and biomass of tobacco are increased,and the amplitude increments are leafstemroot,while the root to shoot ratios are inversely proportional to the moisture content,which reflects the characteristics of the responses of tobacco growing to various soil moisture contents.Chlorophyll has different responses to soil moisture content in different growing periods,and the most optimum soil moisture content for Chlorophyll at different growing periods are 70%-75%,80%-85% and 50%-55%,respectively.The uptakes of nitrogen(N) and potassium(K) are all significantly greater than that of phosphorus(P) in the five treatments,with the decrease of soil moisture content,the nutrient uptakes of roots and stems are increased in varying degrees when the moisture content is less than the optimum level that required by tobacco,while the uptakes of leaves are declined.While in the case of excessive soil moisture content,the nutrients uptakes(N,P,K) of roots,stems and leaves are significantly reduced in each period.%采用室内盆栽试验研究了不同土壤含水率对烤烟生长、物质分配和养分吸收的影响。结果表明,烤烟株高随土壤含水率的增加而增高;生物量随土壤含水率的降低而减小,其减幅为叶〉茎〉根,而根冠比则与土壤含水率成反比,反映了烟草对土壤水分含量差异响应的整体特征。不同生育期叶绿素对土壤含水率的响应不同,团棵期、旺长期和成熟期的土壤相对含水率分别为70%~75%、80%~85%和50%~55%时,各处理中叶绿素含量最高。各处理烤烟对养分的吸收表现为对氮、钾吸收量显著大于磷,且当土壤含水率低于烤烟所需的适宜含水率时,随着土壤含水

  5. Conductive and steam-diffuse constituents of thermotransfer in different soil moisture contents: case study of the Altai Region’s soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Makarychev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the conductive and steam-diffusive heat transfer constituents in the soil. Based on the solution of differential equation system of heat and mass transfer, the method to determine the conductive and steam-diffusive heat transfer constituents in wet soils was developed. To measure the thermophysical properties in laboratory setting, a pulse method of a two-dimensional heat source was used. The method takes into account the patterns of temperature field equalization in an unbounded medium after the heat source termination. A feature of this process is the occurrence of peak temperature at the investigated point of the medium at a given instant. In this experiment, the temperature was controlled not only at the investigated point of the medium, but also at the soil-heater interface. The proposed method was used to study the thermophysical indices of the chernozems of the Altai Region’s Priobye area (the Ob River area. The chernozem under study is of light-loamy particle-size composition; the illuvial horizon В is enriched by a sand fraction. It has been found that the soil conductive thermal diffusivity is reduced with increasing moisture content. The steam-diffusive thermal diffusivity has the extremum at the moisture close to the discontinuous capillary moisture. In humus horizons it plays a smaller role than in the mineral horizons. The thermal diffusivity determined by the steam molecule motion in the pore space of the soil exceeds the conductive thermal diffusivity two or three times. At the same time thermal steam diffusivity is more than ten time lower than the conductive constituent. Eventually, the stem molecules though dramatically accelerating the processes of heat transfer in the soil profile conduct a small amount of heat and make a weak contribution to soil thermal accumulation.

  6. Determination methods of moisture content of nicotinamide products%烟酰胺水分测定方法的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高占友; 马秀玲; 许海霞

    2011-01-01

    为确定一种误差小、精密度高且能测定烟酰胺产品水分含量的方法,比较卡尔费体容量滴定法、不带鼓风电热恒温干燥箱法、带鼓风电热恒温干燥箱法与硅胶为干燥剂干燥器法测定酰胺产品失水率的差异.结果表明:使用不带鼓风和带鼓风电热恒温干燥箱的检测结果分别比容量滴定法高出0.295%~0.5%和0.365%~1.12%;使用带鼓风的比不带鼓风的电热恒温干燥箱检测结果高出0.10%~0.62%;而硅胶为干燥剂的干燥器法测定的结果低于产品实际含水量.综合而言,卡尔费休容量滴定法的重复操作性强,结果准确,测定烟酰胺产品水分含量可优选卡尔费休容量滴定法.%To determine a simple and sensitive testing method of moisture content of nicotinamide product, four methods for water loss rates of amide products: Karl Fischer titration method, electric drying oven without blast, electric oven with blast and silica gel desiccant dryer were compared. The results showed that: test results of electric oven without blast and with blast were 0. 295% ~0.5% and 0. 365% ~ 1. 12% respectively, and higher than that of titration method; test results of electric oven with blast were 0. 10% to 0.62% higher than that of without blast. The determination results of silica gel desiccant dryers were lower than real moisture contents of products. In conclusion, Karl Fischer titration method has a good repeatability and high accuracy for determination of moisture content of nicotinamide product.

  7. Effect of moisture content on compression mechanical properties and frictional characteristics of millet grain%不同含水率对谷子籽粒压缩力学性质与摩擦特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨作梅; 孙静鑫; 郭玉明

    2015-01-01

    As the first grain of“five cereals”, millet is one of the favorite grain crops and has high nutritional value and high market demand. Millet grains can be mechanically damaged under compressive load and friction in the processes of seeding, threshing, storage, and transportation. Moisture content plays an important role to mechanical properties and frictional characteristics of millet grain. The previous researches on grains’ mechanical properties were mostly about big grain kernels, but small grain kernels like millet grain have been rarely studied. In this research, a typical millet grain in Shanxi Province, Jingu-21, was selected as test material. Compression tests were carried out using a texture analyzer. Millet grains were quasi-statically loaded in vertical orientation with 7 moisture content treatments i.e. 11.4%, 12.7%, 14.2%, 17.1%, 18.7%, 21.4%and 23.7%and 25 replicates per treatment. Compression mechanical properties of millet grain were measured in terms of damage force, deformation, and damage energy, and meanwhile elastic modulus and allowable compressive stress were calculated according to Hertz theory. The damage process was analyzed, and the force-deformation curve and the variations of mechanical properties with the moisture content were obtained. The test results showed that the moisture content had a significant effect on the compression mechanical properties. The force required for initiating grain rupture decreased from 19.457 to 11.732 N as the moisture content increased, and changed slowly when moisture content was lower than 12.7%and higher than 21.4%, but decreased rapidly with moisture content increasing from 14.2% to 21.4%. Deformation and damage energy decreased initially and increased subsequently as the moisture content increased. They reached their minimums at moisture content of 17.1%and 21.4%, respectively. Elastic modulus and allowable compressive stress linearly decreased with the increase of the moisture content and the

  8. CHANGES IN THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE MIDDLE FEN SOILS IN THE ODRA RIVER VALLEY IN THE REGION OF BRZEG DOLNY IN THE VEGETATION PERIODS 2004–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Pływaczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In soils, where the water table is deeply located and has a minor impact on the moisture content of the surface layer, we are dealing with the precipitation-and-water type of water management. If underground water level is close to the surface, the top stratum of the soil, apart from precipitation, is additionally fed by water absorption from underground waters. Then we are dealing with ground-and-water type of management. We consider such types of water management of soil in the area of the left-bank valley of the Odra river, above and below the dam in Brzeg Dolny. The dominant soil types here are middle fen soils, based on middle clay and heavy clay as well as loam, which, in conditions of either excess or deficiency of moisture, are difficult to cultivate. The work compares water management of two soil profiles in vegetation periods between 2004 and 2009. The formation of underground waters, meteorological conditions and the course of the water reserves in the strata 0–50 cm and 0–100 cm were estimated with various supplying conditions of the active stratum of the soil. The volume of the supply with percolated water from underground water of the layer 50–100 cm on approximately 75–90 mm was also estimated. This value was mainly dependent on the depth of the retention of the water table of the soil profile above the level in Brzeg Dolny.

  9. Determination of the thermo-mechanical properties in starch and starch/gluten systems at low moisture content - a comparison of DSC and TMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Stephen; Kelly, Michael; Day, Li

    2014-08-08

    The impact of heating rate on the glass transition (Tg) and melting transitions observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on starch and a starch/gluten blend (80:20 ratio) at low moisture content was examined. The results were compared to those determined by thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA). Comparison with dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and phase transition analysis (PTA) is also discussed. Higher heating rates increased the determined Tg as well as the melting peak temperatures in both starch and the starch/gluten blend. A heating rate of 5°C/min gave the most precise value of Tg while still being clearly observed above the baseline. Tg values determined from the first and second DSC scans were found to differ significantly and retrogradation of starch biopolymers may be responsible. Tg values of starch determined by TMA showed good agreement with DSC results where the Tg was below 80°C. However, moisture loss led to inaccurate Tg determination for TMA analyses at temperatures above 80°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Four-dimensional imaging of moisture dynamics during landslide reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Paul; Maurer, Hansruedi; Merritt, Andrew; Meldrum, Philip; Kuras, Oliver; Gunn, David; Smith, Alister; Dijkstra, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Landslides pose significant risks to communities and infrastructure, and mitigating these risks relies on understanding landslide causes and triggering processes. It has been shown that geophysical surveys can significantly contribute to the characterization of unstable slopes. However, hydrological processes can be temporally and spatially heterogeneous, requiring their related properties to be monitored over time. Geoelectrical monitoring can provide temporal and volumetric distributions of electrical resistivity, which are directly related to moisture content. To date, studies demonstrating this capability have been restricted to 2-D sections, which are insufficient to capture the full degree of spatial heterogeneity. This study is the first to employ 4-D (i.e., 3-D time lapse) resistivity imaging on an active landslide, providing long-term data (3 years) highlighting the evolution of moisture content prior to landslide reactivation and showing its decline post reactivation. Crucially, the time-lapse inversion methodology employed here incorporates movements of the electrodes on the unstable surface. Although seasonal characteristics dominate the shallow moisture dynamics during the first 2 years with surficial drying in summer and wetting in winter, in the months preceding reactivation, moisture content increased by more than 45% throughout the slope. This is in agreement with independent data showing a significant rise in piezometric heads and shallow soil moisture contents as a result of prolonged and intense rainfall. Based on these results, remediation measures could be designed and early-warning systems implemented. Thus, resistivity monitoring that can allow for moving electrodes provides a new means for the effective mitigation of landslide risk.

