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Sample records for volume vi computer

  1. Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume VI, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faletra, P.; Schuetz, A.; Cherkerzian, D.; Clark, T.

    2006-01-01

    Students who conducted research at DOE National Laboratories during 2005 were invited to include their research abstracts, and for a select few, their completed research papers in this Journal. This Journal is direct evidence of students collaborating with their mentors. Fields in which these students worked include: Biology; Chemistry; Computer Science; Engineering; Environmental Science; General Sciences; Materials Sciences; Medical and Health Sciences; Nuclear Sciences; Physics; and Science Policy.

  2. Natural Computing in Computational Finance Volume 4

    CERN Document Server

    O’Neill, Michael; Maringer, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    This book follows on from Natural Computing in Computational Finance  Volumes I, II and III.   As in the previous volumes of this series, the  book consists of a series of  chapters each of  which was selected following a rigorous, peer-reviewed, selection process.  The chapters illustrate the application of a range of cutting-edge natural  computing and agent-based methodologies in computational finance and economics.  The applications explored include  option model calibration, financial trend reversal detection, enhanced indexation, algorithmic trading,  corporate payout determination and agent-based modeling of liquidity costs, and trade strategy adaptation.  While describing cutting edge applications, the chapters are  written so that they are accessible to a wide audience. Hence, they should be of interest  to academics, students and practitioners in the fields of computational finance and  economics.  

  3. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume VI: The Cegiha language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, James Owen; Powell, John Wesley

    1890-01-01

    The material in this volume consists of myths, stories, and letters (epistles) obtained from the Ponkas, to whom the author was missionary from 1871 to 1873, and from the Omahas, with whom he resided from 1878 to 1880.

  4. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  5. Geometry VI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Geometry VI - Space-the Final Frontier. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 28-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0028-0033 ...

  6. Railroad Classification Yard Technology Manual: Volume II : Yard Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    This volume (Volume II) of the Railroad Classification Yard Technology Manual documents the railroad classification yard computer systems methodology. The subjects covered are: functional description of process control and inventory computer systems,...

  7. Intelligent Distributed Computing VI : Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Badica, Costin; Malgeri, Michele; Unland, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing -- IDC~2012, of the International Workshop on Agents for Cloud -- A4C~2012 and of the Fourth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics -- MASTS~2012. All the events were held in Calabria, Italy during September 24-26, 2012. The 37 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: adaptive and autonomous distributed systems, agent programming, ambient assisted living systems, business process modeling and verification, cloud computing, coalition formation, decision support systems, distributed optimization and constraint satisfaction, gesture recognition, intelligent energy management in WSNs, intelligent logistics, machine learning, mobile agents, parallel and distributed computational intelligence, parallel evolutionary computing, trus...

  8. Volume dependence of computed grain boundary energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, P.D.; Brokman, A.

    1980-08-01

    Over the past five years there have been numerous studies of grain boundary structure using the method of computer molecular statics which assume pairwise central potentials for the interatomic interaction. Emphasis is usually placed on relative grain boundary energies but these may be inaccurate due to various, but related, approximations and constraints implicity imposed on the calculation-namely central forces, finite model size, fixed border conditions and volume dependent contributions to the energy of the system. It is the purpose of this work to clarify how these particular properties of the model can affect the computed grain boundary energy and demonstrate instances in which the quoted energy has strictly been inaccurate. The implication of these results, especially on how they affect the method of relaxation and the resulting grain boundary structure is discussed.

  9. EnViSoRS: Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery. A User-Defined Safety Volume Tracking to Minimize the Risk of Intraoperative Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Penza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In abdominal surgery, intraoperative bleeding is one of the major complications that affect the outcome of minimally invasive surgical procedures. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins, and one of the possible risk factors falls on the surgeon’s skills. This paper presents the development and application of an Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery (EnViSoRS, based on a user-defined Safety Volume (SV tracking to minimize the risk of intraoperative bleeding. It aims at enhancing the surgeon’s capabilities by providing Augmented Reality (AR assistance toward the protection of vessels from injury during the execution of surgical procedures with a robot. The core of the framework consists in (i a hybrid tracking algorithm (LT-SAT tracker that robustly follows a user-defined Safety Area (SA in long term; (ii a dense soft tissue 3D reconstruction algorithm, necessary for the computation of the SV; (iii AR features for visualization of the SV to be protected and of a graphical gage indicating the current distance between the instruments and the reconstructed surface. EnViSoRS was integrated with a commercial robotic surgical system (the dVRK system for testing and validation. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the accuracy, robustness, performance, and usability of EnViSoRS during the execution of a simulated surgical task on a liver phantom. Results show an overall accuracy in accordance with surgical requirements (<5 mm, and high robustness in the computation of the SV in terms of precision and recall of its identification. The optimization strategy implemented to speed up the computational time is also described and evaluated, providing AR features update rate up to 4 fps, without impacting the real-time visualization of the stereo endoscopic video. Finally, qualitative results regarding the system usability indicate that the proposed system integrates well with the commercial surgical robot and

  10. Allan Bakke versus Regents of the University of California. Volumes I-VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alfred A., Ed.

    The complete record of the litigation in Alan Bakke v. The Regents of the University of California is contained in these six volumes. Included are all the pleadings, briefs, and arguments reproduced in full text except for minor editing of the oral arguments and data pertaining to the proof of service affidavits of truths. Volume One contains the…

  11. ViDI: Virtual Diagnostics Interface. Volume 1; The Future of Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Technical Monitor); Schwartz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of data acquired in a given test facility ultimately resides within the fidelity and implementation of the instrumentation systems. Over the last decade, the emergence of robust optical techniques has vastly expanded the envelope of measurement possibilities. At the same time the capabilities for data processing, data archiving and data visualization required to extract the highest level of knowledge from these global, on and off body measurement techniques have equally expanded. Yet today, while the instrumentation has matured to the production stage, an optimized solution for gaining knowledge from the gigabytes of data acquired per test (or even per test point) is lacking. A technological void has to be filled in order to possess a mechanism for near-real time knowledge extraction during wind tunnel experiments. Under these auspices, the Virtual Diagnostics Interface, or ViDI, was developed.

  12. Transitional DDES computations of the NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we describe CFD simulations of the well known NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions using a newly developed technique of combining turbulence modeling by the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) technique with laminar/turbulent transition modeling by a correlation...

  13. Computer science research and technology volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Janice P

    2011-01-01

    This book presents leading-edge research from across the globe in the field of computer science research, technology and applications. Each contribution has been carefully selected for inclusion based on the significance of the research to this fast-moving and diverse field. Some topics included are: network topology; agile programming; virtualization; and reconfigurable computing.

  14. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This volume contains two chapters. In Chapter I, Overview, the following subjects are briefly described: supply data, EIA projection series and scenarios, demand data and assumptions, and supply assumptions - oil and gas availabilities. Chapter II contains supply and demand data tables and sources used by the PIES Integrating Model for the mid-range scenario target years 1985 and 1990. Tabulated information is presented for demand, price, and elasticity data; coal data; imports data; oil and gas data; refineries data; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal data; transportation data; and utilities data.

  15. ReViMS: Software tool for estimating the volumes of 3-D multicellular spheroids imaged using a light sheet fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Filippo; Tesei, Anna; Zanoni, Michele; Bevilacqua, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Cancer 3-D spheroids are widely used to test drugs and radiotherapy treatments. These 3-D cell clusters range from tens to hundreds of micrometers in size, with shapes that typically differ from a perfect sphere. Change in spheroid volume is one of the most important parameters for evaluating treatment efficacy, and using light sheet fluorescence microscopes (LSFM), optical sections of samples in that size range can be obtained. However, there remains a lack of validated methods for quantifying the volumes of 3-D multicellular aggregates. Here, we present Reconstruction and Visualization from Multiple Sections (ReViMS), an open-source, user-friendly software for automatically segmenting z-stacks of fluorescence images and estimating the volumes of 3-D multicellular spheroids. To assess the precision and accuracy of the volume estimates obtained with ReViMS, we used several cancer spheroids imaged with LSFM. Both the precision and accuracy were >95%, demonstrating the effectiveness of ReViMS.

  16. Computational Methods in Stochastic Dynamics Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanou, George; Papadopoulos, Vissarion

    2013-01-01

    The considerable influence of inherent uncertainties on structural behavior has led the engineering community to recognize the importance of a stochastic approach to structural problems. Issues related to uncertainty quantification and its influence on the reliability of the computational models are continuously gaining in significance. In particular, the problems of dynamic response analysis and reliability assessment of structures with uncertain system and excitation parameters have been the subject of continuous research over the last two decades as a result of the increasing availability of powerful computing resources and technology.   This book is a follow up of a previous book with the same subject (ISBN 978-90-481-9986-0) and focuses on advanced computational methods and software tools which can highly assist in tackling complex problems in stochastic dynamic/seismic analysis and design of structures. The selected chapters are authored by some of the most active scholars in their respective areas and...

  17. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 1999. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Meyer, Rosa [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The department GFA (Grossforschungsanlagen, Large Research Facilities) has been established in October 1998. Its main duty is operation, maintenance and development of the PSI accelerators, the spallation neutron source and the beam transport systems for pions and muons. A large effort of this group concerns the planning and co-ordination of new projects like e.g. the assembly of the synchrotron light source (SLS), design studies of a new proton therapy facility, the ultracold neutron source and a new intensive secondary beam line for low energy muons. A large fraction of this report is devoted to research especially in the field of materials Science. The studies include large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations on the elastic and plastic behavior of nanostructured metals, complemented by experimental mechanical testing using micro-indentation and miniaturized tensile testing, as well as microstructural characterisation and strain field mapping of metallic coatings and thin ceramic layers, the latter done with synchrotron radiation.

  18. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  19. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 2000. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Zumkeller, Lotty [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The PSI Department Large Research Facilities (GFA) joins the efforts to provide an excellent research environment to Swiss and foreign research groups on the experimental facilities driven by our high intensity proton accelerator complex. Its divisions care for the running, maintenance and enhancement of the accelerator complex, the primary proton beamlines, the targets and the secondary beams as well as the neutron spallation source SINQ. The division for technical support and coordination provides for technical support to the research facility complementary to the basic logistic available from the department for logistics and marketing. Besides running the facilities, the staff of the department is also involved in theoretical and experimental research projects. Some of them address basic scientific questions mainly concerning the properties of micro- or nanostructured materials: experiments as well as large scale computer simulations of molecular dynamics were performed to investigate nonclassical materials properties. Others are related to improvements or extensions of the capabilities of our facilities. We also report on intriguing results from applications of the neutron capture radiography, the prompt gamma activation method and the isotope production facility at SINQ.

  20. Future Communication, Computing, Control and Management Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the ICF4C 2011 conference. 2011 International Conference on Future Communication, Computing, Control and Management (ICF4C 2011) has been held on December 16-17, 2011, Phuket, Thailand. Topics covered include intelligent computing, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, power engineering, control engineering, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control Systems and Applications, The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in Computing, Communication, Control, and Management and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on Computing, Communication, Control, and Management Research.

  1. Future Computing, Communication, Control and Management Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the ICF4C 2011 conference. 2011 International Conference on Future Communication, Computing, Control and Management (ICF4C 2011) has been held on December 16-17, 2011, Phuket, Thailand. Topics covered include intelligent computing, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, power engineering, control engineering, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control Systems and Applications, The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in Computing, Communication, Control, and Management and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on Computing, Communication, Control, and Management Research.

  2. Future Communication, Computing, Control and Management Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the ICF4C 2011 conference. 2011 International Conference on Future Communication, Computing, Control and Management (ICF4C 2011) has been held on December 16-17, 2011, Phuket, Thailand. Topics covered include intelligent computing, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, power engineering, control engineering, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control Systems and Applications, The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in Computing, Communication, Control, and Management and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on Computing, Communication, Control, and Management Research.

  3. Computation of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase-VI rotor in pitch motion during standstill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations of dynamic stall on wind turbine blades have been performed for stand still conditions with moderate success by among others the present authors. In the present work, numerical investigations are performed to illustrate the possibilities...... detached-eddy simulation computations. The investigation indicates that detailed information and fair agreement with measurements can be obtained.Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  4. Perineural Spread of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Parotid Gland Involving V, VI, and VII Cranial Nerves Demonstrated on Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Piyush; Nath, Satish

    2017-01-01

    Perineural spread (PNS) in head and neck malignancies has been associated with extremely poor prognosis. Through this interesting case, we demonstrate the PNS of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland with simultaneous involvement of V, VI, and VII cranial nerves identified on positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

  5. Computation Techniques for the Volume of a Tetrahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss specific techniques for the computation of the volume of a tetrahedron. A few of them are taught in the undergraduate multivariable calculus courses. Few of them are found in text books on coordinate geometry and synthetic solid geometry. This article gathers many of these techniques so as to constitute a…

  6. Computing the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid of a polytopic projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, Jianzhe; den Hertog, Dick

    We introduce a novel scheme based on a blending of Fourier-Motzkin elimination (FME) and adjustable robust optimization techniques to compute the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid (MVE) in a polytopic projection. It is well-known that deriving an explicit description of a projected polytope is

  7. Fractional-Step, Finite-Volume Computation Of Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Vinokur, Marcel

    1992-01-01

    Method of solving Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flow in general nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates incorporates fractional-step and finite-volume approaches. Developed in continuing effort to achieve accuracy without need for excessive computation time in numerical simulation of time-dependent, three-dimensional flows bounded by surfaces of complicated shape.

  8. Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M; de Vries, W H; Pertica, A J; Olivier, S S

    2011-09-11

    Detecting and predicting maneuvering satellites is an important problem for Space Situational Awareness. The spatial envelope of all possible locations within reach of such a maneuvering satellite is known as the Reachable Volume (RV). As soon as custody of a satellite is lost, calculating the RV and its subsequent time evolution is a critical component in the rapid recovery of the satellite. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo approach to computing the RV for a given object. Essentially, our approach samples all possible trajectories by randomizing thrust-vectors, thrust magnitudes and time of burn. At any given instance, the distribution of the 'point-cloud' of the virtual particles defines the RV. For short orbital time-scales, the temporal evolution of the point-cloud can result in complex, multi-reentrant manifolds. Visualization plays an important role in gaining insight and understanding into this complex and evolving manifold. In the second part of this paper, we focus on how to effectively visualize the large number of virtual trajectories and the computed RV. We present a real-time out-of-core rendering technique for visualizing the large number of virtual trajectories. We also examine different techniques for visualizing the computed volume of probability density distribution, including volume slicing, convex hull and isosurfacing. We compare and contrast these techniques in terms of computational cost and visualization effectiveness, and describe the main implementation issues encountered during our development process. Finally, we will present some of the results from our end-to-end system for computing and visualizing RVs using examples of maneuvering satellites.

  9. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VI, workplace and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VI is to describe record series pertaining to workplace and environmental monitoring activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of workplace and environmental monitoring practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to workplace and environmental monitoring policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume I. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, and employee health. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire. A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  10. Frequency Domain Computer Programs for Prediction and Analysis of Rail Vehicle Dynamics : Volume 1. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Frequency domain computer programs developed or acquired by TSC for the analysis of rail vehicle dynamics are described in two volumes. Volume I defines the general analytical capabilities required for computer programs applicable to single rail vehi...

  11. Design of a fault tolerant airborne digital computer. Volume 2: Computational requirements and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, R. S.; Shapiro, E. B.; Zeidler, H. M.; Wahlstrom, S. E.; Clark, C. B.; Goldberg, J.

    1973-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work on the design of a fault tolerant digital computer for aircraft. Volume 2 is composed of two parts. Part 1 is concerned with the computational requirements associated with an advanced commercial aircraft. Part 2 reviews the technology that will be available for the implementation of the computer in the 1975-1985 period. With regard to the computation task 26 computations have been categorized according to computational load, memory requirements, criticality, permitted down-time, and the need to save data in order to effect a roll-back. The technology part stresses the impact of large scale integration (LSI) on the realization of logic and memory. Also considered was module interconnection possibilities so as to minimize fault propagation.

  12. Domestic Swine in Physiological Research. VI. Effect of Splenic Erythrocyte Sequestration on Blood Volume Measurements in Conscious Immature Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    rjt 16--Hannon circulating erythrocyte volume, the magnitude being dependent upon the time after injection at which dilution is determined...serum albumin. With albumin labels, one-time dilution samples do not appear to alter seriously the magnitude of plasma volume estimates, provided they... volumen --und Ultraschallmessungen an lebenden Schlactschweinen als Ausdruck der Fleisch--und Fettfulle ihrer Schlachtkorper. Acta Agric Scand 1968;18:101

  13. Frequency Domain Computer Programs for Prediction and Analysis of Rail Vehicle Dynamics : Volume 2. Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Frequency domain computer programs developed or acquired by TSC for the analysis of rail vehicle dynamics are described in two volumes. Volume 2 contains program listings including subroutines for the four TSC frequency domain programs described in V...

  14. Hanford meteorological station computer codes: Volume 9, The quality assurance computer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, K.W.; Andrews, G.L.

    1989-02-01

    The Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) was established in 1944 on the Hanford Site to collect and archive meteorological data and provide weather forecasts and related services for Hanford Site approximately 1/2 mile east of the 200 West Area and is operated by PNL for the US Department of Energy. Meteorological data are collected from various sensors and equipment located on and off the Hanford Site. These data are stored in data bases on the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/750 at the HMS (hereafter referred to as the HMS computer). Files from those data bases are routinely transferred to the Emergency Management System (EMS) computer at the Unified Dose Assessment Center (UDAC). To ensure the quality and integrity of the HMS data, a set of Quality Assurance (QA) computer codes has been written. The codes will be routinely used by the HMS system manager or the data base custodian. The QA codes provide detailed output files that will be used in correcting erroneous data. The following sections in this volume describe the implementation and operation of QA computer codes. The appendices contain detailed descriptions, flow charts, and source code listings of each computer code. 2 refs.

  15. VI KA’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen handler om hvordan man kan bruge et spil til at udvikle og måle kompetencer. Artiklen diskuterer forskellige forståelser kompetencebegrebet og diskuterer hvordan Vi Ka'-spillet bidrager til at indfange den mere aktive forståelse af kompetence, som noget du gør i en bestemt kontekst....

  16. Data set for renal sinus fat volume and visceral adipose tissue volume on computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Murakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal sinus fat is partially characteristic of peri-vascular adipose tissue, however, RSF volume (RSFV is associated with visceral adipose tissue (VATV. Therefore, the ratio of RSFV to VATV (RSFV/VATV ratio can distinguish the importance of RSF as an extension of VAT versus its perivascular effects. We assessed the association of RSFV/VATV ratio with coronary artery calcification score (CACS in 189 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. RSFV of the right kidney and VATV were quantified by using image data of unenhanced abdominal CT. CACS were measured on unenhanced ECG-gated CT images. This article contains data on explanatory scheme of how to measure RSFV on unenhanced abdominal CT, CT indication and exclusion criteria of study population, sex-adjusted association between RSFV with risk factors of coronary vascular diseases and metabolic indices, multivariate linear regression analysis with CACS as the dependent variable in the total study population. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed association between RSFV/VATV ratio and CACS including sub-groups analyses classified by the age of 70 “Renal sinus fat volume on computed tomography in middle-aged patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and its association with coronary artery calcification” Murakami et al. [1].

  17. ViDI: Virtual Diagnostics Interface. Volume 2; Unified File Format and Web Services as Applied to Seamless Data Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Technical Monitor); Schwartz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The desire to revolutionize the aircraft design cycle from its currently lethargic pace to a fast turn-around operation enabling the optimization of non-traditional configurations is a critical challenge facing the aeronautics industry. In response, a large scale effort is underway to not only advance the state of the art in wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and information technology, but to unify these often disparate elements into a cohesive design resource. This paper will address Seamless Data Transfer, the critical central nervous system that will enable a wide variety of varied components to work together.

  18. Binuclear uranium(VI) complexes with a "pacman" expanded porphyrin: computational evidence for highly unusual bis-actinyl structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing-Jiang; Shamov, Grigory A; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2010-02-15

    On the basis of uranyl complexes reacting with a polypyrrolic ligand (H(4)L), we explored structures and reaction energies of a series of new binuclear uranium(VI) complexes using relativistic density functional theory. Full geometry optimizations on [(UO(2))(2)(L)], in which two uranyl groups were initially placed into the pacman ligand cavity, led to two minimum-energy structures. These complexes with cation-cation interactions (CCI) exhibit unusual coordination modes of uranyls: one is a T-shaped (T) skeleton formed by two linear uranyls {O(exo)=U(2)=O(endo)-->U(1)(=O(exo))(2)}, and another is a butterfly-like (B) unit with one linear uranyl coordinating side-by-side to a second cis-uranyl. The CCI in T was confirmed by the calculated longest distance and lowest stretching vibrational frequency of U(2)=O(endo) among the four U=O bonds. Isomer B is more stable than T, for which experimental tetrameric analogues are known. The formation of B and T complexes from the mononuclear [(UO(2))(H(2)L)(thf)] (M) was found to be endothermic. The further protonation and dehydration of B and T are thermodynamically favorable. As a possible product, we have found a trianglelike binuclear uranium(VI) complex having a O=U=O=U=O unit.

  19. Computer vision system for egg volume prediction using backpropagation neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswantoro, J.; Hilman, M. Y.; Widiasri, M.

    2017-11-01

    Volume is one of considered aspects in egg sorting process. A rapid and accurate volume measurement method is needed to develop an egg sorting system. Computer vision system (CVS) provides a promising solution for volume measurement problem. Artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to predict the volume of egg in several CVSs. However, volume prediction from ANN could have less accuracy due to inappropriate input features or inappropriate ANN structure. This paper proposes a CVS for predicting the volume of egg using ANN. The CVS acquired an image of egg from top view and then processed the image to extract its 1D and 2 D size features. The features were used as input for ANN in predicting the volume of egg. The experiment results show that the proposed CSV can predict the volume of egg with a good accuracy and less computation time.

  20. A Novel Method to Compute Breathing Volumes via Motion Capture Systems: Design and Experimental Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Cassetta, Eugenio; Silvestri, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Respiratory assessment can be carried out by using motion capture systems. A geometrical model is mandatory in order to compute the breathing volume as a function of time from the markers' trajectories. This study describes a novel model to compute volume changes and calculate respiratory parameters by using a motion capture system. The novel method, ie, prism-based method, computes the volume enclosed within the chest by defining 82 prisms from the 89 markers attached to the subject chest. Volumes computed with this method are compared to spirometry volumes and to volumes computed by a conventional method based on the tetrahedron's decomposition of the chest wall and integrated in a commercial motion capture system. Eight healthy volunteers were enrolled and 30 seconds of quiet breathing data collected from each of them. Results show a better agreement between volumes computed by the prism-based method and the spirometry (discrepancy of 2.23%, R 2  = .94) compared to the agreement between volumes computed by the conventional method and the spirometry (discrepancy of 3.56%, R 2  = .92). The proposed method also showed better performances in the calculation of respiratory parameters. Our findings open up prospects for the further use of the new method in the breathing assessment via motion capture systems.

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally sialidosis and mucolipidosis. Before enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase (Naglazyme®), clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided. PMID:20385007

  2. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmatz Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine, severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14. Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity ®, clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided.

  3. Computed Tomography Colonography Technique: The Role of Intracolonic Gas Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor distention decreases the sensitivity and specificity of CTC. The total volume of gas administered will vary according to many factors. We aim to determine the relationship between the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition and colonic distention and specifically the presence of collapsed bowel segments at CTC. Materials and Methods. All patients who underwent CTC over a 12-month period at a single institution were included in the study. Colonic luminal distention was objectively scored by 2 radiologists using an established 4-point scale. Quantitative analysis of the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition was conducted using the threshold 3D region growing function of OsiriX. Results. 108 patients were included for volumetric analysis. Mean retained gas volume was 3.3 L. 35% (38/108 of patients had at least one collapsed colonic segment. Significantly lower gas volumes were observed in the patients with collapsed colonic segments when compared with those with fully distended colons 2.6 L versus 3.5 L (P=0.031. Retained volumes were significantly higher for the 78% of patients with ileocecal reflux at 3.4 L versus 2.6 L without ileocecal reflux (P=0.014. Conclusion. Estimation of intraluminal gas volume at CTC is feasible using image segmentation and thresholding tools. An average of 3.5 L of retained gas was found in diagnostically adequate CTC studies with significantly lower mean gas volume observed in patients with collapsed colonic segments.

  4. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-03

    Sep 3, 2012 ... The mean ocular volumes was different for either eyeball and sex (in males the right eye was 5289.80 mm3, left eye was 5224.31 mm3; while in females the right eye ..... from human sexual dimorphism in which the male body.

  5. Perspectives in computational complexity the Somenath Biswas anniversary volume

    CERN Document Server

    Arvind, Vikraman

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together contributions by leading researchers in computational complexity theory written in honor of Somenath Biswas on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. They discuss current trends and exciting developments in this flourishing area of research and offer fresh perspectives on various aspects of complexity theory. The topics covered include arithmetic circuit complexity, lower bounds and polynomial identity testing, the isomorphism conjecture, space-bounded computation, graph isomorphism, resolution and proof complexity, entropy and randomness. Several chapters have a tutorial flavor. The aim is to make recent research in these topics accessible to graduate students and senior undergraduates in computer science and mathematics. It can also be useful as a resource for teaching advanced level courses in computational complexity.

  6. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form are included for topics in three categories: computer science, data systems and space station applications.

  7. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form, along with abstracts, are included for topics in three catagories: computer science, data systems, and space station applications.

  8. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The software routines developed during the crew/computer communications study are described to provide the user with an understanding of each routine, any restrictions in use, the required input data, and expected results after executing the routines. The combination of routines to generate a crew/computer communications application is also explained. The programmable keyboard and display used by the program is described, and an experiment scenario is provided to illustrate the relationship between the program frames when they are grouped into activity phases. Program descriptions and a user's guide are also presented. For Vol. 1, see N74-18843.

  9. Central Issues in the Use of Computer-Based Materials for High Volume Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Billy

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses issues relating to the use of computer-based learning (CBL) materials for entrepreneurship education at university level. It considers CBL as a means of addressing the increased volume and range of provision required in the current context. The issues raised in this article have importance for all forms of computer-based…

  10. A Research Program in Computer Technology. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Kahn, and Bernard Lang . Formal Definition of Ada, Honeywell, Inc. and CII-Honeywell Bull, 1980. 2. Ichbiah, Jean D., et al., Reference Manual for the...14. COMPUTER RESEARCH SUPPORT Technical Staff: Support Staff: Dan Lynch John Metzger Walt Edmison Ray Bates Bill Moore Chloe HoIg Dale Chase Serge

  11. Change in Lung Volume Following Thoracoscopic Anterior Spinal Fusion Surgery: A 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caroline G; Grant, Caroline A; Izatt, Maree T; Labrom, Robert D; Askin, Geoffrey N; Adam, Clayton J; Little, J Paige

    2017-06-15

    Lung volumes and thoracic anatomy were measured from low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans preoperatively and 2 years following thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion (TASF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to assess changes in lung volume after TASF surgical correction. AIS patients are known to have decreased pulmonary function as a consequence of their spinal and ribcage deformity. Several studies have evaluated changes in pulmonary function clinically after scoliosis correction surgery showing varied results. To date, there have been no published studies using CT to evaluate lung volume changes following TASF. Twenty-three female AIS patients with both pre- and 2 years postoperative low-dose CT scans were selected from an ethically approved, historical databank. Three-dimensional lung volumes were reconstructed to determine anatomical lung volumes. Right and left lung volumes, total lung volume, and right-to-left lung volume ratio were obtained as well as hemithoracic symmetry, to indicate the extent of thorax deformity. Cobb angle, rib hump, levels fused in surgery, and patient height were used for correlation analysis with the lung volume results. Left lung volume, total lung volume, and hemithoracic ratio all increased significantly 2 years after surgery. There was no significant change in right-to-left lung volume ratio (P = 0.36). Statistical regression found significant positive correlation between lung volume changes, reduction in Cobb angle, increase in height, and improvement in hemithoracic symmetry ratio. TASF resulted in a statistically significant increase in lung volume following surgery, as well as improvement in the symmetry of the thoracic architecture; however, the postoperative lung volumes remained in the lower 50th percentile relative to females without thoracic deformity. Furthermore, change in lung volume was significantly correlated with changes in Cobb angle, hemithoracic asymmetry, and increased

  12. The preliminary exploration of 64-slice volume computed tomography in the accurate measurement of pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhi-Jun [Dept. of Radiology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)], e-mail: Gzj3@163.com; Lin, Qiang [Dept. of Oncology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China); Liu, Hai-Tao [Dept. of General Surgery, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)] [and others])

    2013-09-15

    Background: Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring. Purpose: To explore the feasibility of using 64-slice CT volume-rendering technology to accurately measure pleural fluid volume and to then analyze the correlation between the volume of the free pleural effusion and the different diameters of the pleural effusion. Material and Methods: The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique was used to measure and analyze three parts. First, the fluid volume of a self-made thoracic model was measured and compared with the actual injected volume. Second, the pleural effusion volume was measured before and after pleural fluid drainage in 25 patients, and the volume reduction was compared with the actual volume of the liquid extract. Finally, the free pleural effusion volume was measured in 26 patients to analyze the correlation between it and the diameter of the effusion, which was then used to calculate the regression equation. Results: After using the 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique to measure the fluid volume of the self-made thoracic model, the results were compared with the actual injection volume. No significant differences were found, P = 0.836. For the 25 patients with drained pleural effusions, the comparison of the reduction volume with the actual volume of the liquid extract revealed no significant differences, P = 0.989. The following linear regression equation was used to compare the pleural effusion volume (V) (measured by the CT volume-rendering technique) with the pleural effusion greatest depth (d): V = 158.16 X d - 116.01 (r = 0.91, P = 0.000). The following linear regression was used to compare the volume with the product of the pleural effusion diameters (l X h X d): V = 0.56 X (l X h X d) + 39.44 (r = 0.92, P = 0

  13. Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling Volume 1: Basic Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Volume one of this two volume sequence focuses on the basic characterization of known protein structures as well as structure prediction from protein sequence information. The 11 chapters provide an overview of the field, covering key topics in modeling, force fields, classification, computational methods, and struture prediction. Each chapter is a self contained review designed to cover (1) definition of the problem and an historical perspective, (2) mathematical or computational formulation of the problem, (3) computational methods and algorithms, (4) performance results, (5) existing software packages, and (6) strengths, pitfalls, challenges, and future research directions.

  14. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1: primary model documentation, Book 2, Chapters IV, V, VI, and VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, R.E.; Herod, J.S.

    1978-06-19

    The Industrial Sector Technology Use Model provides a single framework for integrating all of the information and analysis into a set of predictions of industrial energy use. Given this volume of information which must be considered, this requires a set of computerized engineering-economic models. The design of these models is the subject of Chapter IV. The environmental factors in ISTUM are developed and presented in Chapter V. Chapter VI discusses the work accomplished by DATA Resources, Inc. in support of the ISTUM. A glossary, briefly defining special terms used in the ISTUM documentation, is given in Chapter VII. (MCW)

  15. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  16. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  17. REXOR Rotorcraft Simulation Model. Volume 2. Computer Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    commands rather than trim error balance sources. The control system can operate with a number of different configurations. A hard swashplate and...flexible swashplate - external control gyro configu- rations are computed directly in the subroutine FLY. For the isolated in- ternal gyro system (Lockheed...meaning. The QFG array is assembled from blade data (also in the F array mentioned), data from LOADS and swashplate loads. The latter are developed within

  18. Center for Computer Security newsletter. Volume 2, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-05-01

    The Fifth Computer Security Group Conference was held November 16 to 18, 1982, at the Knoxville Hilton in Knoxville, Tennessee. Attending were 183 people, representing the Department of Energy, DOE contractors, other government agencies, and vendor organizations. In these papers are abridgements of most of the papers presented in Knoxville. Less than half-a-dozen speakers failed to furnish either abstracts or full-text papers of their Knoxville presentations.

  19. Computing homogeneous models with finite volume upwind schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herard, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF/DRD/DMFTT), 78 - Chatou (France); Universite de Provence, Centre de Mathematiques et d' Informatique, L.A.T.P. - UMR CNRS 6632, 13 - Marseille (France); Kokh, S. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/SFME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    We provide in this paper some algorithms to deal with homogeneous equilibrium models on any type of mesh. These schemes rely on the exact Godunov scheme or on some rough Godunov schemes. We first recall some basic ideas which were recently introduced in the 1D framework. We then turn to the 2D framework, and define a class of first order schemes which enable to improve the accuracy on coarse unstructured 2D meshes. We have also tried to underline that current computing power does not enable to perform accurate enough computations for reasonable CPU time, in a few situations including sharp contact discontinuities; this is due in some sense to some kind of loss of pressure consistency between PDE and numerical schemes in conservative form. We have also indicated that some specific remedies available in the literature are not adequate for nuclear safety problems, both in a one dimensional framework (owing to EOS), and in the two dimensional framework (due to differences between mesh interfaces and waves fronts). Comments pertaining to other hybrid schemes are then made. The last part of the paper will focus on computations of three dimensional gas-liquid flows including sharp interfaces. (authors)

  20. MAGIC Computer Simulation. Volume 2: Analyst Manual, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-05-01

    tiC l•)tC,l(~I•J•lt61 CALL ALBERTIF’~•LeOTtNOQ•LS l ) ()nTO 360 are used to write out the pertinent program da t a and the information on t he card... MATEA I &L 1o•SKIAT zo•aAMOA l O•TaAG[T C • 1eZ•9tl l •l9 •21•29 to oooe t91•99 • INTEAlOA ~OLUHE C 1 • EXTERIOR VOLUME c are used to test the space...c_ en c The statements AIN ’OR TH[ QUAOA& TIC SUA,AC[ AlN•Al L.Al•3 GOTO lZO are used to assign RIN a value and to assign the surface number

  1. Fractional labelmaps for computing accurate dose volume histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Kyle; Pinter, Csaba; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: In radiation therapy treatment planning systems, structures are represented as parallel 2D contours. For treatment planning algorithms, structures must be converted into labelmap (i.e. 3D image denoting structure inside/outside) representations. This is often done by triangulated a surface from contours, which is converted into a binary labelmap. This surface to binary labelmap conversion can cause large errors in small structures. Binary labelmaps are often represented using one byte per voxel, meaning a large amount of memory is unused. Our goal is to develop a fractional labelmap representation containing non-binary values, allowing more information to be stored in the same amount of memory. METHODS: We implemented an algorithm in 3D Slicer, which converts surfaces to fractional labelmaps by creating 216 binary labelmaps, changing the labelmap origin on each iteration. The binary labelmap values are summed to create the fractional labelmap. In addition, an algorithm is implemented in the SlicerRT toolkit that calculates dose volume histograms (DVH) using fractional labelmaps. RESULTS: We found that with manually segmented RANDO head and neck structures, fractional labelmaps represented structure volume up to 19.07% (average 6.81%) more accurately than binary labelmaps, while occupying the same amount of memory. When compared to baseline DVH from treatment planning software, DVH from fractional labelmaps had agreement acceptance percent (1% ΔD, 1% ΔV) up to 57.46% higher (average 4.33%) than DVH from binary labelmaps. CONCLUSION: Fractional labelmaps promise to be an effective method for structure representation, allowing considerably more information to be stored in the same amount of memory.

  2. Soft Computing in Information Communication Technology Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book is a collection of the accepted papers concerning soft computing in information communication technology. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchanges of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field makes the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The present book represents a cooperative effort to seek out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of Fuzzy Logic, Machine Learning, Cryptography, Pattern Recognition, Bioinformatics, Biomedical Engineering, Advancements in ICT.

  3. Chinese-English Automation and Computer Technology Dictionary. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    single wafer; uniwafer 06 danza citou T’I ~ ~one-turn magnetic 07 head danza dianshiji A IiEP0 ltsingle-turn poten- 08 tiometer danzengliang aaibian M...jiqiaD g ji art of cnputation 17 jisuan jishu 4 caputing technique 18 jisuan jiluqi A ,, *’ computing logger 19 jisuan jidianqi - a if canputer relay 20...progranming 15 sheji 0 ) iiT f!-v jisuanji gongyi 0- f) L I* coiiuter art 16 jisuanji guz’cheng kongzhi 0- f ;"V I3 t om~puter process control; 17 CPC

  4. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  5. Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling Volume 2: Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Volume 2 of this two-volume sequence focuses on protein structure prediction and includes protein threading, De novo methods, applications to membrane proteins and protein complexes, structure-based drug design, as well as structure prediction as a systems problem. A series of appendices review the biological and chemical basics related to protein structure, computer science for structural informatics, and prerequisite mathematics and statistics.

  6. Less Daily Computer Use is Related to Smaller Hippocampal Volumes in Cognitively Intact Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Lisa C; Dodge, Hiroko H; Lahna, David; Promjunyakul, Nutta-On; Austin, Daniel; Mattek, Nora; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Computer use is becoming a common activity in the daily life of older individuals and declines over time in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between daily computer use (DCU) and imaging markers of neurodegeneration is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between average DCU and volumetric markers of neurodegeneration on brain MRI. Cognitively intact volunteers enrolled in the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Change study underwent MRI. Total in-home computer use per day was calculated using mouse movement detection and averaged over a one-month period surrounding the MRI. Spearman's rank order correlation (univariate analysis) and linear regression models (multivariate analysis) examined hippocampal, gray matter (GM), white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and ventricular cerebral spinal fluid (vCSF) volumes in relation to DCU. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified relationships between regional GM density and DCU. Twenty-seven cognitively intact participants used their computer for 51.3 minutes per day on average. Less DCU was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes (r = 0.48, p = 0.01), but not total GM, WMH, or vCSF volumes. After adjusting for age, education, and gender, less DCU remained associated with smaller hippocampal volume (p = 0.01). Voxel-wise analysis demonstrated that less daily computer use was associated with decreased GM density in the bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes. Less daily computer use is associated with smaller brain volume in regions that are integral to memory function and known to be involved early with Alzheimer's pathology and conversion to dementia. Continuous monitoring of daily computer use may detect signs of preclinical neurodegeneration in older individuals at risk for dementia.

  7. Predictive equations for lung volumes from computed tomography for size matching in pulmonary transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konheim, Jeremy A; Kon, Zachary N; Pasrija, Chetan; Luo, Qingyang; Sanchez, Pablo G; Garcia, Jose P; Griffith, Bartley P; Jeudy, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Size matching for lung transplantation is widely accomplished using height comparisons between donors and recipients. This gross approximation allows for wide variation in lung size and, potentially, size mismatch. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetry comparisons could offer more accurate size matching. Although recipient CT scans are universally available, donor CT scans are rarely performed. Therefore, predicted donor lung volumes could be used for comparison to measured recipient lung volumes, but no such predictive equations exist. We aimed to use 3D-CT volumetry measurements from a normal patient population to generate equations for predicted total lung volume (pTLV), predicted right lung volume (pRLV), and predicted left lung volume (pLLV), for size-matching purposes. Chest CT scans of 400 normal patients were retrospectively evaluated. 3D-CT volumetry was performed to measure total lung volume, right lung volume, and left lung volume of each patient, and predictive equations were generated. The fitted model was tested in a separate group of 100 patients. The model was externally validated by comparison of total lung volume with total lung capacity from pulmonary function tests in a subset of those patients. Age, gender, height, and race were independent predictors of lung volume. In the test group, there were strong linear correlations between predicted and actual lung volumes measured by 3D-CT volumetry for pTLV (r = 0.72), pRLV (r = 0.72), and pLLV (r = 0.69). A strong linear correlation was also observed when comparing pTLV and total lung capacity (r = 0.82). We successfully created a predictive model for pTLV, pRLV, and pLLV. These may serve as reference standards and predict donor lung volume for size matching in lung transplantation. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  9. Comparison of bone volume measurements using conventional single and dual energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yung Kyoon; Park, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Min [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The study examines changes in calcium volume on born by comparing two figures; one is measured by dual energy computed tomography(DECT) followed by applying variation in monochromatic energy selection( keV), material decomposition(MD), and material suppressed iodine(MSI) analysis, and the other is measured by conventional single source computed tomography(CSCT). For this study, based on CSCT images taken by using human mimicked phantom, 70, 100, 140 keV and MSI, MD material calcium weighting( MCW) and MD material iodine weighting(MIW) of DECT were applied respectively. Then calculated calcium volume was converted to Agatston score for comparison. Volume of human mimicked phantom was in inverse proportion to keV. The volume decreased while keV increased(p<0.05). The most similar DECT volumes were reconstructed at 70 keV, the difference was showed 35.8±12.2 for rib, femur (16.1±24.1), pelvis(13.7±18.8), and spine(179.0±61.8). However, the volume of MSI was down for each organ; the volume of rib was 5.55%, femur(76.34%), pelvis(55.16%) and spine(87.58%). The volume of MSI decreased 55.9% for rib, femur(80.7%), pelvis(69.6%) and spine(54.2%) while MD MIW reduced for rib(83.51%), femur(87.68%), pelvis(86.64%), and spine(82.62%). With the results, the study found that outcomes were affected by the method which examiners employed. When using DECT, calcium volume of born dropped with keV increased. It also found that the most similar DECT images were reconstructed at 70 keV. The results of experiments implied that the users of MSI and MD should be cautious of errors as there are big differences in scores between those two methods.

  10. Cone beam computed tomography images fusion in predicting lung ablation volumes: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Petrillo, Mario; Xhepa, Genti; Laganà, Domenico; Piacentino, Filippo; Floridi, Chiara; Duka, Ejona; Fugazzola, Carlo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2016-02-01

    Recently different software with the ability to plan ablation volumes have been developed in order to minimize the number of attempts of positioning electrodes and to improve a safe overall tumor coverage. To assess the feasibility of three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT) fusion imaging with "virtual probe" positioning, to predict ablation volume in lung tumors treated percutaneously. Pre-procedural computed tomography contrast-enhanced scans (CECT) were merged with a CBCT volume obtained to plan the ablation. An offline tumor segmentation was performed to determine the number of antennae and their positioning within the tumor. The volume of ablation obtained, evaluated on CECT performed after 1 month, was compared with the pre-procedural predicted one. Feasibility was assessed on the basis of accuracy evaluation (visual evaluation [VE] and quantitative evaluation [QE]), technical success (TS), and technical effectiveness (TE). Seven of the patients with lung tumor treated by percutaneous thermal ablation were selected and treated on the basis of the 3D CBCT fusion imaging. In all cases the volume of ablation predicted was in accordance with that obtained. The difference in volume between predicted ablation volumes and obtained ones on CECT at 1 month was 1.8 cm(3) (SD ± 2, min. 0.4, max. 0.9) for MW and 0.9 cm(3) (SD ± 1.1, min. 0.1, max. 0.7) for RF. Use of pre-procedural 3D CBCT fusion imaging could be useful to define expected ablation volumes. However, more patients are needed to ensure stronger evidence. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  11. Curvature computation in volume-of-fluid method based on point-cloud sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Bruno B. M.; Carneiro, João N. E.; Nieckele, Angela O.

    2018-01-01

    This work proposes a novel approach to compute interface curvature in multiphase flow simulation based on Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. It is well documented in the literature that curvature and normal vector computation in VOF may lack accuracy mainly due to abrupt changes in the volume fraction field across the interfaces. This may cause deterioration on the interface tension forces estimates, often resulting in inaccurate results for interface tension dominated flows. Many techniques have been presented over the last years in order to enhance accuracy in normal vectors and curvature estimates including height functions, parabolic fitting of the volume fraction, reconstructing distance functions, coupling Level Set method with VOF, convolving the volume fraction field with smoothing kernels among others. We propose a novel technique based on a representation of the interface by a cloud of points. The curvatures and the interface normal vectors are computed geometrically at each point of the cloud and projected onto the Eulerian grid in a Front-Tracking manner. Results are compared to benchmark data and significant reduction on spurious currents as well as improvement in the pressure jump are observed. The method was developed in the open source suite OpenFOAM® extending its standard VOF implementation, the interFoam solver.