  11. Nondestructive measurement of moisture content of peanut kernels based on concentric cylindrical capacitance%基于同心轴圆筒式电容传感器的花生仁水分无损检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽清; 尚书旗; 高连兴; 胡修慧; 殷元元; 龚丽农

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important oil and economic crop, and also a major export product in China. Peanut industries manufacture many types of peanut-based products for human’s life. The moisture content of peanuts is in the range of 45%-50% when peanuts are freshly harvested, and the moisture content has to be below 10.5% in storage. High moisture content in peanut kernels can make them moldy, which mainly produces the toxic aflatoxins and causes huge waste and jeopardizes human’s health. Therefore it is necessary to keep proper moisture content in every treating process of peanuts. The detection of moisture content plays an important role in harvesting, drying, storage and trade of peanuts. Although the traditional oven-drying method has high precision, it is cumbersome and takes a lot of time. In addition to the oven-drying method and the microwave method, the near infrared method and the capacitance method are also common methods of moisture content detection. Comparing to other methods, the capacitance method has advantages of simple structure and low cost. In order to develop a rapid and accurate moisture content detection method for peanut kernels, the capacitance method was adopted to measure moisture content by using dielectric properties of grain. A peanut kernel moisture content detector was designed; MSP430 single chip microcomputer was taken as its control chip, and cylindrical capacitance sensor, temperature sensor and weighing sensor were used to detect capacitance, temperature and bulk density of peanut kernels respectively. Capacitance was converted to frequency through the signal detection and conditioning circuit, and frequency was detected when the capacitance sensor was empty or full of peanut kernels samples. The difference frequency values were processed and calculated by the single chip microcomputer. Subsequently an equation of measured difference frequency, temperature and moisture content values was established by the oven-drying method, and the

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND CURVES OF EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF SEEDS OF JACARANDA-DA-BAHIA, ANGICO-VERMELHO AND ÓLEO-COPAÍBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Corrêa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic capacity of most of seeds and agricultural grains have already been studied, however, it can be observed in the specialized literature a lack of reports on equilibrium moisture content of seeds of jacaranda-da-bahia (Dalbergia nigra Fr. All., angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa Benth. and óleo-copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Benth.. This research objectived to determine the desorption curves for these seeds, and to adjust different mathematical models already traditionally used for another seeds, to the experimental data. The equation of Sigma-Copace, with the constants determined for the species of jacaranda-da-bahia and angico-vermelho, was the model that better adjusted to the experimental data, while for óleo-copaiba the of Henderson-Modified equation represented better the experimental data.

  13. Evaluation of several calibration procedures for a portable soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlandson, Tracy L.; Berg, Aaron A.; Bullock, Paul R.; Ojo, E. RoTimi; McNairn, Heather; Wiseman, Grant; Cosh, Michael H.

    2013-08-01

    The calibration and validation of remotely sensed soil moisture products relies upon an accurate source of ground truth data. The primary method of providing this ground truth is to conduct intensive field campaigns with manual surface soil moisture sampling measurements, which utilize gravimetric sampling, soil moisture probes, or both, to estimate the volumetric soil water content. Soil moisture probes eliminate the need for labor-intensive gravimetric sampling. To ensure the accuracy of these probes, several studies have determined these probes need various degrees of localized calibration. This study examines six possible calibration techniques using data collected during a field campaign conducted in 2012, with soil moisture samples being collected over 55 fields in southern Manitoba, as part of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12). The use of a general equation, applied to all collected data, resulted in the largest error regardless of whether a linear or third order polynomial relationship was established for the calibration of the soil moisture probes. Calibration equations based on soil texture or vegetation land cover reduced the error; however, the individual calibration equations established for each field in the study had the lowest error of all the calibration techniques. Although average bias was low for all of the calibration techniques, the use of the general equation to calibrate individual fields resulted in high biases for some fields.

  14. An Investigation on Physiological Characteristics of Tow Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars and Soil Moisture Content as Affected by Straw Management and Nitrogen Rates under Dryland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sadeghi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In most southern parts of Iran, crop residues have been traditionally burned or removed; that is often criticized for soil organic and nutrient losses, reducing soil microbial activity and increasing CO2 emission. A 2-years field study was conducted at the College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran to evaluate the effects of different barley residue and N rates on some physiological indices and soil moisture contents of two dryland barley cultivars. The experiment was conducted as strip split plot with four replications. Vertical plots included two dryland common barley cultivars (Afzal and Reyhan, horizontal plots were three crop residue rates (0, 750 and 1500 kg ha-1 and sub plots were three N rates (0, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1. The results showed that when the crop residues were applied, N rates should be increased accordingly. Increasing N rates (from 0 to 80 kg N ha-1 accompanied by residue application increased leaf area index in both cultivars. When the crop residues were completely applied, but N rates were not appropriated with crop residue application, LAI decreased in both cultivars. The lowest LAI (1.14 was obtained from 1500 kg ha-1crop residue and 0 kg N ha-1 in both cultivars. The highest (1196g/m2 and the lowest (595g/m2 dry matter yield was obtained from 80 kg N ha-1 and % 100 crop residue and from 0 kg N ha-1 and 1500 kg ha-1 crop residue in both cultivars, respectively. Application of 1500 kg ha-1 crop residues and 80 kg N ha-1 significantly increased soil moisture contents and LAI.

  15. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  16. Retrieval of Surface and Subsurface Moisture of Bare Soil Using Simulated Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Moghaddam, M.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many hydrological and biological processes. Soil moisture information is vital to understanding the cycling of water, energy, and carbon in the Earth system. Knowledge of soil moisture is critical to agencies concerned with weather and climate, runoff potential and flood control, soil erosion, reservoir management, water quality, agricultural productivity, drought monitoring, and human health. The need to monitor the soil moisture on a global scale has motivated missions such as Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) [1]. Rough surface scattering models and remote sensing retrieval algorithms are essential in study of the soil moisture, because soil can be represented as a rough surface structure. Effects of soil moisture on the backscattered field have been studied since the 1960s, but soil moisture estimation remains a challenging problem and there is still a need for more accurate and more efficient inversion algorithms. It has been shown that the simulated annealing method is a powerful tool for inversion of the model parameters of rough surface structures [2]. The sensitivity of this method to measurement noise has also been investigated assuming a two-layer structure characterized by the layers dielectric constants, layer thickness, and statistical properties of the rough interfaces [2]. However, since the moisture profile varies with depth, it is sometimes necessary to model the rough surface as a layered structure with a rough interface on top and a stratified structure below where each layer is assumed to have a constant volumetric moisture content. In this work, we discretize the soil structure into several layers of constant moisture content to examine the effect of subsurface profile on the backscattering coefficient. We will show that while the moisture profile could vary in deeper layers, these layers do not affect the scattered electromagnetic field significantly. Therefore, we can use just a few layers

  17. Accomplishments of the NASA Johnson Space Center portion of the soil moisture project in fiscal year 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J. F.; Arya, L. M.; Davidson, S. A.; Hildreth, W. W.; Richter, J. C.; Rosenkranz, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/JSC ground scatterometer system was used in a row structure and row direction effects experiment to understand these effects on radar remote sensing of soil moisture. Also, a modification of the scatterometer system was begun and is continuing, to allow cross-polarization experiments to be conducted in fiscal years 1982 and 1983. Preprocessing of the 1978 agricultural soil moisture experiment (ASME) data was completed. Preparations for analysis of the ASME data is fiscal year 1982 were completed. A radar image simulation procedure developed by the University of Kansas is being improved. Profile soil moisture model outputs were compared quantitatively for the same soil and climate conditions. A new model was developed and tested to predict the soil moisture characteristic (water tension versus volumetric soil moisture content) from particle-size distribution and bulk density data. Relationships between surface-zone soil moisture, surface flux, and subsurface moisture conditions are being studied as well as the ways in which measured soil moisture (as obtained from remote sensing) can be used for agricultural applications.

  18. Modeling the Effects of Soil Moisture at a GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, C.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Nievinski, F. G.; Zavorotny, V.

    2011-12-01

    GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR) uses ground-reflected GPS signals to estimate near-surface soil moisture. Data are recorded by high-precision, geodetic-quality GPS antennas/receivers, for example those that comprise NSF's EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory. The ground reflections used in GPS-IR are representative of a ~1000 m2 area around an antenna. As the dielectric constant of the surface fluctuates, the phase, amplitude, and frequency of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data recorded by the GPS unit change. Based on field observations, it has been shown that these characteristics of the SNR data are sensitive to shallow soil moisture. A single-scattering, electrodynamic model was used to simulate SNR output over a range of soil moisture conditions. All simulations were for a 2.4 m tall antenna surrounded by a surface free of roughness or vegetation. The model was run using three different types of soil moisture profiles: constant with depth, monotonic variations with depth, and observed profiles interpolated from field data. For all profiles, amplitude, phase shift, and frequency changes were calculated from simulated SNR data. The three GPS metrics are well correlated with soil moisture content modeled at the soil surface because a majority of the incident microwave energy is reflected at the air-soil interface. When surface soil is dry relative to the underlying soil, GPS metrics are also strongly correlated with soil moisture averaged over the top 5 cm of the soil column. The relationship between GPS metrics and soil moisture averaged over 5 cm is not as strong when surface soil is relatively wet (>35% volumetric soil moisture). Interpolated profiles from field data resulted in a very strong correlation between SNR metrics and soil moisture averaged over the top 5 cm of soil, suggesting that soil moisture estimated from SNR data is useful for various hydrologic applications.

  19. Symposium on Wood Moisture Content - Temperature and Humidity Relationships Held at Blacksburg, Virginia on October 29, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-29

    11_il I!,, m~ch l.ilnltv ’Ind :ull w il I, I t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~t ii 1 ’ ;’ . i- o ic ’It i ’, cld III:, I : 11IL’ WOt II OIL ’ cm r inir, C I...1 - w;.~ . l I,. , : [ . :G , ,h. :l . r :h rna nn nie a-out e n I I I (, r" n £l,- ,’m ,.’t oand, oile tib ae - u] :.rt:] .e:,:: J 1 ’numL <x .o- T...content as done by holmes and Argan - init iil moist ’re cootent ire used together with bright also necessitates the same a priori ,ther fi, tors

  20. Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal characteristics at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Roxy; V B Sumithranand; G Renuka

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter of the earth’s climate system. Regression model for estimation of soil moisture at various depths has been developed using the amount of moisture near the surface layer. The estimated values of soil moisture are tested with the measured moisture values and it is found that the estimations are comparable with the observations. The variation of soil thermal properties with the amount of moisture in isohyperthermic ultisols has been investigated at a tropical site in south Kerala for the year 2008. The soil temperatures at 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50 m depths and soil moisture at 0.05 and 0.10 m are measured using the hydrometeorological data acquisition system installed at the observational site. For soil water contents ranging between 11 and 42% in the soil layer of depth 0.05–0.10 m, the mean values of the heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal admittance obtained were 2.2466 × 10−6 Jm−3K−1, 0.4238 × 10−6 m2s−1, 0.9658 Wm−1K−1, 2.1517 Jm−2s−1/2K−1, respectively. The magnitudes of the diurnal soil thermal parameters showed strong association with the levels of the water content. The thermal diffusivity was found to increase with the amount of soil moisture, up to about 22% of the volumetric water content, but fell as the water content further increases. Similar patterns of the soil moisture levels were noticeable both for the thermal conductivity and admittance.

  1. Effect of moisture content on solid-state interaction at the interface between magnesium stearate and captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Ting; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2008-12-01

    A grinding process was used to accelerate the solid-state interaction at the interface between magnesium stearate (MgSt) and captopril (CAP) in the presence or absence of water. The 110 °C-preheated MgSt/CAP or MgSt/CAP ground mixture showed a 5.06% (w/w) or 6.07% (w/w) water content, respectively, which was >4.29% (w/w) for the original MgSt alone. The increased water content in each ground mixture was due to the atmospheric absorption of water caused by grinding. A small infrared (IR) peak at 1562 cm -1 appeared in the IR spectrum of the 110 °C-preheated MgSt/CAP ground mixture, whereas a stronger IR peak at 1541 cm -1 with a shoulder at 1556 cm -1 was observed for the MgSt/CAP ground mixture. These IR peaks were possibly related to the solid-state interaction at the interface between MgSt and CAP via hydrogen bonding of adsorbed water. However, an excess of water added in the MgSt/CAP ground mixture could exacerbate the solid-state interaction of MgSt and CAP to form a stearic acid as evidenced by the IR peak at 1705 cm -1. This may be due to the neutralization between basic MgSt and acidic CAP. In addition, thermal Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy also confirmed that the thermal-dependent dehydration process might alter the IR peak intensity of MgSt/CAP ground mixtures.

  2. Influences of Moisture Content on Insulation Properties of Vegetable Insulating Oil%植物绝缘油中含水量对其绝缘性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹平; 李剑; 孙才新; 廖瑞金; 张召涛

    2011-01-01

    Due to the fact that saturated moisture content of vegetable insulating oil is greater than that of mineral in sulating oil, it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of moisture influencing the insulation properties of vegetable insulating oil. We analyzed the influence of moisture content in a refined rapeseed insulating oil on breakdown voltage of the oil, measured the relative permittivity and dissipation factor of the rapeseed insulating oil with various moisture contents by using a dielectric spectrometer, analyzed the characteristics of the two parameters versus frequency, and tested the volume resistivity of the rapeseed insulating oil specimens according to relevant standards.Measurement results show that the breakdown voltage of vegetable insulating oil are higher than that of insulating mineral oil at the same relative moisture content. With the increase of moisture content, the breakdown voltage of insulating vegetable oil declines more slowly than that of insulating mineral oil. The absolute moisture content of insulating vegetable oil is higher at the same relative moisture content, indicating that it has slight influences on breakdown voltage of vegetable insulating oil. When the relative moisture content is lower than 50%, the insulation properties of the rapeseed insulating oil are little affected. When the relative moisture content exceeds the saturated moisture content of the oil, the insulation properties of the rapeseed insulating oil are remarkably affected.%植物绝缘油不仅解决了矿物绝缘油在耐高温和环保方面的不足,而且具有良好的电气性能,是目前国际上重点研究的新型液体绝缘材料。绝缘油的含水量对其绝缘性能的影响极为显著。由于植物绝缘油的饱和含水量高于矿物绝缘油,为研究含水量对植物绝缘油绝缘性能的影响规律,分析了精炼处理后的菜籽绝缘油含水量对绝缘油的击穿电压的影响;采用介

  3. Repeated electromagnetic induction measurements for mapping soil moisture at the field scale: comparison with data from a wireless soil moisture monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Edoardo; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen; Pohle, Marco; Dietrich, Peter; Wollschläger, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) methods are widely used for soil mapping, as they allow fast and relatively low-cost surveys of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) at various scales. Soil ECa is well known to be influenced by both the volumetric content and the electrical conductivity (EC) of soil water, as well as by soil temperature and by the volume of the solid particles and their EC. Among other applications, EMI has become widely used to determine soil water content or to study hydrological processes within the field of hydrogeophysics. Although the use of non-invasive EMI for imaging soil spatial properties is very attractive, the dependence of ECa on several properties and states challenges any interpretation with respect to individual soil properties or states such as θ. The major aim of this study was to further investigate the potential of repeated EMI measurements to map soil moisture at the hillslope scale, with particular focus on the temporal variability of the spatial patterns of ECa and soil moisture, respectively, and on the stability of the ECa-soil moisture relationship over time. To this end, we compared time series of EMI measurements with high-resolution soil moisture data for a non-intensively managed hillslope area in the Schäfertal catchment (Central Germany) for which the spatial distribution of soil properties and soil water dynamics were known in detail. Soil water and temperature dynamics were observed in 40 soil profiles at hourly resolution during 14 months using a wireless monitoring network. During this period of time, ECa was mapped on seven occasions using an EM38-DD device. For the investigated site, ECa showed small temporal variations (ranging between 0 and 24 mS/m) whereas the temporal range of soil moisture was very large (from very dry to soil saturation). Furthermore, temporal changes of the spatial pattern of ECa differed from temporal changes of the spatial pattern of soil moisture. The ECa-soil moisture

  4. Nonisothermal moisture movement in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianjun; ZHANG Biguang; LI Wenjun; LI Yanjun

    2006-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of temperature gradient on moisture movement during highly intensive drying,such as microwave-vacuum drying,the profile of the temperature and moisture content in sealed wood whose opposite faces were subjected to temperature gradient for a short time was measured.The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.The results indicate that moisture moved in wood from the warm surface to the cold one even if opposite faces of the sealed wood assembly were exposed continuously to different but constant temperatures for a short period.The moisture content on the cold surface was higher than that on the warm surface.The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established,and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/℃.The temperature in the sample and the distance from the hot surface of the sample was strongly linearly correlated.With an increase in temperature,initial moisture content and experimental time,the dM/dT was significantly increased.

  5. Quantifying and Contrasting Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Vadose Zone Moisture under Different Vegetation Types Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Acharya, B.; Zou, C.; Halihan, T.

    2016-12-01

    Spatial-temporal dynamics of vadose zone moisture is important for assessing deep drainage in water-limited ecosystems. Time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to monitor vadose zone moisture to a depth of 9 m in a tallgrass prairie and a prairie heavily encroached by a juniper species (Juniperus virigiana) in the south-central Great Plains, US. Resistivity images were converted to volumetric water content images based on site-specific relationship between volumetric water content and inverted resistivity values. Results show (a) vegetation induced vertical soil moisture profiling in the vadose zone, (b) increased spatial-temporal variability in rooting zone conductivity under juniper-encroached site compared with tallgrass prairie site, and (c) two-layered conductivity profiles irrespective of vegetation types, with increased conductivity below 3 m soil depth. ERI could be used as an effective approach to quantify spatial-temporal variation of vadose zone moisture and time-lapse ERI images can be used to assess deep drainage potential associated with different land cover types in water-limited ecosystems.

  6. Influence of moisture content on the rheological properties measurement of polyester chips%水分对 PET 聚酯切片流变性能测试的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高仪祥

    2015-01-01

    The rheological properties of polyester melt with different moisture content were comparatively stud-ied by capillary rheometer,and the influence of charging apparatus on the moisture content of dry polyester chips and the influence of moisture content on the apparent viscosity,non -Newtonian index,and viscous flow activation energy were discussed.The results showed that the apparent viscosity of polyester melt decrease with the increasing of moisture content.At the same temperature,the non-Newtonian index and the viscous flow activation energy of pol-yester melt increased with the increasing of moisture content due to hydrolysis reaction.%利用毛细管流变仪对不同水分聚酯熔体的流变性能进行了对比研究,讨论储料装置对干燥后聚酯切片吸水性的影响,以及水分对表观粘度、非牛顿指数及粘流活化能的影响。结果表明:由于发生了水解反应,在相同温度下,聚酯熔体的表观粘度随着水分的增加而降低,非牛顿指数随着水分的增加而增大,粘流活化能随着水分的增加而增大。

  7. moisture transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kulasiri

    2005-01-01

    model drying porous materials. Coupled partial differential equations governing the moisture and heat transfer can be solved using numerical techniques, and in this paper we solve them analytically in a setting suitable for industrial drying situations. We discuss the nature of the solutions using the physical properties of Pinus radiata. It is shown that the temperature gradients play a significant role in deciding the moisture profiles within the material when thickness is large and that models based only on moisture potential gradients may not be sufficient to explain the drying phenomena in moist porous materials.

  8. Encapsulation of CO2 into amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin powder at different moisture contents - Part 2: Characterization of complexed powders and determination of crystalline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Thao M; Howes, Tony; Jack, Kevin S; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize CO2-α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) inclusion complexes produced from amorphous α-CD powder at moisture contents (MC) close to or higher than the critical level of crystallization (e.g. 13, 15 and 17% MC on wet basis, w.b.) at 0.4 and 1.6MPa pressure for 72h. The results of (13)C NMR, SEM, DSC and X-ray analyses showed that these MC levels were high enough to induce crystallization of CO2-α-CD complexed powders during encapsulation, by which amount of CO2 encapsulated by amorphous α-CD powder was significantly increased. The formation of inclusion complexes were well confirmed by results of FTIR and (13)C NMR analyses through an appearance of a peak associated with CO2 on the FTIR (2334cm(-1)) and NMR (125.3ppm) spectra. Determination of crystal packing patterns of CO2-α-CD complexed powders showed that during crystallization, α-CD molecules were arranged in cage-type structure in which CO2 molecules were entrapped in isolated cavities.