  12. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  13. Research on surveying technology applied for DTM modelling and volume computation in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Wajs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial information systems of mining company can be used for monitoring of mining activity, excavation planning, calculations of the ore volume and decision making. Nowadays, data base has to be updated by sources such as surveying positioning technologies and remote sensed photogrammetry data. The presented paper contains review of the methodology for the digital terrain model, i.e. DTM, modelling and obtaining data from surveying technologies in an open pit mine or quarry. This paper reviews the application of GPS, total station measurements, and ground photogrammetry for the volume accuracy assessment of a selected object. The testing field was situated in Belchatow lignite open pit mine. A suitable object had been selected. The testing layer of coal seam was located at 8’th pit sidewall excavation area. The data were acquired two times within one month period and it was connected with monthly DTM actualization of excavation. This paper presents the technological process and the results of the research of using digital photogrammetry for opencast mining purposes in the scope of numerical volume computation and monitoring the mines by comparison of different sources. The results shows that the presented workflow allow to build DTM manually and remote sensed and the accuracy assessment was presented by the volume computation pathway. Major advantages of the techniques are presented illustrating how a terrestrial photogrammetry techniques provide rapid spatial measurements of breaklines 3D data utilized to volume calculation.

  14. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VI.- Andalucia (a): Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen VI.- Andalucia (a): Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla y Huelva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 67 refs.

  15. A technique for determination of lung outline and regional lung air volume distribution from computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John; Conway, Joy; Majoral, Caroline; Bennett, Michael; Caillibotte, Georges; Montesantos, Spyridon; Katz, Ira

    2014-02-01

    Determination of the lung outline and regional lung air volume is of value in analysis of three-dimensional (3D) distribution of aerosol deposition from radionuclide imaging. This study describes a technique for using computed tomography (CT) scans for this purpose. Low-resolution CT scans of the thorax were obtained during tidal breathing in 11 healthy control male subjects on two occasions. The 3D outline of the lung was determined by image processing using minimal user interaction. A 3D map of air volume was derived and total lung air volume calculated. The regional distribution of air volume from center to periphery of the lung was analyzed using a radial transform and the outer-to-inner ratio of air volume determined. The average total air volume in the lung was 1,900±126 mL (1 SEM), which is in general agreement with the expected value for adult male subjects in the supine position. The fractional air volume concentration increased from the center toward the periphery of the lung. Outer-to-inner (O/I) ratios were higher for the left lung [11.5±1.8 (1 SD)] than for the right [10.1±0.8 (1 SD)] (plungs from CT images and obtaining an image of the distribution of air volume is described. The normal range of various parameters describing the regional distribution of air volume is presented, together with a measure of intrasubject repeatability. This technique and data will be of value in analyzing 3D radionuclide images of aerosol deposition.

  16. New predictive equation for lung volume using chest computed tomography for size matching in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C H; Kim, T H; Lee, S; Paik, H C; Haam, S J

    2015-03-01

    Lung size matching is important in lung transplantation (LT). With advances in computed tomography (CT) technology, multidetector row CT can accurately measure the thoracic cage and lung volumes. The objective of this study was to generate a new regression equation using demographic data based on the measured CT lung volume in a healthy population to predict the CT lung volume of the donor in LT size matching. The medical records of healthy subjects who underwent chest CT scans to screen for lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. CT lung volume was semi-automatically measured using a threshold-based auto-segmentation technique. New regression equations for CT lung volume were generated by multiple linear regression analysis using demographic data including height (H, cm), weight (W, kg), and age (A, years). The percentage error rate (%) of the equations were calculated as ([Estimated CT lung volume--Measured CT lung volume]/Measured CT lung volume × 100). A percentage error rate within ± 20% was considered acceptable. A total of 141 men aged 27 to 55 years (mean, 46.7 ± 6.2 years) and 128 women aged 20 to 55 years (mean, 45.4 ± 7.2 years) were enrolled. The final regression equations for CT lung volume were (-5.890 + 0.067 H - 0.030 W + 0.020 A) in men and (-6.698 + 0.072 H - 0.024 W) in women. The mean absolute error rate was 10.9 ± 9.0% and 11.0 ± 8.5% in men and women, respectively. Percentage error rates were within ± 20% in 121 of 141 (85.8%) men and 113 of 128 (88.3%) women. These equations could predict the CT lung volume of healthy subjects using demographic data. Using these equations, the predicted CT lung volume of donors could be matched to the measured CT lung volume of recipients in lung transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of orbital volume by computed tomography. Especially on the growth of orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Minoru [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Using reconstructed X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of serial coronal sections, we measured the orbital volume and studied its changes with age. The subjects consisted of 109 patients (74 males, 35 females) who had undergone X-ray CT. After the reproducibility of orbital volume measurements and laterality in individuals were confirmed, the relation between the orbital volume and the age, sex, weight, and interlateral orbital rim distance were examined. The difference between two measurements in the same patients was 0.4% for measured volume, which showed the reproducibility of this measurement to be good. The laterality in individuals was 0.06 cm{sup 3}: this difference was very small and not significant. The orbital volume showed no unbalance between the right and left at any stage of growth. Both the height and the interlateral orbital rim distance had a strong correlation with the orbital volume. Referring to the relation between age and orbital volume, a strong correlation with an almost identical approximate equation was obtained for both sexes under 12 years of age. Presumably, the rapid growth of the orbit comes to an end by 15 years of age in males and 11 years in females. This means that more than 95% growth of adults has already been completed in the first half of the teens. The mean orbital volume in adult Japanese is 23.6{+-}2.0 (mean{+-}standard deviation) cm{sup 3} in males and 20.9{+-}1.3 cm{sup 3} in females. (author)

  18. Volume adjustment of lung density by computed tomography scans in patients with emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, S B; Dirksen, A; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine how to adjust lung density measurements for the volume of the lung calculated from computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with emphysema. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty patients with emphysema underwent 3 CT scans at 2-week intervals. The scans were analyzed with a software...... package that detected the lung in contiguous images and subsequently generated a histogram of the pixel attenuation values. The total lung volume (TLV), lung weight, percentile density (PD), and relative area of emphysema (RA) were calculated from this histogram. RA and PD are commonly applied measures...... of pulmonary emphysema derived from CT scans. These parameters are markedly influenced by changes in the level of inspiration. The variability of lung density due to within-subject variation in TLV was explored by plotting TLV against PD and RA. RESULTS: The coefficients for volume adjustment for PD were...

  19. Code Saturne: A Finite Volume Code for the computation of turbulent incompressible flows - Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Archambeau, Frédéric; Méchitoua, Namane; Sakiz, Marc

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes the finite volume method implemented in Code Saturne, Electricite de France general-purpose computational fluid dynamic code for laminar and turbulent flows in complex two and three- dimensional geometries. The code is used for industrial applications and research activities in several fields related to energy production (nuclear power thermal-hydraulics, gas and coal combustion, turbomachinery, heating, ventilation and air conditioning...). The se...

  20. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Computing n-dimensional volumes of complexes: Application to constructive entropy bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E.

    1997-11-01

    The constructive bounds on the needed number-of-bits (entropy) for solving a dichotomy (i.e., classification of a given data-set into two distinct classes) can be represented by the quotient of two multidimensional solid volumes. Exact methods for the calculation of the volume of the solids lead to a tighter lower bound on the needed number-of-bits--than the ones previously known. Establishing such bounds is very important for engineering applications, as they can improve certain constructive neural learning algorithms, while also reducing the area of future VLSI implementations of neural networks. The paper will present an effective method for the exact calculation of the volume of any n-dimensional complex. The method uses a divide-and-conquer approach by: (i) partitioning (i.e., slicing) a complex into simplices; and (ii) computing the volumes of these simplices. The slicing of any complex into a sum of simplices always exists, but it is not unique. This non-uniqueness gives us the freedom to choose that specific partitioning which is convenient for a particular case. It will be shown that this optimal choice is related to the symmetries of the complex, and can significantly reduce the computations involved.

  2. Quantitative measurement of regional lung gas volume by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfraix, Sylvie [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Bayat, Sam [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Porra, Liisa [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Berruyer, Gilles [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Nemoz, Christian [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Thomlinson, William [Canadian Light Source, 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Sovijaervi, Anssi R A [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-01-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a novel respiration-gated spiral synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) technique for direct quantification of absolute regional lung volumes, using stable xenon (Xe) gas as an inhaled indicator. Spiral SRCT with K-edge subtraction using two monochromatic x-ray beams was used to visualize and directly quantify inhaled Xe concentrations and airspace volumes in three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed lung images. Volume measurements were validated using a hollow Xe-filled phantom. Spiral images spanning 49 mm in lung height were acquired following 60 breaths of an 80% Xe-20% O{sub 2} gas mixture, in two anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits at baseline and after histamine aerosol inhalation. Volumetric images of 20 mm lung sections were obtained at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at end-inspiration. 3D images showed large patchy filling defects in peripheral airways and alveoli following histamine provocation. Local specific lung compliance was calculated based on FRC/end-inspiration images in normal lung. This study demonstrates spiral SRCT as a new technique for direct determination of regional lung volume, offering possibilities for non-invasive investigation of regional lung function and mechanics, with a uniquely high spatial resolution. An example of non-uniform volume distribution in rabbit lung following histamine inhalation is presented.

  3. Quantitative measurement of regional lung gas volume by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfraix, Sylvie; Bayat, Sam; Porra, Liisa; Berruyer, Gilles; Nemoz, Christian; Thomlinson, William; Suortti, Pekka; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a novel respiration-gated spiral synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) technique for direct quantification of absolute regional lung volumes, using stable xenon (Xe) gas as an inhaled indicator. Spiral SRCT with K-edge subtraction using two monochromatic x-ray beams was used to visualize and directly quantify inhaled Xe concentrations and airspace volumes in three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed lung images. Volume measurements were validated using a hollow Xe-filled phantom. Spiral images spanning 49 mm in lung height were acquired following 60 breaths of an 80% Xe-20% O2 gas mixture, in two anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits at baseline and after histamine aerosol inhalation. Volumetric images of 20 mm lung sections were obtained at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at end-inspiration. 3D images showed large patchy filling defects in peripheral airways and alveoli following histamine provocation. Local specific lung compliance was calculated based on FRC/end-inspiration images in normal lung. This study demonstrates spiral SRCT as a new technique for direct determination of regional lung volume, offering possibilities for non-invasive investigation of regional lung function and mechanics, with a uniquely high spatial resolution. An example of non-uniform volume distribution in rabbit lung following histamine inhalation is presented.

  4. Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building. Volume VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate nonuniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for nonuniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed - leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels.

  5. SU-E-J-111: Compute the Optimal Threshold for PET Functional Volume Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Chen, W; D'Souza, W; Lu, W

    2012-06-01

    To construct a method being able to compute the optimal threshold (OT) directly from PET images for functional volume delineation without any a priori information about scanners, imaging protocols and tumor size. A mathematic model for partial volume effect (PVE) was analyzed for a spherical object with a constant activity imaged by a scanner with Gaussian point spread function (PSF). The theoretic analysis showed that information about some factors that are related to the PVE such as the PSF and tumor size had been actually embedded into PET images. We developed a new concept - the Optimal Area Ratio (OAR) that is a function of the object radius and can be derived from the model with some mathematic manipulations. With this new concept, information about PSF and tumor size can be recovered directly from PET images, and the OT can be calculated accordingly. The basic idea is to use the whole dynamic behavior (the behavior of the volume sizes due to different thresholds uniformly distributed in [0,1]) of a region-growing algorithm to find the OT. A computer simulation and experiments on phantoms with different object sizes and different noise levels were conducted to evaluate the above theoretic analysis. For the computer simulation, the calculated OT was exactly the real OT. In the experiments on phantoms, the calculated OT led to visually satisfactory delineation results. The new theoretic analysis showed that the OT can be calculated without any a priori information about scanners, imaging protocols and tumor size. The computer simulation and phantom experiments validated the theoretic analysis. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Computed tomography assessment of pharmacological lung volume reduction induced by bronchodilators in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Naoya; Muro, Shigeo; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Susumu; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Tamaki; Kudo, Megumi; Kinose, Daisuke; Kubo, Takeshi; Hoshino, Yuma; Ogawa, Emiko; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki

    2012-08-01

    Pharmacological lung volume reduction in COPD is an important goal in treatment with long-acting bronchodilators because in addition to airflow limitation, lung hyperinflation considerably affects COPD symptoms. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) simultaneously provides structural information about airway dimensions, emphysematous changes, and lung volumes, some of which are difficult to be evaluated by pulmonary function. Here, we evaluated changes in CT parameters and pulmonary function in 30 patients with COPD who underwent CT scans before and one year after starting tiotropium treatment and in 12 patients with COPD who were not treated with long-acting bronchodilators. Baseline pulmonary function and CT parameters did not differ between the two groups. One-year tiotropium therapy improved physiological-indices including residual volume (RV) and ratio of RV to total lung capacity (RV/TLC) (-235 mL, p = 0.005, and -2.9%, p = 0.0001, respectively), and CT-indices including wall area percent (WA%) and inner luminal area in right upper lobe apical and lower lobe basal segmental bronchi (-1.59%, p = 0.01, 2.27 mm(2), p = 0.0005; and -1.33%, p = 0.0008, 3.42 mm(2), p volume (LAV) and total lung volume (CT-TLV) (-92 mL, p = 0.0003, and -211 mL, p = 0.002, respectively). Changes in LAV, CT-TLV, RV, and RV/TLC were significantly greater in the tiotropium, than the non-bronchodilator group. The tiotropium-induced reduction in LAV correlated with the decrease in RV (ρ = 0.45, p = 0.01). Our findings not only indicate the value of the comprehensive CT measurements in assessing the effects of bronchodilators, including pharmacological lung volume reduction, but also further understanding of the structural changes underlying physiological improvements induced by bronchodilators.

  7. Does hyrax expansion therapy affect maxillary sinus volume? A cone-beam computed tomography report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darsey, Drew M.; English, Jeryl D.; Ellis, Randy K.; Akyalcin, Sercan [School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Kau, Chung H [School of Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial effects of maxillary expansion therapy with Hyrax appliance and to evaluate the related changes in maxillary sinus volume. Thirty patients (20 females, 10 males; 13.8 years) requiring maxillary expansion therapy, as part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment, were examined. Each patient had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before (T1) and after (T2) maxillary expansion therapy with a banded Hyrax appliance. Multiplanar slices were used to measure linear dimensions and palatal vault angle. Volumetric analysis was used to measure maxillary sinus volumes. Student t tests were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment measurements. Additionally, differences between two age groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. Comparison of pre-treatment to post-treatment variables revealed significant changes in the transverse dimension related to both maxillary skeletal and dental structures and palatal vault angle, resulting in a widened palatal vault (p<0.05). Hard palate showed no significant movement in the vertical and anteroposterior planes. Nasal cavity width increased on a mean value of 0.93 mm(SD=0.23, p<0.05). Maxillary sinus volume remained virtually stable. No significant age differences were observed in the sample. Hyrax expansion therapy did not have a significant impact on maxillary sinus volume.

  8. Expiratory computed tomographic techniques: a cause of a poor rate of change in lung volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Keiko; Okada, Fumito; Mori, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients (29 males and 70 females; mean age, 57.1 years; range, 22-81 years) were included in this study to evaluate the factors affecting smaller lung volume changes in expiratory high-resolution computed tomography performed to depict air trapping. All patients underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest thin-section CT examinations and pulmonary function tests. Air trapping on CT images was graded subjectively. All variables (age, sex, diagnosis, pulmonary function index, and air trapping score) were compared with the degree of change in lung volume between the inspiratory and expiratory CT examinations. The variables affecting a lower degree of volume change were vital capacity, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and the FEV1.0/FVC ratio. Bronchiolitis obliterans was the dominant diagnosis in patients with insufficient degrees of breath holding and in patients with negative air trapping scores despite an abnormal air trapping index. An insufficient degree of lung changes between inspiration and expiration on CT examinations represented bronchiolitis obliterans, which resulted in low FEV1.0 and FEV1.0/FVC values. Changes in the time gap from the announcement of exhalation and breath holding to the start of scanning most effectively indicated air trapping in patients with bronchiolar disorders.

  9. Railroads and the Environment : Estimation of Fuel Consumption in Rail Transportation : Volume 3. Comparison of Computer Simulations with Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    This report documents comparisons between extensive rail freight service measurements (previously presented in Volume II) and simulations of the same operations using a sophisticated train performance calculator computer program. The comparisons cove...

  10. Design of a fault tolerant airborne digital computer. Volume 1: Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, J. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Green, M. W.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the architecture of a fault tolerant digital computer for an advanced commercial aircraft. All of the computations of the aircraft, including those presently carried out by analogue techniques, are to be carried out in this digital computer. Among the important qualities of the computer are the following: (1) The capacity is to be matched to the aircraft environment. (2) The reliability is to be selectively matched to the criticality and deadline requirements of each of the computations. (3) The system is to be readily expandable. contractible, and (4) The design is to appropriate to post 1975 technology. Three candidate architectures are discussed and assessed in terms of the above qualities. Of the three candidates, a newly conceived architecture, Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT), provides the best match to the above qualities. In addition SIFT is particularly simple and believable. The other candidates, Bus Checker System (BUCS), also newly conceived in this project, and the Hopkins multiprocessor are potentially more efficient than SIFT in the use of redundancy, but otherwise are not as attractive.

  11. Algorithms and computer codes for atomic and molecular quantum scattering theory. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, L. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The goals of this workshop are to identify which of the existing computer codes for solving the coupled equations of quantum molecular scattering theory perform most efficiently on a variety of test problems, and to make tested versions of those codes available to the chemistry community through the NRCC software library. To this end, many of the most active developers and users of these codes have been invited to discuss the methods and to solve a set of test problems using the LBL computers. The first volume of this workshop report is a collection of the manuscripts of the talks that were presented at the first meeting held at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois June 25-27, 1979. It is hoped that this will serve as an up-to-date reference to the most popular methods with their latest refinements and implementations.

  12. Computed tomography angiography: the effect of different chaser flow rates, volumes, and fluids on contrast enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Florian F; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus; Keil, Sebastian; Mottaghy, Felix M; Günther, Rolf W; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to intraindividually compare the effect of different chaser flow rates, volumes, and fluids on contrast enhancement in multidetector-row computed tomography. Multidetector-row computed tomography scanning of 5 dogs was performed under standardized conditions using an adapted injection protocol to ensure an identical iodine delivery rate of 1.0 gI/s and a total iodine dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (iopromide 300 and 370). The contrast medium application was followed by a 10-mL saline chaser at different injection rates (0, 2.7, 4, 6, and 8 mL/s) or by different saline chaser volumes (0, 5, 10, and 15 mL) at a flow rate of 4 mL/s. Furthermore, different chaser fluids (NaCl, hydroxyethyl starch 10%, and Dextran 1%) with different viscosities (hydroxyethyl starch 10% and dextran 1%: 3.28 and 5.98 mPa · s at 37°C) were tested (volume: 10 mL; flow rate: 6 mL/s). Each dog was examined with each protocol. The interval between each computed tomography scan session which included 2 measurements was at least 3 days. Dynamic computed tomography scans were acquired at the level of the cephalic vein, cranial vena cava, pulmonary artery, and ascending and descending aorta. Time-enhancement curves were computed, and pulmonary and aortic peak enhancements as well as time-to-peak were analyzed. Increased saline chaser flow rates or increased saline chaser volumes resulted in increased pulmonary and aortic peak contrast enhancement. Peak enhancement was highest and significantly greater compared with no saline chaser for a flow rate of 8 mL/s (pulmonary artery: 816.8 vs. 471.5 HU, P = 0.0079; ascending aorta: 578.7 vs. 384.1 HU, P = 0.0079; descending aorta: 581.4 HU vs. 390.6 HU, P = 0.0159) and a saline volume of 15 mL (pulmonary artery: 670.2 vs. 453.5 HU, P = 0.0079; ascending aorta: 512.1 vs. 370.6 HU, P = 0.0317; descending aorta: 504.0 HU vs. 394.4 HU, P = 0.0159). No significant differences between the peak times for different saline chasers were

  13. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation; master control subsystems; balance of plant CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell electrical power generation subsystem centers on a General Electric dual admission, triple extraction turbine generator sized to the output requirements of the Pilot Plant. The turbine receives steam from the receiver subsystem and/or the thermal storage subsystem and supplies those subsystems with feedwater. The turbine condensor is wet cooled. The plant control system consists of a coordinated digital master and subsystem digital/analog controls. The remainder of the plant, work spaces, maintenance areas, roads, and reception area are laid out to provide maximum convenience compatible with utility and safety. Most of the activities are housed in a complex around the base of the receiver tower. This volume contains a description of the relationship of the electrical power generation subsystem to the rest of the plant, the design methodology and evolution, the interface integration and control, and the operation and maintenance procedures.

  14. Quality control of dose volume histogram computation characteristics of 3D treatment planning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitsa, E.; Kappas, C. [Medical Physics Department, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Rosenwald, J.C. [Service de Physique Medicale, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, Paris 75005 (France)

    1998-10-01

    Detailed quality control (QC) protocols are a necessity for modern radiotherapy departments. The established QC protocols for treatment planning systems (TPS) do not include recommendations on the advanced features of three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning, like the dose volume histograms (DVH). In this study, a test protocol for DVH characteristics was developed. The protocol assesses the consistency of the DVH computation to the dose distribution calculated by the same TPS by comparing DVH parameters with values obtained by the isodose distributions. The computation parameters (such as the dimension of the computation grid) that are applied to the TPS during the tests are not fixed but set by the user as if the test represents a typical clinical case. Six commercial TPS were examined with this protocol within the frame of the EC project Dynarad (Biomed I). The results of the intercomparison prove the consistency of the DVH results to the isodose values for most of the examined TPS. However, special attention should be paid when working with cases of adverse conditions such as high dose gradient regions. In these cases, higher errors are derived, especially when an insufficient number of dose calculation points are used for the DVH computation. (author)

  15. Optical properties of deposit models for paints: full-fields FFT computations and representative volume element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzimonti, D. F.; Willot, F.; Jeulin, D.

    2013-04-01

    A 3D model of microstructure containing spherical and rhombi-shaped inclusions 'falling' along a deposit direction is used to simulate the distribution of nanoscale color pigments in paints. The microstructure's anisotropy and length scales, characterized by their covariance functions and representative volume element, follow that of transversely isotropic or orthotropic media. Full-field computations by means of the fast Fourier method are undertaken to compute the local and effective permittivity function of the mixture, as a function of the wavelength in the visible spectrum. Transverse isotropy is numerically recovered for the effective permittivity of the deposit model of spheres. Furthermore, in the complex plane, the transverse and parallel components of the effective permittivity tensor are very close to the frontiers of the Hashin-Shtrikman's domain, at all frequencies (or color) of the incident wave. The representative volume element for the optical properties of paint deposit models are studied. At fixed accuracy, it is much larger for the imaginary part of the permittivity than for the real part, an effect of the strong variations of the electric displacement field, exhibiting hot-spots, a feature previously described in the context of conductivity.

  16. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2017-04-01

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  17. A Computable Plug-In Estimator of Minimum Volume Sets for Novelty Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Chiwoo

    2010-10-01

    A minimum volume set of a probability density is a region of minimum size among the regions covering a given probability mass of the density. Effective methods for finding the minimum volume sets are very useful for detecting failures or anomalies in commercial and security applications-a problem known as novelty detection. One theoretical approach of estimating the minimum volume set is to use a density level set where a kernel density estimator is plugged into the optimization problem that yields the appropriate level. Such a plug-in estimator is not of practical use because solving the corresponding minimization problem is usually intractable. A modified plug-in estimator was proposed by Hyndman in 1996 to overcome the computation difficulty of the theoretical approach but is not well studied in the literature. In this paper, we provide theoretical support to this estimator by showing its asymptotic consistency. We also show that this estimator is very competitive to other existing novelty detection methods through an extensive empirical study. ©2010 INFORMS.

  18. Extended gray level co-occurrence matrix computation for 3D image volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Nurulazirah M.; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina

    2017-02-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is one of the main techniques for texture analysis that has been widely used in many applications. Conventional GLCMs usually focus on two-dimensional (2D) image texture analysis only. However, a three-dimensional (3D) image volume requires specific texture analysis computation. In this paper, an extended 2D to 3D GLCM approach based on the concept of multiple 2D plane positions and pixel orientation directions in the 3D environment is proposed. The algorithm was implemented by breaking down the 3D image volume into 2D slices based on five different plane positions (coordinate axes and oblique axes) resulting in 13 independent directions, then calculating the GLCMs. The resulted GLCMs were averaged to obtain normalized values, then the 3D texture features were calculated. A preliminary examination was performed on a 3D image volume (64 x 64 x 64 voxels). Our analysis confirmed that the proposed technique is capable of extracting the 3D texture features from the extended GLCMs approach. It is a simple and comprehensive technique that can contribute to the 3D image analysis.

  19. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  20. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  1. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  2. Deriving airborne laser scanning based computational canopy volume for forest biomass and allometry studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauhkonen, Jari; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2014-10-01

    A computational canopy volume (CCV) based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is proposed to improve predictions of forest biomass and other related attributes like stem volume and basal area. An approach to derive the CCV based on computational geometry, topological connectivity and numerical optimization was tested with sparse-density, plot-level ALS data acquired from 40 field sample plots of 500-1000 m2 located in a boreal forest in Norway. The CCV had a high correspondence with the biomass attributes considered when derived from optimized filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations based on the point data. Coefficients of determination (R2) between the CCV and total above-ground biomass, canopy biomass, stem volume, and basal area were 0.88-0.89, 0.89, 0.83-0.97, and 0.88-0.92, respectively, depending on the applied filtration. The magnitude of the required filtration was found to increase according to an increasing basal area, which indicated a possibility to predict this magnitude by means of ALS-based height and density metrics. A simple prediction model provided CCVs which had R2 of 0.77-0.90 with the aforementioned forest attributes. The derived CCVs always produced complementary information and were mainly able to improve the predictions of forest biomass relative to models based on the height and density metrics, yet only by 0-1.9 percentage points in terms of relative root mean squared error. Possibilities to improve the CCVs by a further analysis of topological persistence are discussed.

  3. Estimation of volumes of distribution and intratumoral ethanol concentrations by computed tomography scanning after percutaneous ethanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Unger, E C; Seeger, S J; Karmann, S; Krupinski, E A

    1996-01-01

    We developed a technique for estimating the volumes of distribution and intratumoral ethanol concentrations using computed tomography (CT) scanning in patients undergoing percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) treatment of malignant hepatic tumors. A phantom containing anhydrous ethanol diluted with deionized distilled water to concentrations of 0-100% ethanol was scanned by CT. Thirty-seven treatment sessions were performed on eight patients with malignant hepatic tumors undergoing PEI under CT guidance. The patients were scanned pre- and post-PEI, and a region of interest containing the treated hepatic tissue was selected for pixels between -250 and 15 Hounsfield units (H). The mean density of the pixels in this range was computed and the concentration of ethanol estimated. Volumes of distribution of ethanol and intratumoral concentration were then correlated with volume of ethanol injected during PEI. The ratios of volumes of distribution of ethanol to ethanol injected (adjusted in-range [IR]/volume injected) were compared for responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4). CT numbers in the phantom scaled linearly with ethanol concentration; 100% ethanol measured -234 H. On CT scans after PEI, the volume of distribution of ethanol correlated positively with the volume injected. Calculated intratumoral ethanol concentrations ranged from 4% to 31%. The adjusted IR/volume injected was significantly higher for responders than nonresponders (p ethanol distribution in tissue; a larger relative intratumoral distribution of alcohol appears to correlate with a favorable response to PEI. However, CT measurement of intratumoral ethanol concentrations may require more complex computational techniques.

  4. The effects of computed tomography with iterative reconstruction on solid pulmonary nodule volume quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Willemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR on pulmonary nodule volumetry with chest computed tomography (CT. METHODS: Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men, mean age 61.9, range 32-87 underwent evaluation of pulmonary nodules with a 64-slice CT-scanner. Data were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP and IR (Philips Healthcare, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 at similar radiation dose. Volumetric nodule measurements were performed with semi-automatic software on thin slice reconstructions. Only solid pulmonary nodules were measured, no additional selection criteria were used for the nature of nodules. For intra-observer and inter-observer variability, measurements were performed once by one observer and twice by another observer. Algorithms were compared using the concordance correlation-coefficient (pc and Friedman-test, and post-hoc analysis with the Wilcoxon-signed ranks-test with Bonferroni-correction (significance-level p<0.017. RESULTS: Seventy-eight nodules were present including 56 small nodules (volume<200 mm(3, diameter<8 mm and 22 large nodules (volume≥200 mm(3, diameter≥8 mm. No significant differences in measured pulmonary nodule volumes between FBP, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were found in both small nodules and large nodules. FBP and iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were correlated with pc-values of 0.98 or higher for both small and large nodules. Pc-values of intra-observer and inter-observer variability were 0.98 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of solid pulmonary nodule volume measured with standard-FBP were comparable with IR, regardless of the IR-level and no significant differences between measured volumes of both small and large solid nodules were found.

  5. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 3: Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, C.; Hughes, E. D.; Niederauer, G. F.; Wilkening, H.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Royl, P.; Baumann, W.

    1998-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best- estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume

  6. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  7. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  8. Automatic quantification of the myocardial extracellular volume by cardiac computed tomography: Synthetic ECV by CCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treibel, Thomas A; Fontana, Marianna; Steeden, Jennifer A; Nasis, Arthur; Yeung, Jason; White, Steven K; Sivarajan, Sri; Punwani, Shonit; Pugliese, Francesca; Taylor, Stuart A; Moon, James C; Bandula, Steve

    The quantification of extracellular volume fraction (ECV) by Cardiac Computed Tomography (CCT) can identify changes in the myocardial interstitium due to fibrosis or infiltration. Current methodologies require laboratory blood hematocrit (Hct) measurement - which complicates the technique. The attenuation of blood (HUblood) is known to change with anemia. We hypothesized that the relationship between Hct and HUblood could be calibrated to rapidly generate a synthetic ECV without formally measuring Hct. The association between Hct and HUblood was derived from forty non-contrast thoracic CT scans using regression analysis. Synthetic Hct was then used to calculate synthetic ECV, and in turn compared with ECV using blood Hct in a validation cohort with mild interstitial expansion due to fibrosis (aortic stenosis, n = 28, ECVCT = 28 ± 4%) and severe interstitial expansion due to amyloidosis (n = 27; ECVCT = 54 ± 11%, p ECV was correlated with collagen volume fraction (CVF) in a separate cohort with aortic stenosis (n = 18). All CT scans were performed at 120 kV and 160 mAs. HUblood was a good predictor of Hct (R(2) = 0.47; p ECV correlated well with conventional ECV (R(2) = 0.96; p ECV correlated as well as conventional ECV with histological CVF (both R(2) = 0.50, p ECV plug-in for offline analysis. Synthetic ECV by CCT provides instantaneous quantification of the myocardial extracellular space without the need for blood sampling. Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical utility of computed tomographic lung volumes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Sei Won; Huh, Jin Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do

    2014-01-01

    Published data concerning the utility of computed tomography (CT)-based lung volumes are limited to correlation with lung function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the CT expiratory-to-inspiratory lung volume ratio (CT Vratio) by assessing the relationship with clinically relevant outcomes. A total of 75 stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients having pulmonary function testing and volumetric CT at full inspiration and expiration were retrospectively evaluated. Inspiratory and expiratory CT lung volumes were measured using in-house software. Correlation of the CT Vratio with patient-centered outcomes, including the modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea score, the 6-min walk distance (6MWD), the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, and multidimensional COPD severity indices, such as the BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index (BODE) and age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction (ADO), were analyzed. The CT Vratio correlated significantly with BMI (r = -0.528, p < 0.001). The CT Vratio was also significantly associated with MMRC dyspnea (r = 0.387, p = 0.001), 6MWD (r = -0.459, p < 0.001), and SGRQ (r = 0.369, p = 0.001) scores. Finally, the CT Vratio had significant correlations with the BODE and ADO multidimensional COPD severity indices (r = 0.605, p < 0.001; r = 0.411, p < 0.001). The CT Vratio had significant correlations with patient-centered outcomes and multidimensional COPD severity indices. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Computed tomography based forensic gender determination by measuring the size and volume of the maxillary sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhat, Mukul; Rai, Shalu; Kaur, Mandeep; Prabhat, Kanika; Bhatnagar, Puneet; Panjwani, Sapna

    2016-01-01

    Identification of human body or remains after death is a forensic procedure, which is difficult to perform and is mandatory by law and in compliance with social norms. Sexing the recovered human remains is an integral part of the identification process. Maxillary sinus can be used for gender determination as it remains intact even when the skull and other bones may be badly damaged in casualties where the body is incinerated. Computed tomography (CT) provides an excellent method for examining maxillary sinuses. CT images were used to measure the mediolateral, superoinferior, and anteroposterior dimensions and the volume of the maxillary sinuses in 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) to investigate whether these parameters could be used to determine the gender of an individual for forensic identification. The t-test for independent samples was used to compare these values in males and females and the data were subjected to discriminative analysis using SPSS software. Our method was able to predict the gender with an accuracy of 80.0% in males and 86.7% in females, with an overall accuracy rate of 83.3%. The accuracy rate in this study was comparable, if not higher than many other methods that have been used to predict the gender of an individual from skeletal remains. The length, width, height, and volume of the maxillary sinuses together with other bones could be used for gender determination with a fair degree of accuracy when the whole skeleton is not available.

  11. A novel colonic polyp volume segmentation method for computer tomographic colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong C.; Han, Hao; Song, Bowen; Peng, Hao; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Lihua; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer. However, this disease can be prevented by detection and removal of precursor adenomatous polyps after the diagnosis given by experts on computer tomographic colonography (CTC). During CTC diagnosis, the radiologist looks for colon polyps and measures not only the size but also the malignancy. It is a common sense that to segment polyp volumes from their complicated growing environment is of much significance for accomplishing the CTC based early diagnosis task. Previously, the polyp volumes are mainly given from the manually or semi-automatically drawing by the radiologists. As a result, some deviations cannot be avoided since the polyps are usually small (6~9mm) and the radiologists' experience and knowledge are varying from one to another. In order to achieve automatic polyp segmentation carried out by the machine, we proposed a new method based on the colon decomposition strategy. We evaluated our algorithm on both phantom and patient data. Experimental results demonstrate our approach is capable of segment the small polyps from their complicated growing background.

  12. Ethnic differences in coronary plaque and epicardial fat volume quantified using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Daniel B; Narayan, Om; Munnur, Ravi Kiran; Cameron, James D; Wong, Dennis T L; Talman, Andrew H; Harper, Richard W; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Meredith, Ian T; Ko, Brian S

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological studies observed a higher prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in South Asians when compared to Caucasians, but quantitative computed tomography differences in aggregate plaque volume (APV) and epicardial fat volume (EFV) between South Asians, Southeast or East Asians (SEEAs) and Caucasians remain unknown. We aimed to compare APV and EFV quantified on computed-tomographic-coronary-angiography (CTCA) between South Asian, SEEA and Caucasian populations residing in Australia. Age, gender and body-mass-index matched subjects from three ethnic groups who underwent clinically indicated 320-detector CTCA were retrospectively analysed. Percentage APV in the first 5 cm of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and EFV were quantified using dedicated software (Vital Images, USA). One-hundred-and-fifty subjects (average age = 57.7 years, 56 % male, n = 50 in each ethnic group) were analysed. Mean LAD percentage APV was highest in South Asians (44.5 ± 8.4 % vs. 37.5 ± 6.5 % in SEEAs and 39.5 ± 6.4 % in Caucasians, P = 0.00001). South Asian ethnicity predicted LAD APV above traditional risk factors on multivariate analysis (P = 0.000002). EFV was significantly higher in both South Asians (103.2 ± 41.7 cm3 vs. 85.8 ± 39.4 cm3, P = 0.035) and SEEAs (110.8 ± 36.9 cm3 vs. 85.8 ± 39.4 cm3, P = 0.001) when compared with Caucasians. In this cohort LAD percentage APV and EFV, as quantified on CTCA, differs between South Asians, SEEA and Caucasian populations, with higher LAD APV observed in South Asians and lower EFV in Caucasians. Atherosclerotic volume in LAD was best predicted by South Asian ethnicity above traditional risk factors and EFV. Further research is required to establish whether APV and EFV quantification can improve cardiac risk prediction in the South Asian population.

  13. Whole brain C-arm computed tomography parenchymal blood volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V

    2016-04-01

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) imaging in the neuro-interventional suite is a new technique for which detailed whole brain measurements have not been previously reported. This study aims to create a catalogue of PBV measurements for various anatomical regions encompassing the whole brain, using a three-dimensional volume-of-interest (3D-VOI) analysis. We acquired and analysed 30 C-arm FDCT datasets from 26 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), as part of a prospective study comparing C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV with magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging (MR-PWI). We calculated the PBV values for various brain regions with an automated analysis, using 58 pre-defined atlas-based 3D-VOIs encompassing the whole brain. VOIs partially or completely overlapping regions of magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (MR-DWI) abnormality or magnetic resonance cerebral blood flow (MR-CBF) asymmetry were excluded from the analysis. Of the 30 C-arm CT PBV datasets, 14 (54%; 12 patients) had areas of restricted diffusion, the majority of which were focal. The PBV values for the cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter were 4.01 ± 0.47 (mean ± SD) and 3.01 ± 0.39 ml per 100 ml. Lobar PBV values were: frontal lobe 4.2 ± 0.8, temporal lobe 4.2 ± 0.9, parietal lobe 3.9 ± 0.7 and occipital lobe 4.3 ± 0.8 ml/100 ml. The basal ganglia and brainstem PBV values were 3.4 ± 0.7 and 4.6 ± 0.6 ml/100 ml, respectively. Compared with the typical reference cerebral blood volume (CBV) values reported in the literature for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the PBV values were relatively high for the white matter and relatively low for the cortical grey matter. The reported catalogue of PBV values for various brain regions would be useful to inform future studies and could be used in clinical practice, when interpreting PBV maps. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. A moving control volume approach to computing hydrodynamic forces and torques on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Johansen, Hans; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh

    2017-10-01

    We present a moving control volume (CV) approach to computing hydrodynamic forces and torques on complex geometries. The method requires surface and volumetric integrals over a simple and regular Cartesian box that moves with an arbitrary velocity to enclose the body at all times. The moving box is aligned with Cartesian grid faces, which makes the integral evaluation straightforward in an immersed boundary (IB) framework. Discontinuous and noisy derivatives of velocity and pressure at the fluid-structure interface are avoided and far-field (smooth) velocity and pressure information is used. We re-visit the approach to compute hydrodynamic forces and torques through force/torque balance equations in a Lagrangian frame that some of us took in a prior work (Bhalla et al., 2013 [13]). We prove the equivalence of the two approaches for IB methods, thanks to the use of Peskin's delta functions. Both approaches are able to suppress spurious force oscillations and are in excellent agreement, as expected theoretically. Test cases ranging from Stokes to high Reynolds number regimes are considered. We discuss regridding issues for the moving CV method in an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) context. The proposed moving CV method is not limited to a specific IB method and can also be used, for example, with embedded boundary methods.

  15. Volume reconstruction of point cloud data sets derived from computational geodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, D. A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the most widely used numerical modeling techniques in geodynamics to study the evolution of geomaterials is the "marker-and-cell" technique. In such methods the material lithology is represented by Lagrangian particles (markers), while the continuum equations are solved on a background mesh. Significant research has been devoted to improving the efficiency and scalability of these numerical methods to enable high-resolution simulations to be performed on modest computational resources. In contrast, little attention has been given to developing visualization techniques suitable for interrogation high-resolution 3D particle data sets. We describe an efficient algorithm for performing a volume reconstruction of the lithology field defined via particles (code available upon request from the author). The algorithm generates an Approximate Voronoi Diagram (AVD) which transforms particle data sets into a cell-based, volumetric data set. The volumetric representation enables cross sections of the material configuration to be constructed efficiently and unambiguously, thereby enabling the interior material structure of the simulation results to be analyzed. Examples from geodynamic simulations are used to demonstrate visual results possible using this visualization technique. Performance comparisons are made between existing implementations of exact and approximate Voronoi diagrams. Overall, the AVD developed herein is found to be extremely competitive as a visualizing tool for massive particle data sets as it is extremely efficient, has low memory requirements and can be trivially used in a distributed memory computing environment.

  16. A finite-volume, incompressible Navier Stokes model for studies of the ocean on parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Adcroft, Alistair; Hill, Chris; Perelman, Lev; Heisey, Curt

    1997-03-01

    The numerical implementation of an ocean model based on the incompressible Navier Stokes equations which is designed for studies of the ocean circulation on horizontal scales less than the depth of the ocean right up to global scale is described. A "pressure correction" method is used which is solved as a Poisson equation for the pressure field with Neumann boundary conditions in a geometry as complicated as that of the ocean basins. A major objective of the study is to make this inversion, and hence nonhydrostatic ocean modeling, efficient on parallel computers. The pressure field is separated into surface, hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic components. First, as in hydrostatic models, a two-dimensional problem is inverted for the surface pressure which is then made use of in the three-dimensional inversion for the nonhydrostatic pressure. Preconditioned conjugate-gradient iteration is used to invert symmetric elliptic operators in both two and three dimensions. Physically motivated preconditioners are designed which are efficient at reducing computation and minimizing communication between processors. Our method exploits the fact that as the horizontal scale of the motion becomes very much larger than the vertical scale, the motion becomes more and more hydrostatic and the three-dimensional Poisson operator becomes increasingly anisotropic and dominated by the vertical axis. Accordingly, a preconditioner is used which, in the hydrostatic limit, is an exact integral of the Poisson operator and so leads to a single algorithm that seamlessly moves from nonhydrostatic to hydrostatic limits. Thus in the hydrostatic limit the model is "fast," competitive with the fastest ocean climate models in use today based on the hydrostatic primitive equations. But as the resolution is increased, the model dynamics asymptote smoothly to the Navier Stokes equations and so can be used to address small-scale processes. A "finite-volume" approach is employed to discretize the model in

  17. Protostars and Planets VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    star and planet formation. They are used by students to dive into new topics, and they are much valued by experienced researchers as a comprehensive overview of the field with all its interactions. We hope that you will enjoy reading (and learning from) this book as much as we do. The organization of the Protostars and Planets conference was carried out in close collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Center for Astronomy of the University Heidelberg, with generous support from the German Science Foundation. This volume is a product of effort and care by many people. First and foremost, we want to acknowledge the 250 contributing authors, as it is only due to their expertise and knowledge that such a comprehensive review compendium in all its depth and breadth is possible. The Protostars and Planets VI conference and this volume was a major undertaking, with support and contributions by many people and institutions. We like to thank the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee who selected the 38 teams and chapters out of more than 120 submitted proposals. Similarly, we are grateful to the reviewers, who provided valuable input and help to the chapter authors. The book would also not have been possible without the great support of Renée Dotson and other staff from USRA’s Lunar and Planetary Institute, who handled the detailed processing of all manuscripts and the production of the book, and of Allyson Carter and other staff from the University of Arizona Press. We are also grateful to Richard Binzel, the General Editor of the Space Science Series, for his constant support during the long process, from the original concept to this final product. Finally, we would like to express a very special thank you to the entire conference local organizing committee, and in particular, Carmen Cuevas and Natali Jurina, for their great commitment to the project and for a very fruitful and enjoyable collaboration.

  18. Deburring: an annotated bibliography. Volume VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-07-01

    An annotated summary of 138 articles and publications on burrs, burr prevention and deburring is presented. Thirty-seven deburring processes are listed. Entries cited include English, Russian, French, Japanese, and German language articles. Entries are indexed by deburring processes, author, and language. Indexes also indicate which references discuss equipment and tooling, how to use a proces economics, burr properties, and how to design to minimize burr problems. Research studies are identified as are the materials deburred.

  19. and dioxouranium(vi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) with atomic radii of 1.65 and .... to ν(NH) vibrations. Practically no effect on these frequencies after complexation precludes the possibility of metal-coordination at this group. The absorptions at 1600 ... observation suggests involvement of unsaturated nitrogen atoms of the two azomethine groups.

  20. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-01-01

    This study describes and evaluates the use of non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) before and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Computer measured stone volume was used as an exact measurement for treatment response. 81 patients received SWL of kidney stones at Herlev...

  1. Comparison of Epicardial Fat Volume by Computed Tomography in Black Versus White Patients With Acute Chest Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Schindler, Andreas; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Nance, John W.; Tricarico, Francesco; Ebersberger, Ullrich; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Meyer, Mathias; Henzler, Thomas; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Bamberg, Fabian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) between races may be influenced by differences in the thoracic adipose tissue. We compared computed tomography (CT)-derived volumes of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT), and peri-coronary fat thickness (PET) and

  2. Pulmonary blood volume imaging with dual-energy computed tomography: Spectrum of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, K.D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Flors, L.; Housseini, A.M.; Phull, A. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Ali Ahmad, E. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Radiology, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Bozlar, U.; Norton, P.T. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Bonatti, H.J.R. [Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Dual-energy (DE) pulmonary blood volume (PBV) computed tomography (CT) has recently become available on clinical CT systems. The underlying physical principle of DECT is the fact that the photoelectric effect is strongly dependent on the CT energies resulting in different degrees of x-ray attenuation for different materials at different energy levels. DECT thus enables the characterization and quantification of iodine within tissues via imaging at different x-ray energies and analysis of attenuation differences. Technical approaches to DECT include dual-source scanners acquiring two scans with different energy levels simultaneously, and single-source CT scanners using sandwich detectors or rapid voltage switching. DE PBV CT enables the creation of iodine maps of the pulmonary parenchyma. Experience to date shows that these studies can provide additional physiological information in patients with acute or chronic pulmonary embolism beyond the pure morphological assessment a standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides. It appears also to be promising for the evaluation of patients with obstructive airways disease. This article reviews the physics and technical aspects of DE PBV CT as well as the appearance of normal and abnormal lung tissue on these studies. Special consideration is given to pitfalls and artefacts.

  3. A moving control volume method for smooth computation of hydrodynamic forces and torques on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.

    2017-11-01

    Fictitious domain methods for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) have been gaining popularity in the past few decades because of their robustness in handling arbitrarily moving bodies. Often the transient net hydrodynamic forces and torques on the body are desired quantities for these types of simulations. In past studies using immersed boundary (IB) methods, force measurements are contaminated with spurious oscillations due to evaluation of possibly discontinuous spatial velocity of pressure gradients within or on the surface of the body. Based on an application of the Reynolds transport theorem, we present a moving control volume (CV) approach to computing the net forces and torques on a moving body immersed in a fluid. The approach is shown to be accurate for a wide array of FSI problems, including flow past stationary and moving objects, Stokes flow, and high Reynolds number free-swimming. The approach only requires far-field (smooth) velocity and pressure information, thereby suppressing spurious force oscillations and eliminating the need for any filtering. The proposed moving CV method is not limited to a specific IB method and is straightforward to implement within an existing parallel FSI simulation software. This work is supported by NSF (Award Numbers SI2-SSI-1450374, SI2-SSI-1450327, and DGE-1324585), the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, ASCR (Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231), and NIH (Award Number HL117163).

  4. A Computational Model for the Automatic Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Based on Functional Brain Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs, using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images. Brain volumes measured from fMRI images were denoted as functional volumes, which quantified the volumes of brain regions that were actually functioning during fMRI imaging. We compared the predictive power of functional volumes with that of regional brain volumes measured from anatomical images, which were denoted as anatomical volumes. The former demonstrated higher discriminative power than the latter for the classification of ADHD patients vs. TDCs. Combined with our two-step feature selection approach which integrated prior knowledge with the recursive feature elimination (RFE algorithm, our SVM classification model combining functional volumes and demographic characteristics achieved a balanced accuracy of 67.7%, which was 16.1% higher than that of a relevant model published previously in the work of Sato et al. Furthermore, our classifier highlighted 10 brain regions that were most discriminative in distinguishing between ADHD patients and TDCs. These 10 regions were mainly located in occipital lobe, cerebellum posterior lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. Our present study using functional images will likely provide new perspectives about the brain regions affected by ADHD.

  5. Differences in Computed Individual-Tree Volumes Caused by Differences in Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall

    2008-01-01

    Individual-tree volumes are primarily predicted using volume equations that rely on measured tree attributes. In the northeastern United States, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program determines tree volume using dbh, bole height, proportion of cull, and species information. These measurements are subject to variability due to a host of factors. The sensitivity of...

  6. Relationship between pulmonary artery volumes at computed tomography and pulmonary artery pressures in patients with- and without pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, Jens J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: jens.froelich@klinikum-hef.de; Koenig, Helmut [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: helmut.koenig@siemens.com; Knaak, Lennard [Department of Medicine, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: froehlic@staff.uni-marburg.de; Krass, Stefan [MeVis Research, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: krass@mevis.de; Klose, Klaus J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: klose@med.uni-marburg.de

    2008-09-15

    Objectives: This study was designed to determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) volumes at computed tomography (CT) and PA pressures at right-sided heart catheterization in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PAH) to develop a noninvasive CT method of PA pressure quantification. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with chronic sleep apnea syndrome underwent contrast enhanced helical CT (slice thickness 3 mm; pitch 2; increment 2 mm) at inspiration. Eight patients had PAH while cardiopulmonary disease has been excluded in eight other patients. Vascular volumes were determined using a 3D technique (threshold seeded vascular tracing algorithm; thresholds -600 H [lower] and 3000 H [upper]). Right-sided heart catheterization measurements were available for linear regression analysis of PA volumes and pressures. Results: Correlation between PA pressures and volumes (normalized for BMI), was high in both groups (without PAH: r = .85; with PAH .90, Pearson). Compared to elevated PA pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < .005), PA volumes also were significantly increased (p < .05) among the groups. Conclusions: High correlation was found between PA volumes and mean PA pressures in patients with- and without PAH. Significant differences in PA volumes at CT-volumetry may admit non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension.

  7. VI Nukitsa konkurss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    VI Nukitsa konkursi auhinnad: Kirjanikud: I - Henno Käo ("Kusagil mujal"); II - Aidi Vallik ("Kuidas elad, Ann?"); III - Artur Jurin ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Kunstnikud: I - Karel Korp (Leelo Tungla ja Karel Korbi "Tema amet"); II - Edgar Valter ("Kuidas õppida vaatama?"); III - Artur Jurin - ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Täiskasvanute küsitluse võitis nii teksti kui piltidega Ene-Maris Tali ja Tarmo Tali "Tähtraamat. Aastaring Maarjamaal"

  8. Blast Noise Prediction. Volume II. BNOISE 3.2 Computer Program Description and Program Listing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    1 )l L 11C~uLf I iTI 1 Td 1 ’ :1 PIt ILfd Lk 1 IIl 1 ~~ it tLui IIICht’ 11 ild . 2 II!Cd Lih L ! iIiltc i\\i) M A( 11,il , l Iiil I!31 -1 1(, And -O...VI. Percentage Correction Factors Ine tajh)Ce I ,ted hBr -\\B(jIN arc under the conditions of standard percent/temperature inver- ,,on .i t:trs , hcse

  9. Renal cortical volume measured using automatic contouring software for computed tomography and its relationship with BMI, age and renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Natalia Sayuri, E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Harris, Ardene A., E-mail: ardene_b@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Onodera, Yuya, E-mail: yuyaonodera@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between renal cortical volume, measured by an automatic contouring software, with body mass index (BMI), age and renal function. Materials and methods: The study was performed in accordance to the institutional guidelines at our hospital. Sixty-four patients (34 men, 30 women), aged 19 to 79 years had their CT scans for diagnosis or follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma retrospectively examined by a computer workstation using a software that automatically contours the renal cortex and the renal parenchyma. Body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated based on data collected. Statistical analysis was done using the Student t-test, multiple regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The ICC for total renal and renal cortical volumes were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Renal volume measurements yielded a mean cortical volume of 105.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 28.4 SD, mean total volume of 153 cm{sup 3} {+-} 39 SD and mean medullary volume of 47.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 19.5 SD. The correlation between body weight/height/BMI and both total renal and cortical volumes presented r = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, p < 0.05, while the correlation between renal cortex and age was r = -0.3, p < 0.05. eGFR showed correlation with renal cortical volume r = 0.6, p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that renal cortical volume had a moderate positive relationship with BMI, moderate negative relationship with age, and a strong positive relationship with the renal function, and provided a new method to routinely produce volumetric assessment of the kidney.

  10. Stature estimation from sternum length using computed tomography-volume rendering technique images of western Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Luo, Ying-zhen; Fan, Fei; Zheng, Jie-qian; Yang, Min; Li, Tao; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to generate linear regression models for stature estimation on the basis of sternum length derived from computed tomography-volume rendering technique (CT-VRT) images for Western Chinese. The study sample comprised 288 individuals of Western Chinese, including 124 females and 164 males, with documented ages between 19 and 78 years, and was randomly divided into two subgroups. The linear regression analysis for the calibration sample data yielded the following formulae: male stature (cm) = 137.28 + 1.99*combined length of manubrium and mesosternum and female stature (cm) = 111.59 + 3.51* combined length of manubrium and mesosternum. Pearson's correlation coefficients for the regression models were r = 0.459 and r = 0.541 for the male and female formulae, respectively. The standard errors of the estimate (SEE) were 4.76 cm for the male equation and 6.73 cm for the female equation. The 95% confidence intervals of the predicted values encompassed the correct stature of all specimen in the validation sample. The regression equations derived from the sternum length in the present study can be used for stature estimation and the length of the sternum is a reliable predictor of stature in Chinese when better predictors of stature like the long bones are not available, and the CT-VRT method may be a practical method for stature estimation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Constructing high-quality bounding volume hierarchies for N-body computation using the acceptance volume heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, O.

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel heuristic derived from a probabilistic cost model for approximate N-body simulations. We show that this new heuristic can be used to guide tree construction towards higher quality trees with improved performance over current N-body codes. This represents an important step beyond the current practice of using spatial partitioning for N-body simulations, and enables adoption of a range of state-of-the-art algorithms developed for computer graphics applications to yield further improvements in N-body simulation performance. We outline directions for further developments and review the most promising such algorithms.

  12. ICAM (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing) Conceptual Design for Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. Volume 1. Project Overview and Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-29

    Manufa ,turing Control Composite...8217 ’ i ’t’ I’ :~ : > tl;· I ,,. ~ HOST I·· liD li . CPU I, ~ ~. ·’ I . I A.T./IRM/ COMPUTER NETWORKS LINKING INFORf𔃻ATION PHYSICALLY...IN THE FACTORY "TAPPED" ’ LINE f ! HosT l. CPU I ~a ’-ct-’ ::: .... :;:1 0 D V\\ .... ...-o .00 CIDO •g m ~~~R~ COMPUTER NETWORKS

  13. Miocárdio viável pela tomografia computadorizada com Tc-99m (MIBI sensibilizada por nitroglicerina endovenosa Viable myocardium scintigraphy with intravenous nitroglycerine by computed tomography with Tc-99m (MIBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramos Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A seleção de pacientes com doença coronariana crônica para recanalização baseia-se na detecção do miocárdio comprometido, potencialmente viável. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o miocárdio isquêmico, potencialmente viável pelo SPECT com MIBI sensibilizado por nitroglicerina em dose máxima tolerada. MÉTODOS: Investigamos de forma prospectiva, de abril de 2004 a novembro de 2005, pela tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único SPECT com Tc-99m (MIBI, 40 pacientes (média etária 62 ± 8,9 anos, 30 homens com obstrtução coronariana demonstrada angiograficamente, e a cintilografia miocárdica foi realizada em repouso e com nitroglicerina endovenosa (EV, iniciando com a dose (1 µg/kg/min e incremento a cada minuto, até a queda da pressão arterial sistólica em 20 mmHg. A redução da perfusão dos segmentos foi classificada em moderada e severa, e comparada depois da nitroglicerina. Analisamos as variáveis angiográficas, hemodinâmicas e de perfusão miocárdica. RESULTADOS: Analisamos 680 segmentos miocárdicos em repouso: 538 com distribuição homogênea e 142 com hipoperfusão (54 com redução moderada e 88 severa. Depois da nitroglicerina, ocorreu aumento da perfusão em 19 (47,5% de 40 pacientes. Tornaram-se viáveis 55 de 142 segmentos: 33 (61,1% com redução moderada e 22 (25% com redução severa, ambos apresentaram aumento significativo da distribuição do radiofármaco (p BACKGROUND: The selection of patients with chronic coronary disease for recanalization is based on the detection of the affected myocardium that is potentially viable. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potentially viable ischemic myocardium through single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with MIBI after a maximum tolerated dose of I.V. nitroglycerin. METHODS: We prospectively investigated by SPECT with Tc-99m (MIBI, from April 2004 to November 2005, 40 patients (mean age: 62 ± 8.9 yrs, 30 men with coronary obstruction demonstrated

  14. Volume-energy correlations in the slow degrees of freedom of computer-simulated phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Peters, Günther H.; Schrøder, Thomas

    Constant-pressure molecular-dynamics simulations of phospholipid membranes in the fluid phase reveal strong correlations between equilibrium fluctuations of volume and energy on the nanosecond time-scale. The existence of strong volume-energy correlations was previously deduced indirectly by Heim...

  15. Volume-Energy Correlations in the Slow Degrees of Freedom of Computer-Simulated Phospholipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Schröder, T.B.

    2008-01-01

    Constant-pressure molecular-dynamics simulations of phospholipid membranes in the fluid Lα phase reveal strong correlations between equilibrium fluctuations of volume and energy on the nanosecond time-scale. The existence of strong volume-energy correlations was previously deduced indirectly...

  16. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Miscellaneous -- Volume 3, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, L.M.; Jordon, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Edwards, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice; (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System developments has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3--for the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  17. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Control modules -- Volume 1, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Knight, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3 for the documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  18. Optimum absorption and aperture parameters for realistic coupled volume spaces determined from computational analysis and subjective testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David T; Wang, Lily M

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes computational modeling to study the effects of varying two architectural parameters, absorption ratio and aperture size, in a realistic coupled volume concert hall. Coupled volumes have been shown to exhibit non-exponential sound energy decay profiles, referred to as double slope effect. A number of objective metrics (T30/T15, LDT/T10, decay ratio, and DeltaL) have been used to quantify the double slope effect of the profiles generated in the virtual hall. T30/T15 and LDT/T10 showed similar trends across all hall configurations, indicating decreasing double slope effect with increasing coupled volume absorption ratio for each aperture size, and producing highest values at a specific aperture size for each absorption ratio. Generally, LDT/T10 provides finer resolution than T30/T15 when analyzing the decay profiles in this study. Results from the two metrics derived from Bayesian analysis, decay ratio and DeltaL, seem less consistent. Subjective testing has also been conducted to determine the effect of varying the two architectural parameters in the hall, and multidimensional scaling analysis shows that, in general, listener preference is inversely proportional to the level of double slope effect, with the highest levels of preference occurring at low and medium levels of double slope effect. Recommended design guidelines for coupled volume halls are provided based on these computational and subjective results.

  19. Miocárdio viável pela tomografia computadorizada com Tc-99m (MIBI) sensibilizada por nitroglicerina endovenosa Viable myocardium scintigraphy with intravenous nitroglycerine by computed tomography with Tc-99m (MIBI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Ramos Filho; Marcos Welber Nascimento; Rafael Mariano Gislon da Silva; Thiago Negrini de Camargo; Roberto Simões de Almeida; Eloá Jacinto Lima

    2008-01-01

    ... viável pelo SPECT com MIBI sensibilizado por nitroglicerina em dose máxima tolerada. MÉTODOS: Investigamos de forma prospectiva, de abril de 2004 a novembro de 2005, pela tomografia computadorizada por...

  20. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix A. Regulation. Volume II. Coordinated Basic Data and Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    P PS3 - P -F-PS PS aS a- 44 aSP4 4440 w 410 VI 0 b V44t 41 0404 4 -0 4 V-V-PF- 9 4P 4 VP S 4 Q V - onWI nmm itnW ,o nI no mwmwmmwmmwwi nc4 IL I -- O...C - P- 4* 0&2, in 4D p- D- 4D 4- D NP -3’- 9’ - IDP e’ 3𔃺 CP C -P P-V- P 0- ’ V’ 0- V- 40- M’ 3’- P- A-U’- -1 P- I- P- o- 1P.- 9- POI.. P- 1P.- r

  1. Dose-volume analysis of target volume and critical structures in computed tomography image-based multicatheter high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Akiyama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate dose-volume relationships of target volume and critical structures in computed tomography (CT image-based brachytherapy for head and neck cancer. Material and methods : Thirty-seven patients with mobile tongue, floor of mouth, and base of tongue cancer treated with brachytherapy (post-operative alone and as a boost after external beam radiotherapy [EBRT], or definitive alone or as a boost after EBRT were selected. Treatment plans were made using post-implant CT images. The fractionation schedule was 7-15 × 3-5 Gy for post-operative (with or without EBRT, 14-15 × 3 Gy for definitive alone, and 5-10 × 3 Gy for boost treatments. For the target volume, V 100 , D 90 , and dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR were calculated. For the mandible, spinal cord and salivary glands doses to specified volumes were reported. Results : The median values of V 100 and D 90 were 89.9% and 99.9%, respectively; the median values of DNR was 0.46. The median D 2cm 3 of the mandible and spinal cord were 48.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The ipsilateral median D 2cm 3 of parotid and submandibular glands were 6.4% and 12.5%, whereas on the contralateral side, the corresponding values were 5.3% and 7.0%, respectively. Conclusions : Using conformal treatment planning, it was desirable to keep the dose to the mandible, spinal cord, and salivary glands at an acceptable level. The quantitative plan evaluation may help us find correlations between dosimetric parameters and clinical outcome, which may lead to improve the quality of the treatment, but it requires longer follow-up and results from other studies.

  2. Measurement of cardiac ventricular volumes using multidetector row computed tomography: comparison of two- and three-dimensional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaudon, M. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire d' Anatomie Medico-Chirurgicale Appliquee, Bordeaux (France); Laffon, E. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pessac (France); Berger, P. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire C.R.I. INSERM 9806, Bordeaux (France); Corneloup, O.; Latrabe, V. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Laurent, F. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Departement de Radiologie, Bordeaux (France)

    2006-10-15

    This study compared a three-dimensional volumetric threshold-based method to a two-dimensional Simpson's rule based short-axis multiplanar method for measuring right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) volumes, stroke volumes, and ejection fraction using electrocardiography-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data sets. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) of RV and LV were measured independently and blindly by two observers from contrast-enhanced MDCT images using commercial software in 18 patients. For RV and LV the three-dimensionally calculated EDV and ESV values were smaller than those provided by two-dimensional short axis (10%, 5%, 15% and 26% differences respectively). Agreement between the two methods was found for LV (EDV/ESV: r=0.974/0.910, ICC=0.905/0.890) but not for RV (r=0.882/0.930, ICC=0.663/0.544). Measurement errors were significant only for EDV of LV using the two-dimensional method. Similar reproducibility was found for LV measurements, but the three-dimensional method provided greater reproducibility for RV measurements than the two-dimensional. The threshold value supported three-dimensional method provides reproducible cardiac ventricular volume measurements, comparable to those obtained using the short-axis Simpson based method. (orig.)

  3. Vi tror, vi forstår hinanden, men det gør vi ikke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2016-01-01

    Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den......Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den...

  4. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Adam D.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  5. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yock, Adam D., E-mail: ADYock@mdanderson.org; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  6. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 1: Final report. [onboard computerized communications system for spacecrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques, methods, and system requirements are reported for an onboard computerized communications system that provides on-line computing capability during manned space exploration. Communications between man and computer take place by sequential execution of each discrete step of a procedure, by interactive progression through a tree-type structure to initiate tasks or by interactive optimization of a task requiring man to furnish a set of parameters. Effective communication between astronaut and computer utilizes structured vocabulary techniques and a word recognition system.

  7. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  8. Nitrogen washout/washin, helium dilution and computed tomography in the assessment of end expiratory lung volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumello, Davide; Cressoni, Massimo; Chierichetti, Monica; Tallarini, Federica; Botticelli, Marco; Berto, Virna; Mietto, Cristina; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Introduction End expiratory lung volume (EELV) measurement in the clinical setting is routinely performed using the helium dilution technique. A ventilator that implements a simplified version of the nitrogen washout/washin technique is now available. We compared the EELV measured by spiral computed tomography (CT) taken as gold standard with the lung volume measured with the modified nitrogen washout/washin and with the helium dilution technique. Methods Patients admitted to the general intensive care unit of Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Mangiagalli Regina Elena requiring ventilatory support and, for clinical reasons, thoracic CT scanning were enrolled in this study. We performed two EELV measurements with the modified nitrogen washout/washin technique (increasing and decreasing inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) by 10%), one EELV measurement with the helium dilution technique and a CT scan. All measurements were taken at 5 cmH2O airway pressure. Each CT scan slice was manually delineated and gas volume was computed with custom-made software. Results Thirty patients were enrolled (age = 66 +/- 10 years, body mass index = 26 +/- 18 Kg/m2, male/female ratio = 21/9, partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaO2)/FiO2 = 190 +/- 71). The EELV measured with the modified nitrogen washout/washin technique showed a very good correlation (r2 = 0.89) with the data computed from the CT with a bias of 94 +/- 143 ml (15 +/- 18%, p = 0.001), within the limits of accuracy declared by the manufacturer (20%). The bias was shown to be highly reproducible, either decreasing or increasing the FiO2 being 117+/-170 and 70+/-160 ml (p = 0.27), respectively. The EELV measured with the helium dilution method showed a good correlation with the CT scan data (r2 = 0.91) with a negative bias of 136 +/- 133 ml, and appeared to be more correct at low lung volumes. Conclusions The EELV measurement with the helium dilution technique (at low volumes) and modified nitrogen washout/washin technique

  9. Liquid rocket combustion computer model with distributed energy release. DER computer program documentation and user's guide, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for analyzing rocket engine performance was developed. The program is concerned with the formation, distribution, flow, and combustion of liquid sprays and combustion product gases in conventional rocket combustion chambers. The capabilities of the program to determine the combustion characteristics of the rocket engine are described. Sample data code sheets show the correct sequence and formats for variable values and include notes concerning options to bypass the input of certain data. A seperate list defines the variables and indicates their required dimensions.

  10. MELCOR computer code manuals: Primer and user`s guides, Version 1.8.3 September 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users` Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  11. Formal Methods Specification and Verification Guidebook for Software and Computer Systems. Volume 1; Planning and Technology Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Formal Methods Specification and Verification Guidebook for Software and Computer Systems describes a set of techniques called Formal Methods (FM), and outlines their use in the specification and verification of computer systems and software. Development of increasingly complex systems has created a need for improved specification and verification techniques. NASA's Safety and Mission Quality Office has supported the investigation of techniques such as FM, which are now an accepted method for enhancing the quality of aerospace applications. The guidebook provides information for managers and practitioners who are interested in integrating FM into an existing systems development process. Information includes technical and administrative considerations that must be addressed when establishing the use of FM on a specific project. The guidebook is intended to aid decision makers in the successful application of FM to the development of high-quality systems at reasonable cost. This is the first volume of a planned two-volume set. The current volume focuses on administrative and planning considerations for the successful application of FM.

  12. Measurement of orbital volumes following trauma using low-dose computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Stopford Medical School, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Stopford Medical School, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-04-01

    We describe a simple CT technique for the assessment of enophthalmos and measurement of orbital volumes following trauma. The technique uses original diagnostic CT images, standard CT software and involves no additional radiation dose or scan time. The results of this technique in 66 patients with orbital trauma are presented. The incidence of post-traumatic enophthalmos was significantly raised in association with combined blow-out fractures of the floor and medial wall of the orbit and where orbital blow-out fractures occurred in conjunction with zygomatic injury. Patients without bony injury had a traumatised orbit volume less than 1 cm{sup 3} greater than the non-traumatised side in all cases. Intra-observer reproducibility of the measurement of difference in volume between traumatised and non-traumatised orbit was {+-}0.3 cm{sup 3} (1 SD). In patients with fracture, increase in orbital volume by more than 2 cm{sup 3} compared with the contralateral orbit was strongly associated with enophthalmos (sensitivity 100%, positive predictive value 69%). We conclude that routine volumetric assessment following orbital trauma provides a clinically useful, objective assessment of the risk of post-traumatic enophthalmos and that an increase in orbital volume greater than 2 cm{sup 3} is an indication for surgical repair. (orig.)

  13. Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography--A Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C

    2015-06-01

    Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region's visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Electron-Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm(2) field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical measurements were 0.97 ± 0.03 and 1.10

  14. Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography—A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chao-Jen, E-mail: cjlai3711@gmail.com; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region’s visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Methods: Electron–Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm{sup 2} field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. Results: The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical

  15. Quantum Computation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Quantum Computation - Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. General Article Volume 16 ... Keywords. Boolean logic; computation; computational complexity; digital language; Hilbert space; qubit; superposition; Feynman.

  16. PROTEUS two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Suresh, Ambady

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to solve the two-dimensional or axisymmetric, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. Turbulence is modeled using an algebraic eddy viscosity model. The objective was to develop a code for aerospace applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The equations are written in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, and solved by marching in time using a fully-coupled alternating direction-implicit procedure with generalized first- or second-order time differencing. All terms are linearized using second-order Taylor series. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly, and may be steady, unsteady, or spatially periodic. Simple Cartesian or polar grids may be generated internally by the program. More complex geometries require an externally generated computational coordinate system. The documentation is divided into three volumes. Volume 2 is the User's Guide, and describes the program's general features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  17. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  18. [Significance of static pressure-volume loop and lung computed tomography for differential diagnostics of parenchymal respiratory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaroshetskiĭ, A I; Protsenko, D N; Ignatenko, O V; Larin, E S; Novoselova, E V; Sulimova, I Iu; Gel'fand, B R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to determine a significance of static pressure-volume loop and lung computed tomography for differential diagnostics of parenchymal lung failure developing during mechanical ventilation. 75 patients (42 males and 33 females) with acute lung failure due to parenchymal lung injury during mechanical ventilation were included in to the research. Criteria of including into the research were age over 15, ARDS symptoms absence before respiratory support beginning and modified American-European Consensus Conference ARDS criteria presence during mechanical ventilation (AECC ARDS criteria, 1994--PaO2/FiO2 respiratory failure due to parenchimal lung injury (p = 0.023). Lung CT plays leading role in differential diagnostics of parenchymal lung failure developing during mechanical ventilation. In the luck of CT scan elevation of plateau pressure over 30 mbar and values of lower inflection point on the static pressure-volume loop over 12 mbar can predict ARDS.

  19. Role of volume rendered 3-D computed tomography in conservative management of trauma-related thoracic injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OʼLeary, Donal Peter

    2012-09-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are a tool used commonly in the construction industry and are widely available. Accidental injuries from nail guns are common, and several cases of suicide using a nail gun have been reported. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging, together with echocardiography, has been shown to be the gold standard for investigation of these cases. We present a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the accident and emergency unit of a community hospital following an accidental pneumatic nail gun injury to his thorax. Volume-rendered CT of the thorax allowed an accurate assessment of the thoracic injuries sustained by this patient. As there was no evidence of any acute life-threatening injury, a sternotomy was avoided and the patient was observed closely until discharge. In conclusion, volume-rendered 3-dimensional CT can greatly help in the decision to avoid an unnecessary sternotomy in patients with a thoracic nail gun injury.

  20. A computationally efficient 3D finite-volume scheme for violent liquid–gas sloshing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oxtoby, Oliver F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available . The high resolution artificial compressive (HiRAC) volume-of-fluid method is used for accurate capturing of the free surface in violent flow regimes while allowing natural applicability to hybrid-unstructured meshes. The code is parallelised for solution...

  1. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 1, Computer Codes Volume 3: Utility Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2004-09-14

    This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  3. ICAM (Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide. Volume 7. Technology Transfer Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    TechMod Pro- gram, Tech Area 3, "Computer-Aided Value Engineering". Colt Industries * Assist in automating production lines . Computer Avionics e Optimize...design and manufacture of power system equipment, power supplies, radar modulations, radar equipment, and test equipment. Emhart Machinery Assist in...manufacturability impacts to mechanical designers. ITT Defense Comunications e Analyze design to unit productionK costs; provide guidelines for program

  4. A new coupled computational method in conjunction with three-dimensional finite volume schemes for nonlinear coupled constitutive relations

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhongzheng; Zhao, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    Non-equilibrium effects play a vital role in high-speed and rarefied gas flows and the accurate simulation of these flow regimes are far beyond the capability of near-local-equilibrium Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. Eu proposed generalized hydrodynamic equations which are consistent with the laws of irreversible thermodynamics to solve this problem. Based on Eu's generalized hydrodynamics equations, a computational model, namely the nonlinear coupled constitutive relations(NCCR),was developed by R.S.Myong and applied successfully to one-dimensional shock wave structure and two-dimensional rarefied flows. In this paper, finite volume schemes, including LU-SGS time advance scheme, MUSCL interpolation and AUSMPW+ scheme, are fistly adopted to investigate NCCR model's validity and potential in three-dimensional complex hypersonic rarefied gas flows. Moreover, in order to solve the computational stability problems in 3D complex flows,a modified solution is developed for the NCCR model. Finally, the modified solu...

  5. FY05-FY06 Advanced Simulation and Computing Implementation Plan, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, A L

    2004-07-19

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program will require the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapon design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile life extension programs and the resolution of significant finding investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced system of technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions.

  6. Model-Based Computation of Total Stressed Blood Volume from a Preload Reduction Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Pironet, Antoine; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J. Geoffrey; MORIMONT, Philippe; Dauby, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Total stressed blood volume is an important parameter for both doctors and engineers. From a medical point of view, it has been associated with the success or failure of fluid resuscitation therapy, which is a treatment for cardiac failure. From an engineering point of view, this parameter dictates the cardiovascular system's dynamic behavior. Current methods to determine this parameter involve repeated phases of circulatory arrests followed by fluid administration. In this work, a method is ...

  7. Serial assessment of pulmonary lesion volume by computed tomography allows survival prediction in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehreschild, J.J.; Vehreschild, M.J.G.T. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Cologne (Germany); German Centre for Infection Research, Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Chest Clinic at University Hospital Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Groll, A.H. [University Children' s Hospital, Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Silling, G. [University of Muenster, Department of Medicine A, Haematology/Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Wuerthwein, G. [University Hospital Muenster, Centre for Clinical Trials, ZKS Muenster (Germany); Brecht, M. [Chest Clinic at University Hospital Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Cornely, O.A. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Clinical Trials Center Cologne, ZKS Koeln (BMBF 01KN1106), Cologne (Germany); Center for Integrated Oncology CIO Koeln Bonn, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), Cologne (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Serial chest CT is the standard of care to establish treatment success in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Data are lacking how response should be defined. Digital CT images from a clinical trial on treatment of IPA were re-evaluated and compared with available biomarkers. Total volume of pneumonia was added up after manual measurement of each lesion, followed by statistical analysis. One-hundred and ninety CT scans and 309 follow-up datasets from 40 patients were available for analysis. Thirty-one were neutropenic. Baseline galactomannan (OR 4.06, 95%CI: 1.08-15.31) and lesion volume (OR 3.14, 95%CI: 0.73-13.52) were predictive of death. Lesion volume at d7 and trend between d7 and d14 were strong predictors of death (OR 20.01, 95%CI: 1.42-282.00 and OR 15.97, 95%CI: 1.62-157.32) and treatment being rated as unsuccessful (OR 4.75, 95%CI: 0.94-24.05 and OR 40.69, 95%CI: 2.55-649.03), which was confirmed by a Cox proportional hazards model using time-dependent covariates. Any increase in CT lesion volume between day 7 and day 14 was a sensitive marker of a lethal outcome (>50%), supporting a CT rescan each one and 2 weeks after initial detection of IPA. The predictive value exceeded all other biomarkers. Further CT follow-up after response at day 14 was of low additional value. (orig.)

  8. Prognostic value of epicardial fat volume measurements by computed tomography: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, James V; Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U Joseph; Krazinski, Aleksander W; Herbert, Teri L; De Cecco, Carlo N; Nietert, Paul J; Meinel, Felix G

    2015-11-01

    To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging. Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. A total of 411 studies were evaluated with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All nine studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and six of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and six of these studies found a significant association. The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cutoff of 125 mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. • Epicardial fat volume (EFV) has prognostic value for adverse cardiac events • Establishment of standardized quantitative categories for EFV is needed • Quantification of EFV could improve risk assessment with calcium scoring.

  9. General-purpose computer networks and resource sharing in ERDA. Volume 3. Remote resource-sharing experience and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-15

    The investigation focused on heterogeneous networks in which a variety of dissimilar computers and operating systems were interconnected nationwide. Homogeneous networks, such as MFE net and SACNET, were not considered since they could not be used for general purpose resource sharing. Issues of privacy and security are of concern in any network activity. However, consideration of privacy and security of sensitive data arise to a much lesser degree in unclassified scientific research than in areas involving personal or proprietary information. Therefore, the existing mechanisms at individual sites for protecting sensitive data were relied on, and no new protection mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy and security were attempted. Further development of ERDA networking will need to incorporate additional mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy. The investigation itself furnishes an excellent example of computational resource sharing through a heterogeneous network. More than twenty persons, representing seven ERDA computing sites, made extensive use of both ERDA and non-ERDA computers in coordinating, compiling, and formatting the data which constitute the bulk of this report. Volume 3 analyzes the benefits and barriers encountered in actual resource sharing experience, and provides case histories of typical applications.

  10. Advanced Simulation & Computing FY15 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Michel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Archer, Bill [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matzen, M. Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-16

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of experimental facilities and programs, and the computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources that support annual stockpile assessment and certification, study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balance of resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. As the program approaches the end of its second decade, ASC is intently focused on increasing predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional (3D) simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (sufficient resolution, dimensionality, and scientific details), quantify critical margins and uncertainties, and resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Where possible, the program also enables the use of high-performance simulation and computing tools to address broader national security needs, such as foreign nuclear weapon assessments and counternuclear terrorism.

  11. A digital computer program for the dynamic interaction simulation of controls and structure (DISCOS), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.; Frisch, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical development and associated digital computer program system for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft are presented. The dynamic system (spacecraft) is modeled as an assembly of rigid and/or flexible bodies not necessarily in a topological tree configuration. The computer program system is used to investigate total system dynamic characteristics, including interaction effects between rigid and/or flexible bodies, control systems, and a wide range of environmental loadings. In addition, the program system is used for designing attitude control systems and for evaluating total dynamic system performance, including time domain response and frequency domain stability analyses.

  12. Control Volume Finite Element Method with Multidimensional Edge Element Scharfetter-Gummel upwinding. Part 2. Computational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    In [3] we proposed a new Control Volume Finite Element Method with multi-dimensional, edge- based Scharfetter-Gummel upwinding (CVFEM-MDEU). This report follows up with a detailed computational study of the method. The study compares the CVFEM-MDEU method with other CVFEM and FEM formulations for a set of standard scalar advection-diffusion test problems in two dimensions. The first two CVFEM formulations are derived from the CVFEM-MDEU by simplifying the computation of the flux integrals on the sides of the control volumes, the third is the nodal CVFEM [2] without upwinding, and the fourth is the streamline upwind version of CVFEM [10]. The finite elements in our study are the standard Galerkin, SUPG and artificial diffusion methods. All studies employ logically Cartesian partitions of the unit square into quadrilateral elements. Both uniform and non-uniform grids are considered. Our results demonstrate that CVFEM-MDEU and its simplified versions perform equally well on rectangular or nearly rectangular grids. However, performance of the simplified versions significantly degrades on non-affine grids, whereas the CVFEM-MDEU remains stable and accurate over a wide range of mesh Peclet numbers and non-affine grids. Compared to FEM formulations the CVFEM-MDEU appears to be slightly more dissipative than the SUPG, but has much less local overshoots and undershoots.

  13. PROTEUS two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Suresh, Ambady

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to solve the 2-D or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. Turbulence is modeled using an algebraic eddy viscosity model. The objective was to develop a code for aerospace applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The equations are written in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, and solved by marching in time using a fully-coupled alternating-direction-implicit procedure with generalized first- or second-order time differencing. All terms are linearized using second-order Taylor series. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly, and may be steady, unsteady, or spatially periodic. Simple Cartesian or polar grids may be generated internally by the program. More complex geometries require an externally generated computational coordinate system. The documentation is divided into three volumes. Volume 3 is the Programmer's Reference, and describes the program structure, the FORTRAN variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram.

  14. PROTEUS two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Suresh, Ambady

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to solve the two-dimensional or axisymmetric, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. Turbulence is modeled using an algebraic eddy viscosity model. The objective was to develop a code for aerospace applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The equations are written in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, and solved by marching in time using a fully-coupled alternating direction-implicit procedure with generalized first- or second-order time differencing. All terms are linearized using second-order Taylor series. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly, and may be steady, unsteady, or spatially periodic. Simple Cartesian or polar grids may be generated internally by the program. More complex geometries require an externally generated computational coordinate system. The documentation is divided into three volumes. Volume 1 is the Analysis Description, and describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  15. Comparison of pharyngeal airway volume among different vertical skeletal patterns: a cone-beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Bayram, Mehmet; Sekerci, Ahmet E; Buyuk, Suleyman K; Toy, Ebubekir

    2014-09-01

    To test the null hypothesis that there are no significant differences in pharyngeal airway volumes among adult patients with different vertical skeletal patterns and a clinically normal sagittal skeletal pattern using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study sample consisted of 100 adult patients (45 men and 55 women; mean age  =  24.0 ± 5.3 years) with a normal sagittal skeletal pattern divided into three groups according to the vertical skeletal patterns: high angle (32 patients: 15 women and 17 men), low angle (34 patients: 14 women and 20 men), and normal angle (34 patients: 16 women and 18 men) groups. Nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and total airway volumes of patients in all vertical groups were calculated. Group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Nasopharyngeal airway volume in the high-angle group (mean  =  6067.9 ± 1693.9 mm(3)) was significantly lower than that of the low- and normal-angle groups (P skeletal vertical patterns.

  16. Gross tumor volume dependency on phase sorting methods of four-dimensional computed tomography images for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Yong; Lim, Sang Wook; Ma, Sun Young; Yu, Je Sang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To see the gross tumor volume (GTV) dependency according to the phase selection and reconstruction methods, we measured and analyzed the changes of tumor volume and motion at each phase in 20 cases with lung cancer patients who underwent image-guided radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) images in 20 cases of 19 patients who underwent image-guided radiotherapy. The 4D-CT images were reconstructed by the maximum intensity projection (MIP) and the minimum intensity projection (Min-IP) method after sorting phase as 40%–60%, 30%–70%, and 0%–90%. We analyzed the relationship between the range of motion and the change of GTV according to the reconstruction method. The motion ranges of GTVs are statistically significant only for the tumor motion in craniocaudal direction. The discrepancies of GTV volume and motion between MIP and Min-IP increased rapidly as the wider ranges of duty cycles are selected. As narrow as possible duty cycle such as 40%–60% and MIP reconstruction was suitable for lung cancer if the respiration was stable. Selecting the reconstruction methods and duty cycle is important for small size and for large motion range tumors.

  17. Morphologic Changes of Mammary Carcinomas in Mice over Time as Monitored by Flat-Panel Detector Volume Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Missbach-Guentner

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive methods are strongly needed to detect and quantify not only tumor growth in murine tumor models but also the development of vascularization and necrosis within tumors. This study investigates the use of a new imaging technique, flat-panel detector volume computed tomography (fpVCT, to monitor in vivo tumor progression and structural changes within tumors of two murine carcinoma models. After tumor cell inoculation, single fpVCT scans of the entire mice were performed at different time points. The acquired isotropic, high-resolution volume data sets enable an accurate real-time assessment and precise measurements of tumor volumes. Spreading of contrast agent-containing blood vessels around and within the tumors was clearly visible over time. Furthermore, fpVCT permits the identification of differences in the uptake of contrast media within tumors, thus delineating necrosis, tumor tissues, and blood vessels. Classification of tumor tissues based on the decomposition of the underlying mixture distribution of tissue-related Hounsfield units allowed the quantitative acquisition of necrotic tissues at each time point. Morphologic alterations of the tumor depicted by fpVCT were confirmed by histopathologic examination. Concluding, our data show that fpVCT may be highly suitable for the noninvasive evaluation of tumor responses to anticancer therapies during the course of the disease.

  18. ViFiLite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ViFiLite is a wireless infrastructure that utilizes the advantages of a V-band technology in supporting data gathering for structural health monitoring as well as...

  19. Skal vi have flere krondyr?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Vi kunne have væsentligt flere krondyr i den danske natur end vi har i øjeblikket. Den primære årsag er jagt. Det viser en ny undersøgelse fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser ved Aarhus Universitet. Bestanden af krondyr er ganske vist steget meget siden 1970, men der er både plads og føde til mange...

  20. On the Computation of the Maximum Uncertainty Volume of Stable Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Al-Sunni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a non-linear optimization based approach for the computation of the stability region for uncertain polynomials.  Both box of polynomials and diamond of polynomials are addressed.  Examples are presented as an illustration.

  1. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology. Volume 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Articles in this issue of "Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology" include: (1) Input Data Processing Techniques in Intrusion Detection Systems--Short Review (Suhair H. Amer and John A. Hamilton, Jr.); (2) Semantic Annotation of Stock Photography for CBIR Using MPEG-7 standards (R. Balasubramani and V. Kannan); (3) An Experimental Study…

  2. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scoliosis surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not alter lung volume: a 3-dimensional computed tomography-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwahi, Vishal; Sugarman, Etan P; Wollowick, Adam L; Amaral, Terry D; Harmon, Elliot D; Thornhill, Beverly

    2014-03-15

    Retrospective study of surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the change in lung volume after the surgical correction of scoliosis using a volumetric reconstruction of lung volume from computed tomographic (CT) scans. Previously published studies have shown that pulmonary function tests improve after scoliosis correction; however, these results are not consistent. CT-based volumetric studies in patients with scoliosis have previously shown differences in lung volume and lung volume ratio when compared with a normal population. To date, no study exists that analyzes changes in these parameters after scoliosis surgery. A total of 29 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had pre- and postoperative CT scans on file were included in this study. Three-dimensional lung volume reconstruction was performed (TeraRecon software, TeraRecon, Inc., Foster City, CA). Appropriate masking methods were used to isolate the lung tissue. Total lung volumes, left and right lung volumes, and left/right lung volume ratio were obtained from the pre- and postoperative CT scans. Hemithoracic symmetry, pre- and postoperative Cobb angle, and kyphosis were also calculated. Neither total lung volume nor left/right lung volume ratio changed significantly postoperatively. Surgery did not significantly change total lung volume (P = 0.87), right lung volume (P = 0.69), left lung volume (P = 0.70), or the ratio between right and left lung volumes (P = 0.87). Hemithoracic asymmetry was significantly improved (P lung volume or the ratio of right-to-left lung volume. Deformity correction leads to an improvement in the symmetry of the thoracic architecture and costovertebral joint mechanics, as evidenced by the improved hemithoracic asymmetry. Thus, the change in pulmonary function tests, which has been previously documented, may be a dynamic rather than a static phenomenon. 4.