  9. Expression of Fragaria vesca PIP aquaporins in response to drought stress: PIP down-regulation correlates with the decline in substrate moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurbanovski, Nada; Sargent, Daniel J; Else, Mark A; Simpson, David W; Zhang, Hanma; Grant, Olga M

    2013-01-01

    PIP aquaporin responses to drought stress can vary considerably depending on the isoform, tissue, species or level of stress; however, a general down-regulation of these genes is thought to help reduce water loss and prevent backflow of water to the drying soil. It has been suggested therefore, that it may be necessary for the plant to limit aquaporin production during drought stress, but it is unknown whether aquaporin down-regulation is gradual or triggered by a particular intensity of the stress. In this study, ten Fragaria PIP genes were identified from the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome sequence and characterised at the sequence level. The water relations of F. vesca were investigated and the effect of different intensities of drought stress on the expression of four PIP genes, as well as how drought stress influences their diurnal transcription was determined. PIP down-regulation in the root corresponded to the level of drought stress. Moreover, transcript abundance of two genes highly expressed in the root (FvPIP1;1 and FvPIP2;1) was strongly correlated to the decline in substrate moisture content. The amplitude of diurnal aquaporin expression in the leaves was down-regulated by drought without altering the pattern, but showing an intensity-dependent effect. The results show that transcription of PIP aquaporins can be fine-tuned with the environment in response to declining water availability.

  10. Expression of Fragaria vesca PIP aquaporins in response to drought stress: PIP down-regulation correlates with the decline in substrate moisture content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Šurbanovski

    Full Text Available PIP aquaporin responses to drought stress can vary considerably depending on the isoform, tissue, species or level of stress; however, a general down-regulation of these genes is thought to help reduce water loss and prevent backflow of water to the drying soil. It has been suggested therefore, that it may be necessary for the plant to limit aquaporin production during drought stress, but it is unknown whether aquaporin down-regulation is gradual or triggered by a particular intensity of the stress. In this study, ten Fragaria PIP genes were identified from the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L. genome sequence and characterised at the sequence level. The water relations of F. vesca were investigated and the effect of different intensities of drought stress on the expression of four PIP genes, as well as how drought stress influences their diurnal transcription was determined. PIP down-regulation in the root corresponded to the level of drought stress. Moreover, transcript abundance of two genes highly expressed in the root (FvPIP1;1 and FvPIP2;1 was strongly correlated to the decline in substrate moisture content. The amplitude of diurnal aquaporin expression in the leaves was down-regulated by drought without altering the pattern, but showing an intensity-dependent effect. The results show that transcription of PIP aquaporins can be fine-tuned with the environment in response to declining water availability.

  11. The North Wyke Farm Platform: effect of temperate grassland farming systems on soil moisture contents, runoff and associated water quality dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R J; Murray, P J; Eyles, C J; Blackwell, M S A; Cardenas, L M; Collins, A L; Dungait, J A J; Goulding, K W T; Griffith, B A; Gurr, S J; Harris, P; Hawkins, J M B; Misselbrook, T H; Rawlings, C; Shepherd, A; Sint, H; Takahashi, T; Tozer, K N; Whitmore, A P; Wu, L; Lee, M R F

    2016-07-01

    The North Wyke Farm Platform was established as a United Kingdom national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland grasslands. A system based on permanent pasture was implemented on three 21-ha farmlets to obtain baseline data on hydrology, nutrient cycling and productivity for 2 years. Since then two farmlets have been modified by either (i) planned reseeding with grasses that have been bred for enhanced sugar content or deep-rooting traits or (ii) sowing grass and legume mixtures to reduce nitrogen fertilizer inputs. The quantities of nutrients that enter, cycle within and leave the farmlets were evaluated with data recorded from sensor technologies coupled with more traditional field study methods. We demonstrate the potential of the farm platform approach with a case study in which we investigate the effects of the weather, field topography and farm management activity on surface runoff and associated pollutant or nutrient loss from soil. We have the opportunity to do a full nutrient cycling analysis, taking account of nutrient transformations in soil, and flows to water and losses to air. The NWFP monitoring system is unique in both scale and scope for a managed land-based capability that brings together several technologies that allow the effect of temperate grassland farming systems on soil moisture levels, runoff and associated water quality dynamics to be studied in detail.

  12. Measuring and modeling the effect of surface moisture on the spectral reflectance of coastal beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Corjan; Poortinga, Ate; Roosjen, Peter; Bartholomeus, Harm; Ruessink, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet sand appears darker than dry sand: it is less reflective. The goals of this study are (1) to measure and model reflectance under controlled laboratory conditions as function of wavelength (λ) and surface moisture (θ) over the optical domain of 350-2500 nm, and (2) to explore the implications of our laboratory findings for accurately mapping the distribution of surface moisture under natural conditions. A laboratory spectroscopy experiment was conducted to measure spectral reflectance (1 nm interval) under different surface moisture conditions using beach sand. A non-linear increase of reflectance upon drying was observed over the full range of wavelengths. Two models were developed and tested. The first model is grounded in optics and describes the proportional contribution of scattering and absorption of light by pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix. The second model is grounded in soil physics and links the hydraulic behaviour of pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix to its optical properties. The optical model performed well for volumetric moisture content θ 0.97), but underestimated reflectance for θ between 24-30% (R2 > 0.92), most notable around the 1940 nm water absorption peak. The soil-physical model performed very well (R2 > 0.99) but is limited to 4% > θ < 24%. Results from a field experiment show that a short-wave infrared terrestrial laser scanner (λ = 1550 nm) can accurately relate surface moisture to reflectance (standard error 2.6%), demonstrating its potential to derive spatially extensive surface moisture maps of a natural coastal beach.

  13. Measuring and modeling the effect of surface moisture on the spectral reflectance of coastal beach sand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corjan Nolet

    Full Text Available Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet sand appears darker than dry sand: it is less reflective. The goals of this study are (1 to measure and model reflectance under controlled laboratory conditions as function of wavelength (λ and surface moisture (θ over the optical domain of 350-2500 nm, and (2 to explore the implications of our laboratory findings for accurately mapping the distribution of surface moisture under natural conditions. A laboratory spectroscopy experiment was conducted to measure spectral reflectance (1 nm interval under different surface moisture conditions using beach sand. A non-linear increase of reflectance upon drying was observed over the full range of wavelengths. Two models were developed and tested. The first model is grounded in optics and describes the proportional contribution of scattering and absorption of light by pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix. The second model is grounded in soil physics and links the hydraulic behaviour of pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix to its optical properties. The optical model performed well for volumetric moisture content θ 0.97, but underestimated reflectance for θ between 24-30% (R2 > 0.92, most notable around the 1940 nm water absorption peak. The soil-physical model performed very well (R2 > 0.99 but is limited to 4% > θ < 24%. Results from a field experiment show that a short-wave infrared terrestrial laser scanner (λ = 1550 nm can accurately relate surface moisture to reflectance (standard error 2.6%, demonstrating its potential to derive spatially extensive surface moisture maps of a natural coastal beach.

  14. 磷钼酸铵容量法测定磷化液中的磷%Determination of Phosphorus Content in Phosphated Solution by Volumetric Method of Ammonium Phosphomolybdate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 金欢

    2012-01-01

    A volumetric method of ammonium phosphomolybdate for the determination of phosphorus content ( counted with zinc dihydrogen phosphate) in phosphated solution was reported in this paper. The reliability of this method was proved by comparing the standard phosphorus solution added into the basic solution with the noninterference standard phosphorus solution. The results show that this analytical method has a good accuracy and precision detected by F and t methods. The recovery ratio is 99. 0% ~ 100.0% ,and meets the requirements for analysis.%采用磷钼酸铵容量法测定磷化液中磷(以磷酸二氢锌计)的含量,通过在基础溶液中加入磷标准溶液,与不加入任何干扰物质的磷标准溶液作对比试验,验证分析方法的可靠性.实验结果得出:通过F、t检验法,分析方法的准确度和精密度都较好;回收率在99.0% ~ 100.0%之间,达到分析要求.

  15. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    .05 probability level. Nitrogen mineralization and nitri?cation were higher at the higher temperature and higher soil water content. Significant effects of urine application and moisture were found (P

  16. Inflammatory potential in relation to the microbial content of settled dust samples collected from moisture damaged and reference schools : Results of HITEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, Kati; Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Krop, Esmeralda; Mikkonen, Santtu; Pekkanen, Juha; Heederik, Dick; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvärinen, Anne; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to identify factors causing the adverse health effects associated with moisture damaged indoor environments, we analyzed immunotoxicological potential of settled dust from moisture damaged and reference schools in relation to their microbiological composition. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were

  17. Inflammatory potential in relation to the microbial content of settled dust samples collected from moisture domaged and reference schools: results of HITEA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, K.; Tirkkonen, J.; Täubel, M.; Krop, E.; Mikkonen, S.; Pekkanen, J.; Heederik, D.; Zock, J.P.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to identify factors causing the adverse health effects associated with moisture-damaged indoor environments, we analyzed immunotoxicological potential of settled dust from moisture-damaged and reference schools in relation to their microbiological composition. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were

  18. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1985-04-01

    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  19. 添加剂和水分对光叶紫花苕青贮品质的影响%Effects of additive and moisture content on fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 白史且; 杨富裕; 干友民