  4. Advanced Simulation & Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, R; Perry, J; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2008-04-30

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC)1 is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one

  5. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY08-09 Implementation Plan Volume 2 Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, M; Kusnezov, D; Bikkel, T; Hopson, J

    2007-04-25

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one

  6. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, L

    2009-04-01

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that

  7. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY10-FY11 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, R; Peery, J; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2009-09-08

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering (D&E) programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional (3D) simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model

  8. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY07-08 Implementation Plan Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D; Hale, A; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2006-06-22

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program will require the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from

  9. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY08-09 Implementation Plan, Volume 2, Revision 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D; Bickel, T; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2007-09-13

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC)1 is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from

  10. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY10-11 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, B

    2009-06-08

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that

  11. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan, Volume 2, Revision 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, R; Hopson, J; Peery, J; McCoy, M

    2008-10-07

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC)1 is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one

  12. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V

    2015-09-01

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31%) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (≈ 60% blood flow and ≈ 40% blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (≈ 60%) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia.

  13. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of maxillary sinus volume and available alveolar bone height using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hak; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To aid in determining the volume of graft bone required before a maxillary sinus lift procedure and compare the alveolar bone height measurements taken by panoramic radiographs to those by CT images. Data obtained by both panoramic radiographs and CT examination of 25 patients were used in this study. Maxillary sinus volumes from the antral floor to heights of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm , were calculated. Alveolar bone height was measured on the panoramic images at each maxillary tooth site and corrected by magnification rate (PBH). Available bone height (ABH) and full bone height (FBH) was measured on reconstructed CT images. PBH was compared with ABH and FBH at the maxillary incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Volumes of the inferior portion of the sinuses were 0.55 {+-} 0.41 cm{sup 3} for 5 mm lifts, 2.11 {+-} 0.68 cm{sup 3} for 10 mm, 4.26 {+-} 1.32 cm{sup 3} for 15 mm, 6.95 {+-} 2.01 cm{sup 3} for 20 mm. For the alveolar bone measurement, measurements by panoramic images were longer than available bone heights determined by CT images at the incisor and canine areas, and shorter than full bone heights on CT images at incisor, premolar, and molar areas (p<0.001). In bone grafting of the maxillary sinus floor, 0,96 cm{sup 3} or more is required for a 5 mm - lift, 2.79 cm{sup 3} or more for a 10 mm - lift, 5.58 cm{sup 3} or more for a 15 mm - lift, and 8.96 cm{sup 3} or more for a 20 mm - lift. Maxillary implant length determined using panoramic radiograph alone could result in underestimation or overestimation, according to the site involved.

  15. A Computer Program for the Prediction of Radiation from Rocket Exhaust Plumes. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-31

    circle positions are checked to determine if the length of the line of sight needs to be ad- justed due to occlusion by one of the circles. Next...SADIATION , UOST E.3 EA : ~Prepared under C~ntract OAAH~l-73-C-•-52"l " for- ’ - U. $. fAry ;.;ss11e CarvnndPed~t~ne Arseral Alba •𔃾V 35809 Io I. ImT...interval when only a single line of sight through the gas is considered. ii REMWTCH INCORpORATED RTR 013-1 CONTENTS VOLUME I Section SU MMARY Page 11

  16. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 2: User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, B. D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G. A.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Lam, K. L.; Royl, P.; Wilson, T. L.

    1998-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume III

  17. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in multiscale bilateral filtering regularized reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samala, Ravi K., E-mail: rsamala@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Sahiner, Berkman [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume enhanced with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBT of 154 breasts, of which 116 had biopsy-proven microcalcification (MC) clusters and 38 were free of MCs, was imaged with a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system. The DBT volumes were reconstructed with MSBF-regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) that was designed to enhance MCs and reduce background noise while preserving the quality of other tissue structures. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MCs was further improved with enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) preprocessing, which combined multiscale Hessian response to enhance MCs by shape and bandpass filtering to remove the low-frequency structured background. MC candidates were then located in the EMCR volume using iterative thresholding and segmented by adaptive region growing. Two sets of potential MC objects, cluster centroid objects and MC seed objects, were generated and the CNR of each object was calculated. The number of candidates in each set was controlled based on the breast volume. Dynamic clustering around the centroid objects grouped the MC candidates to form clusters. Adaptive criteria were designed to reduce false positive (FP) clusters based on the size, CNR values and the number of MCs in the cluster, cluster shape, and cluster based maximum intensity projection. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analyses were used to assess the performance and compare with that of a previous study. Results: Unpaired two-tailedt-test showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the ratio of CNRs for MCs with and without MSBF regularization compared to similar ratios for FPs. For view-based detection, a

  18. AMDTreat 5.0+ with PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic chemical quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Means, Brent P; Arthur, Willam; McKenzie, Robert M; Parkhurst, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline chemicals are commonly added to discharges from coal mines to increase pH and decrease concentrations of acidity and dissolved aluminum, iron, manganese, and associated metals. The annual cost of chemical treatment depends on the type and quantities of chemicals added and sludge produced. The AMDTreat computer program, initially developed in 2003, is widely used to compute such costs on the basis of the user-specified flow rate and water quality data for the untreated AMD. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration of net-acidic or net-alkaline effluent with caustic chemicals to accurately estimate costs for treatment, such empirical data are rarely available. A titration simulation module using the geochemical program PHREEQC has been incorporated with AMDTreat 5.0+ to improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate: (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the chemical composition of the treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment. The simulated titration results for selected caustic chemicals (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) without aeration or with pre-aeration can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities, treated effluent composition, sludge volume (precipitated metals plus unreacted chemical), and associated treatment costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module with the new AMDTreat 5.0+ computer program available at http://www.amd.osmre.gov/.

  19. Prognostic value of epicardial fat volume measurements by computed tomography: a systematic review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearman, James V.; Krazinski, Aleksander W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Renker, Matthias [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Giessen University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cardiology/Angiology, Giessen (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herbert, Teri L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Library Science and Informatics, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' Sapienza' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Nietert, Paul J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging. Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. A total of 411 studies were evaluated with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All nine studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and six of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and six of these studies found a significant association. The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cutoff of 125 mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. (orig.)

  20. Higher-order accurate space-time schemes for computational astrophysics—Part I: finite volume methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.

    2017-12-01

    As computational astrophysics comes under pressure to become a precision science, there is an increasing need to move to high accuracy schemes for computational astrophysics. The algorithmic needs of computational astrophysics are indeed very special. The methods need to be robust and preserve the positivity of density and pressure. Relativistic flows should remain sub-luminal. These requirements place additional pressures on a computational astrophysics code, which are usually not felt by a traditional fluid dynamics code. Hence the need for a specialized review. The focus here is on weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes and PNPM schemes. WENO schemes are higher order extensions of traditional second order finite volume schemes. At third order, they are most similar to piecewise parabolic method schemes, which are also included. DG schemes evolve all the moments of the solution, with the result that they are more accurate than WENO schemes. PNPM schemes occupy a compromise position between WENO and DG schemes. They evolve an Nth order spatial polynomial, while reconstructing higher order terms up to Mth order. As a result, the timestep can be larger. Time-dependent astrophysical codes need to be accurate in space and time with the result that the spatial and temporal accuracies must be matched. This is realized with the help of strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta schemes and ADER (Arbitrary DERivative in space and time) schemes, both of which are also described. The emphasis of this review is on computer-implementable ideas, not necessarily on the underlying theory.

  1. Calculation of Lung Cancer Volume of Target Based on Thorax Computed Tomography Images using Active Contour Segmentation Method for Treatment Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra Yosandha, Fiet; Adi, Kusworo; Edi Widodo, Catur

    2017-06-01

    In this research, calculation process of the lung cancer volume of target based on computed tomography (CT) thorax images was done. Volume of the target calculation was done in purpose to treatment planning system in radiotherapy. The calculation of the target volume consists of gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the target volume was done by adding the target area on each slices and then multiply the result with the slice thickness. Calculations of area using of digital image processing techniques with active contour segmentation method. This segmentation for contouring to obtain the target volume. The calculation of volume produced on each of the targets is 577.2 cm3 for GTV, 769.9 cm3 for CTV, 877.8 cm3 for PTV, 618.7 cm3 for OAR 1, 1,162 cm3 for OAR 2 right, and 1,597 cm3 for OAR 2 left. These values indicate that the image processing techniques developed can be implemented to calculate the lung cancer target volume based on CT thorax images. This research expected to help doctors and medical physicists in determining and contouring the target volume quickly and precisely.

  2. Manned systems utilization analysis (study 2.1). Volume 3: LOVES computer simulations, results, and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    The LOVES computer program was employed to analyze the geosynchronous portion of the NASA's 1973 automated satellite mission model from 1980 to 1990. The objectives of the analyses were: (1) to demonstrate the capability of the LOVES code to provide the depth and accuracy of data required to support the analyses; and (2) to tradeoff the concept of space servicing automated satellites composed of replaceable modules against the concept of replacing expendable satellites upon failure. The computer code proved to be an invaluable tool in analyzing the logistic requirements of the various test cases required in the tradeoff. It is indicated that the concept of space servicing offers the potential for substantial savings in the cost of operating automated satellite systems.

  3. GEODYN programmer's guide, volume 2, part 2. [computer program for estimation of orbit and geodetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, N. E.; Dao, N. C.; Martin, T. V.; Goad, C. C.; Boulware, N. L.; Chin, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for executive control routine for orbit integration of artificial satellites is presented. At the beginning of each arc, the program initiates required constants as well as the variational partials at epoch. If epoch needs to be reset to a previous time, the program negates the stepsize, and calls for integration backward to the desired time. After backward integration is completed, the program resets the stepsize to the proper positive quantity.

  4. AHPCRC (Army High Performance Computing Rsearch Center) Bulletin. Volume 1, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    polymers or proteins ) in fluids, drawing on a large body of existing literature and computational resources. Their model is now fully functional, and it...structures (human hemoglobin shown here, protein subunits in red and blue). Starting from microscopy 6) Electron cryo-micrograph of GroEL (suspended...Nanofluidics 5 Antimicrobial Peptides 8 Virus Protein Structures 10 Metal Nanomechanics 13 The Researchers 17 Education and Outreach 18 Researcher

  5. AHPCRC (Army High Performance Computing Research Center) Bulletin. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    properties and the information required to model the hinges. Extensive research of different kinds of plastics and their common usage determined the...below). The direct heat flux method for computing the thermal conductivity is analogous to experimental measurements. It was successfully applied to...drive down a road and easily locate buried IED’s! My project goals this summer were to learn how to use and implement Verilog HDL and ModelSim

  6. Occupational Survey Report. Volume 2. Computer Operations Specialty, AFS 511X0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    media check in or check out magnetic media degauss magnetic media place scratch tapes in computer room establish or update magnetic media history files...Center, Intellegence , Satellite Tracking, Comptroller, Research and Develop- ment, and Support Activities. Data Automation personnel make up the...43 DETERMINE ALTERNATE METHODS FOR ACCOMPLISHING JOB REQUIREMENTS 5.91 31 28 PARTICIPATE WITH PROGRAMMERS IN TESTING OR DEBUGGING PROGRAMS 5.90 30 27

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  8. Contributions to Engineering Models of Human-Computer Interaction. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    worked nights and weekends. Laura made me forget the pressures of grad school and let me escape to the worlds of Dr . Seuss and Sesame Street wth her. Liza...List OSD Dr . Earl Alluisi Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense OUSDRE (E&LS) Pentagon, Room 3D129 Washington, D.C. 20301 DEPARTMENT OF THE...Carter Office of Chief on Naval OperationsOP-(##D# Washington, D.C. 20350 Dr . L. Chmura Computer Sciences & Systems Code 5592 Naval Research Laboratory

  9. Rotorcraft Flight Simulation Computer Program C81 with Datamap Interface, Volume 2. Programmer’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    resulting computer programs for the evaluation of rotary-wing aircraft performance, stability and control, rotor blade loads, maneuvering characteristics ...coefficients. (169) WRMS. It prints out mode shapes associated with the rotorcraft characteristic roots determined in the rotorcraft stability analysis. (170...SVWAt 20C 49 92 9 S U IALO SEPIA ’ £4 CC 56 - f ’uNOYR IT ifSNIAHi 33 LU 0 Eo F , USILD 2 IVU IS £2 £0 £0 IAVS 4 WPtl .34 4 -]a 16 105~ l4IL or!) " lp uI

  10. Architecture and data processing alternatives for the tse computer. Volume 4: Image rotation using tse operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, M. H.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The tse computer's capability of achieving image congruence between temporal and multiple images with misregistration due to rotational differences is reported. The coordinate transformations are obtained and a general algorithms is devised to perform image rotation using tse operations very efficiently. The details of this algorithm as well as its theoretical implications are presented. Step by step procedures of image registration are described in detail. Numerous examples are also employed to demonstrate the correctness and the effectiveness of the algorithms and conclusions and recommendations are made.

  11. Development of a computer simulation system of intraoral radiography using perspective volume rendering of CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Kazutoshi, Tanaka, Takemasa [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dental Hospital; Yoshiura, Kazunori; Tokumori, Kenji; Kanda, Shigenobu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Dental Science

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a computer simulation system for intraoral radiography as an educational aid for radiographic training for dental students. A dried skull was scanned with a multidetector CT, and the series of slice data was transferred to a workstation. A software AVS Express Developer was used to construct the x-ray projected images from the CT slice data. Geometrical reproducibilities were confirmed using numerical phantoms. We simulated images using the perspective projection method with an average value algorithm on this software. Simulated images were compared with conventional film images projected from the same geometrical positions, including eccentric projection. Furthermore, to confirm the changes of the image depending on the projection angles of the x-ray beam, we constructed simulation images in which the root apexes were enhanced with the maximum value algorithm. Using this method, high resolution simulated images with perspective projection, as opposed to parallel, were constructed. Comparing with conventional film images, all major anatomic components could be visualized easily. Any intraoral radiographs at an arbitrary angular projection could be simulated, which was impossible in the conventional training schema for radiographic technique. Therefore, not only standard projected images but also eccentric projections could be displayed. A computer simulation system of intraoral radiography with this method may be useful for training in intraoral radiographic technique for dental students. (author)

  12. Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 4: Conceptual design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. In the first step of this task, a methodology was developed to ensure that all relevant design dimensions were addressed, and that all feasible designs could be considered. The development effort yielded the following method for generating and comparing designs in task 4: (1) Extract SCS system requirements (functions) from the system specification; (2) Develop design evaluation criteria; (3) Identify system architectural dimensions relevant to SCS system designs; (4) Develop conceptual designs based on the system requirements and architectural dimensions identified in step 1 and step 3 above; (5) Evaluate the designs with respect to the design evaluation criteria developed in step 2 above. The results of the method detailed in the above 5 steps are discussed. The results of the task 4 work provide the set of designs which two or three candidate designs are to be selected by MSFC as input to task 5-refine SCS conceptual designs. The designs selected for refinement will be developed to a lower level of detail, and further analyses will be done to begin to determine the size and speed of the components required to implement these designs.

  13. Assessment of calf volume in Congenital Talipes Equinovarus by computer analysed digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Simon L; Downing, Martin; Chesney, David J; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    The development of evidence-based approaches to the Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) is impaired by the diversity of assessment techniques available, many of which have not been validated. Highly objective evaluation techniques that reflect the deformity and permit comparison between studies may lack the necessary link to functional features that are paramount to the patient, namely pain and mobility. Calf wasting is an acknowledged but little investigated component of the pathology. The rapid evolution of digital photography and computerised analytical techniques has yielded an opportunity to explore their role in the assessment of this common paediatric Orthopaedic pathology. This study presents the use of a cost-effective digital photographic assessment technique of maximal calf circumference and calf volume. These indices reflect the muscular development in the calf and therefore have significance in the functional assessment of CTEV and may represent an index of severity. Subjectivity has been limited by computerisation of the analysis process. The technique could easily be adapted to other volumetric analyses. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The finite volume method in computational fluid dynamics an advanced introduction with OpenFOAM and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Moukalled, F; Darwish, M

    2016-01-01

    This textbook explores both the theoretical foundation of the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and its applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Readers will discover a thorough explanation of the FVM numerics and algorithms used for the simulation of incompressible and compressible fluid flows, along with a detailed examination of the components needed for the development of a collocated unstructured pressure-based CFD solver. Two particular CFD codes are explored. The first is uFVM, a three-dimensional unstructured pressure-based finite volume academic CFD code, implemented within Matlab. The second is OpenFOAM®, an open source framework used in the development of a range of CFD programs for the simulation of industrial scale flow problems. With over 220 figures, numerous examples and more than one hundred exercise on FVM numerics, programming, and applications, this textbook is suitable for use in an introductory course on the FVM, in an advanced course on numerics, and as a reference for CFD programm...

  15. Comparison of epicardial fat volume by computed tomography in black versus white patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Schindler, Andreas; Schoepf, U Joseph; Nance, John W; Tricarico, Francesco; Ebersberger, Ullrich; McQuiston, Andrew D; Meyer, Mathias; Henzler, Thomas; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Bamberg, Fabian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2014-02-01

    Disparities in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) between races may be influenced by differences in the thoracic adipose tissue. We compared computed tomography (CT)-derived volumes of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT), and pericoronary fat thickness (PFT) and correlations with CAD between black and white patients. This institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study included 372 age- and gender-matched black versus white patients (186 black, 54 ± 11 years, 50% men; 186 white, 54 ± 11 years, 50% men) who underwent CT for chest pain evaluation. EAT, MAT, and PFT were measured. The amount of coronary calcium was quantified as calcium score. CAD was defined as ≥50% coronary artery narrowing. EAT and MAT volumes were significantly lower in black than white patients (59 [twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentile 39 to 84] vs 97 [67 to 132] cm(3) and 44 [27 to 77] vs 87 [52 to 157] cm(3), for both p patients was slightly lower than white patients (17.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.1 ± 3.4 mm, p patients (r = 0.19 to 0.26, p patients. In conclusion, CT-derived measurements of thoracic fat differ between symptomatic black and white patients, suggesting a differential relation between thoracic adipose tissue and CAD pathophysiology by race. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 1: Analysis, baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A system analysis of the shuttle orbiter baseline system management (SM) computer function is performed. This analysis results in an alternative SM design which is also described. The alternative design exhibits several improvements over the baseline, some of which are increased crew usability, improved flexibility, and improved growth potential. The analysis consists of two parts: an application assessment and an implementation assessment. The former is concerned with the SM user needs and design functional aspects. The latter is concerned with design flexibility, reliability, growth potential, and technical risk. The system analysis is supported by several topical investigations. These include: treatment of false alarms, treatment of off-line items, significant interface parameters, and a design evaluation checklist. An in-depth formulation of techniques, concepts, and guidelines for design of automated performance verification is discussed.

  17. Clinical Significance of Late Phase of Lung Perfusion Blood Volume (Lung Perfusion Blood Volume) Quantified by Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in Patients With Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Hirofumi; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), we quantified the lung perfusion blood volume (PBV) in the late phase, which may reflect both the pulmonary artery and systemic collateral flow. We then investigated the clinical significance of late-phase lung PBV values. We retrospectively studied 206 patients (266 scans) who underwent early-phase and late-phase DECT. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether or not they had pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) (n=94 and 112). Patients with PTE were further divided into 2 subgroups, depending on whether they had acute PTE or chronic PTE (n=66 and 28). Pulmonary artery enhancement (PAenh) was measured on DECT. We then calculated the [lung PBV/PAenh] ratio in all patients during both the early and late phases for adjustment of timing. The [late-phase lung PBV/PAenh] ratio was 0.092±0.029 in the group with PTE and 0.108±0.030 in the group without PTE, showing a significant difference between the 2 groups (Plung PBV values/PAenh]/[late-phase lung PBV values/PAenh] ratio was 0.68±0.19 and 0.84±0.20, respectively, also showing a significant difference between the 2 groups (Plung PBV/PAenh]/[late-phase lung PBV/PAenh] ratio was 0.71±0.19 in patients with acute PTE and 0.56±0.16 in patients with chronic PTE, and there was a significant difference between these 2 subgroups (P=0.0004). It may be useful to determine late-phase lung PBV values in patients with PTE, because this parameter may reflect the systemic collateral flow, which is increased in chronic PTE.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology: Cone beam computed tomography study

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Gupta; P G Makhija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This investigation was designed to evaluate the masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), Materials and Methods: Study was conducted using CBCT scans of nonorthodontically treated individuals (n = 32, 19 males and 13 females) between the ages of 18–25 years. The masseter muscle volume was calculated using Dolphin 3D software 11.5 version (Essential Dental Products, New...

  19. Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Park, Young Joo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P < 0.001 and r = 0.94, P < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative split estimated glomerular filtration rate of the operated kidney showed a moderate correlation with split renal function (r = 0.39, P = 0.004 and r = 0.49, P < 0.001). The correlation between reductions in split renal function and split renal volume of the operated kidney (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) was stronger than that between split renal function and percent reduction in split estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.64, P < 0.001). The split renal volume calculated using computed tomography-based renal volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This User's Guide describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  1. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 2: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the User's Guide, and describes the program's features, the input and output, the procedure for setting up initial conditions, the computer resource requirements, the diagnostic messages that may be generated, the job control language used to run the program, and several test cases.

  2. GRIDGEN Version 1.0: a computer program for generating unstructured finite-volume grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Jyh-Ming; Liu, Gaisheng; Langevin, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    GRIDGEN is a computer program for creating layered quadtree grids for use with numerical models, such as the MODFLOW–USG program for simulation of groundwater flow. The program begins by reading a three-dimensional base grid, which can have variable row and column widths and spatially variable cell top and bottom elevations. From this base grid, GRIDGEN will continuously divide into four any cell intersecting user-provided refinement features (points, lines, and polygons) until the desired level of refinement is reached. GRIDGEN will then smooth, or balance, the grid so that no two adjacent cells, including overlying and underlying cells, differ by more than a user-specified level tolerance. Once these gridding processes are completed, GRIDGEN saves a tree structure file so that the layered quadtree grid can be quickly reconstructed as needed. Once a tree structure file has been created, GRIDGEN can then be used to (1) export the layered quadtree grid as a shapefile, (2) export grid connectivity and cell information as ASCII text files for use with MODFLOW–USG or other numerical models, and (3) intersect the grid with shapefiles of points, lines, or polygons, and save intersection output as ASCII text files and shapefiles. The GRIDGEN program is demonstrated by creating a layered quadtree grid for the Biscayne aquifer in Miami-Dade County, Florida, using hydrologic features to control where refinement is added.

  3. User manual for GEOCOST: a computer model for geothermal cost analysis. Volume 2. Binary cycle version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Walter, R.A.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1976-03-01

    A computer model called GEOCOST has been developed to simulate the production of electricity from geothermal resources and calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. GEOCOST combines resource characteristics, power recovery technology, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model and provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate their impacts on the cost of geothermal power. Both the geothermal reservoir and power plant are simulated to model the complete energy production system. In the version of GEOCOST in this report, geothermal fluid is supplied from wells distributed throughout a hydrothermal reservoir through insulated pipelines to a binary power plant. The power plant is simulated using a binary fluid cycle in which the geothermal fluid is passed through a series of heat exchangers. The thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles are calculated for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. Physical properties of working fluids at the state points are calculated.

  4. Changes in Tumor Volumes and Spatial Locations Relative to Normal Tissues During Cervical Cancer Radiotherapy Assessed by Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjuan; Bai, Penggang; Pan, Jianji; Xu, Yuanji; Chen, Kaiqiang

    2017-04-01

    To assess changes in the volumes and spatial locations of tumors and surrounding organs by cone beam computed tomography during treatment for cervical cancer. Sixteen patients with cervical cancer had intensity-modulated radiotherapy and off-line cone beam computed tomography during chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV-T) and clinical target volumes (CTVs) were contoured on the planning computed tomography and weekly cone beam computed tomography image, and changes in volumes and spatial locations were evaluated using the volume difference method and Dice similarity coefficients. The GTV-T was 79.62 cm3 at prior treatment (0f) and then 20.86 cm3 at the end of external-beam chemoradiation. The clinical target volume changed slightly from 672.59 cm3 to 608.26 cm3, and the uterine volume (CTV-T) changed slightly from 83.72 cm3 to 80.23 cm3. There were significant differences in GTV-T and CTV-T among the different groups ( P .05). The mean percent volume changes ranged from 23.05% to 70.85% for GTV-T, 4.71% to 6.78% for CTV-T, and 5.84% to 9.59% for clinical target volume, and the groups were significantly different ( P < .05). The Dice similarity coefficient of GTV-T decreased during the course of radiation therapy ( P < .001). In addition, there were significant differences in GTV-T among different groups ( P < .001), and changes in GTV-T correlated with the radiotherapy ( P < .001). There was a negative correlation between volume change rate (DV) and Dice similarity coefficient in the GTV-T and organs at risk ( r < 0; P < .05). The volume, volume change rate, and Dice similarity coefficient of GTV-T were all correlated with increase in radiation treatment. Significant variations in tumor regression and spatial location occurred during radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Adaptive radiotherapy approaches are needed to improve the treatment accuracy for cervical cancer.

  5. Computer quantification of "angle of collapse" on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xie, Mengshuang; Dou, Shuang; Cui, Liwei; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that asthma patients with signs of emphysema on quantitative computed tomography (CT) fulfill the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, quantitative CT measurements of emphysema are not routinely available for patients with chronic airway disease, which limits their application. Spirometry was a widely used examination tool in clinical settings and shows emphysema as a sharp angle in the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve, called the "angle of collapse (AC)". The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS. This study included 716 participants: 151 asthma patients, 173 COPD patients, and 392 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests. COPD and asthma patients also underwent quantitative CT measurements of emphysema. The AC was measured using computer models based on Matlab software. The value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The AC of COPD patients was significantly lower than that of asthma patients and control subjects. The AC was significantly negatively correlated with emphysema index (EI; r=-0.666, P<0.001), and patients with high EI had a lower AC than those with low EI. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AC had higher diagnostic efficiency for high EI (area under the curve =0.876) than did other spirometry parameters. In asthma patients, using the AC ≤137° as a surrogate criterion for the diagnosis of ACOS, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 89.1%, respectively. The AC on the MEFV curve quantified by computer models correlates with the extent of emphysema. The AC may become a surrogate marker for the diagnosis of emphysema and help to diagnose ACOS.

  6. Semi-automatic classification of skeletal morphology in genetically altered mice using flat-panel volume computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dullin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress in exploring the human and mouse genome has resulted in the generation of a multitude of mouse models to study gene functions in their biological context. However, effective screening methods that allow rapid noninvasive phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice are still lacking. To identify murine models with bone alterations in vivo, we used flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT for high-resolution 3-D imaging and developed an algorithm with a computational intelligence system. First, we tested the accuracy and reliability of this approach by imaging discoidin domain receptor 2- (DDR2- deficient mice, which display distinct skull abnormalities as shown by comparative landmark-based analysis. High-contrast fpVCT data of the skull with 200 microm isotropic resolution and 8-s scan time allowed segmentation and computation of significant shape features as well as visualization of morphological differences. The application of a trained artificial neuronal network to these datasets permitted a semi-automatic and highly accurate phenotype classification of DDR2-deficient compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Even heterozygous DDR2 mice with only subtle phenotypic alterations were correctly determined by fpVCT imaging and identified as a new class. In addition, we successfully applied the algorithm to classify knockout mice lacking the DDR1 gene with no apparent skull deformities. Thus, this new method seems to be a potential tool to identify novel mouse phenotypes with skull changes from transgenic and knockout mice on the basis of random mutagenesis as well as from genetic models. However for this purpose, new neuronal networks have to be created and trained. In summary, the combination of fpVCT images with artificial neuronal networks provides a reliable, novel method for rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive primary screening tool to detect skeletal phenotypes in mice.

  7. Relationship between Lung Volume and Pulmonary Function in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Computed Tomographic-based 3-Dimensional Volumetric Reconstruction of Lung Parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu; Kai, Song; Yong-Gang, Zhang; Guo-Quan, Zheng; Tian-Xiang, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective. We determined values for the volume of right lung (Vr), left lung (Vl), total lung volume (Vt), and left/right lung volume ratio (Vl/Vr), allowing comparison between those data measured and those of age-matched controls. To find whether lung volume correlates with preoperative pulmonary function. To our knowledge, no study on relationship between computed tomographic (CT) scans determined lung volume and pulmonary function test (PFT) in scoliosis have been published. All examinations with PFT (31 cases) were identified. Three-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of lung parenchyma was performed on existing preoperative CT scans for 26 idiopathic scoliosis patients. Vl, Vr, Vt, Vl/Vr, and absolute value of right volume minus left volume (|Vr-Vl|) were calculated and correlated with PFTs. To determine if significant difference of preoperative lung volume exists between idiopathic scoliosis patients and controls. Linear regression models, using 3-dimensional lung volume parameters as predictors for vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), and total lung capacity (TLC), were created. Vt was positively correlated with VC, FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), TLC, predicted value for FVC (FVC%), predicted value for FEV1 (FEV1%), predicted value for TLC (TLC%), and predicted value for maximal ventilator volume (MVV%) (P0.05); Diffusion parameters were not correlated with CT-reconstructed lung volume parameters (P>0.05); male and female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had less Vt, Vr, and Vl compared with those of age-matched controls (P<0.05). Vt was positively correlated with VC, FVC, FEV1, TLC, FVC%, FEV1%, TLC%, and MVV%. Vt, Vr, and Vl of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were less than those of age-matched controls.

  8. On the volume of cremated remains - a comparative study of archaeologically recovered cremated bone volume as measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography and by Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, L.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Weight but occasionally also the volume of cremated human remains may often be the primary basis for interpreting the many stages involved in past cremation ceremonies. However, methods used for describing volume for cremated remains are extremely varying and biased by many factors. Here we evalu...

  9. Computational Modeling to Limit the Impact Displays and Indicator Lights Have on Habitable Volume Operational Lighting Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. A.; Brainard, G.; Salazar, G.; Johnston, S.; Schwing, B.; Litaker, H.; Kolomenski, A.; Venus, D.; Tran, K.; Hanifin, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA has demonstrated an interest in improving astronaut health and performance through the installment of a new lighting countermeasure on the International Space Station. The Solid State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) system is designed to positively influence astronaut health by providing a daily change to light spectrum to improve circadian entrainment. Unfortunately, existing NASA standards and requirements define ambient light level requirements for crew sleep and other tasks, yet the number of light-emitting diode (LED) indicators and displays within a habitable volume is currently uncontrolled. Because each of these light sources has its own unique spectral properties, the additive lighting environment ends up becoming something different from what was planned or researched. Restricting the use of displays and indicators is not a solution because these systems provide beneficial feedback to the crew. The research team for this grant used computer-based computational modeling and real-world lighting mockups to document the impact that light sources other than the ambient lighting system contribute to the ambient spectral lighting environment. In particular, the team was focused on understanding the impacts of long-term tasks located in front of avionics or computer displays. The team also wanted to understand options for mitigating the changes to the ambient light spectrum in the interest of maintaining the performance of a lighting countermeasure. The project utilized a variety of physical and computer-based simulations to determine direct relationships between system implementation and light spectrum. Using real-world data, computer models were built in the commercially available optics analysis software Zemax Optics Studio(c). The team also built a mockup test facility that had the same volume and configuration as one of the Zemax models. The team collected over 1200 spectral irradiance measurements, each representing a different configuration of the mockup

  10. VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaal / Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lapin, Leonhard, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    15.-17. IX Tallinnas Niguliste kirikus toimuval VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil esinevad inglise arhitektuurikriitik Peter Davey, šveitsi arhitekt Peter Zumthor, soome arhitekt Juha Leviskä, eesti arhitekt Vilen Künnapu, eesti kunstiajaloolane Juhan Maiste jt. Külastatakse KUMU, tutvutab autor Pekka Vapaavuori

  11. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  12. Application of molybdenum (VI) dichloride dioxide (MoO 2 Cl 2) in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 2. Application of molybdenum(VI) dichloride dioxide (MoO2Cl2) in organic transformations. Kandasamy Jeyakumar Dillip K Chand. Perspective Article Volume 121 Issue 2 March 2009 pp 111-123 ...

  13. Determination of normal splenic volume in relation to age, gender and body habitus: a stereological study on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, V; Alkoc, O A; Uygur, R; Serdaroglu, O; Ozen, O A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and document the dimensions of the normal spleen measured on computed tomography (CT) images with the normal splenic volume measured by Cavalieri principle on CT images and thereby serve as a baseline for comparison in cases of splenomegaly using abdominal CT. To investigate the relationship between these changes and body mass index, gender, abdominal diameters. We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT examinations of 212 adults between the ages of 20 and 88 years. There were seven groups of patients. The spleen volume (SV) measurements using abdominal CT images of each patient on the Image Information Systems were performed with Cavalieri principle. The mean SV and splenic length (SL), width (SW), and thickness (ST) for the total study population of 212 patients was 198 ± 88 cm³, 9.96 ± 2.1 cm, 8.87 ±± 1.6 cm and 4.58 ± 0.8 cm, respectively. There was a strong correlation between SV and ST (r = 0.752, p < 0.001), SL (r = 0.735, p < 0.001), SW (r = 0.681,p < 0.001) mean values of total study population. Comparison between mean splenic dimension parameters for males and females showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.032 for SV, p = 0.04 for ST) but no statistically significant difference with SL and SW. Also there was a positive correlation between SV and body height, sagittal abdominal diameter and transvers abdominal diameter in mean of total groups and female groups, there was no correlation in males. The normal reference ranges for SV and size given in this study canserve as a standard to judge whether splenomegaly is present in patients.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1926.1126 Section 1926.1126 Labor... Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms... objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1915.1026 Section 1915.1026 Labor... § 1915.1026 Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI... cement; or (4) Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or...

  16. Development and application of a volume penalization immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow and shear stresses in cerebral vessels and aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhal, Julia Olegivna; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2013-01-01

    A volume-penalizing immersed boundary method is presented for the simulation of laminar incompressible flow inside geometrically complex blood vessels in the human brain. We concentrate on cerebral aneurysms and compute flow in curved brain vessels with and without spherical aneurysm cavities

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of a volume-rendered computed tomography movie and other computed tomography-based imaging methods in assessment of renal vascular anatomy for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shingo; Tanooka, Masao; Ando, Kumiko; Yamano, Toshiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Nojima, Michio; Hirota, Shozo; Shima, Hiroki

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT)-based imaging methods for assessing renal vascular anatomy, imaging studies, including standard axial CT, three-dimensional volume-rendered CT (3DVR-CT), and a 3DVR-CT movie, were performed on 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (10 right side, 20 left side) for predicting the location of the renal arteries and renal, adrenal, gonadal, and lumbar veins. These findings were compared with videos obtained during the operation. Two of 37 renal arteries observed intraoperatively were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas all arteries were identified by the 3DVR-CT movie. Two of 36 renal veins were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas 1 was missed by the 3DVR-CT movie. In 20 left renal hilar anatomical structures, 20 adrenal, 20 gonadal, and 22 lumbar veins were observed during the operation. Preoperatively, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie detected 11, 19, and 20 adrenal veins; 13, 14, and 19 gonadal veins; and 6, 11, and 15 lumbar veins, respectively. Overall, of 135 renal vascular structures, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie accurately detected 99 (73.3%), 113 (83.7%), and 126 (93.3%) vessels, respectively, which indicated that the 3DVR-CT movie demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate than other CT-based imaging methods (P renal vascular anatomy before laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  18. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  19. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  20. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 3: Programmer's reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D was developed to solve the three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. The Programmer's Reference contains detailed information useful when modifying the program. The program structure, the Fortran variables stored in common blocks, and the details of each subprogram are described.

  1. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

  2. A computational tool for the efficient analysis of dose-volume histograms for radiation therapy treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakuryal, Anil; Myint, W. Kenji; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Jang, Sunyoung; Logemann, Jerilyn A.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    A Histogram Analysis in Radiation Therapy (HART) program was primarily developed to increase the efficiency and accuracy of dose–volume histogram (DVH) analysis of large quantities of patient data in radiation therapy research. The program was written in MATLAB to analyze patient plans exported from the treatment planning system (Pinnacle3) in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (AAPM/RTOG) format. HART-computed DVH data was validated against manually extracted data from the planning system for five head and neck cancer patients treated with the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. HART calculated over 4000 parameters from the differential DVH (dDVH) curves for each patient in approximately 10–15 minutes. Manual extraction of this amount of data required 5 to 6 hours. The normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD) for the HART–extracted DVH outcomes was less than 1%, or within 0.5% distance-to-agreement (DTA). This tool is supported with various user-friendly options and graphical displays. Additional features include optimal polynomial modeling of DVH curves for organs, treatment plan indices (TPI) evaluation, plan-specific outcome analysis (POA), and spatial DVH (zDVH) and dose surface histogram (DSH) analyses, respectively. HART is freely available to the radiation oncology community. PMID:20160690

  3. Observer variation in target volume delineation of lung cancer related to radiation oncologist-computer interaction: a 'Big Brother' evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, R.J.; Duppen, J.C.; Fitton, I.; Deurloo, K.E.; Zijp, L.; Uitterhoeve, A.L.; Rodrigus, P.T.; Kramer, G.W.P.M.; Bussink, J.; Jaeger, K. de; Belderbos, J.S.; Hart, A.A.M.; Nowak, P.J.; Herk, M. van; Rasch, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the process of target volume delineation in lung cancer for optimization of imaging, delineation protocol and delineation software. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven radiation oncologists (observers) from five different institutions delineated the Gross Tumor Volume

  4. Quantitative evaluation of masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology: Cone beam computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was designed to evaluate the masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Materials and Methods: Study was conducted using CBCT scans of nonorthodontically treated individuals (n = 32, 19 males and 13 females between the ages of 18–25 years. The masseter muscle volume was calculated using Dolphin 3D software 11.5 version (Essential Dental Products, New Delhi, India. The subjects were grouped according to growth pattern and facial form. Conclusion: CBCT predicts actual muscle volume by calculating number of voxels of scan data and exact geometry of the muscle. The mean masseter muscle volume was 28.73 ± 5.51 cm3 for horizontal growth patterns, 27.30 ± 6.49 cm3 for average growth pattern, and 22.14 ± 3.25 cm3 for vertical growth pattern. The individuals with thin masseter morphology had a longer face in proportion/relation to their facial width with an increase in masseter muscle volume, the facial index decreased, and face appeared to be more rectangular. Euryprosopic facial form showed maximum/highest masseter muscle volume, whereas leptoprosopic facial form showed least muscle volume.

  5. Hvad bruger vi tiden til?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2016-01-01

    I denne artikel kaster vi et antropologisk blik på samtidsarkæologi ved at diskutere måder, hvorpå antropologiske analyser kan adressere tid, fortidige hændelser og historiske processer. Vi argumenterer for, at en radikal nutidsorientering er en afgørende kvalitet ved det antropologiske feltarbej...... komplicerer en ide om fortidige (gamle eller nyere) objekter som nogle, der kan udgraves......., hvis sigte det er løbende at generere sit materiale nu og her med henblik på at skabe nye forståelser, historier og forslag til mangeartede sammenhænge. En implikation af dette er, at uanset hvor ’historisk’ et antropologisk materiale end måtte være, må det altid ses som samtidigt og ufærdigt, hvilket...

  6. Behaviour evaluation of a small volume ion chamber in computed tomography dosimetry;Avaliacao do comportamento de uma camara de ionizacao de pequeno volume em dosimetria de tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.G.; Maia, A.F.; Ferreira, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The dosimetric protocol currently used has become inadequate since the advancement of multislice computed tomography. Considering this fact and recent studies that show that, the contribution of computed tomography for the collective effective dose is larger than other radiological procedures, it is necessary to define new measuring procedures and to use new detectors and phantoms. This study aimed to test the viability of using an unusual dosimeter since the pencil ion chamber, which has been used since few decades, is considered inappropriate to the new characteristics of the computed tomography beams. Therefore, tests were performed on a PMMA phantom using a small volume ion chamber with active length of 23 mm and a 100-mm-long pencil chamber. The phantom was constructed locally and it was based on the computed tomography phantom proposed by international recommendations. The comparison of tests results from both types of dosimeters (small volume ion chamber and pencil ion chamber) indicates the viability of using unusual dosimeters to perform measures computed tomography beams. (author)

  7. Observer variation in target volume delineation of lung cancer related to radiation oncologist-computer interaction: a 'Big Brother' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Duppen, Joop C; Fitton, Isabelle; Deurloo, Kirsten E I; Zijp, Lambert; Uitterhoeve, Apollonia L J; Rodrigus, Patrick T R; Kramer, Gijsbert W P; Bussink, Johan; De Jaeger, Katrien; Belderbos, José S A; Hart, Augustinus A M; Nowak, Peter J C M; van Herk, Marcel; Rasch, Coen R N

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the process of target volume delineation in lung cancer for optimization of imaging, delineation protocol and delineation software. Eleven radiation oncologists (observers) from five different institutions delineated the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) including positive lymph nodes of 22 lung cancer patients (stages I-IIIB) on CT only. All radiation oncologist-computer interactions were recorded with a tool called 'Big Brother'. For each radiation oncologist and patient the following issues were analyzed: delineation time, number of delineated points and corrections, zoom levels, level and window (L/W) settings, CT slice changes, use of side windows (coronal and sagittal) and software button use. The mean delineation time per GTV was 16 min (SD 10 min). The mean delineation time for lymph node positive patients was on average 3 min larger (P = 0.02) than for lymph node negative patients. Many corrections (55%) were due to L/W change (e.g. delineating in mediastinum L/W and then correcting in lung L/W). For the lymph node region, a relatively large number of corrections was found (3.7 corr/cm2), indicating that it was difficult to delineate lymph nodes. For the tumor-atelectasis region, a relative small number of corrections was found (1.0 corr/cm2), indicating that including or excluding atelectasis into the GTV was a clinical decision. Inappropriate use of L/W settings was frequently found (e.g. 46% of all delineated points in the tumor-lung region were delineated in mediastinum L/W settings). Despite a large observer variation in cranial and caudal direction of 0.72 cm (1 SD), the coronal and sagittal side windows were not used in 45 and 60% of the cases, respectively. For the more difficult cases, observer variation was smaller when the coronal and sagittal side windows were used. With the 'Big Brother' tool a method was developed to trace the delineation process. The differences between observers concerning the delineation style were large. This study led

  8. Effect of lung volume on airway luminal area assessed by computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kambara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although airway luminal area (Ai is affected by lung volume (LV, how is not precisely understood. We hypothesized that the effect of LV on Ai would differ by airway generation, lung lobe, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD severity. METHODS: Sixty-seven subjects (15 at risk, 18, 20, and 14 for COPD stages 1, 2, and 3 underwent pulmonary function tests and computed tomography scans at full inspiration and expiration (at functional residual capacity. LV and eight selected identical airways were measured in the right lung. Ai was measured at the mid-portion of the 3(rd, the segmental bronchus, to 6(th generation of the airways, leading to 32 measurements per subject. RESULTS: The ratio of expiratory to inspiratory LV (LV E/I ratio and Ai (Ai E/I ratio was defined for evaluation of changes. The LV E/I ratio increased as COPD severity progressed. As the LV E/I ratio was smaller, the Ai E/I ratio was smaller at any generation among the subjects. Overall, the Ai E/I ratios were significantly smaller at the 5(th (61.5% and 6(th generations (63.4% and than at the 3(rd generation (73.6%, p<0.001 for each, and also significantly lower in the lower lobe than in the upper or middle lobe (p<0.001 for each. And, the Ai E/I ratio decreased as COPD severity progressed only when the ratio was corrected by the LV E/I ratio (at risk v.s. stage 3 p<0.001, stage 1 v.s. stage 3 p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: From full inspiration to expiration, the airway luminal area shrinks more at the distal airways compared with the proximal airways and in the lower lobe compared with the other lobes. Generally, the airways shrink more as COPD severity progresses, but this phenomenon becomes apparent only when lung volume change from inspiration to expiration is taken into account.

  9. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F9--F16 -- Volume 2, Part 2, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.T.; Hoffman, T.J.; Emmett, M.B.; Childs, K.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bryan, C.B.; Giles, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries. This volume discusses the following functional modules: MORSE-SGC; HEATING 7.2; KENO V.a; JUNEBUG-II; HEATPLOT-S; REGPLOT 6; PLORIGEN; and OCULAR.

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  11. Alveolar volume determined by single-breath helium dilution correlates with the high-resolution computed tomography-derived nonemphysematous lung volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, I.; van Es, H. W.; Noordmans, H. J.; van den Bosch, J. M. M.; Zanen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The alveolar volume (V(A)), determined by single-breath helium dilution, is a measure for the total lung capacity (TLC) that is very sensitive to ventilatory disturbances. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the emphysematous lung parts are less accessible to test gas;

  12. Comparison of U(VI) adsorption onto nanoscale zero-valent iron and red soil in the presence of U(VI)–CO{sub 3}/Ca–U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhibin [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Liu, Jun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Cao, Xiaohong, E-mail: xhcao@ecit.cn [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Luo, Xuanping [Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Hua, Rong; Liu, Yan [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Yu, Xiaofeng; He, Likai [Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); and others

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • NZVI can be used for adsorbing U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes. • Use of NZVI is feasible for remediation of uranium-contaminated soils. • The mechanism of U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes adsorbing onto NZVI has been explained. - Abstract: The influence of U(VI)–CO{sub 3} and Ca–U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes on U(VI) adsorption onto red soil and nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was investigated using batch adsorption and fixed-bed column experiments to simulate the feasibility of NZVI as the reactive medium in permeable- reactive barriers (PRB) for in situ remediation of uranium-contaminated red soils. The adsorption capacity (q{sub e}) and distribution constant (K{sub d}) of NZVI and red soil decreased with increasing pH, dissolved carbonate and calcium concentrations, but the q{sub e} and K{sub d} values of NZVI were 5–10 times higher than those of red soil. The breakthrough pore volume (PV) values increased with the decrease of pH, dissolved carbonate and calcium concentration; however, the breakthrough PV values of the PRB column filled with 5% NZVI were 2.0–3.5 times higher than the 100% red soil column. The U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes adsorbed onto the surface of red soil/NZVI (≡SOH) to form SO–UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup −} or SO–UO{sub 2} (CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 3−}. XPS and XRD analysis further confirmed the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) and the formation of FeOOH on NZVI surfaces. The findings of this study are significant to the remediation of uranium-contaminated red soils and the consideration of practical U(VI) species in the natural environment.

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  16. Peri-diaphragmatic lung volume assessed by computed tomography correlates with quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Naoya; Muro, Shigeo; Fuseya, Yoshinori; Sato, Susumu; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Tamaki; Kinose, Daisuke; Hoshino, Yuma; Kubo, Takeshi; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki

    2012-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In patients with emphysema, lung hyperinflation identified radiologically as shortening and flattening of the diaphragm is associated with impaired HRQoL. It remains unclear whether shortening of the diaphragm and/or alteration in chest wall shape are associated with reduced pulmonary function and HRQoL. Pulmonary function testing and chest computed tomography (CT) were performed, and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was administered to 123 patients with COPD. Using CT images, the ratio of volume of lung region adjacent to the diaphragm dome to total lung volume (DLV%) was evaluated as a novel CT index, and conventional indices, including percent low attenuation volume (LAV%), wall area percent (WA%), total lung volume and diaphragm length (Ldi) were calculated. DLV% was significantly correlated with Ldi. DLV% and Ldi were inversely correlated with lung hyperinflation, assessed as the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, independent of LAV% and WA%. Unlike Ldi, DLV% was inversely associated with all components and total scores for the SGRQ, independent of the severity of emphysema and airflow limitation. Reduced lung volume around the diaphragm correlated with lung hyperinflation and HRQoL, independent of emphysema severity. This needs to be verified in additional studies. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  18. Computers in engineering 1985; Proceedings of the International Computers in Engineering Conference and Exhibition, Boston, MA, August 4-8, 1985. Volumes 2 & 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, R.; Rohde, S. M.

    Developments related to simulation are discussed, taking into account a computer-graphics based approach to modeling complex planetary gear trains, a digital computer simulation of the effect of nonlinearity of the vibration of an accelerated multi-degree-of-freedom rotating system, and a computer simulation of two-phase flow in pipes. Other subjects explored are related to expert systems in computer-aided design environments, finite element applications, computer-aided learning systems, artificial intelligence applied to design and optimization, microcomputers in education, finite element analysis on microcomputers, finite element analytical techniques, expert systems for mechanical engineering, developments toward expert computational systems, interdisciplinary FEM, expert systems for diagnostics, expert systems for manufacturing, finite element modeling techniques, and manufacturing quality control. Attention is given to robots in education, and the visualization of flow in the Space Shuttle main engine.

  19. Har vi brug for hovedregning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2015-01-01

    Hvor ofte har vi brug for at regne noget i hoved? Har de fleste af os ikke altid et elektronisk hjælpemiddel ved hånden enten som en lille lommeregner eller telefonen? Selvom det umiddelbart kan synes unødvendigt at træne hovedregning, viser det sig, at netop træning af hovedregning støtter...... udvikling af hurtige regnestrategier, hvorfor det faktisk er en god ide at investere tid og energi i at træne netop dette....

  20. Reproducibility of volume and densitometric measures of emphysema on repeat computed tomography with an interval of 1 week.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, D.; Brown, M.S.; Kim, H.J.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Guzman, L.; McNitt-Gray, M.F.; Khatonabadi, M.; Galperin-Aizenberg, M.; Coy, H.; Yang, K.; Jung, Y.; Goldin, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The reproducibilities of CT lung volume and densitometric measures of emphysema were assessed over 1 week. The influence of breathhold on reproducibility was assessed. METHODS: HRCT was performed on 44 subjects at inspiration on two visits with a 7-day interval. CT lung volume, relative

  1. Development of a computer code for calculating the steady super/hypersonic inviscid flow around real configurations. Volume 1: Computational technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, F.; Salas, M.; Yaeger, L.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.

  2. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L; Obajuluwa, Ademola M; Xu, Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi

    2010-05-01

    Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as "gold standard." The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F = 0.77; p(F case by manual segmentation). The computerized liver extraction scheme provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring liver volumes in CT.

  3. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F1--F8 -- Volume 2, Part 1, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Bucholz, J.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Fraley, S.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation; Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  4. Supersonic Flow of Chemically Reacting Gas-Particle Mixtures. Volume II. RAMP - A Computer Code for Analysis of Chemically Reacting Gas-Particle Flows,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    pitot pressure. This routine is used only for finite rate chemistry, real gas cases. CALLING SEQUENCE CALL NORSCK (VI, PI, EMI, TI, GMI, RI, HI, POSTR ...where VI, PI. HI are the local values of velocity, pressure, Mach number, temperature, gamma, gas constant and enthalpy POSTR is the pitot pressure

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  7. Human dental age estimation by calculation of pulp-tooth volume ratios yielded on clinically acquired cone beam computed tomography images of monoradicular teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Hazha; Thevissen, Patrick; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Fieuws, Steffen; Solheim, Tore; Willems, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Secondary dentine is responsible for a decrease in the volume of the dental pulp cavity with aging. The aim of this study is to evaluate a human dental age estimation method based on the ratio between the volume of the pulp and the volume of its corresponding tooth, calculated on clinically taken cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from monoradicular teeth. On the 3D images of 111 clinically obtained CBCT images (Scanora(®) 3D dental cone beam unit) of 57 female and 54 male patients ranging in age between 10 and 65 years, the pulp-tooth volume ratio of 64 incisors, 32 canines, and 15 premolars was calculated with Simplant(®) Pro software. A linear regression model was fit with age as dependent variable and ratio as predictor, allowing for interactions of specific gender or tooth type. The obtained pulp-tooth volume ratios were the strongest related to age on incisors. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Cardiac computed tomography-derived epicardial fat volume and attenuation independently distinguish patients with and without myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Mahabadi

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT volume is associated with coronary plaque burden and adverse events. We aimed to determine, whether CT-derived EAT attenuation in addition to EAT volume distinguishes patients with and without myocardial infarction.In 94 patients with confirmed or suspected coronary artery disease (aged 66.9±14.7years, 61%male undergoing cardiac CT imaging as part of clinical workup, EAT volume was retrospectively quantified from non-contrast cardiac CT by delineation of the pericardium in axial images. Mean attenuation of all pixels from EAT volume was calculated. Patients with type-I myocardial infarction (n = 28 had higher EAT volume (132.9 ± 111.9ml vs. 109.7 ± 94.6ml, p = 0.07 and CT-attenuation (-86.8 ± 5.8HU vs. -89.0 ± 3.7HU, p = 0.03 than patients without type-I myocardial infarction, while EAT volume and attenuation were only modestly inversely correlated (r = -0.24, p = 0.02. EAT volume increased per standard deviation of age (18.2 [6.2-30.2] ml, p = 0.003, BMI (29.3 [18.4-40.2] ml, p<0.0001, and with presence of diabetes (44.5 [16.7-72.3] ml, p = 0.0002, while attenuation was higher in patients with lipid-lowering therapy (2.34 [0.08-4.61] HU, p = 0.04. In a model containing volume and attenuation, both measures of EAT were independently associated with the occurrence of type-I myocardial infarction (OR [95% CI]: 1.79 [1.10-2.94], p = 0.02 for volume, 2.04 [1.18-3.53], p = 0.01 for attenuation. Effect sizes remained stable for EAT attenuation after adjustment for risk factors (1.44 [0.77-2.68], p = 0.26 for volume; 1.93 [1.11-3.39], p = 0.02 for attenuation.CT-derived EAT attenuation, in addition to volume, distinguishes patients with vs. without myocardial infarction and is increased in patients with lipid-lowering therapy. Our results suggest that assessment of EAT attenuation could render complementary information to EAT volume regarding coronary risk burden.

  9. Effect of body position on respiratory system volumes in anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) as measured via computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Shachar; Hawkins, Michelle G; Jones, James H; Pascoe, Peter J; Kass, Philip H; Wisner, Erik R

    2009-09-01

    To determine the effects of body position on lung and air-sac volumes in anesthetized and spontaneously breathing red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 6 adult red-tailed hawks (sex unknown). A crossover study design was used for quantitative estimation of lung and air-sac volumes in anesthetized hawks in 3 body positions: dorsal, right lateral, and sternal recumbency. Lung volume, lung density, and air-sac volume were calculated from helical computed tomographic (CT) images by use of software designed for volumetric analysis of CT data. Effects of body position were compared by use of repeated-measures ANOVA and a paired Student t test. Results for all pairs of body positions were significantly different from each other. Mean +/- SD lung density was lowest when hawks were in sternal recumbency (-677 +/- 28 CT units), followed by right lateral (-647 +/- 23 CT units) and dorsal (-630 +/- 19 CT units) recumbency. Mean lung volume was largest in sternal recumbency (28.6 +/- 1.5 mL), followed by right lateral (27.6 +/- 1.7 mL) and dorsal (27.0 +/- 1.5 mL) recumbency. Mean partial air-sac volume was largest in sternal recumbency (27.0 +/- 19.3 mL), followed by right lateral (21.9 +/- 16.1 mL) and dorsal (19.3 +/- 16.9 mL) recumbency. In anesthetized red-tailed hawks, positioning in sternal recumbency resulted in the greatest lung and air-sac volumes and lowest lung density, compared with positioning in right lateral and dorsal recumbency. Additional studies are necessary to determine the physiologic effects of body position on the avian respiratory system.

  10. Vi tror ikke noget, vi undersøger det

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Winther Johannsen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    I diskussionerne om, hvad der kan betegnes som god viden i forhold til udvikling af pædagogisk ud-vikling og kvalitet, er yderpunkterne kridtet op. Begreber som ”evidensbaseret” og ”datainformeret” synes at udfordre det pædagogiske felts egen forståelse af faglighed og pædagogisk kvalitet. I proj...... tager afsæt i det konkrete projekt og samarbejdet med døgntilbuddene. Vi viser, at arbejdet med datainformeret metode på denne måde ikke er en udradering af pædagogisk faglighed knyttet til fagprofessionel dømmekraft – snarere tværtimod...

  11. Computer science: Key to a space program renaissance. The 1981 NASA/ASEE summer study on the use of computer science and technology in NASA. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R. A., Jr. (Editor); Carlson, P. A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Adoption of an aggressive computer science research and technology program within NASA will: (1) enable new mission capabilities such as autonomous spacecraft, reliability and self-repair, and low-bandwidth intelligent Earth sensing; (2) lower manpower requirements, especially in the areas of Space Shuttle operations, by making fuller use of control center automation, technical support, and internal utilization of state-of-the-art computer techniques; (3) reduce project costs via improved software verification, software engineering, enhanced scientist/engineer productivity, and increased managerial effectiveness; and (4) significantly improve internal operations within NASA with electronic mail, managerial computer aids, an automated bureaucracy and uniform program operating plans.

  12. To study tumor motion and planning target volume margins using four dimensional computed tomography for cancer of the thorax and abdomen regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT scanning was performed during free breathing on a 16-slice Positron emission tomography PET /computed tomography (CT for abdomen and thoracic patients. Images were sorted into 10 phases based on the temporal correlation between surface motion and data acquisition with an Advantage Workstation. Gross tumor volume gross tumor volume (GTV s were manually contoured on all 10 phases of the 4DCT scan. GTVs in the multiple CT phases were called GTV4D. GTV4D plus an isotropic margin of 1.0 cm was called CTV4D. Two sets of planning target volume (PTV 4D (PTV4D were derived from the CTV4D, i.e. PTV4D 2cm = CTV4D plus 1 cm setup margin (SM and 1 cm internal margin (IM and PTV4D 1.5cm = CTV4D plus 1 cm SM and 0.5cm IM. PTV3D was derived from a CTV3D of the helical CT scan plus conventional margins of 2 cm. PTV gated was generated only selecting three CT phases, with a total margin of 1.5 cm. All four volumes were compared. To quantify the extent of the motion, we selected the two phases where the tumor exhibited the greatest range of motion. We also studied the effect of different PTV volumes on dose to the surrounding critical structures. Volume of CTV4D was greater than that of CTV3D. We found, on an average, a reduction of 14% volume of PTV4D 1.5cm as compared with PTV3D and reduction of 10% volume of PTV gated as compared with PTV4D 1.5cm . We found that 2 cm of margin was inadequate if true motion of tumor was not known. We observed greater sparing of critical structures for PTVs drawn taking into account the tumor motion.

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  20. Validation of admittance computed left ventricular volumes against real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Shelby; Kottam, Anil T; Padiyath, Asif; Bidasee, Keshore R; Li, Ling; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Danford, David A; Kuehne, Titus

    2013-06-01

    The admittance and Wei's equation is a new technique for ventricular volumetry to determine pressure-volume relations that addresses traditional conductance-related issues of parallel conductance and field correction factor. These issues with conductance have prevented researchers from obtaining real-time absolute ventricular volumes. Moreover, the time-consuming steps involved in processing conductance catheter data warrant the need for a better catheter-based technique for ventricular volumetry. We aimed to compare the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) volumetry between the new admittance catheterization technique and transoesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in a large-animal model. Eight anaesthetized pigs were used. A 7 French admittance catheter was positioned in the LV via the right carotid artery. The catheter was connected to an admittance control unit (ADVantage; Transonic Scisense Inc.), and data were recorded on a four-channel acquisition system (FA404; iWorx Systems). Admittance catheterization data and transoesophageal RT3DE (X7-2; Philips) data were simultaneously obtained with the animal ventilated, under neuromuscular blockade and monitored in baseline conditions and during dobutamine infusion. Left ventricular volumes measured from admittance catheterization (Labscribe; iWorx Systems) and RT3DE (Qlab; Philips) were compared. In a subset of four animals, admittance volumes were compared with those obtained from traditional conductance catheterization (MPVS Ultra; Millar Instruments). Of 37 sets of measurements compared, admittance- and RT3DE-derived LV volumes and ejection fractions at baseline and in the presence of dobutamine exhibited general agreement, with mean percentage intermethod differences of 10% for end-diastolic volumes, 14% for end-systolic volumes and 9% for ejection fraction; the respective intermethod differences between admittance and conductance in eight data sets compared were 11, 11 and 12

  1. Evaluation of postoperative lung volume and perfusion changes by dual-energy computed tomography in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jooae; Lee, Sang Min; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate postoperative physiologic changes in lung cancer patients using dual-energy CT (DECT), and develop modified methods reflecting postoperative change for predicting pulmonary function. 88 patients (M:F=64:24; mean age, 63.5 years) with lung cancer who underwent DECT and pulmonary function tests before and after operation were included. Volume and iodine values for perfusion of each lobe were quantified. The predicted postoperative FEV1 using the current method was calculated by multiplying the preoperative FEV1 by the fractional contribution of perfusion of the remaining lung. The modified method reflecting postoperative volume change was compared to the current method. Postoperative lung volume showed compensatory increases in the contralateral and remaining ipsilateral lobes, with a significantly greater increase in the ipsilateral lobe than contralateral lobe (21.8%±46.2% vs. 10.0%±20.8%, P=0.031). Perfusion analysis showed blood volume increases in both ipsilateral and contralateral lobes without statistical differences (blood volume ratio difference, 29.2%±26.7 vs. 24.6%±16.5, P=0.368). The performance of the modified method considering postoperative lung volume change was comparable to that of the current method in the development and validation datasets (95% CI, -24.5% to 37.1% vs. -33.3% to 22.2% and -23.6% to 32.0% vs. -31.9% to 16.0%, respectively). Postoperative compensatory increases in lung volume and perfusion occur in different ways. Our modified method incorporating postoperative lung volume changes can be considered a comparable method for prediction of postoperative lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mens vi venter på finansloven ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2011-01-01

    Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning.......Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning....

  3. Når vi taler om 68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Metz, Georg

    Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi......Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi...

  4. MURALS WITH A ViBe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The ViBe District in Virginia Beach is a hub for the local arts community. There is a fenced area in the ViBe District that features a whole row of murals created by professional artists, amateurs, and student groups from all over...

  5. Space shuttle solid rocket booster recovery system definition. Volume 3: SRB water impact loads computer program, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This user's manual describes the FORTRAN IV computer program developed to compute the total vertical load, normal concentrated pressure loads, and the center of pressure of typical SRB water impact slapdown pressure distributions specified in the baseline configuration. The program prepares the concentrated pressure load information in punched card format suitable for input to the STAGS computer program. In addition, the program prepares for STAGS input the inertia reacting loads to the slapdown pressure distributions.

  6. National Computer Security Conference (15th) held in Baltimore, Maryland on October 13-16, 1992. Volume 2: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-16

    The National Computer Security Center (NCSC) and the Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) are pleased to welcome you to the Fifteenth Annual National Computer Security Conference. We believe that the Conference will stimulate a vital and dynamic exchange of information and foster an understanding of emerging technologies. The theme for this year’s conference, "Information Systems Security: Building Blocks to the Future," reflects the continuing importance of the broader information

  7. Econophys-Kolkata VI Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the book is to present the ideas and research findings of active researchers such as physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of “Econophysics,” who have undertaken the task of modeling and analyzing systemic risk, network dynamics and other topics. Of primary interest in these studies is the aspect of systemic risk, which has long been identified as a potential scenario in which financial institutions trigger a dangerous contagion mechanism, spreading from the financial economy to the real economy. This type of risk, long confined to the monetary market, has spread considerably in the recent past, culminating in the subprime crisis of 2008. As such, understanding and controlling systemic risk has become an extremely important societal and economic challenge. The Econophys-Kolkata VI conference proceedings are dedicated to addressing a number of key issues involved. Several leading researchers in these fields report on their recent work and al...

  8. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography for Breast Target Volume Delineation in Prone and Supine Positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogson, Elise M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool (Australia); Delaney, Geoff P. [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Ahern, Verity [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Care Centre, Westmead Hospital, Westmead (Australia); Boxer, Miriam M. [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Chan, Christine [Department of Radiology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (Australia); David, Steven [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Dimigen, Marion [Department of Radiology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer A. [School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston (Australia); Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba (Australia); Koh, Eng-Siew [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Lim, Karen [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Papadatos, George [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); and others

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether T2-weighted MRI improves seroma cavity (SC) and whole breast (WB) interobserver conformity for radiation therapy purposes, compared with the gold standard of CT, both in the prone and supine positions. Methods and Materials: Eleven observers (2 radiologists and 9 radiation oncologists) delineated SC and WB clinical target volumes (CTVs) on T2-weighted MRI and CT supine and prone scans (4 scans per patient) for 33 patient datasets. Individual observer's volumes were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient, volume overlap index, center of mass shift, and Hausdorff distances. An average cavity visualization score was also determined. Results: Imaging modality did not affect interobserver variation for WB CTVs. Prone WB CTVs were larger in volume and more conformal than supine CTVs (on both MRI and CT). Seroma cavity volumes were larger on CT than on MRI. Seroma cavity volumes proved to be comparable in interobserver conformity in both modalities (volume overlap index of 0.57 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.54-0.60) for CT supine and 0.52 (95% CI 0.48-0.56) for MRI supine, 0.56 (95% CI 0.53-0.59) for CT prone and 0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59) for MRI prone); however, after registering modalities together the intermodality variation (Dice similarity coefficient of 0.41 (95% CI 0.36-0.46) for supine and 0.38 (0.34-0.42) for prone) was larger than the interobserver variability for SC, despite the location typically remaining constant. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging interobserver variation was comparable to CT for the WB CTV and SC delineation, in both prone and supine positions. Although the cavity visualization score and interobserver concordance was not significantly higher for MRI than for CT, the SCs were smaller on MRI, potentially owing to clearer SC definition, especially on T2-weighted MR images.

  9. Dissimilatory Reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas Isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Sani, R.

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain (Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  10. Dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, R K; Peyton, B M; Smith, W A; Apel, W A; Petersen, J N

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain ( Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  11. Genetics Home Reference: collagen VI-related myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Collagen VI-related myopathy Collagen VI-related myopathy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders ...

  12. Finite difference simulation of biological chromium (VI) reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (VI) concentration profiles inside porous aquifer media columns. The model was thereafter used to calculate Cr(VI) removal rate for a range of Cr(VI) loadings. Internal concentration profiles were modelled against data collected from ...

  13. Evaluation of the mandibular volume and correlating variables in patients affected by unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate: a cone-beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmış; Celik, Salih; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Akin, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the mandibular volume in patients affected by unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and to compare the findings with a well-matched normal occlusion sample without cleft. The study sample consisted of 66 patients divided into UCLP (24 patients; mean age, 14.46 ± 3.24 years), BCLP (17 patients; mean age, 14.28 ± 2.85 years), and control (25 patients; mean age, 14.40 ± 2.81 years) groups. The volume of the mandible including the condyle and the roots of the teeth and craniofacial measurements were performed using cone-beam computed tomography and analyzed using the one-way variance analysis and post hoc Tukey's tests. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships of the measurements and the mandibular volume. Patients affected by UCLP and BCLP had similar craniofacial features (p > 0.05), including decreased SNB, Co-A, Co-Gn, Co-Go, and Go-Gn and increased ANB and SN-MP measurements compared to the control group. Both UCLP and BCLP groups had decreased values of mandibular volume compared to the normal occlusion group, while these differences were found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Co-Go (Beta = 0.420; p = 0.014) and Co-Gn variables (Beta = 0.708; p = 0.045) were positively correlated with mandibular volume, while SNB (Beta = -0.669; p = 0.044) and SN-MP (Beta = -0.358; p = 0.049) variables were negatively correlated (R (2) = 60.3 and p = 0.000). Mandibular volume insignificantly differs in cleft patients (p > 0.05), and the variables of Co-Go, Co-Gn, SNB, and SN-MP significantly correlate with the volume. This article investigates mandibular volume in patients affected by UCLP and BCLP that has never been investigated in the literature. The present study showed that both UCLP and BCLP groups had insignificantly decreased values of mandibular volume compared to the normal occlusion group.

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  20. Formal Methods Specification and Analysis Guidebook for the Verification of Software and Computer Systems. Volume 2; A Practitioner's Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This guidebook, the second of a two-volume series, is intended to facilitate the transfer of formal methods to the avionics and aerospace community. The 1st volume concentrates on administrative and planning issues [NASA-95a], and the second volume focuses on the technical issues involved in applying formal methods to avionics and aerospace software systems. Hereafter, the term "guidebook" refers exclusively to the second volume of the series. The title of this second volume, A Practitioner's Companion, conveys its intent. The guidebook is written primarily for the nonexpert and requires little or no prior experience with formal methods techniques and tools. However, it does attempt to distill some of the more subtle ingredients in the productive application of formal methods. To the extent that it succeeds, those conversant with formal methods will also nd the guidebook useful. The discussion is illustrated through the development of a realistic example, relevant fragments of which appear in each chapter. The guidebook focuses primarily on the use of formal methods for analysis of requirements and high-level design, the stages at which formal methods have been most productively applied. Although much of the discussion applies to low-level design and implementation, the guidebook does not discuss issues involved in the later life cycle application of formal methods.

  1. The repeatability of computed tomography lung volume measurements: Comparisons in healthy subjects, patients with obstructive lung disease, and patients with restrictive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Min; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seokjin; Han, Kyunghwa; Byun, Min Kwang; Chang, Yoon Soo; Kim, Hyung Jung; Park, Chul Hwan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the repeatability of computed tomography (CT) lung volume measurements in healthy individuals and patients with obstructive and restrictive lung diseases. To do this, we retrospectively enrolled 200 healthy individuals (group 1), 100 patients with obstructive lung disease (group 2), and 100 patients with restrictive lung disease (group 3) who underwent two consecutive chest CT scans within a 1-year period. The CT lung volume was measured using a threshold-based, three-dimensional auto-segmentation technique at a default range from -200 to -1024 HU. The within-subject standard deviation, repeatability coefficient, within-subject coefficient variability, and intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated. No significant differences were identified between the two consecutive CT lung volume measurements in any of the groups (p> 0.05). The within-subject standard deviations for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 441.1, 387.0, and 288.6, respectively, while the repeatability coefficients were 1222.6, 1072.6, and 800.1, respectively. The within-subject coefficient variabilities for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 0.097, 0.083, and 0.090, respectively, while the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.818, 0.881, and 0.910, respectively. The two CT lung volume measurements showed excellent agreement in healthy individuals and patients with obstructive or restrictive lung disease. However, the repeatability was lower in healthy individuals than it was in patients with lung diseases.

  2. Precision engineering center. 1988 Annual report, Volume VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, T. [ed.; Fornaro, R.; Keltie, R.; Paesler, M. [and others

    1988-12-01

    To reverse the downward trend in the balance of trade, American companies must concentrate on increasing research into new products, boosting productivity, and improving manufacturing processes. The Precision Engineering Center at North Carolina State University is a multidisciplinary research and graduate education program dedicated to providing the new technology necessary to respond to this challenge. One extremely demanding manufacturing area is the fabrication and assembly of optical systems. These systems are at the heart of such consumer products as cameras, lenses, copy machines, laser bar-code scanners, VCRs, and compact audio discs - products that the Japanese and other East Asian countries are building dominance. A second critical area is the fabrication of VLSI and ULSI circuits. The tolerances required to produce the next generation of components for such systems have created the need for new approaches - approaches that could either make or break America`s competitive position. This report contains individual reports on research projects grouped into three broad areas: measurement and actuation; real-time control; precision fabrication. Separate abstracts for these articles have been indexed into the energy database.

  3. Wilderness Study Report : Volume VI : Kenai National Moose Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to conform to the Wilderness Act of 1964, a study was conducted by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife personnel to ascertain which of the Kenai...

  4. Census Report: Volume VI, 1987 through 1992. Sanitized Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    0918* BYARS, JIMMY E 0599 BYBEE, CARL L 0978* BYERS, FLOUD W 0837 BYRD, VIVIENNE E 0886 CABRERA , FILEMON T 0638 CALEY, WILLIAM H 0755 CALVERT, MICHAEL R...DOSE DOSE NAME ___ ..- _ CODE (mrem) cmr-r CAVE, GORDON GEOFFREY 0483 CAYERE, PAUL J 0879 CAYOT, JAN 6638 CERVANTES, JAIME 0978 CHACON, MELANIE S 0837...mrp m GOZIKOWSKI, EUGENE J 0869 GRAF, ROBERT A 0837 GRAU, MANUEL 0599 GRAY, ANDREW P 0483 GRAY, KAREN JOY 0918 GRAYE, RENEE M 0954 GREBINSKI

  5. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  6. [End-diastolic volumes of the left ventricle in computer tomography in comparison to heart catheter ventriculography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienmüller, R; Lissner, J; Kment, A; Bohn, J; Strauer, B E; Hellwig, D; Erdmann, E; Cyran, J; Steinbeck, G; Höss, D

    1981-06-01

    In 47 patients the authors calculated the volume at the end of a diastole according to both the cardiac catheter ventriculogram and the CT ventriculogram, comparing the results obtained with each of these methods. A linear regression was found. The correlation coefficient was approximately r = 0,96; n = 47. Cardiological examination revealed that of the examined patients (including the cardiac catheter finding) 18 patients had coronary heart disease, whereas 9 had cardiomyopathy, 6 arterial hypertension, 9 had various cardiac abnormalities and 5 did not show any organically manifest heart disease. The article discusses CT determination of the volume at the end of the ventricular diastole, and discusses the results.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  8. Segmental bronchi collapsibility: computed tomography-based quantification in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and correlation with emphysema phenotype, corresponding lung volume changes and clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Christopher; Thaiss, Wolfgang Maximilian; Ditt, Hendrik; Hetzel, Jürgen; Schülen, Eva; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2016-12-01

    Global pulmonary function tests lack region specific differentiation that might influence therapy in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the degree of expiratory 3 rd generation bronchial lumen collapsibility in patients with severe COPD using chest-computed tomography (CT), to evaluate emphysema-phenotype, lobar volumes and correlate results with pulmonary function tests. Thin-slice chest-CTs acquired at end-inspiration & end-expiration in 42 COPD GOLD IV patients (19 females, median-age: 65.9 y) from November 2011 to July 2014 were re-evaluated. The cross-sectional area of all segmental bronchi was measured 5 mm below the bronchial origin in both examinations. Lung lobes were semi-automatically segmented, volumes calculated at end-inspiratory and end-expiratory phase and visually defined emphysema-phenotypes defined. Results of CT densitometry were compared with lung functional tests including forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV 1 ), total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), residual volume (RV), diffusion capacity parameters and the maximal expiratory flow rates (MEFs). Mean expiratory bronchial collapse was 31%, stronger in lobes with homogenous (38.5%) vs . heterogeneous emphysema-phenotype (27.8%, P=0.014). The mean lobar expiratory volume reduction was comparable in both emphysema-phenotypes (volume reduction 18.6%±8.3% in homogenous vs . 17.6%±16.5% in heterogeneous phenotype). The degree of bronchial lumen collapsibility, did not correlate with expiratory volume reduction. MEF 25 correlated weakly with 3 rd generation airway collapsibility (r=0.339, P=0.03). All patients showed a concentric expiratory reduction of bronchial cross-sectional area. Changes in collapsibility of 3 rd generation bronchi in COPD grade IV patients is significantly lower than that in the trachea and the main bronchi. Collapsibility did not correlate with the reduction in lung volume but was

  9. Artifacts in conventional computed tomography (CT) and free breathing four-dimensional CT induce uncertainty in gross tumor volume determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Af Rosenschöld, Per Munck

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Artifacts impacting the imaged tumor volume can be seen in conventional three-dimensional CT (3DCT) scans for planning of lung cancer radiotherapy but can be reduced with the use of respiration-correlated imaging, i.e., 4DCT or breathhold CT (BHCT) scans. The aim of this study was to com...

  10. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  11. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  12. Aircraft Trajectories Computation-Prediction-Control (La Trajectoire de l’Avion Calcul-Prediction-Controle). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    example a VDU with a touch-sensitive screen. Having indicated his choice he can leave the computer to compose and launch the data link message or messages...IBM-compatible computers (XT and AT types) ; - on-line regulation of traffic and 4-D guidance of flight systems such as ROSAS /CINTIA - simulations of...utilisation of runway facilities. This component of the Zone of Convergence concept is referred to as ROSAS (Regional Optimised Sequencing And

  13. Learning the vi and Vim Editor

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold; Hannah, Elbert

    2008-01-01

    There's nothing that hard-core Unix and Linux users are more fanatical about than their text editor. Editors are the subject of adoration and worship, or of scorn and ridicule, depending upon whether the topic of discussion is your editor or someone else's. vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi. However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this

  14. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana; Carolina Ando Matsuno; Marta Wey Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB), responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs), que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI). A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética...

  15. In vivo coronary artery plaque assessment with computed tomography angiography: is there an impact of iterative reconstruction on plaque volume and attenuation metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongyi; Boldeanu, Irina; Nepveu, Simon; Durand, Madeleine; Chin, Anne S; Kauffmann, Claude; Mansour, Samer; Soulez, Gilles; Tremblay, Cécile; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl

    2017-06-01

    Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) allows the evaluation of coronary plaque volume and low attenuation (lipid-rich) component, for plaque vulnerability assessment. Purpose To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) on coronary plaque volume and composition. Material and Methods Consecutive patients without coronary artery disease were prospectively enrolled for 256-slice CT. Images were reconstructed with both filtered back projection (FBP) and a hybrid IR algorithm (iDose4, Philips) levels 1, 3, 5, and 7. Coronary plaques were assessed according to predefined Hounsfield unit (HU) attenuation intervals, for total plaque and HU-interval volumes. Results Fifty-three patients (mean age, 53.6 years) were included. Noise was significantly decreased and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) / contrast-to-noise (CNR) were both significantly improved at all IR levels in comparison to FBP. Plaque characterization was performed in 41 patients for a total of 125 plaques. Total plaque volume ranged from 104.4 ± 120.7 to 107.4 ± 128.9 mm3 and low attenuation plaque component from 40.5 ± 54.7 to 43.5 ± 58.9 mm3, with no statistically significant differences between all IR levels and FBP ( P = 0.786 and P ≥ 0.078, respectively). Conclusion IR improved image quality. Total and low attenuation plaque volumes were similar using either IR or FBP.

  16. Novel computational approach for studying ph effects, excluded volume and ion-ion correlations in electrical double layers around polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven

    Highly charged cylindrical and spherical objects (macroions) are probably the simplest structures for modeling nucleic acids, proteins and nanoparticles. Their ubiquitous presence within biophysical systems ensures that Coulomb forces are among the most important interactions that regulate the behavior of these systems. In these systems, ions position themselves in a strongly correlated manner near the surface of a macroion and form electrical double layers (EDLs). These EDLs play an important role in many biophysical and biochemical processes. For instance, the macroion's net charge can change due to the binding of many multivalent ions to its surface. Thus, proper description of EDLs near the surface of a macroion may reveal a counter-intuitive charge inversion behavior, which can generate attraction between like-charged objects. This is relevant for the variety of fields such as self-assembly of DNA and RNA folding, as well as for protein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases. Certainly, the key factors that contribute to these phenomena cannot be properly understood without an accurate solvation model. With recent advancements in computer technologies, the possibility to use computational tools for fundamental understanding of the role of EDLs around biomolecules and nanoparticles on their physical and chemical properties is becoming more feasible. Establishing the impact of the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations, ionic strength and pH of the electrolyte on the EDL around biomolecules and nanoparticles, and how changes in these properties consequently affect the Zeta potential and surface charge density are still not well understood. Thus, modeling and understanding the role of these properties on EDLs will provide more insights on the stability, adsorption, binding and function of biomolecules and nanoparticles. Existing mean-field theories such as Poisson Boltzmann (PB) often neglect the ion-ion correlations, solvent and ion excluded volume effects

  17. Architecture and data processing alternatives for the TSE computer. Volume 2: Extraction of topological information from an image by the Tse computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. R.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A simple programmable Tse processor organization and arithmetic operations necessary for extraction of the desired topological information are described. Hardware additions to this organization are discussed along with trade-offs peculiar to the tse computing concept. An improved organization is presented along with the complementary software for the various arithmetic operations. The performance of the two organizations is compared in terms of speed, power, and cost. Software routines developed to extract the desired information from an image are included.

  18. Generation of intra-oral-like images from cone beam computed tomography volumes for dental forensic image comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochesset, Denise A; Serchuk, Richard B; Colosi, Dan C

    2014-03-01

    Identification of unknown individuals using dental comparison is well established in the forensic setting. The identification technique can be time and resource consuming if many individuals need to be identified at once. Medical CT (MDCT) for dental profiling has had limited success, mostly due to artifact from metal-containing dental restorations and implants. The authors describe a CBCT reformatting technique that creates images, which closely approximate conventional dental images. Using a i-CAT Platinum CBCT unit and standard issue i-CAT Vision software, a protocol is developed to reproducibly and reliably reformat CBCT volumes. The reformatted images are presented with conventional digital images from the same anatomic area for comparison. The authors conclude that images derived from CBCT volumes following this protocol are similar enough to conventional dental radiographs to allow for dental forensic comparison/identification and that CBCT offers a superior option over MDCT for this purpose. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Monogràfic "VI Congrés Internet, Dret i Política. Cloud Computing: El Dret i la Política Pugen al Núvol"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estudis de Dret i Ciència Política

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    L'any 2010 és l'any cloud computing. Així ho afirmen nombrosos analistes i especialistes que veuen que s'expandeixen aplicacions que, en lloc de ser executades a l'ordinador de sobretaula o al portàtil, són hostatjades en un servidor, i a les quals s'accedeix mitjançant un navegador qualsevol. Aquesta expansió és facilitada per la massiva adopció d'ordinadors ultraportàtils i telèfons mòbils intel·ligents, així com per la creixent realitat del teletreball i la col·laboració en xarxa entre administracions, empreses i ciutadans.

    Tenir les dades, els documents de text, els fulls de càlcul, les aplicacions de gestió de clients o d'estocs, i la coordinació de processos i projectes emmagatzemats en servidors de tercers; fer passar les comunicacions personals i professionals per un navegador, o obrir la nostra participació ciutadana a tothom són possibilitats que ens ofereixen noves oportunitats, però també nous reptes sobre com entenem la feina, les relacions professionals o l'exercici de la democràcia.

    Aquests reptes i oportunitats van constituir el punt de trobada de la sisena edició del Congrés Internacional IDP - Internet, Dret i Política, que es va centrar a analitzar i debatre els diferents problemes jurídics i polítics que planteja o pot plantejar la massiva extensió del cloud computing tant a escala professional com personal i ciutadana.

  20. ViSIT: Visitor Survey Information Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The national survey was...

  1. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User`s Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  2. Derfor elsker og hader vi positiv psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog.......Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog....

  3. Kan vi forebygge en kompliceret sorgreaktion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Pårørende til alvorligt syge patienter er i en sårbar situation og risikerer selv at blive syge. Som sundhedsprofessionelle har vi mulighed for at støtte pårørende i palliative forløb, og vi vil i denne artikel beskrive mulige prædiktorer for kompliceret sorg og depression hos den pårørende efter...

  4. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til? Link: http://videnskab.dk/kultur-samfund/hvad-skal-vi-med-trump-satire...

  5. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  6. Setting mean airway pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation according to the static pressure--volume curve in surfactant-deficient lung injury: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Thomas; Meinhardt, Juergen P; Herrmann, Peter; Weisser, Gerald; Pelosi, Paolo; Quintel, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Numerous studies suggest setting positive end-expiratory pressure during conventional ventilation according to the static pressure-volume (P-V) curve, whereas data on how to adjust mean airway pressure (P(aw)) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are still scarce. The aims of the current study were to (1) examine the respiratory and hemodynamic effects of setting P(aw) during HFOV according to the static P-V curve, (2) assess the effect of increasing and decreasing P(aw) on slice volumes and aeration patterns at the lung apex and base using computed tomography, and (3) study the suitability of the P-V curve to set P(aw) by comparing computed tomography findings during HFOV with those obtained during recording of the static P-V curve at comparable pressures. Saline lung lavage was performed in seven adult pigs. P-V curves were obtained with computed tomography scanning at each volume step at the lung apex and base. The lower inflection point (Pflex) was determined, and HFOV was started with P(aw) set at Pflex. The pigs were provided five 1-h cycles of HFOV. P(aw), first set at Pflex, was increased to 1.5 times Pflex (termed 1.5 Pflex(inc)) and 2 Pflex and decreased thereafter to 1.5 times Pflex and Pflex (termed 1.5 Pflex(dec) and Pflex(dec)). Hourly measurements of respiratory and hemodynamic variables as well as computed tomography scans at the apex and base were made. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation at a P(aw) of 1.5 Pflex(inc) reestablished preinjury arterial oxygen tension values. Further increase in P(aw) did not change oxygenation, but it decreased oxygen delivery as a result of decreased cardiac output. No differences in respiratory or hemodynamic variables were observed when comparing HFOV at corresponding P(aw) during increasing and decreasing P(aw). Variation in total slice lung volume (TLVs) was far less than expected from the static P-V curve. Overdistended lung volume was constant and less than 3% of TLVs. TLVs values during HFOV

  7. Basic EMC technology advancement for C(3) systems: SHIELD. Volume 4B. A digital computer program for computing crosstalk between shielded cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. R.

    1982-11-01

    This report contains the description and verification of a digital computer program, SHIELD, to be used in the prediction of crosstalk in transmission lines consisting of unshielded wires and/or shielded cables. The line may be above a ground plane (Type 1) or within an overall, circular, cylindrical shield which may be solid or braided and a wire (the shielded wire) located concentrically on the axis of the shield. All wires may be stranded and all conductors are treated as imperfect conductors; that is, their per-unit-length impedances are nonzero. Through-braid coupling for braided shields as well as diffusion for both types are included in the model. The shielded cables may have exposed sections at either end (pigtail sections) in which the shielded wire is not covered by the shield. Over these pigtail sections, a pigtail wire, parallel to the shielded wire, connects the shield to the reference conductor at that end via either a short circuit or an open circuit. These pigtail sections are included in the representation to simulate the common practice of terminating a shielded cable in a connector via these pigtail wires. The pigtail sections may be of different lengths. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and should be implementable on a wide range of digital computers.

  8. Interobserver and Intraobserver Reproducibility with Volume Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (DCE-CT) in Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard Hansen, Martin; Fallentin, Eva; Axelsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of three different analytic methods to evaluate quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) measures from gastroesophageal junctional cancer. Twenty-five DCE-CT studies with gastroesophageal...