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation quality of smooth vetch (Vicia villosa var. ) silage kept for 60 days were investigated using smooth vetch with high (fresh) and low (wilt for 3 hours) moisture content. Ammonium formate (3, 6 L/t) , lactic acid bacteria (1.0×105 cfu/g FW) , antimicrobial mixture including sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, sodium nitrite, and hexamethylenetetramine (3, 6 L/t) were added separately at ensiling but the CK had no additives. The results indicated that the fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage with high and low moisture contents were highly significantly (P<0. 01) affected by additives, but positive performances depended on the levels. The moisture content played a highly significantly positive role in improving the fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage except for the pH value (P<0. 01). The group with low moisture content performed better than the one with high moisture content. Highly significant (P<0. 01) interactions occurred between the two factors (additives and moisture content). Overall, in the high moisture content silage group, the treatments with added ammonium formate (6 L/t) and antimicrobial mixture (3 L/t) showed the best performance in fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage. In the high moisture content silage group, all treatments showed positive effects compared with the CK but without significant differences. To make silage with high quality, reducing the moisture content and adding suitable additives before ensiling are suggested.%2种含水量(鲜草、晾晒3h)的光叶紫花苕,分别添加对照(CK)、3和6 L/t的甲酸铵(ATlo和AThi)、1.0×105 cfu/g鲜草的乳酸菌、以及添加3和6 L/t由苯甲酸钠、丙酸钠、亚硝酸钠和六亚甲基四胺组成的混合抗菌剂(AMlo和AMhi).结果表明,添加剂对光叶紫花苕的青贮发酵品质有极显著影响(P<0.01),各种添加剂均不同程度的提升了光叶紫花苕青贮饲料的发酵品质;除pH值外,含水量对光叶紫花苕青

  20. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  1. Thermophysical properties of hydrophobised lime plaster - Experimental analysis of moisture effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Pernicová, Radka; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Lime plasters are the most popular finishing materials in renewal of historical buildings and culture monuments. Because of their limited durability, new materials and design solutions are investigated in order to improve plasters performance in harmful environmental conditions. For the practical use, the plasters mechanical resistivity and the compatibility with substrate are the most decisive material parameters. However, also plasters hygric and thermal parameters affecting the overall hygrothermal function of the renovated structures are of the particular importance. On this account, the effect of moisture content on the thermophysical properties of a newly designed lime plasters containing hydrophobic admixture is analysed in the paper. For the comparative purposes, the reference lime and cement-lime plasters are tested as well. Basic characterization of the tested materials is done using bulk density, matrix density, and porosity measurements. Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity in the broad range of moisture content are experimentally accessed using a transient impulse method. The obtained data reveals the significant increase of the both studied thermal parameters with increasing moisture content and gives information on plasters behaviour in a highly humid environment and/or in the case of their possible direct contact with liquid water. The accessed material parameters will be stored in a material database, where can find use as an input data for computational modelling of coupled heat and moisture transport in this type of porous building materials.

  2. Experimental study on soil moisture content of geogrid-reinforced clay under freezing-thawing cycle%冻融循环下格栅加筋粘土土体含水率试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣飞; 宓永宁; 姜广田; 金丹; 高微

    2012-01-01

    通过一系列室内含水率测试试验,研究了格栅加筋粘土在多次冻融循环条件下土体含水率的变动情况,探讨了填料压实度,加筋层数和初始含水率对冻融后土体含水率变动的影响规律.结果表明,压实度对土体ωi影响最大,低压实度时,△ω1为正值,高压实度时,△ω1为负值;加筋层数次之,ω1值随加筋层数增加而减小,在压实度高的土体中尤为显著;初始含水率影响最弱,仅在土体压实度较低时,较大的初始含水率会引起较大的△ω1值.%Through a series of lab-tests on moisture content of soil, the change of the moisture content of the grid-reinforced clay under freezing-thawing cycle is studied herein, and then the law of the impact from the compaction degree, the reinforcement layers and the initial moisture content of the soil on the moisture content of the soil under freezing-thawing cycles are discussed. The result shows that the compaction degree has the greatest impact on the soil body ωi, i. e. △ω1 is positive when the compaction degree is low and △ω1, is negative when the compaction degree is high; meanwhile, the number of the reinforcement layers only has a secondary impact on the soli body, i. e. the value of ω1, is decreased along with the increase of the number of the reinforcement layers, while it is significant in the highly compacted soil; moreover, the impact from the initial moisture content is much less and the greater value of △ω1 is to be only arisen from a greater initial moisture content when the compaction degree of soil is low.

  3. 高湿稻谷节能干燥工艺系统设计与试验%Design and test on energy-saving drying system for paddy with high moisture content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长友; 麦智炜; 方壮东; 张烨

    2014-01-01

    Moisture content of paddy in South china is mostly above 22%-28%. The energy consumption of drying process is higher in high temperature and high humidity environment than in other environment. Its main reasons are new theory and technology application, and lack of the reasonable design of drying process system. According to the researches at present, evaporation from grains with high moisture content was little affected by grain features, and moisture binding energy of grains with low moisture content was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. The law of binding energy of high moisture content paddy changed with moisture content was obtained. Energy structure of drying system was revealed based on the drying exergy transferring theory of grain. In order to develop industrial application, reduce the energy consumption in the drying process of high moisture content paddy and improve drying efficiency, based on the drying characteristics and exergy transferring theory of high moisture content paddy, a drying process system of high moisture content paddy was designed which could make full use of the normal temperature natural air, be effective recovery of waste heat of flue gas, and achieve energy-efficient drying of high moisture content paddy. Its process curve of ventilate cooling and dehumidifying was drew out and the principle of design was explained. The energy-saving effect was verified by tests. It was pointed out that the segmented dry process model was one of the important ways to solve the problem of high energy consumption. The results of practical applications in a high moisture paddy drying storage warehouse showed that the average moisture content of 31% (dry basis) of high moisture paddy was decreased to 11.36% and the waste flue gas heat was recycled more than 50%, when the ratio of air flux to grain mass was 149 m3/(h·t), ventilation for 2 hours while intervals of 1 hour, and the accumulative storage dry 18 hours. According to the

  4. The responses of the quantitative characteristics of a ramet population of the ephemeroid rhizomatous sedge Carex physodes to the moisture content of the soil in various locations on sand dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudureheman, Buhailiqiemu; Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Guan, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yongkuan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the soil moisture content was measured, and the quantitative characteristics of this sedge species were compared. The phenotypic plasticity of each parameter and the linear regression relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the soil moisture content was significantly affected by location, soil depth, and sampling date. The aboveground biomass, underground biomass, biomass density, and population density at the peak were significantly higher than elsewhere on the dune. However, the morphological plasticity index of the quantitative characteristics was higher at the base and middle of the dune. When the soil moisture content decreased, the underground biomass and ramet biomass density increased. The aboveground and underground biomasses were strongly negatively correlated, but the ramet height and aboveground biomass were strongly positively correlated. These results indicated that the soil water content significantly affected the clonal growth of C. physodes. The responsiveness of C. physodes may be adaptive when the soil resource supply is low. The strong morphological plasticity of the species appears to be ecologically important for the maintenance and dominance of this species in the dune habitat.

  5. The Responses of the Quantitative Characteristics of a Ramet Population of the Ephemeroid Rhizomatous Sedge Carex physodes to the Moisture Content of the Soil in Various Locations on Sand Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhailiqiemu Abudureheman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the soil moisture content was measured, and the quantitative characteristics of this sedge species were compared. The phenotypic plasticity of each parameter and the linear regression relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the soil moisture content was significantly affected by location, soil depth, and sampling date. The aboveground biomass, underground biomass, biomass density, and population density at the peak were significantly higher than elsewhere on the dune. However, the morphological plasticity index of the quantitative characteristics was higher at the base and middle of the dune. When the soil moisture content decreased, the underground biomass and ramet biomass density increased. The aboveground and underground biomasses were strongly negatively correlated, but the ramet height and aboveground biomass were strongly positively correlated. These results indicated that the soil water content significantly affected the clonal growth of C. physodes. The responsiveness of C. physodes may be adaptive when the soil resource supply is low. The strong morphological plasticity of the species appears to be ecologically important for the maintenance and dominance of this species in the dune habitat.

  6. Redução da influência da massa específica na determinação do teor de umidade de sementes de trigo Density-independent moisture content measurement of wheat seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Amorim Berbert

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A medição da capacitância e da condutância de um capacitor contendo amostras de trigo permite a determinação de duas de suas propriedades dielétricas: a permissividade relativa (épsilon' e o fator de perda dielétrica (épsilon". A utilização dessas propriedades, medidas simultaneamente em duas freqüências de oscilação do campo elétrico, permite reduzir ou eliminar o efeito da massa específica aparente na determinação do teor de umidade do trigo. Tal procedimento torna possível o monitoramento contínuo e em tempo real, sem a necessidade de retirar amostras, do teor de umidade de uma coluna de grãos em movimento, situação em que ocorrem as maiores variações na massa específica do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu na obtenção de equações que permitam reduzir ou eliminar o efeito da massa específica na determinação em linha do teor de umidade do trigo. Foram utilizadas amostras das variedades Hussar, Mercia e Hereward com teor de umidade entre 11% e 22% b.u. e massa específica no intervalo 666 kg m-3 Measurement of the capacitance and conductance of a capacitor filled with samples of wheat allows the determination of two dielectric properties of the material: the relative permissivity (epsilon', and the dielectric loss factor (epsilon". The use of these two properties, measured simultaneously at two different frequencies of the electric field, permits bulk density-independent measurement of moisture content of wheat. This procedure makes it possible to monitor moisture content continuously, and on-line, of a moving column of grain, a situation where the greatest variations in bulk density are to be expected. The objective of the present research was the derivation of density-independent equations for the determination of moisture content of wheat. Samples of varieties Hussar, Mercia and Hereward at moisture contents ranging from 11% to 22% w.b., and bulk densities ranging from 666 to 873 kg m-3 have been

  7. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  8. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...... the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account...

  9. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling for determining the effect of non-polar solvent (hexane)/polar solvent (methanol) ratio and moisture content on the lipid extraction efficiency from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Mohammad; Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed; Hakim, Maziar; Feilizadeh, Mehrzad; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Rashtchian, Davood

    2016-02-01

    In this research, organic solvent composed of hexane and methanol was used for lipid extraction from dry and wet biomass of Chlorella vulgaris. The results indicated that lipid and fatty acid extraction yield was decreased by increasing the moisture content of biomass. However, the maximum extraction efficiency was attained by applying equivolume mixture of hexane and methanol for both dry and wet biomass. Thermodynamic modeling was employed to estimate the effect of hexane/methanol ratio and moisture content on fatty acid extraction yield. Hansen solubility parameter was used in adjusting the interaction parameters of the model, which led to decrease the number of tuning parameters from 6 to 2. The results indicated that the model can accurately estimate the fatty acid recovery with average absolute deviation percentage (AAD%) of 13.90% and 15.00% for the two cases of using 6 and 2 adjustable parameters, respectively.

  10. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....

  11. Variation of the temperature and moisture content of the coffee in horizontal dryers using firewood e GLP as fuel; Variacao da temperatura e do teor de agua do cafe em secador rotativo usando lenha e GLP como combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinato, Carlos H.R. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia dos Alimentos; Borem, Flavio M. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia

    2006-05-15

    The present study was accomplished in the 'Polo de Tecnologia em Pos-Colheita de Cafe', at the 'Universidade Federal de Lavras', MG, Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the radial direction of the rotary dryer. For the test accomplishment, two dryers of the Pinhalense mark were used concomitantly with a 5,000 kg capacity. In a dryer, firewood was used and in the other LPG, as fuels for air heating. The air drying and coffee mass temperature were determined by means of thermocouples distributed on eighteen ends of the dryer. The readings of all the temperatures recorded on the dial were done every half an hour. Moisture content loss was followed in nine points in coffee mass. It was found that the values of temperature in the plenum presented less oscillation in the drying which used LPG. Furthermore, regardless the sort of fuel, there were found maximum temperature gradient of 20 deg C and three percents points of moisture content in the radial direction in central section, as consequence of the higher values of static pressure (637.84 Pa) in the plenum observed in this section. Regardless the kind of fuel, the temperature gradient measured in the longitudinal sense of the coffee mass was substantially less in the radial direction. (author)

  12. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  13. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. II - Citros Influence of moisture content and temperature on the vitality of citrus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de limão cravo e laranja caipira, espécies essas mais comumente empregadas como porta-enxertos no Estado de São Paulo, foram conservadas em ambientes de diferentes umidades e temperaturas, a fim de se conhecer as melhores condições para o seu armazenamento. Confirmando os resultados de outros autores, êstes ensaios mostraram, com bastante evidência, a importância dos fatôres umidade e temperatura na conservação destas sementes. Parece não haver dúvidas, entretanto, que outros fatôres, não estudados, são também responsáveis pela longevidade das sementes de citros. Para ambas as espécies, os melhores resultados foram obtidos à temperatura de 2-3°C e com emprego de recipientes semi-fechados. Nestas condições, onde foi possível manter a umidade relativa bastante elevada e evitar o acúmulo de CO², as sementes de limão cravo e laranja caipira tiveram uma longevidade de 14 e 11 meses, respectivamente.Seeds of Rangpur lime and sweet orange, the two species most used as rootstocks in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were stored under different conditions in order to find out the best for the conservation of their viability. It was found that seeds of both species remained viable longest when stored at 2-3°C in closed (not sealed containers with very humid air. Under these conditions, Rangpur lime and sweet orange seeds could be kept successfully for 14 and 11 months, respectively. The importance of moisture content and temperature effects on the viability of these seeds is shown. It is likely, however, that other factors may be involved, such as growth of fungi and bacteria, rate and temperature of drying, and gaseous exchange as has been suggested by other workers.

  14. Moisture Content Analysis of Oil-paper Insulation for Large Power Transformers Using Dielectric Response Methods%大型电力变压器油纸绝缘含水量的介质响应诊断技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许渊; 刘有为; 王文焕; 弓艳朋; 邓彦国; 陈小军

    2012-01-01

    介质响应技术是检测油纸绝缘含水量的一种无损诊断技术,该技术通过油纸绝缘的介质响应曲线判断其含水量.为推动该技术的发展和实际应用,以电介质理论为基础,对大型油纸绝缘电力变压器的介质响应特性开展了大量研究.结果表明,大型电力变压器介质响应曲线受频率、温度、含水量的影响具有较强的规律.提出了大型电力变压器油纸绝缘含水量的定性分析方法,并通过建立不同含水量、不同温度油浸纸板的复介电常数数据库及设备的X-Y模型,实现了大型电力变压器油纸绝缘含水量的定量计算,计算结果与实际基本相符.%The dielectric response technology is a nondestructive technology of moisture content diagnosis for oil-paper insulation by dielectric response curve. To promote the development and application for the dielectric response technology, the dielectric response characteristics of the actual large oil-paper insulation power transformer were studied on the basis of dielectric theory, and the test results show a strong regularity that frequency, temperature, and moisture content effect on the dielectric response curve of large power transformer. The qualitative analysis method of moisture content in oil-paper insulation for the large power transformer was proposed. The quantitative analysis method of moisture content in oil-paper insulation of the large power transformer was developed based on the equipment X-Y model and the complex permittivity database of oil impregnated pressboard under various moisture contents and temperatures, and the calculated values agree with the experimental data approximately.

  15. 土壤水分和光照对西葫芦生长和生理特性的影响%Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜社妮; 白岗栓; 梁银丽

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions. 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao" , with the highest yield at 70% -80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits. no economic yield produced. In all treatments. there was a similar water consumption trend. i. e. , both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content.Among all treatments. 30% shading and 70%-80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg ·mm-1 · hm-2) and water output rate (1. 57 kg · mm-1 · hm-2).The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate. stomatal conductance. and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading,and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation. and 30%shading. Under the three light intensities. the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis,protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.%以西葫芦"晶莹一号"为试材,采用盆栽和人工遮光的方法研究土壤水分和光照强度对西葫芦生长发育和生理特性的影响.结果表明:遮光30%条件下各处理的植株生长较好,其中遮光30%和土壤相对含水量为70%~80%的处理植株生长最好,产量最高.遮光70%条件下,各处理的植株生长受到严重抑制,只开花,不结果,没有经济产量形成.不同处理西葫芦的耗水趋势一致,日耗水量和总耗水量都随遮光程度

  16. Efecto del Contenido de Humedad sobre Algunas Propiedades Mecánicas de la Semilla de Vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana Effect of Moisture Content on Some Mechanical Properties of Vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Francisco Rojas Barahona

    2012-06-01

    levels and in different planes of the seed, with uniaxial compression tests and the grinding energy consumption was evaluated in an oscillating hammer mill. The proportional deformability modulus decreased when the moisture and the unitary deformation were increased, being higher in the horizontal side and the lowest value in the longitudinal side. The rupture force varied in the three sides of the seed and it decreased significantly (P<0.05 when increased moisture in the longitudinal and transverse side, while in the horizontal side increase when increased moisture of 10 to 14% w.b. The deformation increased significantly (P<0.05 with moisture from the moisture ranges from 10 to 14% w.b. The absorbed energy was increased when the moisture content varied from 10 to 14% w.b., for moisture content greater that 14% w.b., it decreased in all three planes tested. In the milling process, the specific energy consumption was proportional to the moisture content of the seed.

  17. Measuring of moisture content in biofuel with on-line NIR, for forward control of a fluidized boiler; On-line NIR-fukthaltsmaetning foer styrning av panna i vaermekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestander, Torbjoern; Hedman, Bjoern (Enheten foer biomassateknologi och kemi (BTK), SLU (Sweden)); Funkquist, Jonas; Lennartsson, Andreas; Svanberg, Marcus (Vattenfall Research and Development (VRD), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Feedback control of the bed temperature in a fluidized bed boiler can be insufficient and give rise to large variations in operation parameters. This project evaluated the potential for feed forward control of the bed temperature using an online moisture measurement signal of the fuel. The target group is fluidized bed boilers using both fossil and renewable fuels. A NIR spectrometer was installed on the fuel-feed to a 47 MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) biofuel boiler. Calibration of the signal was performed by extracting fuel samples, drying them and comparing the results with the corresponding spectra. Step tests were performed when steps in fuel moisture were implemented by spraying the fuel with water. Steps in fuel feeding, primary air, secondary air and re-circulated air were also tested. A control model of the process was constructed using the software Matlab. The potential with feed forward control of the bed temperature compared to feedback control was evaluated using the model. The possibility to improve the control of the bed temperature with respect to rapidity from changes in moisture content is considered large. The limiting factor is the reliability and sampling time of the online moisture signal. In laboratory-scale and theoretically, the importance of other fuel parameters on the combustion has also been examined. These parameters are temperature and proportions of free and bound water in frozen and non-frozen material. These studies show that local calibration models may be necessary for proper prediction of moisture in temperatures below 0 deg C. (author)

  18. Estimation of Moisture Content of Forest Canopy and Floor from SAR Data Part II: Trunk-Ground Double-Bounce Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Several scattering mechanisms contribute to the total radar backscatter cross section measured by the synthetic aperture radar. These are volume scattering, trunk-ground double-bounce scattering, branch-ground double-bounce scattering, and surface scattering. All of these mechanisms are directly related to the dielectric constant of forest components responsible for that mechanism and their moisture.