  9. National Computer Security Conference (15th) held in Baltimore, Maryland on October 13-16, 1992. Volume 1: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-16

    6] T.F. Keefe and W.T. Tsai. Multiversion concur- rency control for multilevel secure database sys- tems. In Proc. 1990 Symposium on Research in...Security and Privacy, pages 369-383, Oakland, CA, May 1990. IEEE Computer Society. [7] W.T. Maimone and I.B. Greenberg. Single- level multiversion

  10. 75 FR 47490 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand to Compute Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... marketing efforts. These significantly-higher shipments will result in an unusually high computed trade...-674. 2. In Sec. 989.154, paragraph (b) is revised to read as follows: Sec. 989.154 Marketing policy...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In...

  11. Computer Program for Design and Performance Analysis of Navigation-Aid Power Systems. Program Documentation, Volume 1. Software Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    Size Counter JB ■ 1 Where: JB ■ Tabular Location Size of Available Storage Cell 3-39 501*0-27 Step 152 Compare Storage Cell Size Counter With...DDD {001-365) - Days from beginning of year TIMER « HH ♦ Ja. . Hours after Midnight ou* u DATO « ■ 0.0 - Elapsed Time Since "Start" of Computer

  12. Efficient volume reconstruction for parallel-beam computed laminography by filtered backprojection on multi-core clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagotin, Anton; Voropaev, Alexey; Helfen, Lukas; Hänschke, Daniel; Baumbach, Tilo

    2013-12-01

    Computed laminography (CL) was developed to use X-rays from synchrotron sources for high-resolution imaging of the internal structure of a flat specimen from a series of 2-D projection images. The projections are acquired by irradiation of the sample under different rotation angles where the object rotation axis is inclined with respect to the beam direction. This yields for laterally extended objects a more uniform average transmitted intensity during sample rotation compared with computed tomography (CT). The reconstruction problem of CL cannot be reduced to a data-efficient 2-D case (as for parallel-beam CT) since each single slice perpendicular to the rotation axis requires a 2-D region on the detector as input data for all projection directions. This paper describes a computationally efficient reconstruction procedure based on filtered backprojection (FBP) adapted to the CL acquisition geometry. From the Fourier slice theorem, we derive a framework for analytic image reconstruction and outline implementation details of the generic FBP algorithm. Different approaches reducing the reconstruction time by means of parallel and distributed computations are considered and evaluated.

  13. Coronary Plaque Volume and Composition Assessed by Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients With Late-Onset Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Ovrehus, Kristian Altern

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression is a stronger predictor for the onset of or death from clinical coronary artery disease than traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The association between depression and coronary artery disease has previously been investigated in non-contrast enhanced computed tomography...

  14. Cervical computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: influence of head elevation on the assessment of upper airway volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio Jose Fabricio de Barros; Evangelista, Anne Rosso; Silva, Juliana Veiga; Madeira, Kristian, E-mail: fsouzapneumo@hotmail.com [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Curso de Medicina; Perico, Gregory Vinicius [Unidade Radiologica Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has a high prevalence and carries significant cardiovascular risks. It is important to study new therapeutic approaches to this disease. Positional therapy might be beneficial in reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Imaging methods have been employed in order to facilitate the evaluation of the airways of OSAS patients and can be used in order to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments. This study was aimed at determining the influence that upper airway volume, as measured by cervical CT, has in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Methods: This was a quantitative, observational, cross-sectional study. We evaluated 10 patients who had been diagnosed with OSAS by polysomnography and on the basis of the clinical evaluation. All of the patients underwent conventional cervical CT in the supine position. Scans were obtained with the head of the patient in two positions (neutral and at a 44° upward inclination), and the upper airway volume was compared between the two. Results: The mean age, BMI, and neck circumference were 48.9 ± 14.4 years, 30.5 ± 3.5 kg/m{sup 2} , and 40.3 ± 3.4 cm, respectively. The mean AHI was 13.7 ± 10.6 events/h (range, 6.0-41.6 events/h). The OSAS was classified as mild, moderate, and severe in 70%, 20%, and 10% of the patients, respectively. The mean upper airway volume was 7.9 cm{sup 3} greater when the head was at a 44° upward inclination than when it was in the neutral position, and that difference (17.5 ± 11.0%) was statistically significant (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Elevating the head appears to result in a significant increase in the caliber of the upper airways in OSAS patients. (author)

  15. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volumes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy: gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourvouri, E.C.; Poldermans, D.; Sianos, G.; Sozzi, F.B.; Schinkel, A.F.L.; Sutter, J. de; Roelandt, J.R.T.C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bax, J.J. [Dept. of Cardiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Parcharidis, G. [Dept. of Cardiology, AHEPA Univ. Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Valkema, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes in patients with severe ischaemic LV dysfunction. Thirty-two patients with chronic ischaemic LV dysfunction [mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 25%{+-}6%] were studied with gated SPET and 2D echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated by both modalities and scored by two independent observers using a 16-segment model with a 5-point scoring system (1= normokinesia, 2= mild hypokinesia, 3= severe hypokinesia, 4= akinesia and 5= dyskinesia). LVEF and LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were evaluated by 2D echocardiography using the Simpson's biplane discs method. The same parameters were calculated using quantitative gated SPET software (QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center). The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for assessment of regional wall motion was 69%. The correlations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography for the assessment of end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were excellent (r=0.94, P<0.01, and r=0.96, P<0.01, respectively). The correlation for LVEF was also good (r=0.83, P<0.01). In conclusion: in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, close and significant relations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography were observed for the assessment of regional and global LV function and LV volumes; gated SPET has the advantage that it provides information on both LV function/dimensions and perfusion. (orig.)

  16. Bone volume and regional density of the central tarsal bone detected using computed tomography in a cross-sectional study of adult racing greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D J; Cave, N J; Bridges, J P; Reuvers, K; Owen, M C; Firth, E C

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether left-to-right asymmetry of the central tarsal bone (CTB) of racing greyhounds was detectable using computed tomography (CT) in live dogs; to quantify the asymmetry in terms of average bone volume, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and dorsal cortical shape, and to determine if age, gender, bodyweight, number of starts or history of tarsal injury were significant covariates. One trainer supplied 11 male and seven female, unrelated, skeletally mature, actively racing greyhounds, including dogs with a history of tarsal injury diagnosed by the trainer and/or track veterinarian (n=8), and dogs without a history of tarsal injury (n=10). Using CT, standardised parameters of the CTB were measured including volume and average vBMD of the left and right CTB, vBMD of regions within the CTB, and bone shape. There was no difference in the volumes of the left and right CTB and no association with number of racing starts. Volume of CTB in dogs with a history of tarsal injury was greater than in dogs with no history of injury (pracing greyhounds was detected using CT. Contrary to previous suggestions, the asymmetry was not associated with the number of racing starts. We propose that the majority of the adaptive modelling of the CTB occurred rapidly following the onset of counter-clockwise training, with little further modelling throughout the racing career of the dog, however further investigation is warranted. This study described a technique using CT for imaging the CTB in live dogs, which opens the way for a longitudinal study of bone modelling of the CTB in response to training and racing in a counter-clockwise direction.

  17. Comparison of Computed Tomography– and Magnetic Resonance Imaging–based Clinical Target Volume Contours at Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanick, Cameron W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Castle, Katherine O. [Southeast Louisiana Radiation Oncology Group, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); Vedam, Sastry [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Turner, Lehendrick M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rauch, Gaiane M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jhingran, Anuja; Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Klopp, Ann H., E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: We prospectively compared computed tomography (CT)– and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) contours at the time of brachytherapy for cervical cancer in an effort to identify patients who might benefit most from MRI-based planning. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven patients who had undergone a pretreatment diagnostic MRI scan were included in the analysis. We delineated the HR-CTV on the brachytherapy CT and brachytherapy MRI scans independently for each patient. We then calculated the absolute volumes for each HR-CTV and the Dice coefficient of similarity (DC, a measure of spatial agreement) for the HR-CTV contours. We identified the clinical and tumor factors associated with (1) a discrepancy in volume between the CT HR-CTV and MRI HR-CTV contours; and (2) DC. The mean values were compared using 1-way analysis of variance or paired or unpaired t tests, as appropriate. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to model the effects of covariates on the outcomes. Results: Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB to IVA cervical cancer were treated with intracavitary brachytherapy using tandem and ovoid (n=33) or tandem and cylinder (n=4) applicators. The mean CT HR-CTV volume (44.1 cm{sup 3}) was larger than the mean MRI HR-CTV volume (35.1 cm{sup 3}; P<.0001, paired t test). On multivariable analysis, a higher body mass index (BMI) and tumor size ≥5 cm with parametrial invasion on the MRI scan at diagnosis were associated with an increased discrepancy in volume between the HR-CTV contours (P<.02 for both). In addition, the spatial agreement (as measured by DC) between the HR-CTV contours decreased with an increasing BMI (P=.013). Conclusions: We recommend MRI-based brachytherapy planning for patients with tumors >5 cm and parametrial invasion on MRI at diagnosis and for those with a high BMI.

  18. RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists Reach Consensus on Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume on Computed Tomographic Images for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dian, E-mail: dwang@mcw.edu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bosch, Walter [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Roberge, David [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hitchcock, Ying J. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wolfson, Aaron H. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) to be used for preoperative radiotherapy of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A consensus meeting was held during the RTOG meeting in January 2010 to reach agreement about GTV and CTV delineation on computed tomography (CT) images for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS. Data were presented to address the local extension of STS. Extensive discussion ensued to develop optimal criteria for GTV and CTV delineation on CT images. Results: A consensus was reached on appropriate CT-based GTV and CTV. The GTV is gross tumor defined by T1 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Fusion of magnetic resonance and images is recommended to delineate the GTV. The CTV for high-grade large STS typically includes the GTV plus 3-cm margins in the longitudinal directions. If this causes the field to extend beyond the compartment, the field can be shortened to include the end of a compartment. The radial margin from the lesion should be 1.5 cm, including any portion of the tumor not confined by an intact fascial barrier, bone, or skin surface. Conclusion: The consensus on GTV and CTV for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS is available as web-based images and in a descriptive format through the RTOG. This is expected to improve target volume consistency and allow for rigorous evaluation of the benefits and risks of such treatment.

  19. Proceedings of the International Conference on Stiff Computation, April 12-14, 1982, Park City, Utah. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    January 1982 𔃻 I. 1. ABSTRACT: ’ Henrici (1962) discussed optimal Stormer Cowell class of linear multistep methods for the second order differential...i.e. Stiefel and Bettis (1969), Lambert and Watson (1975),Hairer (1979), Fatunla (1981) 2. Introduction: Henrici [4] and Lambert (5] discussed the...373-379. 4. P. Henrici , Discrete Variable methods in ordinary differential equations (1962), John Miley and Sons. 5. J.D. Lambert, Computational

  20. Extracting Metrics for Three-dimensional Root Systems: Volume and Surface Analysis from In-soil X-ray Computed Tomography Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A.; Adams, Lexor; Beck, Anthon NR; McKinney, Adriana L.; Varga, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots play a critical role in plant-soil-microbe interactions that occur in the rhizosphere, as well as processes with important implications to climate change and forest management. Quantitative size information on roots in their native environment is invaluable for studying root growth and environmental processes involving the plant. X ray computed tomography (XCT) has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for in situ root scanning and analysis. Our group at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) has developed an XCT-based tool to image and quantitatively analyze plant root structures in their native soil environment. XCT data collected on a Prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) specimen was used to visualize its root structure. A combination of open-source software RooTrak and DDV were employed to segment the root from the soil, and calculate its isosurface, respectively. Our own computer script named 3DRoot-SV was developed and used to calculate root volume and surface area from a triangular mesh. The process utilizing a unique combination of tools, from imaging to quantitative root analysis, including the 3DRoot-SV computer script, is described.

  1. Information management architecture for an integrated computing environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program, Volume 3, Interim technical architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This third volume of the Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program--the Interim Technical Architecture (TA) (referred to throughout the remainder of this document as the ER TA)--represents a key milestone in establishing a coordinated information management environment in which information initiatives can be pursued with the confidence that redundancy and inconsistencies will be held to a minimum. This architecture is intended to be used as a reference by anyone whose responsibilities include the acquisition or development of information technology for use by the ER Program. The interim ER TA provides technical guidance at three levels. At the highest level, the technical architecture provides an overall computing philosophy or direction. At this level, the guidance does not address specific technologies or products but addresses more general concepts, such as the use of open systems, modular architectures, graphical user interfaces, and architecture-based development. At the next level, the technical architecture provides specific information technology recommendations regarding a wide variety of specific technologies. These technologies include computing hardware, operating systems, communications software, database management software, application development software, and personal productivity software, among others. These recommendations range from the adoption of specific industry or Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) standards to the specification of individual products. At the third level, the architecture provides guidance regarding implementation strategies for the recommended technologies that can be applied to individual projects and to the ER Program as a whole.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics assessment: Volume 1, Computer simulations of the METC (Morgantown Energy Technology Center) entrained-flow gasifier: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

    1988-07-01

    An assessment of the theoretical and numerical aspects of the computer code, PCGC-2, is made; and the results of the application of this code to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) advanced gasification facility entrained-flow reactor, ''the gasifier,'' are presented. PCGC-2 is a code suitable for simulating pulverized coal combustion or gasification under axisymmetric (two-dimensional) flow conditions. The governing equations for the gas and particulate phase have been reviewed. The numerical procedure and the related programming difficulties have been elucidated. A single-particle model similar to the one used in PCGC-2 has been developed, programmed, and applied to some simple situations in order to gain insight to the physics of coal particle heat-up, devolatilization, and char oxidation processes. PCGC-2 was applied to the METC entrained-flow gasifier to study numerically the flash pyrolysis of coal, and gasification of coal with steam or carbon dioxide. The results from the simulations are compared with measurements. The gas and particle residence times, particle temperature, and mass component history were also calculated and the results were analyzed. The results provide useful information for understanding the fundamentals of coal gasification and for assessment of experimental results performed using the reactor considered. 69 refs., 35 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Screen-printed sensor for batch and flow injection potentiometric chromium(VI) monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, Raul A.; Gismera, M.J.; Sevilla, M.T.; Procopio, Jesus R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A disposable screen-printed electrode was designed and evaluated for direct detection of chromium(VI) in batch and flow analysis. The carbon screen-printed electrode was modified with a graphite-epoxy composite. The optimal graphite-epoxy matrix contains 37.5% graphite powder, 12.5% diphenylcarbohydrazide, a selective compound for chromium(VI), and 50% epoxy resin. The principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis were optimized and calculated. The screen-printed sensor exhibits a response time of 20 {+-} 1 s. In flow analysis, the analytical frequency of sampling is 70 injections per hour using 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution at pH 3 as the carrier, a flow rate of 2.5 mL.min{sup -1}, and an injection sample volume of 0.50 mL. The sensor shows potentiometric responses that are very selective for chromium(VI) ions and optimal detection limits in both static mode (2.1 x 10{sup -7} M) and online analysis (9.4 x 10{sup -7} M). The disposable potentiometric sensor was employed to determine toxicity levels of chromium(VI) in mineral, tap, and river waters by flow-injection potentiometry and batch potentiometry. Chromium(VI) determination was also carried out with successful results in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills. (orig.)

  4. Computational Modeling to Limit the Impact Displays and Indicator Lights Have on Habitable Volume Operational Lighting Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. A.; Salazar, G. A.; Brainard, G. C.; Kolomenski, A.; Hanifin, J.; Schwin, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has demonstrated an interest in improving astronaut health and performance through the installment of a new lighting countermeasure on the International Space Station. The Solid State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) system is designed to positively influence astronaut health by providing a daily change to light spectrum to improve circadian entrainment. Unfortunately, existing NASA standards and requirements define ambient light level requirements for crew sleep and other tasks, yet the number of light-emitting diode (LED) indicators and displays within a habitable volume is currently uncontrolled. Because each of these light sources has its own unique spectral properties, the additive lighting environment ends up becoming something different from what was planned or researched. Restricting the use of displays and indicators is not a solution because these systems provide beneficial crew feedback.

  5. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmly, Lloyd M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m{sup 2} vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m{sup 2}, P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  6. Volume fraction and location of voids and gaps in ultraconservative restorations by X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Lagouvardos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume fraction (Vf and location of internal voids and gaps in relation to material type and cavity dimensions in ultraconservative restorations were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight round cavities of 1.3 mm mean diameter and 2.6 mm mean depth were made on buccal and lingual surfaces of recently extracted human teeth. These were filled and thermocycled with two low viscosity composites (AeliteFlo LV [AF], PermaFlo [PF], one high viscosity composite (Aelite aesthetic enamel [AA] and one glass-ionomer (GCFuji IX GP. X-ray microtomography, following a specific procedure, was applied to all cavities before and after their restoration, using SkyScan-1072 microtomographer. Vf percent (Vf% and location of voids and gaps were recorded and analysed statistically at a = 0.05. Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance, post-hoc analysis, Mann-Whitney test, Spearman′s correlation analysis were used to analyze data. Results: Cavities filled with AF and PF showed significantly lower V f % of voids and gaps than all other restorations (P 0.05. The proportion of cavities with gaps at the bottom and side walls was lower in those filled with AF and PF (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Cavities filled with low viscosity composites presented the lowest amount of internal voids and gaps. Glass-ionomer and high viscosity composite restorative materials showed the highest amount of interfacial gaps. Only in the high viscosity composite restorations the amount of voids and gaps correlated with the cavity depth, width and volume.

  7. Proceedings of the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings are organized in the same manner as the conference's contributed sessions, with the papers grouped by topic area. These areas are as follows: VE (virtual environment) training for Space Flight, Virtual Environment Hardware, Knowledge Aquisition for ICAT (Intelligent Computer-Aided Training) & VE, Multimedia in ICAT Systems, VE in Training & Education (1 & 2), Virtual Environment Software (1 & 2), Models in ICAT systems, ICAT Commercial Applications, ICAT Architectures & Authoring Systems, ICAT Education & Medical Applications, Assessing VE for Training, VE & Human Systems (1 & 2), ICAT Theory & Natural Language, ICAT Applications in the Military, VE Applications in Engineering, Knowledge Acquisition for ICAT, and ICAT Applications in Aerospace.

  8. Making intelligent systems team players: Case studies and design issues. Volume 1: Human-computer interaction design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Woods, David D.; Potter, Scott S.; Johannesen, Leila; Holloway, Matthew; Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Initial results are reported from a multi-year, interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for systems with real time fault management capabilities. Intelligent fault management systems within the NASA were evaluated for insight into the design of systems with complex HCI. Preliminary results include: (1) a description of real time fault management in aerospace domains; (2) recommendations and examples for improving intelligent systems design and user interface design; (3) identification of issues requiring further research; and (4) recommendations for a development methodology integrating HCI design into intelligent system design.

  9. Computational techniques for design optimization of thermal protection systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Computational techniques were developed and assimilated for the design optimization. The resulting computer program was then used to perform initial optimization and sensitivity studies on a typical thermal protection system (TPS) to demonstrate its application to the space shuttle TPS design. The program was developed in Fortran IV for the CDC 6400 but was subsequently converted to the Fortran V language to be used on the Univac 1108. The program allows for improvement and update of the performance prediction techniques. The program logic involves subroutines which handle the following basic functions: (1) a driver which calls for input, output, and communication between program and user and between the subroutines themselves; (2) thermodynamic analysis; (3) thermal stress analysis; (4) acoustic fatigue analysis; and (5) weights/cost analysis. In addition, a system total cost is predicted based on system weight and historical cost data of similar systems. Two basic types of input are provided, both of which are based on trajectory data. These are vehicle attitude (altitude, velocity, and angles of attack and sideslip), for external heat and pressure loads calculation, and heating rates and pressure loads as a function of time.

  10. VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Fernando; Masegosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. This book is a collection of research works presented in the VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO) held in Canterbury, UK. Previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006 & 2010), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2011). NICSO 2013 and this book provides a place where state-of-the-art research, latest ideas and emerging areas of nature inspired cooperative strategies for problem solving are vigorously discussed and exchanged among the scientific community. The breadth and variety of articles in this book report on nature inspired methods and applications such as Swarm In...

  11. High-resolution spiral computed tomography with multiplanar reformatting, 3D surface- and volume rendering: a non-destructive method to visualize ancient Egyptian mummification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Roel J; Poulus, Martin; Taconis, Wijbren; Stoker, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    Ancient Egyptians used mummification techniques to prevent their deceased from decay. This study evaluates the potential of computed tomography (CT) in determining these techniques in a non-destructive way. Twenty-five mummies were studied by using high-resolution spiral CT, 1mm slice thickness for the head and 3mm slice thickness for the rest of the body. Images were reconstructed with 3D, multiplanar reformatting and volume rendering. In all cases the used mummification techniques could be reconstructed. The way the brain was removed, the presence of chemicals, like resin and natron, could be detected and the way the intestines were handled could be made visible. The use of CT is indispensable as a non-destructive method in the reconstruction of mummification techniques.

  12. Convolutional neural network architecture and input volume matrix design for ERP classifications in a tactile P300-based Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takumi; Makino, Shoji

    2017-07-01

    In the presented study we conduct the off-line ERP classification using the convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier for somatosensory ERP intervals acquired in the full- body tactile P300-based Brain-Computer Interface paradigm (fbBCI). The main objective of the study is to enhance fbBCI stimulus pattern classification accuracies by applying the CNN classifier. A 60 × 60 squared input volume transformed by one-dimensional somatosensory ERP intervals in each electrode channel is input to the convolutional architecture for a filter training. The flattened activation maps are evaluated by a multilayer perceptron with one-hidden-layer in order to calculate classification accuracy results. The proposed method reveals that the CNN classifier model can achieve a non-personal- training ERP classification with the fbBCI paradigm, scoring 100 % classification accuracy results for all the participated ten users.

  13. Morphological evolution and internal strain mapping of pomelo peel using X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2017-10-15

    Cellular microstructures within natural materials enlighten and promote the development of novel materials and structures in the industrial and engineering fields. Characterization of the microstructures and mechanical properties of these natural materials can help to understand the morphology-related mechanical properties and guide the structural optimization in industrial design. Among these natural cellular materials, pomelo peels, having a foam-like hierarchical microstructure, represent an ideal model for developing materials with high energy absorption efficiency. In this work, by combining X-ray tomographic imaging technique and digital volume correlation (DVC), in-situ stepwise uniaxial compression tests were performed to quantify the internal morphological evolution and kinematic responses of pomelo peel samples during compression. Via these experiments, the varying microstructure features and thus diverse resistance to compression from endocarp to exocarp are examined, and the evolution of both bundles bending and large strain domain from endocarp to mesocarp are explored. Based on the experimental results, the microstructure-related mechanical properties of pomelo peels in response to compressive loading that demonstrates nearly linear morphology-mechanics relationship were revealed.

  14. Identifying Structure-Property Relationships Through DREAM.3D Representative Volume Elements and DAMASK Crystal Plasticity Simulations: An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Martin; Groeber, Michael; Haase, Christian; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Roters, Franz; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-05-01

    Predicting, understanding, and controlling the mechanical behavior is the most important task when designing structural materials. Modern alloy systems—in which multiple deformation mechanisms, phases, and defects are introduced to overcome the inverse strength-ductility relationship—give raise to multiple possibilities for modifying the deformation behavior, rendering traditional, exclusively experimentally-based alloy development workflows inappropriate. For fast and efficient alloy design, it is therefore desirable to predict the mechanical performance of candidate alloys by simulation studies to replace time- and resource-consuming mechanical tests. Simulation tools suitable for this task need to correctly predict the mechanical behavior in dependence of alloy composition, microstructure, texture, phase fractions, and processing history. Here, an integrated computational materials engineering approach based on the open source software packages DREAM.3D and DAMASK (Düsseldorf Advanced Materials Simulation Kit) that enables such virtual material development is presented. More specific, our approach consists of the following three steps: (1) acquire statistical quantities that describe a microstructure, (2) build a representative volume element based on these quantities employing DREAM.3D, and (3) evaluate the representative volume using a predictive crystal plasticity material model provided by DAMASK. Exemplarily, these steps are here conducted for a high-manganese steel.

  15. Vi overser hjertepatienter med ondt i livet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted-Rasmussen, Morten; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen......Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen...

  16. Pneumothoraces in collagen VI-related dystrophy: a case series and recommendations for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L. Fraser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Collagen VI-related dystrophy (collagen VI-RD is a rare neuromuscular condition caused by mutations in the COL6A1, COL6A2 or COL6A3 genes. The phenotypic spectrum includes early-onset Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, adult-onset Bethlem myopathy and an intermediate phenotype. The disorder is characterised by distal hyperlaxity and progressive muscle weakness, joint contractures and respiratory insufficiency. Respiratory insufficiency is attributed to chest wall contractures, scoliosis, impaired diaphragmatic function and intercostal muscle weakness. To date, intrinsic parenchymal lung disease has not been implicated in the inevitable respiratory decline of these patients. This series focuses on pneumothorax, an important but previously under-recognised disease manifestation of collagen VI-RD. We describe two distinct clinical presentations within collagen VI-RD patients with pneumothorax. The first cohort consists of neonates and children with a single pneumothorax in the setting of large intrathoracic pressure changes. The second group is made up of adult patients with recurrent pneumothoraces, associated with chest computed tomography scan evidence of parenchymal lung disease. We describe treatment challenges in this unique population with respect to expectant observation, tube thoracostomy and open pleurodesis. Based on this experience, we offer recommendations for early identification of lung disease in collagen VI-RD and definitive intervention.

  17. OpenMP parallel computing of 2D TiC combustion synthesis process using an explicit finite-volume scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoufi, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes from a numerical point of view the ignition and propagation of the combustion front during the exothermic TiC combustion synthesis of a material made of pressed titanium and carbide particles when thermophysical properties are either assumed constant or temperature and conversion rate dependent. A two-dimensional cylindrical geometry is considered. The heat supply is prescribed on one, two or three sides of the physical domain. A one-step kinetics is used to describe the reaction Ti+C→TiC in a solid phase and leads to the computation of the conversion rate. A coupling with a non-linear heat equation which takes into account the heat generated by the exothermic kinetics and the two allotropic phase-changes is considered. An explicit finite-volume discretization of the coupled system is constructed and analyzed. Time-step’s stability condition is given for a general expression of the thermo-physical characteristics. A discrete maximum principle is reported. Open MP API was used to parallelize the numerical software written in C. An average speedup of three was obtained on an intel quad-core processor i7-2600. The ignition time and the fraction of unreacted material are systematically computed and compared for several heat supply scenario.

  18. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  19. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  20. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  1. Volume-based quantification using dual-energy computed tomography in the differentiation of thymic epithelial tumours: an initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Suyon; Hur, Jin; Im, Dong Jin; Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyunghwa [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Joon; Lee, Chang Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ha Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate the diagnostic value of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in differentiating between low- and high-risk thymomas and thymic carcinomas. Our institutional review board approved this study, and patients provided informed consent. We prospectively enrolled 37 patients (20 males, mean age: 55.6 years) with thymic epithelial tumour. All patients underwent DECT. For quantitative analysis, two reviewers measured the following tumour parameters: CT attenuation value in contrast Hounsfield units (CHU), iodine-related HU and iodine concentration (mg/ml). Pathological results confirmed the final diagnosis. Of the 37 thymic tumours, 23 (62.2 %) were low-risk thymomas, five (13.5 %) were high-risk thymomas and nine (24.3 %) were thymic carcinomas. According to quantitative analysis, iodine-related HU and iodine concentration were significantly different among low-risk thymomas, high-risk thymomas and thymic carcinomas (median: 29.78 HU vs. 14.55 HU vs. 19.95 HU, p = 0.001 and 1.92 mg/ml vs. 0.99 mg/ml vs. 1.18 mg/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). DECT using a quantitative analytical method based on iodine concentration measurement can be used to differentiate among thymic epithelial tumours using single-phase scanning. (orig.)

  2. Cardiac chamber volumes, function, and mass as determined by 64-multidetector row computed tomography: mean values among healthy adults free of hypertension and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fay Y; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Meng, Joyce; Jow, Veronica M; Jacobs, Avrum; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Callister, Tracy Q; Min, James K

    2008-11-01

    We derived mean values for cardiac dimensions, volumes, function, and mass in a normotensive nonobese population free of cardiovascular disease. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) permits study of cardiac chamber size, function, and mass. Age- and gender-specific mean values are not available. A total of 103 normotensive, nonobese adults (43% women, age 51 +/- 14 years) who presented consecutively to 2 medical centers for clinically indicated MDCTs with neither history of nor MDCT evidence of significant cardiovascular disease were studied for left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) end-systolic (ES) and end-diastolic (ED) linear dimensions and volumes; LV and RV ejection fraction (EF), and LV mass (LVM); and left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) end-systolic volumes (LAESV and RAESV, respectively) by 1-dimensional (1D), 2-dimensional (2D), and 3-dimensional (3D) measurements. The LV volumes using 3D techniques were lower than 2D techniques (LVEDV mean 144 +/- 71 ml vs. 150 +/- 70 ml), with higher LVEF (63 +/- 15% vs. 57 +/- 13%) (p < 0.001 for both). Mean LVM/height(2.7) was 24.3 +/- 11.0 g/m(2.7) and mean relative wall thickness was 0.16 to 0.44. Evaluation by 20 versus 10 cardiac phases resulted in higher LVEF (mean difference: 3.4 +/- 9.0%, p < 0.001). For LVEDV, interobserver (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) and intraobserver (r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.001) correlations were high. Mean RVEDV was 82 +/- 57 ml and RVEF was 58 +/- 16. The LAESV determined by 3D techniques was higher than by that determined by 2D methods (102 +/- 48 ml vs. 87 +/- 57 ml, p = 0.0003). The RAESV determined by 3D techniques was 111.9 +/- 29.1 ml. The LV size and LVM were greater in men than in women (p < 0.01). The LV size declined with age (p < 0.01), but LVM did not. This study establishes age- and gender-specific values for LV, RV, LA, and RA size, function, and mass in adults free of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and obesity using 1D, 2D, and 3D methods. These data can be

  3. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  4. Comparison of bioimpedance spectroscopy and X-Ray micro-computed tomography for total fat volume measurement in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Aubertin

    Full Text Available Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are two pathologies whose prevalence are in a constant increase. Evaluation of the total fat mass but also of the distribution between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are important factors while assessing the pathophysiology of these two pathologies. Computed tomography (CT and bioimpedance (BIS are the translational methods the most frequently used in human beings as well as in rodent models in longitudinal studies on adiposity and obesity. Surprisingly, no direct comparison of micro-CT and BIS was reported yet in mice. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the accuracy and the uncertainty of measurement of micro-CT and BIS in this species. The proportion of fat mass was measured with BIS, micro-CT and direct post-mortem tissue weight, and correlations between the data were established to evaluate the accuracy of the methods but also the uncertainty of BIS and micro-CT. There were significant correlations between weights of fat tissues on scale and proportion of total fat mass determined by BIS or micro-CT (r = 0.81 and 0.86 respectively but both methods overestimated the total fat mass, especially in the smallest animals; overestimation of fat mass was amplified with BIS compared to micro-CT. In addition BIS and micro-CT were highly correlated (r = 0.94. Test-test reliability showed a greater variability of the BIS with respect to the micro-CT (coefficient of variation = 17.2 vs 5.6% respectively. Hence, as far as subtle differences between groups or changes within one group are awaited, micro-CT may appear as the most reliable method for determination of fat mass in mice. Micro-CT, unlike BIS, will also allow to qualitatively and quantitatively differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, which is of major importance in studies on adiposity and its complications.

  5. Comparison of bioimpedance spectroscopy and X-Ray micro-computed tomography for total fat volume measurement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubertin, Gaelle; Sayeh, Amira; Dillenseger, Jean-Philippe; Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Choquet, Philippe; Niederhoffer, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are two pathologies whose prevalence are in a constant increase. Evaluation of the total fat mass but also of the distribution between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are important factors while assessing the pathophysiology of these two pathologies. Computed tomography (CT) and bioimpedance (BIS) are the translational methods the most frequently used in human beings as well as in rodent models in longitudinal studies on adiposity and obesity. Surprisingly, no direct comparison of micro-CT and BIS was reported yet in mice. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the accuracy and the uncertainty of measurement of micro-CT and BIS in this species. The proportion of fat mass was measured with BIS, micro-CT and direct post-mortem tissue weight, and correlations between the data were established to evaluate the accuracy of the methods but also the uncertainty of BIS and micro-CT. There were significant correlations between weights of fat tissues on scale and proportion of total fat mass determined by BIS or micro-CT (r = 0.81 and 0.86 respectively) but both methods overestimated the total fat mass, especially in the smallest animals; overestimation of fat mass was amplified with BIS compared to micro-CT. In addition BIS and micro-CT were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Test-test reliability showed a greater variability of the BIS with respect to the micro-CT (coefficient of variation = 17.2 vs 5.6% respectively). Hence, as far as subtle differences between groups or changes within one group are awaited, micro-CT may appear as the most reliable method for determination of fat mass in mice. Micro-CT, unlike BIS, will also allow to qualitatively and quantitatively differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, which is of major importance in studies on adiposity and its complications.

  6. Geothermal Program Review VI: proceedings. Beyond goals and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Program Review VI was comprised of six sessions, including an opening session, four technical sessions that addressed each of the major DOE research areas, and a session on special issues. The technical sessions were on Hydrothermal, Hot Dry Rock, Geopressured and Magma resources. Presenters in the technical sessions discussed their R and D activities within the context of specific GTD Programmatic Objectives for that technology, their progress toward achieving those objectives, and the value of those achievements to industry. The ''Special Issues'' presentations addressed several topics such as the interactions between government and industry on geothermal energy R and D; the origin and basis for the programmatic objectives analytical computer model; and international marketing opportunities for US geothermal equipment and services. The unique aspect of Program Review VI was that it was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's Industry Round Table on Federal R and D. The Round Table provided a forum for open and lively discussions between industry and government researchers and gave industry an opportunity to convey their needs and perspectives on DOE's research programs. These discussions also provided valuable information to DOE regarding industry's priorities and directions.

  7. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) USING IMMOBILIZED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... water and air. It affects the growth of flora and fauna which in turn affect human health negatively. Chromium could also bio-accumulate in plants and animals and this becomes ... The sorption kinetic models of Cr (VI) onto the biosorbents were examined with ... bulk density, moisture and ash contents.

  8. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... for FTA staff to make oral presentations about the two proposed Circulars and allow attendees an... proposed Circular would incorporate lessons learned from triennial reviews, discretionary Title VI... Implementation Plan for Limited English Proficient (LEP) persons now contains a summary of the DOT LEP guidance...

  9. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    OpenAIRE

    D. Karyadi

    1995-01-01

    The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  10. Resúmenes Presentaciones Orales VI ECAP

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Arana, Editor Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de las presentaciones orales del VI Ecuentro Científico de la Amazonía Peruana, desarrollado el 27 y 28 de cotubre de 2015 en la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú.

  11. Vi har selv designet naturens love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    ForskerZonenNaturlovene er universelt gyldige i de flestes øjne. De gælder altid, uanset hvad vi tænker. Men dette billede står ikke uimodsagt i videnskabsfilosofien, og der er meget, der tyder på, at det ikke er specielt empirisk korrekt...

  12. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... enforcement of Title VI disparate impact regulations, it did not undermine the validity of those regulations... streamlined this process. We have modified the definition of ``disparate impact'' for clarity. We decline to... process reengineering. In response, FTA will review the public engagement plan and its implementation when...

  14. Hvem er vi? Hvem er de?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Kommentaren tager afsæt i initiativer i de pædagogiske faglige foreninger i Europa EERA) og i Norden (NERA) og argumenterer for at det er forpligtelse for os som nordiske og europæiske pædagogiske forskere at gå op imod de stadigt mere ekskluderende vi-konstruktioner, som er blevet formuleret i for...

  15. Statistical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Statistical Computing - Understanding Randomness and Random Numbers. Sudhakar Kunte. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 16-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Does Motion Assessment With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Imaging for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Improve Target Volume Coverage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT image acquisition for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study. Free-breathing CT and 4D-CT data sets were acquired at the same simulation session and with the same immobilization. Gross tumor volume (GTV for primary and/or nodal disease was contoured on FBCT (GTV_3D. The 3DCRT plans were obtained, and the patients were treated according to our institution’s standard protocol using FBCT imaging. Gross tumor volume was contoured on 4D-CT for primary and/or nodal disease on all 10 respiratory phases and merged to create internal gross tumor volume (IGTV_4D. Clinical target volume margin was 5 mm in both plans, whereas planning tumor volume (PTV expansion was 1 cm axially and 1.5 cm superior/inferior for FBCT-based plans to incorporate setup errors and an estimate of respiratory-mediated tumor motion vs 8 mm isotropic margin for setup error only in all 4D-CT plans. The 3DCRT plans generated from the FBCT scan were copied on the 4D-CT data set with the same beam parameters. GTV_3D, IGTV_4D, PTV, and dose volume histogram from both data sets were analyzed and compared. Dice coefficient evaluated PTV similarity between FBCT and 4D-CT data sets. Results: In total, 14 of the 15 patients were analyzed. One patient was excluded as there was no measurable GTV. Mean GTV_3D was 115.3 cm 3 and mean IGTV_4D was 152.5 cm 3 ( P = .001. Mean PTV_3D was 530.0 cm 3 and PTV_4D was 499.8 cm 3 ( P = .40. Both gross primary and nodal disease analyzed separately were larger

  17. An organic-reagent-free method for determination of chromium(VI) in steel alloys, sewage sludge and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Sun, Yuping; Wang, Jianji; Fan, Maohong

    2009-04-27

    One of the active areas of green chemistry research and development is in the development of new analytical methods and techniques that reduce and eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this work, a rapid and organic-reagent-free method was developed for the determination of chromium(VI) by sequential injection analysis (SIA). The method was based on the detection of a blue unstable intermediate compound resulting from the reaction of Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in acidic medium. H(2)O(2) and its reaction products were environmentally friendly, and chromogenic reagents and organic solvents were not used in the proposed method. Different SIA parameters have been optimized and used to obtain the analytical figures of merit. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range for Cr(VI) was 0.5-100.0 microg mL(-1), and the detection limit was 0.16 microg mL(-1). The sample throughput was 80 h(-1), and the total volume of only 145 microL was consumed in each determination of Cr(VI). The method was applied for the determination of Cr(VI) in seven real samples, including alloy steel, sewage sludge and wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry as well as with the certified value of Cr(VI) in standard reference material. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference at 95% confidence level.

  18. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography-Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Whyne, Cari M; Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Yee, Albert J M; Sahgal, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (Pconfidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. (18)Fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography total glycolytic volume in thymic epithelial neoplasms evaluation: a reproducible image biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Viti, Andrea; Lanzi, Eleonora; Fortunato, Mirella; Chauvie, Stephane; Bianchi, Andrea; Terzi, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    (18)Fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is not yet accepted as a standard pretreatment evaluation of thymic epithelial neoplasm (TEN). Statistical correlation between standardized uptake value of tumor/mediastinum ratio and patients' WHO risk class has been reported. PET metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total glycolytic volume (TGV) have been reported as additional prognostic imaging biomarkers in several human tumors. Purpose of study was to establish whether MTV and TGV add prognostic information in TEN. A retrospective dynamic cohort study of prospectively collected data (2006-2012) on 23 consecutive patients with pathologically proven TEN (no thymic carcinoma) was conducted. All patients underwent chest CT, and PET for staging. SUV T/M ratio, semi-quantitative and volumetric analyses of TEN were calculated. Patients were categorized according to WHO classification (low-risk and high-risk thymomas). Statistical analysis was performed with bootstrap method. Multi-collinearity was established using Pearson correlation coefficient. Cut-off point for TGV was compared using Mantel Cox log rank test. SUV T/M ratio, MTV, and TGV correlate with low- and high-risk TEN. However, the statistical correlation between TGV and WHO classification (ρ = 0.897) was higher than SUV T/M ratio (ρ = 0.873). Since sample distributions were not uniformly smooth, only one cut-off value was identified: a TGV of 383 served as a cut-off value between low-risk and high-risk TEN. TGV is a PET reproducible imaging marker in patients with TEN, provides prognostic information, and could be useful in pretreatment stratification of patients. Nevertheless, it needs validation in larger cohort studies.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of small volume cone beam computed tomography and intraoral periapical radiography for the detection of simulated external inflammatory root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, C; Patel, S; Davies, J; Wilson, R; Mannocci, F

    2011-02-01

    To compare in an ex vivo model the ability of digital intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to detect simulated external inflammatory root resorption lesions, and to investigate the effect of altering the degree of rotation of the CBCT scanners X-ray source and imaging detector on the ability to detect the same lesions. Small and large simulated external inflammatory resorption (EIR) lesions were created on the roots of 10 mandibular incisor teeth from three human mandibles. Small volume CBCT scans with 180° and 360° of X-ray source rotation and periapical radiographs, using a digital photostimulable phosphor plate system, were taken prior to and after the creation of the EIR lesions. The teeth were relocated in their original sockets during imaging. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis and kappa tests of the reproducibility of the imaging techniques were carried out and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were also determined for each technique. The overall area under the ROC curve (Az value) for intraoral radiography was 0.665, compared to Az values of 0.984 and 0.990 for 180° and 360° CBCT, respectively (Pintraoral radiography (Pradiography. The intra- and inter-examiner agreement was significantly better for CBCT than it was for intraoral radiography (Pintraoral periapical radiography. Small volume CBCT operating with 360° of rotation of the X-ray source and detector is no better at detecting small, artificially created EIR cavities than the same device operating with 180° of rotation. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  1. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography–Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de L' Universite de Québec–Université Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Whyne, Cari M. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ebrahimi, Hamid [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yee, Albert J.M. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. Methods and Materials: A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. Results: The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (P<.001) but not for the osteoblastic measures. The most significant lytic disease threshold was observed at ≥11.6% (odds ratio 37.4, 95% confidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Conclusions: Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results.

  2. Cloning and expression of a Vi mimotope of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A recombinant His-Vi protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was successfully constructed and cloned into an expression vector ... recombinant protein can be used to detect specific anti-Vi antibody produced by typhoid patients. Overall, the His-Vi ... E-mail: khchua@um.edu.my. Tel.:603-. 79676607.

  3. Bioreduction of Cr (VI) by potent novel chromate resistant alkaliphilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Cr (VI) resistant alkaliphilic bacteria from sediment and water samples collected from Wadi Natrun hypersaline Soda lakes (located in northern Egypt), resulted in isolation of several alkaliphilic bacterial strains that can tolerate up to 2.94 g/l of Cr (VI) in alkaline medium. However, with increasing Cr (VI) ...

  4. Bevatron Operation and Development, VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    1955-11-18

    A large fraction of the effort on high-energy physics this quarter was devoted to the study of K particles. Ten of the fourteen external laboratory groups, as well as seven of the internal laboratory groups, used the K{sup {+-}}-beam facilities. These experiments included measurements of lifetimes, modes of decay; and excitation functions. Counters and cloud-chamber techniques were used in addition to nuclear emulsions. Measurements of total and differential cross-sections for {pi}{sup -} mesons continued. Work on proton-proton scattering was extended to 4.8 Bev. Radiochemical investigations of spallation products in light and heavy elements were extended. A new target plunger, a 4-inch quadrupole magnet, and two new steel collimators were added to the experimental facilities. Accelerator development this quarter included experiments on increasing the acceptance time of the Bevatron, self-tracking of the radiofrequency equipment, and the substitution of an analogue computer for the 3D-point curve corrector.

  5. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches: A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    Two programs have been developed to process profile data, for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea level (M.S.L.) and for computation of volume of heavy mineral / sand accumulation or erosion along the beaches. The final output...