  19. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Within the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group Experimental Stations, soil moisture is being researched as a key factor of the soil hydrology and soil erosion (Cerdà, 1995; Cerda, 1997; Cerdà 1998). This because under semiarid conditions soil moisture content plays a crucial role for agriculture, forest, groundwater recharge and soil chemistry and scientific improvement is of great interest in agriculture, hydrology and soil sciences. Soil moisture has been seeing as the key factor for plant photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration in orchards (Schneider and Childers, 1941) and plant growth (Veihmeyer and Hendrickson, 1950). Moreover, soil moisture determine the root growth and distribution (Levin et al., 1979) and the soil respiration ( Velerie and Orchard, 1983). Water content is expressed as a ratio, ranging from 0 (dry) to the value of soil porosity at saturation (wet). In this study we present 1-year of soil moisture measurements at two experimental sites in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain: one representing rainfed orchard typical from the Mediterranean mountains (El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera), and a second site corresponding to an irrigated orange crop (Alcoleja). The EC-5 soil moisture smart sensor S-SMC-M005 integrated with the field-proven ECH2O™ Sensor and a 12-bit A/D has been choosen for measuring soil water content providing ±3% accuracy in typical soil conditions. Soil moisture measurements were carried out at 5-minute intervals from January till December 2012. In addition, soil moisture was measured at two depths in each landscape: 2 and 20 cm depth - in order to retrieve a representative vertical cross-section of soil moisture. Readings are provided directly from 0 (dry) to 0.450 m3/m3 (wet) volumetric water content. The soil moisture smart sensor is conected to a HOBO U30 Station - GSM-TCP which also stored 5-minute temperature, relative humidity, dew point, global solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed and wind direction

  20. Mobile Soil Moisture Management in High Elevations: Applications of the Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor Technique for Estimating Field Scale Soil Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, William Alexander; Wahbi, Ammar; Dercon, Gerd; Heng, Lee; Franz, Trenton; Strauss, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Meeting the demands of a growing global population is one of the principal challenges of the 21st century. Meeting this challenge will require an increase in food production around the world. Currently, approximately two thirds of freshwater use by humans is devoted to agricultural production. As such, an expansion of agricultural activity will place additional pressure on freshwater resources. The incorporation of novel soil moisture sensing technologies into agricultural practices carries the potential to make agriculture more precise thus increasing water use efficiency. One such technology is known as the Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS). The CRNS technique is capable of quantifying soil moisture on a large spatial scale ( 30 ha) compared with traditional point based in-situ soil moisture sensing technology. Recent years have seen the CRNS to perform well when deployed in agricultural environments at low to mid elevations. However, the performance of the CRNS technique in higher elevations, particularly alpine environments, has yet to be demonstrated or understood. Mountainous environments are more vulnerable to changing climates and land use practices, yet are often responsible for the headwaters of major river systems sustaining cultivated lands or support important agricultural activity on their own. As such, the applicability of a mobile version of the CRNS technology in high alpine environments needs to be explored. This research details the preliminary efforts to determine if established calibration and validation techniques associated with the use of the CRNS can be applied at higher elevations. Field work was conducted during the summer of 2016 in the mountains of western Austria. Initial results indicate that the relationship between in-situ soil moisture data determined via traditional soil sampling and soil moisture data determined via the mobile CRNS is not clear. It is possible that the increasing intensity of incoming cosmic rays at higher

  1. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moist......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  2. Study on rapid determination of moisture content in sewage sludge by microwave oven%微波炉快速测定城市污泥湿度的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维; 陈同斌; 岳波; 郑国砥; 黄启飞; 高定

    2009-01-01

    It is indicated with loss rate of weight, remaining moisture content and volatile solid content of sewage sludge dried by microwave oven with rated voltage of 220 V, frequency of 2 450 MHz, output power of 800 W, that microwave oven can be conveniently used to rapidly determinate the moisture content of sewage sludge. To improve the veracity of the moisture content measured by the oven, the weight of a sample should be reduced and irradiated repeatedly with short period of time. The irradiation time should be shortened little by little according to the change of the weight loss between two consecutive irradiations. The irradiation process, during which the volatile solids can not be released suddenly in great amount, should be stopped as soon as the weight of sample is constant.%用额定电压为220 V、振荡频率为2 450 MHz、输出功率为800 W的微波炉对5~30 g城市污泥辐照2~30 min.由不同时间对城市污泥进行微波辐照后的质量损失率、残余湿度以及挥发性固体(VS)含量的变化表明:用微波炉可简便、快速地测定城市污泥的湿度.为提高微波炉测定湿度的准确性,应减少取样量,进行重复辐照,并根据相邻2次辐照导致的质量变化幅度逐次缩短辐照时间;在辐照过程中应避免引起样品突然释放大量VS,辐照至恒重为止.

  3. Soil Moisture Content Calculation Based on Hierarchy Analysis and Coefficient of Variation Method%基于层次分析和变异系数法的土壤含水率计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建琴; 何胜; 郝秀平; 饶丹

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture real-time monitoring is the important component of the real-time irrigation forecasting,and the precise values of root zone soil moisture have important significance of improving the precision of real-time irrigation forecasting. This paper used hierarchical analysis and coefficient of variation of empowerment method to calculate the wet winter wheat plan the weight of each soil layer in the layer of soil moisture content,and the weight was applied in different water treatment in Zhengzhou area in the real-time irrigation model of winter wheat. The results show that using this combination of empowerment,the soil moisture content and water conforms to the experimental zone law of winter wheat growth and water saving irrigation requirements. Therefore,the combination of empowerment calculation makes the soil moisture content have high accuracy,and it can provide foundation data support for winter wheat real-time irrigation forecasting.%土壤墒情实时监测是开展作物实时灌溉预报的重要前提,而根区土壤含水率精确数值的获取对提高实时灌溉预报的精度具有重要意义。采用层次分析和变异系数法组合赋权的方法计算了冬小麦计划湿润层内各土层土壤含水率的权重,并应用在郑州地区不同水分处理的冬小麦实时灌溉模型中。结果表明:组合赋权计算的日土壤含水率和灌水总量更符合试验区冬小麦自身生长规律和节水灌溉要求。通过组合赋权计算的日土壤含水率具有较高的准确性,可为冬小麦实时灌溉预报提供良好的基础数据支持。

  4. Spatial distribution of soil moisture in precision farming using integrated soil scanning and field telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalopesas, Charalampos; Galanis, George; Kalopesa, Eleni; Katsogiannos, Fotis; Kalafatis, Panagiotis; Bilas, George; Patakas, Aggelos; Zalidis, George

    2015-04-01

    Mapping the spatial variation of soil moisture content is a vital parameter for precision agriculture techniques. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation of soil moisture and conductivity (EC) data obtained through scanning techniques with field telemetry data and to spatially separate the field into discrete irrigation management zones. Using the Veris MSP3 model, geo-referenced data for electrical conductivity and organic matter preliminary maps were produced in a pilot kiwifruit field in Chrysoupoli, Kavala. Data from 15 stratified sampling points was used in order to produce the corresponding soil maps. Fusion of the Veris produced maps (OM, pH, ECa) resulted on the delineation of the field into three zones of specific management interest. An appropriate pedotransfer function was used in order to estimate a capacity soil indicator, the saturated volumetric water content (θs) for each zone, while the relationship between ECs and ECa was established for each zone. Validation of the uniformity of the three management zones was achieved by measuring specific electrical conductivity (ECs) along a transect in each zone and corresponding semivariograms for ECs within each zone. Near real-time data produced by a telemetric network consisting of soil moisture and electrical conductivity sensors, were used in order to integrate the temporal component of the specific management zones, enabling the calculation of time specific volumetric water contents on a 10 minute interval, an intensity soil indicator necessary to be incorporated to differentiate spatially the irrigation strategies for each zone. This study emphasizes the benefits yielded by fusing near real time telemetric data with soil scanning data and spatial interpolation techniques, enhancing the precision and validity of the desired results. Furthermore the use of telemetric data in combination with modern database management and geospatial software leads to timely produced operational results

  5. How do long dry spells affect soil moisture in different forest stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbüchel, Ingo; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture conditions under forests are subject to numerous influences that are directly linked to the tree species composition and age. On the one hand, there are characteristic traits of individual tree species such as the way they funnel intercepted water towards their stems or the way they use water from the soil at different depths and times. On the other hand, there is also the influence of inter- and intra-species competition which may considerably affect the water use behavior of the involved tree species. In order to get insights into these complex relationships we studied spatial and temporal soil moisture patterns under pure and mixed forest stands of beech and pine of different ages in the TERENO observatory in northeastern Germany. We also specifically compared soil moisture conditions in the close vicinity of tree stems with conditions at greater distance from the trees (>1.5 m). The dataset used here derives from 450 sensors measuring soil moisture for 2.5 years at six different soil depths (from 10 cm down to 200 cm). Inspecting the entire time series we found considerable differences between many of the locations (young vs. mature, pine vs. beech, mixed vs. pure). These differences became more or less pronounced during certain weather periods. In particular, we studied the effect of dry spells of different preconditions and length during the three summers 2014, 2015 and 2016. While 2014 was a relatively wet summer, 2015 was dry and warm. Generally speaking, the dry spell in the summer of 2015 led to a decrease in soil moisture differences between locations that was still observable in the following winter and even in the following summer. For example, in the summer of 2014 volumetric water content close to the soil surface under mature pine trees was almost 8% higher compared to beech trees, however, in the dry summer of 2015 this difference disappeared. Contrary to this observation, volumetric water content differences between young stands of

  6. Nutritive value of high and low tanin content of sorghum high moisture silage for horses - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.10575

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Carolina de Sá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There were used eight castrated male horses, crosbred. It was used randomized completely design.  The objective was to evaluate the nutritive value of high-moisture grains silage of sorghum with low (SLT and high (SHT tannin in the feeding equine. The treatments consisted of two test-diets containing SLT or SHT, replacing 30% of dry matter (DM of the reference-diet, constitued by only hay. The values of digestibility coefficients (DC of nutrients SLT and SHT had differences for DCDM, DCOM, DCCE, DCCP and DCStarch, whose means values were 79.53, 84.54, 79.36, 76.11 and 100% to SLT e 60.29, 64.47, 59.38, 44.63 and 97.06% to SHT, respectively. It was concluded that high-moisture grains silage of sorghum with low tannin should be used in equine nutrition, this is an alternative feed.  

  7. Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); Phigh moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups.

  8. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  9. The absorbability variation test for late indica rice of different moisture content and phosphine%不同含水量晚籼稻谷对磷化氢的吸附性差异试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兴海; 郭均钧

    2012-01-01

    Fumigated by phosphine,the absorbability of the late indica rice with different moisture content has big disparity.Fumigation maintains different effective concentration according to different dosage of unit grain.During the circulation fumigation of phosphine,based on the fumigation concentration set,with full consideration of the absorbability variation of late indica rice in various moisture content,we can not only determine accurately the fumigation dosage of unit grain,but also be conductive to an accurate grasp of the fumigation effective concentration lasting time of late indica rice with different moisture content in the circulation fumigation of phosphine,and help to maintain a reasonable and appropriate effective concentration and sufficient time sealed,to achieve a good fumigation effect.%不同含水量的晚籼稻谷磷化氢熏蒸,吸附性存在较大差异,单位粮食用药量不同,熏蒸有效浓度维持的时间不同。磷化氢环流熏蒸时,根据设定的熏蒸浓度,充分考虑不同含水量晚籼稻谷的吸附性差异,不仅能够准确确定单位粮食熏蒸用药量,而且有利于准确把握不同含水量晚籼稻谷磷化氢环流熏蒸有效浓度的维持时间,有利于合理保持合适的有效浓度和足够的密闭时间,熏蒸效果好。

  10. Evaluation of microwaves soil moisture products based on two years of ground measurements over a Sahelian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhier, C.; de Rosnay, P.; Kerr, Y.; Kergoat, L.

    2008-12-01

    soil moisture product obtained by the Amsterdam University from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite mission (TMI sensor -TRMM Microwave Imager) is also evaluated. AMSR-E and TRMM/TMI are passive microwave sensors while ERS/SCAT is an active microwave sensor. Soil moisture product comparison and evaluation investigates both spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture as well as absolutes values. Consistency of soil moisture spatial distributions between the products is addressed. It is shown that there is generally a good agreement, in term of spatial distribution of soil moisture over the considered region, between the products during the monsoon season. In contrast products consistency is poorer during the dry season. Statistical correlations between ground measurements and satellite products are significant for all products, (best results is R2=0.85 for the AMSR-E university of Amsterdam product). But all the soil moisture products considered over-estimate absolute soil moisture values, particularly during the dry season. Mean RMSE is around 5% in volumetric soil moisture content. Important differences between products based on data from same sensor are also highlighted in this study.

  11. 水分含量对烤虾品质和贮藏性的影响%Effect of Moisture Content on the Quality and Storage Properties of Roast Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕庆; 李学英; 杨宪时; 郭全友

    2011-01-01

    Influences of water content on quality and storage of roast shrimp with high moisture content were researched by sensory evaluation, chemical and microbiological changes as indexes. The results showed that increase of moisture content would improve sensory quality of roast shrimp but decreased its storage life. Analysis of the spoilage organisms of roast shrimp at the end of its shelf life showed that the spoilage bacteria were Bacillus coccus., Micrvcoccus luteus, Staphylococcus capitis ssp capitis and Streptococcus spp.%以化学和微生物变化为指标,结合感官分析,探讨了水分含量对烤虾的品质及贮藏性的影响.结果表明,水分含量升高会提高烤虾的感官品质,但其贮藏性降低,通过对货架期终点腐败菌的分析得知,引起高水分含量烤虾变质的菌群为芽孢杆菌和球菌,主要为蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)、藤黄微球菌(Micrococcus luteus)、头状葡萄球菌头状亚种(Staphylococcus capitis ssp capitis)、链球菌(Streptococcus spp).

  12. Multilayer soil model for improvement of soil moisture estimation using the small perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaijun; Zhou, Xiaobing; Fan, Yong

    2009-12-01

    A multilayer soil model is presented for improved estimation of soil moisture content using the first-order small perturbation method (SPM) applied to measurements of radar backscattering coefficient. The total reflection coefficient of the natural bare soil including volume scattering contribution is obtained using the multilayer model. The surface reflection terms in SPM model are replaced by the total reflection coefficient from the multilayer soil surface in estimating soil moisture. The difference between the modified SPM model and the original SPM surface model is that the modified SPM model includes both the surface scattering and the volumetric scattering of the natural bare soil. Both the modified SPM model and the original SPM model are tested in soil moisture retrievals using experimental microwave backscattering coefficient data in the literature. Results show that the mean square errors between the measured data and the values estimated by the modified SPM model from all samples are 5.2%, while errors from the original SPM model are 8.4%. This indicates that the capability of estimating soil moisture by the SPM model is improved when the surface reflection terms are replaced by the total reflection coefficients of multilayer soil model over bare or very sparsely vegetation covered fields.

  13. First soil moisture values from SMOS over a Sahelian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhier, Claire; Kerr, Yann; de Rosnay, Patricia; Pellarin, Thierry; Grippa, Manuela

    2010-05-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial variable which influences the land surface processes. Numerous studies shown microwaves at low frequency are particularly performed to access to soil moisture values. SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), launched the November 2th 2009, is the first space mission dedicated to soil moisture observations. Before SMOS, several soil moisture products were provided, based on active or passive microwaves measurements. Gruhier et al. (2010) analyse five of them over a Sahelian area. The results show that the range of volumetric soil moisture values obtained over Sahel is drastically different depending on the remote sensing approach used to produce soil moisture estimates. Although microwave bands currently available are not optimal, some products are in very good agreement with ground data. The main goal of this study is to introduce the first soil moisture maps from SMOS over West Africa. A first analyse of values over a Sahelian region is investigated. The study area is located in Gourma region in Mali. This site has been instrumented in the context of the AMMA project (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) and was specifically designed to address the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture. SMOS soil moisture values was analysed with ground knowledge and placed in the context of previous soil moisture products. The high sensitivity of the L-band used by SMOS should provide very accurate soil moisture values.

  14. Effect of Moisture Content on Dynamic Seismic Responses of Underground Structure%含水率对于地下结构地震动力响应的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 戚承志; 刘旭; 陈国兴

    2014-01-01

    含水率对土体的弹性模量、黏聚力、内摩擦角以及土体密度都会产生影响。密实度一定的情况下,黏性土的多种力学参数会随着最佳含水率的出现而出现“峰值”效应。利用 FLAC3D 差分软件对不饱和土在地震作用下的动力响应进行了模拟和分析,探讨了土中含水率对于地下结构地震动力响应的影响规律。结果表明,在最佳含水率附近,土层的性质对于地下结构的作用来说是最良好的,此时结构的内力可取得最小值;顶板和底板的相对水平位移变化不大,并且位移的数值随着含水率的增加而逐渐减小;土体和结构的加速度峰值都随着含水率的增加而呈减小的趋势。%Moisture content of soil has definite effects on elasticity modulus, cohesion, internal friction angle and density of soil. Given compactness of soil, several mechanical parameters of soil will have“peak value” effect at the optimum moisture content. In this paper simulation and analysis on dynamic responses of unsaturated soil under seismic excitations are carried out by using Flac3D finite difference software, and the effect of moisture content on dynamic responses of underground structure under seismic excitations is investigated. Analysis results show that properties of soil at the optimum water content are optimal for the seismic responses of underground structures, because in this case the internal forces achieve the minimum values; the relative horizontal displacement of top and bottom slabs has not significant change, and the values of displacement are gradually decreasing with the increase of water content; and so does the maximum accelerations of soil and structure with the increase of water content.

  15. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  16. Effects of soil moisture on the diurnal pattern of pesticide emission: Comparison of simulations with field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Rivka; Yates, Scott R.; Skaggs, Todd H.; Rolston, Dennis E.

    2013-02-01

    Pesticide volatilization from agricultural soils is one of the main pathways in which pesticides are dispersed in the environment and affects ecosystems including human welfare. Thus, it is necessary to have accurate knowledge of the various physical and chemical mechanisms that affect volatilization rates from field soils. A verification of the influence of soil moisture modeling on the simulated volatilization rate, soil temperature and soil-water content is presented. Model simulations are compared with data collected in a field study that measured the effect of soil moisture on diazinon volatilization. These data included diurnal changes in volatilization rate, soil-water content, and soil temperature measured at two depths. The simulations were performed using a comprehensive non-isothermal model, two water retention functions, and two soil surface resistance functions, resulting in four tested models. Results show that the degree of similarity between volatilization curves simulated using the four models depended on the initial water content. Under fairly wet conditions, the simulated curves mainly differ in the magnitude of their deviation from the measured values. However, under intermediate and low moisture conditions, the simulated curves also differed in their pattern (shape). The model prediction accuracy depended on soil moisture. Under normal practices, where initial soil moisture is about field capacity or higher, a combination of Brooks and Corey water retention and the van de Grind and Owe soil surface resistance functions led to the most accurate predictions. However, under extremely dry conditions, when soil-water content in the top 1 cm is below the volumetric threshold value, the use of a full-range water retention function increased prediction accuracy. The different models did not affect the soil temperature predictions, and had a minor effect on the predicted soil-water content of Yolo silty clay soil.

  17. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first......, results, and analysis are presented (Chapters 5-7). The major findings are discussed (Chapter 8), before the final conclusion (Chapter 9). The Appendices include the material parameters used, some additional results and the description of the simulation models....

  18. Timber harvest effect on soil moisture in the southern Sierra Nevada: Is there a measurable impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, M. W.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Goulden, M.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Lucas, R. G.; Malazian, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    We monitored soil-moisture storage, evapotranspiration and streamflow in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest for three post-snowmelt spring/summer seasons during water years 2010-2013. We measured volumetric water content using a COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing Systems (COSMOS) to estimate shallow soil-moisture storage and an eddy-covariance flux tower to measure evapotranspiration, covering an area of about 20 ha. Soil-moisture sensors were also strategically placed at depths of 10, 30, 60 and 90 cm at 30 locations in and around the COSMOS and tower footprints. Timber harvest occurred during the summer of 2012, involving uneven-age thinning limited to trees less than 76.2 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Timber harvest intensity varied by tree size class: approximately 39% of the trees 0 to 25.5 cm DBH, 21% of the trees 25.5 to 50.8 cm DBH, and 4% of trees 50.8-76.2 cm DBH. Merchantable timber removed from the site was about 81-100 cubic m per ha. Annual evapotranspiration was similar for all four years, averaging about 80 cm each year, despite large variability in annual precipitation amounts. Annual evapotranspiration was about 10% lower following harvest. However, 2012 and 2013 were both dry years. Water year 2011 was one of the wettest years on record - approximately 200 cm of precipitation - while 2012 was one of the driest with 70 cm of precipitation. Each year soil desiccation immediately followed snow-cover depletion, dropping from field capacity by about 20% volumetric water content over a 3-month period. The rate of soil-water loss was about the same for all years. In 2012 and 2013 the dates of snow disappearance were 2-3 months earlier than in 2011. About half of the annual total evapotranspiration for 2010-2012 occurred during the 3-month period following snowmelt. Each year, total summer precipitation was only 4-6 cm. Thus soil-water storage derived from snowmelt and rainfall provides much of the moisture for evapotranspiration in the mixed

  19. Geostatistical analysis for soil moisture content under the no tillage cropping sys