  6. Intelligent Computer Graphics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Miaoulis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    In Computer Graphics, the use of intelligent techniques started more recently than in other research areas. However, during these last two decades, the use of intelligent Computer Graphics techniques is growing up year after year and more and more interesting techniques are presented in this area.   The purpose of this volume is to present current work of the Intelligent Computer Graphics community, a community growing up year after year. This volume is a kind of continuation of the previously published Springer volumes “Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Computer Graphics” (2008), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2009” (2009), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2010” (2010) and “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2011” (2011).   Usually, this kind of volume contains, every year, selected extended papers from the corresponding 3IA Conference of the year. However, the current volume is made from directly reviewed and selected papers, submitted for publication in the volume “Intelligent Computer Gr...

  7. Three-dimensional ultrasonography for visualization of muscular anomalies in type VI and VII radial polydactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Susumu; Ueda, Maho; Takahashi, Natsuko; Kawakatsu, Motohisa; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-04-01

    To describe a technique and its clinical applications of three-dimensional ultrasonography to type VI and VII radial polydactyly for identification of potential muscular anomalies. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed at an out-patient department without sedation or an operative room prior to surgery. The palm was scanned in the transverse direction using a 18-MHz linear transducer under speed regulation at 3 mm/s. Sequential images acquired at 0.2 mm intervals were converted into volume data. After validation of the technique, patients with a radial polydactyly in association with triphalangism (type VII) or with polydactylies of metacarpal duplication (type VI) were included for the examination. Five hands of five patients, one with type VI and four with type VII, were included the study. All the patients were male and the ages at examination ranged from 7 months to 2 years. Of the five patients, four examinations were performed at an out-patient department without sedation and one was under anesthesia just prior to surgery. The muscular abnormalities identified were mal-positions of the thenar muscles in a type VI case and a deficiency of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle in a type VII case with a delta phalanx in the ulnar part. Three-dimensional ultrasound technique could be an aid to plan strategies in radial polydactyly if intrinsic muscular anomalies are suspected to be involved.

  8. Concept of a selective tumour therapy and its evaluation by near-infrared fluorescence imaging and flat-panel volume computed tomography in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Frauke [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)], E-mail: falves@gwdg.de; Dullin, Christian [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Napp, Joanna [Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Jannasch, Katharina [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Mathejczyk, Julia; Pardo, Luis A.; Stuehmer, Walter [Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Tietze, Lutz-F. [Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Georg-August-University, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Conventional chemotherapy of cancer has its limitations, especially in advanced and disseminated disease and suffers from lack of specificity. This results in a poor therapeutic index and considerable toxicity to normal organs. Therefore, many efforts are made to develop novel therapeutic tools against cancer with the aim of selectively targeting the drug to the tumour site. Drug delivery strategies fundamentally rely on the identification of good-quality biomarkers, allowing unequivocal discrimination between cancer and healthy tissue. At present, antibodies or antibody fragments have clearly proven their value as carrier molecules specific for a tumour-associated molecular marker. This present review draws attention to the use of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging to investigate binding specificity and kinetics of carrier molecules such as monoclonal antibodies. In addition, flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) will be presented to monitor anatomical structures in tumour mouse models over time in a non-invasive manner. Each imaging device sheds light on a different aspect; functional imaging is applied to optimise the dose schedule and the concept of selective tumour therapies, whereas anatomical imaging assesses preclinically the efficacy of novel tumour therapies. Both imaging techniques in combination allow the visualisation of functional information obtained by NIRF imaging within an adequate anatomic framework.

  9. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography and volume-rendered imaging for evaluation of cellophane banding in a dog with extrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yoon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, 1.8 kg, male, castrated Maltese was presented for evaluation of urolithiasis. Urinary calculi were composed of ammonium biurate. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 44.2 and 187.3 μmol/ , respectively (reference ranges 0–10 and 0–20 μmol/ , respectively. Single-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA with volume-rendered imaging (VRI was obtained. VRI revealed a portocaval shunt originating just cranial to a tributary of the gastroduodenal vein and draining into the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen. CTA revealed a 3.66 mm-diameter shunt measured at the level of the termination of the shunt and a 3.79 mm-diameter portal vein measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Surgery was performed using cellophane banding without attenuation. Follow-up single-phase CTA with VRI was obtained 10 weeks after surgery. VRI revealed no evidence of portosystemic communication on the level of a cellophane band and caudal to the cellophane band. CTA demonstrated an increased portal vein diameter (3.79–5.27 mm measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 25 and 12.5 μmol/ , respectively (aforementioned respective reference ranges, 3 months post-surgery. No problems were evident at 6 months.

  10. How will you need me, how will you read me, when I'm 64 (or more!)?: volume computed tomographic scanning and information overload in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chason, David P; Anderson, Jon A; Stephens, Jason S; Suss, Richard A; Guild, Jeffrey B; Blackburn, Timothy J; Champine, Julie G; Lane, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning technology now employs up to 320 detector rows of 0.5-mm width and allows rapid acquisition of isotropic volume datasets over the entire body. Data from a single CT acquisition can be reconstructed into image series that would formerly have required multiple acquisitions. Small isotropic voxels permit scan parameters to be general while reconstruction algorithms remain specific to anatomy. While this results in more efficient operation in the Emergency Department, it necessitates new ways of displaying, interpreting, and archiving the information. Critical decisions include how much of the patient to scan and how to time contrast injections when imaging multiple organs. These choices must be made in light of dose considerations to the patient and the general population of patients. The technical basis of high-density CT scanning is discussed, including detector configurations and reconstruction techniques. Volumetric scanning in the Emergency Department can improve patient care but requires a change of technical habits. 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flat-Panel Detector—Based Volume Computed Tomography: A Novel 3D Imaging Technique to Monitor Osteolytic Bone Lesions in a Mouse Tumor Metastasis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Missbach-Guentner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Hence, animal models, in combination with various imaging techniques, are in high demand for preclinical assessment of novel therapies. We evaluated the applicability of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT to noninvasive detection of osteolytic bone metastases that develop in severe immunodeficient mice after intracardial injection of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. A single fpVCT scan at 200-wm isotropic resolution was employed to detect osteolysis within the entire skeleton. Osteolytic lesions identified by fpVCT correlated with Faxitron X-ray analysis and were subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination. Isotropic three-dimensional image data sets obtained by fpVCT were the basis for the precise visualization of the extent of the lesion within the cortical bone and for the measurement of bone loss. Furthermore, fpVCT imaging allows continuous monitoring of growth kinetics for each metastatic site and visualization of lesions in more complex regions of the skeleton, such as the skull. Our findings suggest that fpVCT is a powerful tool that can be used to monitor the occurrence and progression of osteolytic lesions in vivo and can be further developed to monitor responses to antimetastatic therapies over the course of the disease.

  12. PACER -- A fast running computer code for the calculation of short-term containment/confinement loads following coolant boundary failure. Volume 2: User information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.

    1997-06-01

    A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. PACER has been developed for FORTRAN 77 and earlier versions of FORTRAN. The code has been successfully compiled and executed on SUN SPARC and Hewlett-Packard HP-735 workstations provided that appropriate compiler options are specified. The code incorporates both capabilities built around a hardwired default generic VVER-440 Model V230 design as well as fairly general user-defined input. However, array dimensions are hardwired and must be changed by modifying the source code if the number of compartments/cells differs from the default number of nine. Detailed input instructions are provided as well as a description of outputs. Input files and selected output are presented for two sample problems run on both HP-735 and SUN SPARC workstations.

  13. Computer quantification of “angle of collapse” on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang, Mengshuang Xie, Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: In a previous study, we demonstrated that asthma patients with signs of emphysema on quantitative computed tomography (CT fulfill the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. However, quantitative CT measurements of emphysema are not routinely available for patients with chronic airway disease, which limits their application. Spirometry was a widely used examination tool in clinical settings and shows emphysema as a sharp angle in the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV curve, called the “angle of collapse (AC”. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS. Methods: This study included 716 participants: 151 asthma patients, 173 COPD patients, and 392 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests. COPD and asthma patients also underwent quantitative CT measurements of emphysema. The AC was measured using computer models based on Matlab software. The value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: The AC of COPD patients was significantly lower than that of asthma patients and control subjects. The AC was significantly negatively correlated with emphysema index (EI; r=-0.666, P<0.001, and patients with high EI had a lower AC than those with low EI. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AC had higher diagnostic efficiency for high EI (area under the curve =0.876 than did other spirometry parameters. In asthma patients, using the AC ≤137° as a surrogate criterion for the diagnosis of ACOS, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 89.1%, respectively. Conclusion: The AC on the MEFV curve quantified by computer models correlates with the extent of emphysema. The AC may become a

  14. Noget vi kan tro på

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2016-01-01

    Situationen er alvorlig. Verden står over for enorme udfordringer med pres på naturressourcer, klima, befolkningsvækst, flygtninge og konflikter. Det er svært at se, hvordan disse problemer kan håndteres inden for den nuværende menneskelige bevidstheds rammer. Vi må derfor foretage et bevidstheds......Situationen er alvorlig. Verden står over for enorme udfordringer med pres på naturressourcer, klima, befolkningsvækst, flygtninge og konflikter. Det er svært at se, hvordan disse problemer kan håndteres inden for den nuværende menneskelige bevidstheds rammer. Vi må derfor foretage et...

  15. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?......Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?...

  16. CPE OF URANIUM (VI USING IONIC LIQUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANAA NAÏT-TAHAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE was used to extract uranium (VI from an aqueous solution in acetate media. The methodology used is based on the formation of uranyl-ionic liquid (I complexes and uranyl-D2EHPA soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100. The uranium (VI complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at ambient temperature. The ionic liquid (IL used as a chelating agent was synthesized and characterized in this study. It is composed of N-butyl N’-triethoxy methyl imidazolium cation and diethylhexylphosphate (D2EHPA-H as anion. The effect of the IL on the extraction efficiency was studied in presence and in absence of IL’s cation in acetate medium.

  17. Computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, I S

    1965-01-01

    Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the

  18. Corneal hysteresis in mucopolysaccharidosis I and VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnehjelm, Kristina Teär; Chen, Enping; Winiarski, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    High intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma are often suspected in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). To determine corneal hysteresis (CH) and IOP in children with mucopolysaccharidosis I-Hurler (MPS I-H) and MPS VI. Clinical measurements with ocular response analyzer (ORA). In seven patients, five with MPS I-H treated with stem cell transplantation (SCT), and two with MPS VI, one treated with SCT and the other with enzyme therapy, the IOP was examined with ORA. Ocular response analyzer measurements were made at a median age of 8.7 years in the patients with MPS I-H and at a median age of 9.3 years in the patients with MPS VI. Earlier measurements had raised suspicion of high IOP in one patient. The ORA showed an increased CH and a falsely high IOP values in all 14 eyes. The recalculated IOPs were normal in all 14 eyes. Mild to severe corneal opacities were present in all 14 eyes. Optic disc areas, borders and cupping were clinically normal in the 12 of 14 eyes that were possible to examine. Severe corneal opacities hampered optic disc evaluation in the older patient with MPS VI. Three eyes in two patients had normal thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer measured with scanning laser polarimetry with corneal compensation (GDx VCC). No patient was diagnosed or treated for glaucoma. The IOPs are often falsely high because of an increased resistance of the cornea and correlate to the extent of corneal clouding. In this small, cross-sectional study, it appears that corneal resistance is directly correlated with corneal clouding, although a longitudinal study that evaluates resistance as the cornea clears with treatment would provide more direct evidence that corneal deposits are directly related to resistance. A correct measured IOP can avoid unnecessary medical or surgical hypotensive treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  19. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Karyadi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  20. Computational and In Vitro Experimental Investigation of Intrathecal Drug Distribution: Parametric Study of the Effect of Injection Volume, Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility, and Drug Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Kevin M; Leval, Roxanne; Mehta, Ankit I; Linninger, Andreas A

    2017-05-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters. The goal of this study is to demonstrate current computational capabilities to predict drug biodistribution while varying 3 parameters: (1) infusion settings, (2) drug chemistry, and (3) subject-specific anatomy and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. We will discuss strategies to systematically optimize these 3 parameters to administer drug molecules to targeted tissue locations in the central nervous system. We acquired anatomical data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and velocity measurements in the spinal cerebrospinal fluid with CINE-MRI for 2 subjects. A bench-top surrogate of the subject-specific central nervous system was constructed to match measured anatomical dimensions and volumes. We generated a computational mesh for the bench-top model. Idealized simulations of tracer distribution were compared with bench-top measurements for validation. Using reconstructions from MRI data, we also introduced a subject-specific computer model for predicting drug spread for the human volunteer. MRI velocity measurements at 3 spinal regions of interest reasonably matched the simulated flow fields in a subject-specific computer mesh. Comparison between the idealized spine computations and bench-top tracer distribution experiments demonstrate agreement of our drug transport predictions to this physical model. Simulated multibolus drug infusion theoretically localizes drug to the

  1. Parallel computations

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Parallel Computations focuses on parallel computation, with emphasis on algorithms used in a variety of numerical and physical applications and for many different types of parallel computers. Topics covered range from vectorization of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) algorithm on the Cray-1 to calculation of table lookups and piecewise functions. Single tridiagonal linear systems and vectorized computation of reactive flow are also discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins by classifying parallel computers and describing techn

  2. Determination of regional lung air volume distribution at mid-tidal breathing from computed tomography: a retrospective study of normal variability and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John; Conway, Joy; Majoral, Caroline; Bennett, Michael; Caillibotte, Georges; Montesantos, Spyridon; Katz, Ira

    2014-07-25

    Determination of regional lung air volume has several clinical applications. This study investigates the use of mid-tidal breathing CT scans to provide regional lung volume data. Low resolution CT scans of the thorax were obtained during tidal breathing in 11 healthy control male subjects, each on two separate occasions. A 3D map of air volume was derived, and total lung volume calculated. The regional distribution of air volume from centre to periphery of the lung was analysed using a radial transform and also using one dimensional profiles in three orthogonal directions. The total air volumes for the right and left lungs were 1035 +/- 280 ml and 864 +/- 315 ml, respectively (mean and SD). The corresponding fractional air volume concentrations (FAVC) were 0.680 +/- 0.044 and 0.658 +/- 0.062. All differences between the right and left lung were highly significant (p lung air volumes and FAVC were 6.5% and 6.9% and 2.5% and 3.6%, respectively. FAVC correlated significantly with lung space volume (r = 0.78) (p lung. Central to peripheral ratios were significantly higher for the right (0.100 +/- 0.007 SD) than the left (0.089 +/- 0.013 SD) (p volume in the lung at mid-tidal breathing is described. Mean values and reproducibility are described for healthy male control subjects. Fractional air volume concentration is shown to increase with lung size.

  3. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB, responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs, que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI. A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética. A principal causa de óbito é insuficiência cardíaca, ocorrendo na segunda ou terceira década de vida. Relato de Caso: Masculino, 4 anos, portador de MP VI, há 3 dias com febre e sinais flogísticos em sítio de acesso central, colocado para reposição enzimática, com flutuação e saída de material purulento. Ultrassom evidenciou coleção laminar e borramento de planos gordurosos. Ecocardiograma demonstra hipertensão pulmonar discreta decorrente de prolapso valvar mitral com refluxo discreto, além de endocardite da valva mitral. Optou-se por retirada cirúrgica do dispositivo e administração de vancomicina e amicacina. Durante internação, evoluiu bem, sem complicações pós operatórias. Conclusão: A MP VI têm inteligência preservada, baixa estatura e alterações osteomusculares, como no caso relatado. Não há correlação entre a gravidade clínica e a atividade residual enzimática. Dificuldade respiratória pode levar a hipóxia crônica, hipertensão pulmonar e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva. Das alterações cardíacas, encontramos valvulopatias, insuficiência cardíaca e hipertensão pulmonar, observadas no caso. O tratamento se faz com transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas e terapia de reposição enzimática.

  4. Can You Depend Totally on Computers? Computer Security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 2. Can You Depend Totally on Computers? Computer Security, Availability and Correctness. H N Mahabala. General Article Volume 3 Issue 2 February 1998 pp 35-44 ...

  5. Comparison of air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities determined by use of computed tomography in conscious and anesthetized Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) positioned in ventral, dorsal, and right lateral recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Benjamin N; Langan, Jennifer N; Adkesson, Michael J; Mitchell, Mark A; Henzler, Margaret; Drees, Randi

    2014-08-01

    To determine the effects of recumbency on air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities in CT images of healthy, conscious and anesthetized spontaneously breathing Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). 25 adult (13 male and 12 female) Humboldt penguins. CT images of conscious penguins in ventral recumbency and anesthetized penguins in dorsal, ventral, and right lateral recumbency were obtained. Air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities in CT images were calculated. A paired samples t test was used to determine whether right and left lung densities differed among recumbencies. Repeated-measures ANOVA (controlled for sex and order of recumbencies during CT) was used to determine whether air sac or lung volumes differed among recumbencies. Recumbency had a significant effect on air sac volume but not lung volume. Air sac volume was largest in conscious penguins in ventral recumbency (mean ± SD, 347.2 ± 103.1 cm(3)) and lowest in anesthetized penguins in dorsal recumbency (median, 202.0 cm(3); 10th to 90th percentile, 129.2 to 280.3 cm(3)). Lung densities were highest in anesthetized penguins in dorsal recumbency (right lung median, 0.522 g/cm(3); left lung median, 0.511 g/cm(3)) and lowest in anesthetized penguins in ventral recumbency (right lung median, 0.488 g/cm(3); left lung median, 0.482 g/cm(3)). Results indicated that anesthetized Humboldt penguins had the lowest air sac volume and highest lung densities in dorsal recumbency. Therefore, this recumbency may not be recommended. Minimal changes in lung volume were detected among recumbencies or between conscious and anesthetized penguins.

  6. An Overview on Production and Applications of Ferrate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaiekhozani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection are essential processes in water and waste treatment. A chemical that can be applied for all the above mentioned purposes is ferrate(VI. Although there are many studies about ferrate(VI, no comprehensive review paper can be found about ferrate(VI from production to applications. The aim of this study was to review ferrate(VI production, measurement, stability and utilization in water and wastewater treatment. Evidence Acquisition In acidic conditions, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. New researches have provided the technology of using ferrate(VI for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, which can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Results Despite the existence of these technologies, there is no full-scale application of ferrate(VI in the water and wastewater industry which it is due to difficulties associated with I, the lack of adequate researches that have demonstrated its capabilities and advantages over the existing water and wastewater treatment methods; ii, the instability of ferrate(VI depending on its method of preparation, and iii, the relatively low yield of ferrate(VI. Conclusions To solve the above mentioned difficulties, fundamental study most be carried out to discover the novel methods of ferrate(VI production, focusing on increasing the product stability and the production yield.

  7. Precision of Digital Volume Correlation Approaches for Strain Analysis in Bone Imaged with Micro-Computed Tomography at Different Dimensional Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Dall’Ara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of local strain in heterogeneous and anisotropic bone tissue is fundamental to understand the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal diseases, to evaluate the effect of interventions from preclinical studies, and to optimize the design and delivery of biomaterials. Digital volume correlation (DVC can be used to measure the three-dimensional displacement and strain fields from micro-computed tomography (μCT images of loaded specimens. However, this approach is affected by the quality of the input images, by the morphology and density of the tissue under investigation, by the correlation scheme, and by the operational parameters used in the computation. Therefore, for each application, the precision of the method should be evaluated. In this paper, we present the results collected from datasets analyzed in previous studies as well as new data from a recent experimental campaign for characterizing the relationship between the precision of two different DVC approaches and the spatial resolution of the outputs. Different bone structures scanned with laboratory source μCT or synchrotron light μCT (SRμCT were processed in zero-strain tests to evaluate the precision of the DVC methods as a function of the subvolume size that ranged from 8 to 2,500 µm. The results confirmed that for every microstructure the precision of DVC improves for larger subvolume size, following power laws. However, for the first time, large differences in the precision of both local and global DVC approaches have been highlighted when SRμCT or in vivo μCT images were used instead of conventional ex vivo μCT. These findings suggest that in situ mechanical testing protocols applied in SRμCT facilities should be optimized to allow DVC analyses of localized strain measurements. Moreover, for in vivo μCT applications, DVC analyses should be performed only with relatively course spatial resolution for achieving a reasonable precision of the method. In

  8. Effect of humic acid on the uranium(VI) sorption onto phyllite and its mineralogical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, K.; Jander, R.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie

    1999-06-01

    The effect of humic acid (HA) on the uranium(VI) sorption onto phyllite and onto its individual main mineralogical constituents, muscovite, albite, and quartz was studied in air-equilibrated batch experiments in the pH range of 3.5 to 9.5. The uranyl(VI) and HA concentration was 1 x 10{sup -6}M and 5 mg/L, respectively. The ionic strength was held constant at 0.1 M (NaClO{sub 4} solution). A size fraction of 63 to 200 {mu}m of the solids was used, the mass loading was 12.5 g/L, and the experimental volume was 40 mL. (orig.)

  9. Relationship of Echocardiographic Epicardial Fat Thickness and Epicardial Fat Volume by Computed Tomography with Coronary Artery Calcification: Data from the CAESAR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Kang, Jung Gyu; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jong Young; Sung, Ki Chul; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-05-01

    No study has assessed the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and computed tomography (CT)-based epicardial fat volume (EFV) and coronary artery calcification. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between EFT and EFV and coronary artery calcification. Among the 2,299 individuals enrolled in the CArdiometabolic risk, Epicardial fat, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis Registry (CAESAR) study, 2,276 (1,851 men; mean age 45 ± 8.9 years) who underwent echocardiographic EFT and CT-based EFV measurements and obtained a coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were included in this study. The overall prevalence of CAC >0 was 19.3%. EFT was significantly correlated with EFV (r = 0.374, p <0.001) but the k statistic showed only slight agreement (k = 0.146, p <0.001). Multivariate regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, daily alcohol intake, smoking status, and vigorous exercise and glucose, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, and hemoglobinA1c levels revealed that an increase in the absolute values of EFT and EFV was significantly associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium (ORs [95% CIs], 2.023 [1.282-3.193] and 1.785 [1.173-2.716], respectively) and CACS (standardized β values = 0.082 and 0.061, p = 0.001 and 0.042, respectively). These results show that EFT and EFV are associated with coronary artery calcification in Korean adults despite the relatively weak correlation between EFT and EFV. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A two-step convolutional neural network based computer-aided detection scheme for automatically segmenting adipose tissue volume depicting on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Accurately assessment of adipose tissue volume inside a human body plays an important role in predicting disease or cancer risk, diagnosis and prognosis. In order to overcome limitation of using only one subjectively selected CT image slice to estimate size of fat areas, this study aims to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning technique to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral fat areas (VFA) depicting on volumetric CT images. A retrospectively collected CT image dataset was divided into two independent training and testing groups. The proposed CAD framework consisted of two steps with two convolution neural networks (CNNs) namely, Selection-CNN and Segmentation-CNN. The first CNN was trained using 2,240 CT slices to select abdominal CT slices depicting SFA and VFA. The second CNN was trained with 84,000pixel patches and applied to the selected CT slices to identify fat-related pixels and assign them into SFA and VFA classes. Comparing to the manual CT slice selection and fat pixel segmentation results, the accuracy of CT slice selection using the Selection-CNN yielded 95.8%, while the accuracy of fat pixel segmentation using the Segmentation-CNN was 96.8%. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a new deep learning based CAD scheme to automatically recognize abdominal section of human body from CT scans and segment SFA and VFA from volumetric CT data with high accuracy or agreement with the manual segmentation results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  12. Inter-scan and inter-observer tumour volume delineation variability on cone beam computed tomography in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Lee, Stephanie; Agrawal, Vishesh; Romano, John; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Chen, Aileen B; Kozono, David E; Killoran, Joseph H; Wagar, Matthew; Hacker, Fred L; Aerts, Hugo Jwl; Lewis, John H; Mak, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Quantification of volume changes on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and for adaptive treatment planning. This study quantifies inter-scan and inter-observer variability in tumour volume delineation on CBCT. Three clinicians independently contoured the primary gross tumour volume (GTV) manually on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (post) for 19 NSCLC patients. Relative volume differences (RVD) were calculated between the pre- and post-CBCTs for a given treatment and between any two of three observers for a given CBCT. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to quantitatively measure and compare the extent of variability. Inter-observer variability had a significantly higher CV of 0.15 ± 0.13 compared to inter-scan CV of 0.03 ± 0.04 with P volume delineation on CBCT with greatest variability for small tumours (volume change during SBRT treatment for tumours with diameter greater than 2 cm, with larger thresholds needed for smaller tumours. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. Normal values of left ventricularmass and cardiac chamber volumes assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Mejdahl, Mads Rams; Kühl, J Tobias

    2016-01-01

    age was 55 (range: 40-84) years, and 188 (33%) were men. BSA-indexed 97.5th percentile cut-off values: LVM 80 and 65 gr/m2, left ventricular volume 97 and 83 mL/m2, right ventricular volume 120 and 102 mL/m2, left atrial volume 60 and 57 mL/m2, and right atrial volume 85 and 73 mL/m2 for men and women......, respectively. Men had greater absolute and indexed LVM and chamber volumes than women. For both genders, indexed ventricular volumes declined, whereas indexed atrial volumes increased in advancing age groups. For men, indexed LVM declined in advancing age groups. In multivariate analyses, gender, BSA, systolic...... blood pressure, and hard physical activity accounted for 63% of variance in LVM. Conclusion In this cross-sectional general population study, men have greater indexed LVM and chamber volumes than women, and cardiac indexed volumes vary between age groups in both genders. These findings demonstrate...

  14. Farvel til globaliseringen som vi kendte den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Vi er endt med en krise, som rækker langt ud over det globale monetære system, fordi den ideologiske ortodoksi, der skabte den, har ført til udflytning af millioner af arbejdspladser, tæring af nationalstaternes sammenhængskraft og overgreb på naturen. Kronikken refererer bl.a. til John Maynard...... Keynes og en artikel af økonomen Robert Skidelsky i The American Prospect. Udgivelsesdato: 12. januar 2009...

  15. "LICENS ER NOGET VI GIVER TIL HINANDEN"

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Nana Lysbo; Birksholm, Sarah Schlander; Rosendahl, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Nadja Loran

    2013-01-01

    This study consists of a rhetorical analysis of how the Danish Broadcasting Corporation argues for the compulsory license fee in their campaign video: ’Licens er noget vi giver til hinanden’. On the assumption that a visual product can argue on equal terms with the spoken language, the paper will look at the specific visual tools that are used in the argumentation and the portrayal of the concept of public service and the license fee. In extension to this the paper will examine if the vid...

  16. Decrease of pulmonary blood flow detected by phase contrast MRI is correlated with a decrease in lung volume and increase of lung fibrosis area determined by computed tomography in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Nanae; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2016-09-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood flow decrease in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between pulmonary blood flow and lung volume in ILD patients. This research was approved by the institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients (9 men, 18 women; mean age, 59 years; range, 24-79 years) with ILD were included. Blood flow was assessed in the pulmonary trunk and the left and right pulmonary arteries by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lung volume and the computed tomography (CT) visual score that indicates the severity of ILD were assessed on the left and right sides by thin-section CT scanning. Lung volume was automatically measured by lung analysis software (VINCENT Ver. 4). The CT visual score was measured by averaging the proportion of abnormal lung area at five anatomic levels. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between pulmonary blood flow and lung volume. Pulmonary blood flow showed a significant correlation with lung volume (both: r=0.52, p=0.006; left: r=0.61, p=0.001; right: r=0.54, p=0.004) and CT visual score (both: r=-0.39, p=0.04; left: r=-0.48, p=0.01; right: r=-0.38, p=0.04). Partial correlation analysis, controlled for age, height and weight, showed a significant correlation between pulmonary blood flow and lung volume (both: r=0.43, p=0.03; left: r=0.55, p=0.005; right: r=0.48, p=0.01) and CT visual score (both: r=-0.58, p=0.003; left: r=-0.51, p=0.01; right: r=-0.64, p=0.001). In ILD, reduced pulmonary blood flow is associated with reduced lung volume and increased abnormal lung area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Know Your Personal Computer Introduction to Computers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 1. Know Your Personal Computer Introduction to Computers. Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Oral–Facial–Digital Syndrome type VI with self mutilations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 2.5 year old female, 2nd in order of birth of 1st cousin consanguineous marriage, with the typical features of Oral–Facial–Digital Syndrome type VI (OFDS VI including midline pseudo cleft upper lip, sublingual nodule, molar tooth sign by MRI brain, bilateral mesoaxial polydactyly (hexadactyly, and developmental delay. The patient had self mutilations which was not reported before in OFDS VI except once.

  19. Environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, May-Helen; Cochrane, Sabine; Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    There has been an environmental investigation in Region VI Halten Bank. This report presents the results of the chemical and biological assays performed on samples from a total of 316 stations in 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (AG)

  20. Environmental Survey in Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Summary report; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    An environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, has been carried out. This report presents the results from the analyses carried out on samples from a total of 316 stations at 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of the environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (Author)

  1. Fremtidens lavenergibyggeri - kan vi gøre som vi plejer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen

    2011-01-01

    Stramninger af kravene til energiforbruget i vores boliger medfører stor fokus på energiberegningen, men erfaringer fra lavenergiboliger opført i dag viser, at vi, for at sikre succes for fremtidens boliger, også skal inddrage dokumentation af indeklimaet og forbedre samarbejdet mellem arkitekter...

  2. Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress. Vi vil nemlig nå det hele og presser konstant nye aftaler ind i vores kalender. Det eneste, der hjælper, er at ’gøre intet’ – men kan man overhovedet det? Udgivelsesdato: 30.09.09......Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress. Vi vil nemlig nå det hele og presser konstant nye aftaler ind i vores kalender. Det eneste, der hjælper, er at ’gøre intet’ – men kan man overhovedet det? Udgivelsesdato: 30.09.09...

  3. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  4. Remediation of Cr(VI) in solution using vitamin C*

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Yong; Xu, Xin-hua; He, Ping

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of vitamin C in treating Cr(VI)-contaminated water is being evaluated. Cr(VI) is an identified pollutant of some soils and groundwater. Vitamin C, an important biological reductant in humans and animals, can be used to transform Cr(VI) to essentially nontoxic Cr(III). The removal efficiency was 89% when the mass concentration of vitamin C was 80 mg/L in 60 min, and nearly 100% Cr(VI) was removed when the mass concentration was 100 mg/L. Our data demonstrated that the removal...

  5. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type VI collagen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cintron, C; Hong, BS

    1988-01-01

    .... These physical characteristics, together with the susceptibility of these polypeptides to collagenase and their amino acid composition, identified the high molecular weight aggregate as type VI collagen...

  6. Experimental determination of salt partition coefficients between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII: implication for the composition of the deep ocean and the geodynamics of large icy moons and water rich planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Cardon, Hervé; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The potential habitability of extraterrestrial large aqueous reservoir in icy moons and exoplanets requires an input of nutrients and chemicals that may come from the rocky part of planetary body. Because of the presence of high pressure (HP) water ices (VI, VII, etc.) between the liquid ocean and the silicates, such interactions are considered to be limited in large icy moons, like Ganymede and Titan, and water rich exoplanets. In the case of salty-rich oceans, recent experimental and modeling works have shown that aqueous fluids can be stable at higher pressures [1, 2]. This can ultimately allow direct interaction with the rocky core of icy moons. This effect is nevertheless limited and for larger bodies such as water rich exoplanets with much higher pressures in their hydrosphere, HP ice should be present between the rocky core and a putative ocean. Salts are highly incompatible with low pressure ice Ih, but recent experimental work has shown that alkali metal and halogen salts are moderately incompatible with ice VII, that can incorporate up to several mol/kg of salts [3, 4, 5]. As far as we know, no similar study has been done on ice VI, a HP ice phase expected inside large icy moons. We present here the first experimental data on the partition coefficient of RbI salt between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII using in-situ synchrotron X-Ray single crystal diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence mapping (ESRF - ID-27 beam line [6]). Our experiment enable us to observe a density inversion between ice VI and the salty fluid, and to measure the values of salt partition coefficients between the aqueous fluid and ice VI (strongly incompatible) and ice VII (moderately incompatible). Using the volumes determined with X-Ray diffraction, we were able to measure the density of salty ice VI and ice VII and determine that salty ice VI is lighter than pure H2O ice VI. These results are very relevant for the study of water rich planetary bodies interior because the partition

  7. Late Neanderthals at Jarama VI (central Iberia)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Martin; Burow, Christoph; Hilgers, Alexandra; Navazo, Marta; Pastoors, Andreas; Weniger, Gerd-Christian; Wood, Rachel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.

    2013-09-01

    Previous geochronological and archaeological studies on the rock shelter Jarama VI suggested a late survival of Neanderthals in central Iberia and the presence of lithic assemblages of Early Upper Paleolithic affinity. New data on granulometry, mineralogical composition, geochemical fingerprints and micromorphology of the sequence corroborate the previous notion that the archaeological units JVI.2.1 to JVI.2.3 are slackwater deposits of superfloods, which did not experience significant post-depositional changes, whereas the artifact-rich units JVI.3 and JVI.1 mainly received sediment inputs by sheetwash and cave spall. New AMS radiocarbon measurements on three samples of cut-marked bone using the ultrafiltration technique yielded ages close to, or beyond, the limit of radiocarbon dating at ca. 50 14C ka BP, and hence suggest much higher antiquity than assumed previously. Furthermore, elevated temperature post-IR IRSL luminescence measurements on K feldspars yielded burial ages for subunits JVI.2.2 and JVI.2.3 between 50 and 60 ka. Finally, our reappraisal of the stone industry strongly suggests that the whole sequence is of Mousterian affinity. In conclusion, Jarama VI most probably does not document a late survival of Neanderthals nor an Early Upper Paleolithic occupation in central Iberia, but rather indicates an occupation breakdown after the Middle Paleolithic.

  8. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, S; Nasiri, M; Mesbahi, A; Khani, M H

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Interaction of monosaccharides and related compounds with oxocations of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) studied by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Castro, M.M.C.A.; Saraiva, M.E.; Aureliano, M.; Dias, B.A.

    1988-05-01

    Proton, /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the complexation of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) oxocations with various aldoses, cyclic polyols and ribose-5-phosphate in aqueous solution. The aldoses D-mannose, D-lyxose and D-ribose form tridentate complexes with Mo(VI) and W(VI) at pH similarly ordered 5, via the 1,2,3-hydroxyl groups, which are cis to each other in these sugars. Other aldoses, like D-arabinose, D-glucose, D-xylose and D-galactose form weaker bidentate complexes with those ions because they can only use the 1 and 3-cis hydroxyl groups in metal binding. These bidentate interactions also take place in the binding of U(VI) to D-mannose and D-ribose, at pH similarly ordered 10. However, sugars having 1,3,5-hydroxyl groups in the cis position do not form stable chelates with these oxocations, possibly due to steric crowding. In the case of ribose-5-phosphate, the phosphate group is the exclusive binding site for the three oxocations, except for U(VI) at very basic pH (pH > 10), where the hydroxyl groups also interact with UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/.

  10. Influence of blinded wound closure on the volume stability of different GBR materials: an in vitro cone-beam computed tomographic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Mari, Javier; Wui, Hu; Jung, Ronald E; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Benic, Goran I

    2016-02-01

    To test whether the use of (i) particulated bone substitute + collagen membrane used for guided bone regeneration (GBR) of peri-implant bone defects renders different results from (ii) particulated bone substitute + collagen membrane + fixation pins and from (iii) block bone substitute + collagen membrane with respect to the volume stability of the augmented region during suturing of mucosal flaps. Twenty peri-implant box-shaped bone defects were created in 10 pig mandibles. Every bone defect was augmented once with each of the following GBR procedures: Granulate (particulated xenograft + collagen membrane), Granulate + Pins (particulated xenograft + collagen membrane + fixation pins), and Block (block xenograft + collagen membrane). Cone-beam computed tomography scans were obtained prior and after blinded wound closure. The horizontal thickness (HT) of the augmented region (bone substitute + membrane) was assessed at the implant shoulder (HT0 mm ) and at 1-5 mm apical to the implant shoulder (HT1 mm -HT5 mm ). The changes of HT during flap suturing were calculated as absolute (mm) and relative values (%). Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Wound closure induced a statistically significant change of HT0 mm and of HT1 mm in all the treatment groups (P ≤ 0.05). The change in HT0 mm measured -42.8 ± 17.9% (SD) for Granulate, -22.9 ± 21.2% (SD) for Granulate + Pins, and -20.2 ± 18.9% (SD) for Block. The reduction in HT0 mm, HT1 mm , HT2 mm, and HT3 mm for the Granulate procedure was significantly higher as compared to the Granulate + Pins and the Block procedures (P ≤ 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the change of HT between the Granulate + Pins and the Block procedures (P > 0.05). Wound closure induced displacement of the bone substitute resulting in a partial collapse of the collagen membrane in the coronal portion of the augmented site. The stability of the bone substitute and collagen membrane was enhanced

  11. Assessment of major adverse cardiovascular events and ischemic stroke with coronary computed tomography angiography based upon angiographic diagnosis in a high-volume single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K Lin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient prognosis has been shown to directly correlate with the severity of coronary artery disease diagnosed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA. Although the presence of coronary artery calcium has been associated with increased incidence of ischemic stroke, there are no data on the incidence of ischemic stroke based upon the severity of coronary artery disease by CCTA. Therefore, we sought to investigate the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, including ischemic stroke, based upon the severity of coronary artery disease by CCTA over a 6-year period in a high-volume single military center. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all CCTA studies to evaluate the incidence of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and late revascularization (>90 days following CCTA from January 2005 until July 2012. We reviewed 1518 CCTA reports, dividing patients into groups with obstructive (≥50% stenosis, non-obstructive (<50% stenosis, and no coronary artery disease (no angiographic disease. Subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events data (incidence of all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and late revascularization were obtained. Results: Over a review period of 6 years with a resultant median follow-up period of 22 months (interquartile range = 13–34 months, the major adverse cardiovascular events rate was significantly higher with obstructive coronary artery disease compared to both non-obstructive coronary artery disease and no coronary artery disease (8.9% vs 0.7%, p < 0.001; 8.9% vs 1.6%, p < 0.001. The incidence of ischemic stroke alone was also significantly higher in those with obstructive coronary artery disease compared to those with no coronary artery disease (3.8% vs 0.4%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Being free of disease on CCTA was associated with excellent cardiovascular prognosis. Obstructive coronary artery disease was

  12. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Division of Biometrics, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Haider, Syed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Wu, Alson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Langenfeld, John [Division of Surgery, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  13. Analysis of regional cerebral blood flow and distribution volume in Machado-Joseph disease by iodine-{sup 123}I IMP single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Tsunemi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi [National Saigata Hospital, Ohagata, Niigata (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Its clinical features vary greatly in different generations of the same family. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and distribution volume (V{sub d}) in the pons, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex were measured in 12 patients with MJD by autoradiography (ARG) and the table look-up (TLU) method of iodine-123 IMP ({sup 123}I-IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Representative cases were as follows: A 46-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 38. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no atrophy in the pons or cerebellum, but rCBF measured by the {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT ARG method detected hypoperfusion in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. A 76-year-old woman first experienced gait ataxia at age 69. CT and MRI findings showed severe atrophy in the pons, and cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. Moreover, rCBF was decreased in the pons, whereas it was not decreased in the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere. In the pons of patients with MJD, rCBF was markedly decreased regardless of disease severity. Because this SPECT finding for the pons looked like a 'dot', we have called it the 'pontine dot sign'. In the MJD group, rCBF was significantly decreased in the pons (Student's t test, p<0.01) and cerebellar vermis (p<0.05). The V{sub d} was also significantly decreased in the pons (p<0.005) in comparison with that for normal subjects. Pearson's correlation analysis yielded a significant relationship between the rCBF in the pons and age at onset (r=0.578, p<0.05). There was a strong correlation between the V{sub d} for the pons and age at onset (r=0.59, p<0.05). Person's correlation analysis also showed a significant relationship between the V{sub d} in the cerebellar hemispheres and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (r=0.644, p<0.05). The pontine rCBFs in patients with early onset MJD

  14. Stable uranium(VI) methyl and acetylide complexes and the elucidation of an inverse trans influence ligand series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-09-04

    Thermally stable uranium(VI)-methyl and -acetylide complexes: U(VI)OR[N(SiMe3)2]3 R = -CH3, -C≡CPh were prepared in which coordination of the hydrocarbyl group is directed trans to the uranium-oxo multiple bond. The stability of the uranium-carbon bond is attributed to an inverse trans influence. The hydrocarbyl complexes show greater ITI stabilization than that of structurally related U(VI)OX[N(SiMe3)2]3 (X = F(-), Cl(-), Br(-)) complexes, demonstrated both experimentally and computationally. An inverse trans influence ligand series is presented, developed from a union of theoretical and experimental results and based on correlations between the extent of cis-destabilization, the complexes stabilities toward electrochemical reduction, the thermodynamic driving forces for U═O bond formation, and the calculated destabilization of axial σ* and π* antibonding interactions.

  15. Lessons learned from 118,970 multidetector computed tomographic intravenous contrast material administrations: impact of catheter dwell time and gauge, catheter location, rate of contrast material administration, and patient age and sex on volume of extravasate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Pinho, Daniella; Nelson, Rendon C; Sahani, Dushyant V; Jenkins, Melissa; Zabrycki, MaryAnne; Chaudhry, Humaira; Kang, Jian; Chen, Zhengjia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of catheter dwell time and gauge, catheter location, rate of contrast material administration, and patient age and sex on volume of extravasate at intravenous contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography. Incident reports were reviewed for all extravasation events that occurred in adult patients between March 2006 and December 2009 at 2 institutions. Patient age and sex; catheter dwell time, gauge, and location; rate of contrast material administration; and estimated volume of extravasated contrast material were recorded. Three hundred thirty extravasation events were recorded for the 118,970 contrast material administrations (0.3%). Mean volume of extravasated contrast material was statistically significantly less for catheters newly placed in the radiology department, for higher flow rates, for smaller gauge catheters, and for catheters placed in the hand. Mean volume of extravasated contrast material did not vary significantly based on patient age or sex. The volume of extravasate was likely to be smaller for smaller-gauge catheters in the hand with higher flow rates and for catheters newly placed in the radiology department.

  16. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano VI, No. 10/11 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume VI, No. 10/11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  19. Laser-induced efficient reduction of Cr(VI) catalyzed by ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, M. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Group, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Yamani, Z.H. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Group, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-03-15

    The present study demonstrates the complete removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous suspensions of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a novel laser-induced photocatalytic process without the use of any additive. The study showed that {approx}95% Cr(VI) was removed within short time (60 min) of laser exposure in the presence of ZnO. However, the removal of chromium using conventional setup under identical conditions was found to be negligible. Effect of critical parameters, such as laser energy, catalyst concentration, chromium concentration, and added electron donor and acceptor on the photocatalytic reduction process was also investigated. The data regarding temporal behavior of metal removal was fitted to first-order kinetic and reaction rate was computed.

  20. The standard partial molar volumes of ions in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.

    2009-03-01

    The standard partial molar volumes of electrolytes and ions in N-methylpyrrolidone (MP) at 298.15 K are presented. Separate components of ionic volumes in solutions in MP at infinite dilution, overline {V_i^0 } , are considered. The influence of various volume effects on ion-solvent interactions is analyzed.

  1. Differential determination of selenium(IV) and selenium(VI) with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and dithizone by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, T; Shiraishi, T; Yamamoto, Y

    1978-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of selenium(IV) and selenium(VI) with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and dithizone in organic solvents has been investigated by means of flameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer. The selective extraction of selenium(IV) and differential determination of selenium(IV) and selenium(VI) have been developed. With sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and carbon tetrachloride, when the aqueous phase/organic solvent volume ratio is 5 and the injection volume in the carbon tube is 20 microl, the sensitivity for selenium is 0.4 ng/ml for 1% absorption. The relative standard deviations are ca. 3%. Interference by many metal ions can he prevented by masking with EDTA. The proposed methods have been applied satisfactorily to determination of Se(IV) and Se(VI) in various types of water.

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between renal function and renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansu, Aysegul, E-mail: drcansu@gmail.com; Kupeli, Ali; Kul, Sibel; Eyuboglu, Ilker; Oguz, Sukru; Ozturk, Mehmet Halil; Dinc, Hasan

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between renal function and total renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound (3DPDUS). Materials and methods: One hundred six patients with hypertensive proteinuric nephropathy (HPN) (49 male, 57 female) and 65 healthy controls (32 male, 33 female) were evaluated prospectively using 3DPDUS. Total renal volume (RV), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL). The estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of the patients with HPN and the control group were calculated. The patients with HPN were divided into two groups on the basis of GFR, normal (≥90) or reduced (<90). Differences between groups were compared using ANOVA. Correlations between GFR, renal volume and vascular indices were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean total RV, VI, FI and VFI values in the reduced GFR, normal GFR and control groups were RV (ml): 234.7, 280.7 and 294.6; VI: 17.6, 27.6 and 46.8; FI: 79.1, 88.7 and 93.9 and VFI: 7.1, 12.7 and 23.8. There were statistically significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). Total RVs and vascular indices exhibited significant correlations with estimated GFR (r = 0.53–0.59, p < 0.001) Conclusion: Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound is a reliable predictive technique in renal function analysis.

  3. ViSlang: A system for interpreted domain-specific languages for scientific visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Rautek, Peter

    2014-12-31

    Researchers from many domains use scientific visualization in their daily practice. Existing implementations of algorithms usually come with a graphical user interface (high-level interface), or as software library or source code (low-level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces and at the same time offering more flexibility than high-level interfaces. We describe the design and implementation of ViSlang, an interpreted language specifically tailored for scientific visualization. A major contribution of our design is the extensibility of the ViSlang language. Novel DSLs that are tailored to the problems of the domain can be created and integrated into ViSlang. We show that our approach can be added to existing user interfaces to increase the flexibility for expert users on demand, but at the same time does not interfere with the user experience of novice users. To demonstrate the flexibility of our approach we present new DSLs for volume processing, querying and visualization. We report the implementation effort for new DSLs and compare our approach with Matlab and Python implementations in terms of run-time performance.

  4. Stability of viscous fluid in Bianchi type-VI model with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Amani, Ali R.; Tahmasbi, N.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate Bianchi type-VI cosmological model for the universe filled with dark energy and viscous fluid in the presence of cosmological constant. Also, we show accelerating expansion of the universe by drawing volume scale, pressure and energy density versus cosmic time. In order to solve the Einstein's field equations, we assume the expansion scalar is proportional to a component of the shear tensor. Therefore, we obtain the directional scale factors and show the EOS parameter crosses over phantom divided-line.

  5. Infrared and millimeter waves v.15 millimeter components and techniques, pt.VI

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth J

    1986-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 15: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part VI is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. This book covers low-noise receiver technology for near-millimeter wavelengths; dielectric image-line antennas; EHF satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal antennas; and semiconductor antennas for millimeter-wave integrated circuits. A scanning airborne radiometer for 30 and 90 GHz and a self-oscillating mixer are also described. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the design of low-n

  6. Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Celina; Gibani, Malick M; Moore, Maria; Juel, Helene B; Jones, Elizabeth; Meiring, James; Harris, Victoria; Gardner, Jonathan; Nebykova, Anna; Kerridge, Simon A; Hill, Jennifer; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Blohmke, Christoph J; Yu, Ly-Mee; Angus, Brian; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-12-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi. In this single-centre, randomised controlled, phase 2b study, using an established outpatient-based human typhoid infection model, we recruited healthy adult volunteers aged between 18 and 60 years, with no previous history of typhoid vaccination, infection, or prolonged residency in a typhoid-endemic region. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a single dose of Vi-conjugate (Vi-TT), Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), or control meningococcal vaccine with a computer-generated randomisation schedule (block size 6). Investigators and participants were masked to treatment allocation, and an unmasked team of nurses administered the vaccines. Following oral ingestion of S Typhi, participants were assessed with daily blood culture over a 2-week period and diagnosed with typhoid infection when meeting pre-defined criteria. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants diagnosed with typhoid infection (ie, attack rate), defined as persistent fever of 38°C or higher for 12 h or longer or S Typhi bacteraemia, following oral challenge administered 1 month after Vi-vaccination (Vi-TT or Vi-PS) compared with control vaccination. Analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02324751, and is ongoing. Between Aug 18, 2015, and Nov 4, 2016, 112 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; 34 to the control group, 37 to the Vi-PS group, and 41 to the Vi-TT group. 103 participants

  7. Hvad skal vi med skønlitteraturen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Oksbjerg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    didaktiske læremidler, der produceres i disse år, lægges der ikke op til en udnyttelse af skønlitteraturens potentiale for at danne eleverne til demokratiske borgere. I denne artikel beskriver vi, hvad der er galt med læremidlerne. Desuden skitserer vi kriterier for formulering af elevopgaver, der lægger op...

  8. Detoxification of chromium (VI) in coastal water using lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, attempts have been made to harness lignocellulosic agricultural waste material (bagasse) for the removal of chromium (VI) from highly saline coastal water used for aquacultural practices using brackish water. Five different products prepared from bagasse were evaluated for the detoxification of Cr(VI) ...

  9. Biosorption of chromium(VI) using immobilized Bacillius subtilis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the batch removal of Cr (VI) from environment water bodies becomes necessary. Its removal from aqueous solution using immobilized Bacillus subtilis (IBBS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IPBS), mixed biomass (IMBS) and Alginate alone (IABS) was carried out. The conditions of influence of initial Cr (VI) ...

  10. Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the treatment of the flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings has been investigated in terms of contact time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. Homogenizing 1 g of the activated carbon with 100 ml of the flocculation ...

  11. Moderate selenium dosing inhibited chromium (VI) toxicity in chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Yongxia; Wan, Huiyu; Zhu, Yiran; Chen, Peng; Hao, Pan; Cheng, Ziqiang; Liu, Jianzhu

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of selenium (Se) on chromium (VI) [Cr(VI)]-induced damage in chicken liver. A total of 105 chickens were randomly divided into seven groups of 15. Group I received deionized water; group II received Cr(VI) (7.83 mg/kg/d) alone; and other groups orally received both Cr(VI) (7.83 mg/kg/d) and Se of different doses (0.14, 0.29, 0.57, 1.14, and 2.28 mg/kg/d). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), Ca2+ -ATPase, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured. Results showed that Cr(VI) increased MDA content and decreased GSH content, T-SOD activity, Ca2+ -ATPase activity, and MMP level. Meanwhile, Se co-treatment (0.14, 0.29, and 0.57 mg/kg/d) increased the viability of the above indicators compared with Cr(VI)-treatment alone. In addition, histopathologic examination revealed that Cr(VI) can cause liver damage, whereas Se supplementation of moderate dose inhibited this damage. This study confirmed that Se exerted protective effect against Cr(VI)-induced liver damage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Kandinsky's "Composition VI": Heideggerian Poetry in Noah's Ark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    The author will begin his investigation of Wassily Kandinsky's painting "Composition VI" with Kandinsky's own commentary on the painting. He will then turn to the analysis of Kandinsky and the "Compositions" in John Sallis's book "Shades." Using this analysis as his point of departure, the author will consider how "Composition VI" resonates with…

  13. Museo del oro: viñetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Field

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2011 convocamos a un grupo internacional de académicos/activistas para discutir en Colombia las complejidades de la relación entre arqueología, excavaciones “ilícitas”, museos y comunidades indígenas desde una mirada comparativa. El taller de tres días tuvo lugar en Bogotá y Villa de Leyva. Uno de los eventos programados durante los dos días de la parte bogotana del taller fue una visita al Museo del Oro. En el restaurante del museo conversamos sobre lo que acabábamos de ver, sentir y pensar, y surgieron estas impresiones en las que el estupor convive con un fuerte deseo por decir algo. En Villa de Leyva nació la idea de que cada uno de nosotros transcribiera sus emociones en formato de viñeta.

  14. A Video Tour through ViSta 6.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabriel Molina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a visual tour throughout ViSta 6.4, a freeware statistical program based on Lisp-Stat and focused on techniques for statistical visualization (Young 2004. This travel around ViSta is based on screen recordings that illustrate the main features of the program in action. The following aspects of ViSta 6.4 are displayed: the program's interface (ViSta's desktop, menubar and pop-up menus, help system; its data management capabilities (data input and editing, data transformations; features associated to data analysis (data description, statistical modeling; and the options for Lisp-Stat development in ViSta. The video recordings associated to this tour (.wmv files can be visualized at http://www.jstatsoft.org/v13/i08/ using the Internet Explorer navigator, or by clicking on the figures in the paper.

  15. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingsong, E-mail: xhwjs@163.co [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China) and Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hu Xinjiang [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie Shuibo [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Bao Zhenglei [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L{sup -1}. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  16. A field-scale reactive transport model for U(VI) migration influenced by coupled multirate mass transfer and surface complexation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R.; Zheng, C.; Prommer, H.; Greskowiak, J.; Liu, C.; Zachara, J.; Rockhold, M.

    2010-05-01

    This study explores field-scale modeling of U(VI) reactive transport through incorporation of laboratory and field data. A field-scale reactive transport model was developed on the basis of laboratory-characterized U(VI) surface complexation reactions (SCRs) and multirate mass transfer processes, as well as field-measured hydrogeochemical conditions at the U.S. Department of Energy, Hanford 300 Area (300 A), Washington. The model was used to assess the importance of multirate mass transfer processes on U(VI) reactive transport and to evaluate the effect of variable geochemical conditions caused by dynamic river water-groundwater interactions on U(VI) plume migration. Model simulations revealed complex spatiotemporal relationships between groundwater composition and U(VI) speciation, adsorption, and plume migration. In general, river water intrusion enhances uranium adsorption and lowers aqueous uranium concentration because river water dilution increases pH and decreases aqueous bicarbonate concentration, leading to overall enhanced U(VI) surface complexation. Strong U(VI) retardation was computed for the field-measured hydrogeochemical conditions, suggesting a slow dissipation of the U(VI) plume, a phenomenon consistent with field observations. The simulations also showed that SCR-retarded U(VI) migration becomes more dynamic and synchronous with the groundwater flow field when multirate mass transfer processes are involved. Breakthrough curves at selected locations and the temporal changes in the calculated mass during the 20 year simulation period indicated that uranium adsorption/desorption never attained steady state because of the dynamic flow field and groundwater composition variations caused by river water intrusion. Thus, the multirate SCR model appears to be a crucial consideration for future reactive transport simulations of uranium contaminants at the Hanford 300 A site and elsewhere under similar hydrogeochemical conditions.

  17. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  18. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  19. An organic-reagent-free method for determination of chromium(VI) in steel alloys, sewage sludge and wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jing, E-mail: fanjing@henannu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory for Yellow and Huai Rivers Water Environment and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun Yuping; Wang Jianji [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory for Yellow and Huai Rivers Water Environment and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Fan Maohong [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2009-04-27

    One of the active areas of green chemistry research and development is in the development of new analytical methods and techniques that reduce and eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this work, a rapid and organic-regent-free method was developed for the determination of chromium(VI) by sequential injection analysis (SIA). The method was based on the detection of a blue unstable intermediate compound resulting from the reaction of Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in acidic medium. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and its reaction products were environmentally friendly, and chromogenic reagents and organic solvents were not used in the proposed method. Different SIA parameters have been optimized and used to obtain the analytical figures of merit. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range for Cr(VI) was 0.5-100.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, and the detection limit was 0.16 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The sample throughput was 80 h{sup -1}, and the total volume of only 145 {mu}L was consumed in each determination of Cr(VI). The method was applied for the determination of Cr(VI) in seven real samples, including alloy steel, sewage sludge and wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry as well as with the certified value of Cr(VI) in standard reference material. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference at 95% confidence level.

  20. Volumetric analysis of lung nodules in computed tomography (CT): comparison of two different segmentation algorithm softwares and two different reconstruction filters on automated volume calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Andreas; Brönnimann, Alain; Vock, Peter

    2014-02-01

    A precise detection of volume change allows for better estimating the biological behavior of the lung nodules. Postprocessing tools with automated detection, segmentation, and volumetric analysis of lung nodules may expedite radiological processes and give additional confidence to the radiologists. To compare two different postprocessing software algorithms (LMS Lung, Median Technologies; LungCARE®, Siemens) in CT volumetric measurement and to analyze the effect of soft (B30) and hard reconstruction filter (B70) on automated volume measurement. Between January 2010 and April 2010, 45 patients with a total of 113 pulmonary nodules were included. The CT exam was performed on a 64-row multidetector CT scanner (Somatom Sensation, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with the following parameters: collimation, 24x1.2 mm; pitch, 1.15; voltage, 120 kVp; reference tube current-time, 100 mAs. Automated volumetric measurement of each lung nodule was performed with the two different postprocessing algorithms based on two reconstruction filters (B30 and B70). The average relative volume measurement difference (VME%) and the limits of agreement between two methods were used for comparison. At soft reconstruction filters the LMS system produced mean nodule volumes that were 34.1% (P LMS and 1.6% for LungCARE®, respectively (both with P LMS measured greater volumes with both filters, 13.6% for soft and 3.8% for hard filters, respectively (P  0.05). There is a substantial inter-software (LMS/LungCARE®) as well as intra-software variability (B30/B70) in lung nodule volume measurement; therefore, it is mandatory to use the same equipment with the same reconstruction filter for the follow-up of lung nodule volume.

  1. ADSORPTION OF Cr(VI ON BLACK WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasti Januarita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of initial concentration of Cr(VI on adsorption to black water of Gambut, District of Banjar, South Borneo has been investigated, as well as interaction between Cr(VI species and functional black water organic fraction. The initial work was optimization of Cr(VI determination using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry with diphenylcarbacide as complexing agent and preparation of black water using mixture of 2% HCl and 5% HF with HCl-HF ratio of 1 : 1 (v/v. The quantity of Cr(VI species adsorbed on black water was calculated by determining the amount of Cr(VI species in solution before and after interaction. The functional groups in interaction between Cr(VI species and black water organic fraction was studied qualitatively using infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that optimum condition for Cr(VI species analysis using UV-Visible spectrophotometry with diphenylcarbacide as complexing agent was at wave length of 540 nm, pH 1,5, 15 - 60 minutes at which complex remain stable, and minimum mol ratio of diphenylcarbacide : Cr(VI 45 : 1, and has a sensitivity of 1.134 mg/L and detection limit of 0.00495 mg/L. The analysis was not affected by the presence of Cr(III in concentration less than 40 times of Cr(VI concentration. After treatment with HCl-HF the quantity of black water organic fraction showing humic acid properties decreased 0,1998 percent. Organic fraction of black water used adsorpted Cr(VIwith capacity of 4,050 mg/g.   Keywords: Adsorption, Cr(VI, Black Water

  2. Computational Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Voss, Stefan; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2013-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized...... in topical sections named: maritime shipping, road transport, vehicle routing problems, aviation applications, and logistics and supply chain management....

  3. Computational Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized...... in topical sections named: maritime shipping, road transport, vehicle routing problems, aviation applications, and logistics and supply chain management....

  4. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VI: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Ottawa-Wyandotte)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    As Part VI of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. Twenty-two such documents are included, representing the following tribes: Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole,…

  5. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  6. Automatic quantitative computed tomography segmentation and analysis of aerated lung volumes in acute respiratory distress syndrome-A comparative diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapsing, Philipp; Herrmann, Peter; Quintel, Michael; Moerer, Onnen

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative lung computed tomographic (CT) analysis yields objective data regarding lung aeration but is currently not used in clinical routine primarily because of the labor-intensive process of manual CT segmentation. Automatic lung segmentation could help to shorten processing times significantly. In this study, we assessed bias and precision of lung CT analysis using automatic segmentation compared with manual segmentation. In this monocentric clinical study, 10 mechanically ventilated patients with mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome were included who had received lung CT scans at 5- and 45-mbar airway pressure during a prior study. Lung segmentations were performed both automatically using a computerized algorithm and manually. Automatic segmentation yielded similar lung volumes compared with manual segmentation with clinically minor differences both at 5 and 45 mbar. At 5 mbar, results were as follows: overdistended lung 49.58mL (manual, SD 77.37mL) and 50.41mL (automatic, SD 77.3mL), P=.028; normally aerated lung 2142.17mL (manual, SD 1131.48mL) and 2156.68mL (automatic, SD 1134.53mL), P = .1038; and poorly aerated lung 631.68mL (manual, SD 196.76mL) and 646.32mL (automatic, SD 169.63mL), P = .3794. At 45 mbar, values were as follows: overdistended lung 612.85mL (manual, SD 449.55mL) and 615.49mL (automatic, SD 451.03mL), P=.078; normally aerated lung 3890.12mL (manual, SD 1134.14mL) and 3907.65mL (automatic, SD 1133.62mL), P = .027; and poorly aerated lung 413.35mL (manual, SD 57.66mL) and 469.58mL (automatic, SD 70.14mL), P=.007. Bland-Altman analyses revealed the following mean biases and limits of agreement at 5 mbar for automatic vs manual segmentation: overdistended lung +0.848mL (±2.062mL), normally aerated +14.51mL (±49.71mL), and poorly aerated +14.64mL (±98.16mL). At 45 mbar, results were as follows: overdistended +2.639mL (±8.231mL), normally aerated 17.53mL (±41.41mL), and poorly aerated 56.23mL (±100.67mL). Automatic

  7. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  8. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

  9. Virtual quad zygoma implant placement using cone beam computed tomography: sufficiency of malar bone volume, intraosseous implant length, and relationship to the sinus according to the degree of alveolar bone atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertos Quílez, J; Guijarro-Martínez, R; Aboul-Hosn Centenero, S; Hernández-Alfaro, F

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the malar bone volume and length that a zygomatic implant can engage, and the relationship to the sinus according to the degree of alveolar bone atrophy. A three-dimensional evaluation was performed using cone beam computed tomography scans from 23 patients with a totally edentulous maxilla; quad zygoma implants were virtually placed. The predictor variable was the amount of malar bone volume and length that a zygomatic implant can engage. The primary outcome variable was the relationship to the sinus according to the degree of alveolar bone atrophy. Other variables were the residual alveolar bone height to the floor of the sinus and the nasal cavity. The mean volume of malar bone engaged in this sample of 92 zygomatic implants was 0.19±0.06cm3. The implant had an extrasinus path in 60.9% of cases, a parasinus path in 25%, and an intrasinus path in 14.1%. The results suggest that the average volume of malar bone engaged by a zygomatic implant is constant regardless of implant position and the degree of alveolar bone atrophy. As alveolar atrophy increases, the trajectory of the implant becomes more parasinus and intrasinus. The examiners were able to find enough bone to adequately distribute the implants in all cases. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. What's New in Computers?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. What's New in Computers? Will the Computer Become the World Chess Champion? K S R Anjaneyulu. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 59-65 ...

  11. Can Computers See?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Can Computers See? - Can Computers Understand Visual Data? Neelima Shrikhande. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 45-56. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Atrial function, atrial volume and cardiovascular clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease - A study of cardiac computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laust Dupont; Winther, Simon; Jørgensen, Hanne Skou

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Previous studies using 2-dimensional echocardiography show that left atrial end-diastolic volume (LAEDV) predicts cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with CKD. However, contrast...... candidates (n = 117) underwent contrast-enhanced CT screening for coronary artery disease as part of the work-up prior to kidney transplantation before being accepted on the transplantation waiting list. Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) volume and function were determined by cardiac CT. MACE...

  13. Influence of ulipristal acetate therapy compared with uterine artery embolization on fibroid volume and vascularity indices assessed by three-dimensional ultrasound: prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuczwar, P; Wozniak, S; Szkodziak, P; Milart, P; Wozniakowska, E; Wrona, W; Paszkowski, T

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effects of two alternative treatment options for uterine fibroids, ulipristal acetate (UPA) and uterine artery embolization (UAE), on fibroid volume and vascularity at 3-month follow-up. Premenopausal patients with symptomatic, intramural uterine fibroids were included in this prospective case-control study. Seventeen patients who qualified for preoperative UPA treatment were pair-matched with patients of similar age (± 5 years) and fibroid volume (± 10% of volume) who qualified for UAE. Patients undergoing UPA treatment received 5 mg/24 h of oral UPA for 3 months. UAE was performed in patients bilaterally by an interventional radiologist. To estimate dominant fibroid volume, Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) was used. The VOCAL program was also used to calculate three-dimensional power Doppler vascular indices: vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI). Dominant fibroid volumes and VI, FI and VFI values were assessed before commencement of UPA treatment or UAE procedure and again at 3 months afterwards. In both the UPA and UAE groups, fibroid volumes decreased significantly after treatment in comparison with baseline volumes obtained prior to treatment. The percentage of fibroid volume reduction after 3 months of UPA therapy (48.1%) was not significantly different from the reduction seen 3 months after the UAE procedure (47.3%). All vascular indices decreased significantly after treatment by UPA or UAE. The percentage reduction in VI and VFI 3 months after UAE (95.4% for both) was significantly greater than the percentage reduction in patients after 3 months of UPA therapy (51.5% and 62.5%, respectively); however the difference in FI reduction between treatment groups did not reach significance (54.3% for UAE and 30.9% for UPA). No significant side-effects were observed in either treatment group. Fibroid treatment by UPA therapy results in a decrease in fibroid volume, comparable

  14. Donor impurity incorporation during layer growth of Zn II-VI semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The maximum halogen donor concentration in Zn II-VI semiconductors during layer growth is studied using a standard model from statistical mechanics. Here the driving force for incorporation is an increase in entropy upon mixing of the donor impurity into the available anion lattice sites in the host binary. A formation energy opposes this increase and thus equilibrium is attained at some maximum concentration. Considering the halogen donor impurities within the Zn II-VI binary semiconductors ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe, a heat of reaction obtained from reported diatomic bond strengths is shown to be directly proportional to the log of maximum donor concentration. The formation energy can then be estimated and an expression for maximum donor concentration derived. Values for the maximum donor concentration with each of the halogen impurities, within the Zn II-VI compounds, are computed. This model predicts that the halogens will serve as electron donors in these compounds in order of increasing effectiveness as: F, Br, I, Cl. Finally, this result is taken to be equivalent to an alternative model where donor concentration depends upon impurity diffusion and the conduction band energy shift due to a depletion region at the growing crystal's surface. From this, we are able to estimate the diffusion activation energy for each of the impurities mentioned above. Comparisons are made with reported values and relevant conclusions presented.

  15. Extraction of chromium(VI) by salting-out with a homogeneous, mixed solvent of water and 2-propanol: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaratunga, Sethsiri S; Nishimoto, Jun; Tabata, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    Chromium enters into the aquatic environment as a result of effluent discharge from steel works, electroplating, leather tanning industries and chemical industries. As the Cr(VI) is very harmful to living organisms, it should be quickly removed from the environment when it happens to be contaminated. Therefore, the aim of this laboratory research was to develop a rapid, simple and adaptable solvent extraction system to quantitatively remove Cr(VI) from polluted waters. Aqueous salt-solutions containing Cr(VI) as CrO4(2-) at ppm level (4-6 ppm) were prepared. Equal volumes (5 ml) of aqueous and organic (2-PrOH) phases were mixed in a 10 ml centrifuge tube for 15 min, centrifuged and separated. Concentrations of Cr(VI), in both the aqueous and organic phases, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of salt and acid concentrations, and phase-contact time on the extraction of Cr(VI) were investigated. In addition, the extraction of Cr(VI) was assessed in the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) in 2-PrOH phase. Effects of some other metals, (Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)), on the extraction of Cr(VI) were also investigated. The Cr(VI) at ppm level was extracted quantitatively by salting-out the homogeneous system of water and 2-propanol(2-PrOH) using chloride salts, namely CaCl2 or NaCl, under acidic chloride media. The extracted chemical species of Cr(VI) was confirmed to be the CrO3Cl-. The ion-pair complex extracted into the organic phase was rationalized as the solvated ion-pair complex of [2-PrOH2+, CrO3Cl-]. The complex was no longer stable. It implied the reaction between extracted species. Studies revealed that salts and acid directly participated in the formation of the above complex. Use of extracting agents (TMAC) didn't show any significant effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) under high salting-out conditions. There is no significant interference effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) by the presence of other metals

  16. DORMAN computer program (study 2.5). Volume 2: User's guide and programmer's guide. [development of data bank for computerized information storage of NASA programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, S. T., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The DORMAN program was developed to create and modify a data bank containing data decks which serve as input to the DORCA Computer Program. Via a remote terminal a user can access the bank, extract any data deck, modify that deck, output the modified deck to be input to the DORCA program, and save the modified deck in the data bank. This computer program is an assist in the utilization of the DORCA program. The program is dimensionless and operates almost entirely in integer mode. The program was developed on the CDC 6400/7600 complex for implementation on a UNIVAC 1108 computer.

  17. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  18. An assessment of uncertainties in using volume-area modelling for computing the twenty-first century glacier contribution to sea-level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314189386; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556

    2011-01-01

    A large part of present-day sea-level change is formed by the melt of glaciers and ice caps (GIC). This study focuses on the uncertainties in the calculation of the GIC contribution on a century timescale. The model used is based on volume-area scaling, 5 combined with the mass balance sensitivity

  19. Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…

  20. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2): Volume 3. Business Risk And Value of Operations in space (BRAVO). Part 4: Computer programs and data look-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Computer program listings as well as graphical and tabulated data needed by the analyst to perform a BRAVO analysis were examined. Graphical aid which can be used to determine the earth coverage of satellites in synchronous equatorial orbits was described. A listing for satellite synthesis computer program as well as a sample printout for the DSCS-11 satellite program and a listing of the symbols used in the program were included. The APL language listing for the payload program cost estimating computer program was given. This language is compatible with many of the time sharing remote terminals computers used in the United States. Data on the intelsat communications network was studied. Costs for telecommunications systems leasing, line of sight microwave relay communications systems, submarine telephone cables, and terrestrial power generation systems were also described.

  1. Development of a computer code for calculating the steady super/hypersonic inviscid flow around real configurations. Volume 2: Code description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, F.; Yaeger, L.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second-order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three-dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.

  2. An assessment of uncertainties in using volume-area modelling for computing the twenty-first century glacier contribution to sea-level change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. A. Slangen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A large part of present-day sea-level change is formed by the melt of glaciers and ice caps (GIC. This study focuses on the uncertainties in the calculation of the GIC contribution on a century timescale. The model used is based on volume-area scaling, combined with the mass balance sensitivity of the GIC. We assess different aspects that contribute to the uncertainty in the prediction of the contribution of GIC to future sea-level rise, such as (1 the volume-area scaling method (scaling factor, (2 the glacier data, (3 the climate models, and (4 the emission scenario. Additionally, a comparison of the model results to the 20th century GIC contribution is presented.

    We find that small variations in the scaling factor cause significant variations in the initial volume of the glaciers, but only limited variations in the glacier volume change. If two existing glacier inventories are tuned such that the initial volume is the same, the GIC sea-level contribution over 100 yr differs by 0.027 m or 18 %. It appears that the mass balance sensitivity is also important: variations of 20 % in the mass balance sensitivity have an impact of 17 % on the resulting sea-level projections. Another important factor is the choice of the climate model, as the GIC contribution to sea-level change largely depends on the temperature and precipitation taken from climate models. Connected to this is the choice of emission scenario, used to drive the climate models. Combining all the uncertainties examined in this study leads to a total uncertainty of 0.052 m or 35 % in the GIC contribution to global mean sea level. Reducing the variance in the climate models and improving the glacier inventories will significantly reduce the uncertainty in calculating the GIC contributions, and are therefore crucial actions to improve future sea-level projections.

  3. ViPAR: a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kim W; Francis, Richard W; Carter, K W; Francis, R W; Bresnahan, M; Gissler, M; Grønborg, T K; Gross, R; Gunnes, N; Hammond, G; Hornig, M; Hultman, C M; Huttunen, J; Langridge, A; Leonard, H; Newman, S; Parner, E T; Petersson, G; Reichenberg, A; Sandin, S; Schendel, D E; Schalkwyk, L; Sourander, A; Steadman, C; Stoltenberg, C; Suominen, A; Surén, P; Susser, E; Sylvester Vethanayagam, A; Yusof, Z

    2015-10-08

    Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations. Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates 'virtual pooling' where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage. Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory. ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at [http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/vipar/]. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  4. Cinética e equilíbrio de adsorção dos oxiânions Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI pelo sal de amônio quaternário de quitosana Kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of oxyanions Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI by quaternary ammonium chitosan salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Spinelli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O sal quaternário de quitosana foi sintetizado com cloreto de glicidil trimetil amônio. A modificação química foi caracterizada por espectrometria no IV, RMN de 13C e ¹H, e mmol/g de grupos quaternários presentes na matriz polimérica por condutimetria. A remoção de Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI, em meio aquoso, foi investigada em processo de batelada. A adsorção mostrou ser dependente do pH para o Cr (VI e Se (VI, com um pH ótimo de adsorção, entre 4,0 a 6,0. Para o Mo (VI a adsorção manteve-se quase constante no intervalo de pH entre 4,0 e 11,5. O modelo de isoterma de Langmuir descreveu melhor os dados de equilíbrio na faixa de concentração investigada. No presente estudo, um grama do sal quaternário de quitosana reticulado com glutaraldeído adsorveu 68,3 mg de Cr, 63,4 mg de Mo e 90,0 mg de Se. A velocidade de adsorção, no processo, segue a equação cinética de pseudo segunda-ordem, sendo que o equilíbrio para os três íons foi alcançado próximo aos 200 minutos. A análise dispersiva de raios-X para o Cr (VI mostrou que o principal mecanismo de adsorção é a troca iônica entre os íons Cl- da superfície do polímero pelos oxiânions. O trocador aniônico apresentou a seguinte ordem de seletividade: Cr (VI > Mo (VI > Se (VI.Quaternary chitosan salt was synthesized in the presence of glycidyl trimetyl ammonium chloride. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: infrared, 13C and ¹H NMR, while the amount of quaternary ammonium groups was obtained by condutimetry. The removal of Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI from aqueous solutions was carried out in batch adsorption processes. The process seemed to be pH dependent for Cr (VI and Se (VI with an optimum pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0; while for Mo (VI the adsorption remained almost constant within the range between 4.0 and 11.5. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data over the whole concentration investigated. In the experiment

  5. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  6. Vi behøver innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2007-01-01

    . Især hvad angår vores forbrugsmønstre. Her er der behov for at kongeriget Danmark med sine 13 ton CO2-emission pr. person om året lytter. I landet hvor kraftvarmeproduk­tion, vindturbiner og industrial ecology i form af Kalundborg eksperimentet blev født, bør vi ikke også ride på denne nye miljøbølge......? Den amerikanske videnskabsmand Jeremy Rifkin beskriver i sin seneste bog, The European Dream, hvordan europæisk energipolitik, -forskning, -udvikling og relateret industri kan hjælpe os til at bremse vores for øjeblikket eksponentielt stigende CO2-produktion - og hvordan vores globaliseringstankegang...... rent faktisk kan fremme denne indsats. Den eneste udfordring er, at nogen skal igangsætte en økonomisk/industriel revolution, for at drømmen går i opfyldelse. Hvem skal tage ansvar for at sætte denne revolution i gang, og hvordan skal den opnås? Rifkin's patentløsning er inspirerende. Den er kort...

  7. [VI Symposium on "Chemistry of Proteolytic Enzymes"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsh, L D; Rotanova, T V

    2008-01-01

    The VI Symposium on the Chemistry of Proteolytic Enzymes took place in Moscow on April 23-25, 2007. It was dedicated to the memory of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir Konstantinovich Antonov. At the symposium, 40 reports were delivered and 103 posters were presented in the following sections: (1) expression of genes, isolation and general characterization of proteases; (2) structure-function studies of proteases; (3) regulation of the activity of proteolytic enzymes; (4) regulatory functions of proteolytic enzymes; (5) proteases in biotechnology, protein engineering, and peptide synthesis; and (6) proteolysis and medicine. In addition to Russian scientists, researchers from the United States, the Netherlands, France, Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan took part in the work of the symposium. Note that, in the five years since the V Symposium, the geography of Russian scientific centers working in the area of proteolysis has been considerably extended. Participating in the forum were researchers from, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Penza, and Stavropol in addition to scientists from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Petrozavodsk, Kazan, Nizhni Novgorod, and Krasnodar.

  8. Wind tunnel test of musi VI bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Robby; Andika, Matza Gusto; Syariefatunnisa, Risdhiawan, Eri; Hermawan, Budi; Noordiana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Musi VI Bridge is planned to cross the Musi River in Palembang City, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The main span is a steel arch type with 200 m length and side span length is 75 m. Finite element analysis results showed that the bridge has frequency ratio for torsional and heaving mode (torsional frequency/heaving frequency)=1.14. This close to unity value rises concern about aerodynamic behaviour and stability of the bridge deck under wind loading. Sectional static and free vibration wind tunnel test were performed to clarify this phenomena in B2TA3 facility in Serpong, Indonesia. The test followed the draft of Guide of Wind Tunnel Test for Bridges developed by Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Results from wind tunnel testing show that the bridge is safe from flutter instability and no coupled motion vibration observed. Therefore, low value of frequency ratio has no effect to aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge deck. Vortex-induced vibration in heaving mode occurred in relatively low wind velocity with permissible maximum amplitude value.

  9. Rotational Augmentation Disparities in the MEXICO and UAE Phase VI Experiments: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, S.; Sant, T.; Micallef, D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind turbine structures and components suffer excessive loads and premature failures when key aerodynamic phenomena are not well characterized, fail to be understood, or are inaccurately predicted. Turbine blade rotational augmentation remains incompletely characterized and understood, thus limiting robust prediction for design. Pertinent rotational augmentation research including experimental, theoretical, and computational work has been pursued for some time, but large scale wind tunnel testing is a relatively recent development for investigating wind turbine blade aerodynamics. Because of their large scale and complementary nature, the MEXICO and UAE Phase VI wind tunnel experiments offer unprecedented synergies to better characterize and understand rotational augmentation of blade aerodynamics.

  10. Interaction of chromium(III) or chromium(VI) with catalase and its effect on the structure and function of catalase: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linfeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal chromium (Cr) poses a severe health risk to humans via food chain contamination. In this study, the interactions of either trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) or hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with catalase (CAT) were investigated via multi-spectroscopic studies and computational simulations. The fluorescence analysis showed that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) quenched the fluorescence of CAT through a dynamic and a static quenching mechanism, respectively. The binding constant of Cr(VI) with CAT was 3.44×10(4)lmol(-1) at 298K. Other detailed binding characterizations of the Cr(VI)-CAT complex were also obtained using spectra analysis and molecular docking. Synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectral studies showed that either Cr(III) or Cr(VI) induced conformational changes of CAT, but the degree of influence was different. The response of CAT activity to Cr(III) or Cr(VI) was found to be variable depending on their valence states and concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Society of Nephrology, Computer Technology Commission. Dialysis computer program. VI. - Survival and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoulet, P; Reach, I; Rozenbaum, W; Aime, F; Devries, C; Berger, C; Rojas, P; Jacobs, C; Legrain, M

    1979-12-01

    The sixth report of the "Diaphane Dialyse Informatique" Program concerns 2,518 adult patients (age 15 and over) treated by chronic hemodialysis or hemofiltration in 33 French dialysis centres between June 1972 and December 1978. 1) The number of centers participating to the program is progressively increasing. Overall duration of follow-up represents 4,192 patient-years, allowing precise evolutive studies of terminal renal failure treated by hemodialysis. 2) Mean age at start of treatment continues to increase. Among 709 patients who started treatment in 1977-1978, 8,8 p. 100 of men and 11 p. 100 of women were over 69 years old. 3) Patients with diabetic nephropathy represent 4,4 p. 100 of all patients dialyzed between 1972 and 1978 and 5,9 p. 100 of the patients starting treatment in 1977-1978. 4) The percentage of patients temporarily treated by peritoneal dialysis before hemodialysis decreases from 32,9 p. 100 in 1973-1974 to 15,9 p. 100 in 1977-1978. 5) In 1978, 65,3 p. 100 of patients are dialyzed 3 times a week with a mean weekly duration of 14,0 h for male and 12,9 for female. 73 p. 100 of the patients are dialyzed during the night. 6) Disposable parallel plate hemodialyzers (71,8 per cent of dialysis sessions in 1978) and hollow fiber hemodialyzers (11,6 per cent) progressively replace disposable coil dialyzers and non disposable Kiil dialyzers. 7) Transient hypotensive episodes during dialysis sessions remain the most frequent complications (21,7 per cent of sessions in 1978). Transient hypotensive episodes are more frequently observed with coils than with parallel plate hemodialyzers or with hollow fiber dialyzers. 8) Mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) +/- SD is 101,9 +/- 21,7 mmHg at start of dialysis and 81,4 +/- 11,8 mmHg when dialysed. During the course of treatment 28,7 per cent of the patients receive long term antihypertensive treatment. In spite of dialysis and antihypertensive treatments 11 per cent of all patients followed up maintain DBP greater than or equal to 95 mmHg. 9) Viral hepatitis remain the most prominent infectious problem with 30 per cent of patients being chronic Hbs antigen carriers. 10) Annual death rate calculated in the 2,518 patients dialyzed between 1972 and 1978 (78/1000) is 12 times superior to the death rate of the French population, adjusted for sex and age to the dialysis population. 43,1 per cent of deaths are of cardiovascular origin. Risk factors for overall mortality are age, sex (male), existence of a vascular or diabetic nephropathy, twice weekly dialysis strategy, elevation of systolic or diastolic blood pressure during the course of dialysis treatment, hypocholesterolemia and to a lesser extent hypotriglyceridemia. On the contrary, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia do not appear as risk factors for overall mortality or cardiovascular mortality. These results plead for a perfect control of hypertension and to the extension of thrice weekly dialysis for the whole population of patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis.

  12. Research in collegiate mathematics education VI

    CERN Document Server

    Selden, Annie; Harel, Guershon; Hauk, Shandy

    2006-01-01

    The sixth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education presents state-of-the-art research on understanding, teaching, and learning mathematics at the postsecondary level. The articles advance our understanding of collegiate mathematics education while being readable by a wide audience of mathematicians interested in issues affecting their own students. This is a collection of useful and informative research regarding the ways our students think about and learn mathematics. The volume opens with studies on students' experiences with calculus reform and on the effects of concept-based

  13. Stellar laboratories . IX. New Se v, Sr iv-vii, Te vi, and I vi oscillator strengths and the Se, Sr, Te, and I abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Knörzer, M.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. To analyze spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques are mandatory. Reliable atomic data is crucial for the calculation of such model atmospheres. Aims: We aim to calculate new Sr iv-vii oscillator strengths to identify for the first time Sr spectral lines in hot white dwarf (WD) stars and to determine the photospheric Sr abundances. To measure the abundances of Se, Te, and I in hot WDs, we aim to compute new Se v, Te vi, and I vi oscillator strengths. Methods: To consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Se v, Sr iv - vii, Te vi, and I vi in our NLTE atmosphere models, we calculated oscillator strengths for these ions. Results: We newly identified four Se v, 23 Sr v, 1 Te vi, and three I vi lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of RE 0503-289. We measured a photospheric Sr abundance of 6.5+ 3.8-2.4× 10-4 (mass fraction, 9500-23 800 times solar). We determined the abundances of Se (1.6+ 0.9-0.6× 10-3, 8000-20 000), Te (2.5+ 1.5-0.9× 10-4, 11 000-28 000), and I (1.4+ 0.8-0.5× 10-5, 2700-6700). No Se, Sr, Te, and I line was found in the UV spectra of G191-B2B and we could determine only upper abundance limits of approximately 100 times solar. Conclusions: All identified Se v, Sr v, Te vi, and I vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Full Tables A.15 to A.21 are only available via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TOSS (http://dc.g-vo.org/TOSS).

  14. Fast interactive real-time volume rendering of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: an implementation for low-end computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Shiota, T.; Corsi, C.; Lamberti, C.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is an innovative cardiac imaging modality. However, partly due to lack of user-friendly software, RT3DE has not been widely accepted as a clinical tool. The object of this study was to develop and implement a fast and interactive volume renderer of RT3DE datasets designed for a clinical environment where speed and simplicity are not secondary to accuracy. Thirty-six patients (20 regurgitation, 8 normal, 8 cardiomyopathy) were imaged using RT3DE. Using our newly developed software, all 3D data sets were rendered in real-time throughout the cardiac cycle and assessment of cardiac function and pathology was performed for each case. The real-time interactive volume visualization system is user friendly and instantly provides consistent and reliable 3D images without expensive workstations or dedicated hardware. We believe that this novel tool can be used clinically for dynamic visualization of cardiac anatomy.

  15. Atrial function, atrial volume and cardiovascular clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease - A study of cardiac computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Laust; Winther, Simon; Jørgensen, Hanne Skou

    2017-01-01

    candidates (n = 117) underwent contrast-enhanced CT screening for coronary artery disease as part of the work-up prior to kidney transplantation before being accepted on the transplantation waiting list. Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) volume and function were determined by cardiac CT. MACE......-enhanced cardiac CT may offers a more precise measure of atrial dimensions and function than 2-dimensional echocardiography and may provide improved predictionof patient outcome. AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of LAEDV and left atrial ejection fraction (LAEF) assessed by CT...... with left ventricle end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular mass, left ventricular ejection fraction and N-terminal plasma-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-PRO-BNP). Furthermore, we examined LAEDV and LAEF as predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality. METHODS: Kidney transplant...

  16. A Case of Aplasia Cutis Congenita Type VI: Bart Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yasmin Alfayez; Sahar Alsharif; Adel Santli

    2017-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita type VI, also known as Bart syndrome, is a rare genetic mechanobullous disorder characterized by congenital localized absence of skin, mucocutaneous blistering lesions, and nail abnormalities...

  17. Stark broadening parameter tables for F VI and Cl VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a semiclassical approach, we have calculated electron−, proton−, and He III−impact line widths and shifts for 2 F VI and 10 Cl VII multiplets as a function of temperature and perturber density.

  18. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  19. Expression and distribution of type VI collagen in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, S; Magro, G; Colombatti, A

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the distribution of type VI collagen in 36 cases of routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded gynecomastia using an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopic visualization. Four samples of normal male mammary gland tissue were also included as controls. A protease predigestion was essential for the visualization of this extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein. In normal male breast, no immunoreaction for type VI collagen was detected in the stroma surrounding the ducts. Gynecomastia was classified into three histological types: florid (type I), fibrous (type II), and intermediate (type III). Type VI collagen was differentially expressed in the periductal stroma of all types. This collagen was markedly expressed at the early disease stage (type I) when the periductal stroma is highly cellular and vascular. Its expression decreased when periductal stroma undergoing fibrotic transformation (type III) and completely disappeared from the dense periductal stroma of fibrous stage (type II). These findings suggest that type VI collagen is involved in the ECM remodelling occurring in gynecomastia.

  20. INTELSAT VI artist concept drawing titled 'Ocean Bridge'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) VI artist concept drawing titled 'Ocean Bridge' shows satellite built by Hughes Aircraft Company and owned and operated by INTELSAT, a 122-nation cooperative, orbiting the Earth.