WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume reference sources

  1. Reference Sources: Little Known to Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    RQ, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article lists seventy-eight reference sources, and is divided into the following four sections: (1) Useful But Little-Known Reference Tools by John Fetros, (2) The Statesman's Year-Book by James Becker, (3) Single Volume Scientific Encyclopedias by Jack Clarke and (4) Ten Basic Sources of Business and Economic Statistics by James Woy. (MF)

  2. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  3. Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

    1993-01-01

    This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual…

  4. Source Reference File Usage: Management Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A report by region then by state that details how often medical sources from the Source Reference File are used when taking disability claims vs. sources that are...

  5. Govt. Pubs.: NTIS Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Richard; Aluri, Rao

    1980-01-01

    Cites review sources for NTIS (National Technical Information Service) publications and provides an annotated list of 22 reports on child abuse, Chinese language romanization, criminal justice, energy, environment, ethnic data, fire technology, genealogy, health care, local communities and federal assistance, mainstreaming, political leadership in…

  6. Jewish Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography to the reference sources for Jewish Studies in the McLennan Library of McGill University (Canada) is presented. Any titles in Hebrew characters are listed by their transliterated equivalents. There is also a list of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings. General reference sources listed are: encyclopedias,…

  7. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Idzik, Marek; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kulis, Szymon; Suszycki, Leszek; Swientek, Krzysztof; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Bernreuther, Werner; Feld, Lutz; Hebbeker, Thomas; Muennich, Astrid; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Tonutti, Manfred; Rindani, Saurabh; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, S.K.; Adloff, Catherine; Delebecque, Pierre; Hermel, Richard; Karyotakis, Yannis; Lafaye, Remi; Prast, Julie; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Singh, R.K.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Antipov, Sergei; Arnold, Ned; Berger, Edmond; Carwardine, John; Drake, Gary; Emery, Louis; Friedsam, Horst; Fuerst, Joel; Gai, Wei; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Kelly, Michael; Kim, Kwang-Je; Lenkszus, Frank; Liu, Wanming; Magill, Stephen; Noonan, John; Repond, Jose; Saunders, Claude; Shepard, Ken; Underwood, David G.; Wang, Haitao; Weerts, Harry; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Zhang, Jinlong; Yock, Philip; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Biswal, S.S.; Godbole, Rohini; Vempati, Sundir K.; Comerma, Albert; Dieguez, Angel; Garrido, Luis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Herms, Atila; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Cabruja, Enric; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Miquel, Ramon; Lux, Thorsten; Martinez, Manel; Padilla, Cristobal; Riu, Imma; Ward, Bennie; Sun, Yipeng; Ablikim, Medina; Bai, Sha; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Cao, J.S.; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chi, Yun Long; Dai, Jian Ping; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Du, Shuxian; Fang, Shou Xian; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gu, Jun; He, An; Hou, Mi; Hu, Tao; Huang, Tong Ming; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jin, Shan; Kang, Wen; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Zhong Quan; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lu, Cai-Dian; Ma, Li; Ma, Qiang; Ouyang, Qun; Pam, Wei Min; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Peng, G.X.; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Shi, Cai Tu; Sun, Hong; Sun, Yi; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jin; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yue, Jun Hui; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zong, Zhang Guo; Liu, Chun; Wu, Yue Liang; Yang, Jin Min; Liang, Jian Tao; Liu, Li Qiang; Lu, Wen Hui; Xiong, Lian You; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Tong Xian; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca; Eigen, Gerald; Osland, Per; Handu, Virender K.; Jawale, Suresh B.; Joshi, Gopal; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Singh, Pitamber; Sinha, Anil K.; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Topkar, Anita; Adey, David; Hawkes, Chris; Hillier, Stephen James; Mikami, Yoshinari; Miller, Owen; Stockton, Mark; Watson, Nigel Keith; Wilson, John A.; Petersen, Troels Christian; Driouichi, Chafik; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Klinkby, Esben; Xella, Stefania; Von Toerne, Eckhard; Brock, Ian; Desch, Klaus; Dreiner, Herbert; Hohlfeld, Mark; Killenberg, Martin; Kittel, Olaf; Koch, Manuel; Kohrs, Robert; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kruger, Hans; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Reuen, Lars; Ummenhofer, Martin; Wermes, Norbert; Wienemann, Peter; Butler, John; Cussans, David; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Helen; Lynch, Clare; Velthuis, Jaap J.; Hearty, Christopher; Mattison, Thomas; Anerella, Michael; Dawson, Sally; Marone, Andrew; Morse, William Michael; Parker, Brett; Parsa, Zohreh; Pogorelsky, Igor; Radeka, Veljko; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Partridge, Richard; Narain, Meenakshi; Coca, Cornelia; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Popescu, Sorina; Teodorescu, Eliza; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Christophe, Grojean; Baddams, Nigel; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Camporesi, Tiziano; Capatina, Ofelia; De Roeck, Albert; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John R.; Ferguson, John; Gastal, Martin; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Hawkings, Richard; Kraml, Sabine; Latina, Andrea; Parma, Vittorio; Pedersen, John; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Rinolfi, Louis; Rolandi, Gigi; Ruehl, Ingo; Sauli, Fabio; Schulte, Daniel; Tavian, Laurent; Zimmermann, Frank; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Hwang, Youngseok; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Youngim; Park, Hwanbae; Shin, Seunghwan; Son, Dongchul; Suh, Jun Suhk; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Datta, Anindya; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Kundu, Anirban; Bhandari, R.K.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Mallik, C.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

  8. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 2 - Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Smith; S. T. Wood; W. J. Galyean; J. A. Schroeder; M. B. Sattison

    2011-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs). Herein information is provided on the principles used in the construction and operation of Version 8.0 of the SAPHIRE system. This report summarizes the fundamental mathematical concepts of sets and logic, fault trees, and probability. This volume then describes the algorithms used to construct a fault tree and to obtain the minimal cut sets. It gives the formulas used to obtain the probability of the top event from the minimal cut sets, and the formulas for probabilities that apply for various assumptions concerning reparability and mission time. It defines the measures of basic event importance that SAPHIRE can calculate. This volume gives an overview of uncertainty analysis using simple Monte Carlo sampling or Latin Hypercube sampling, and states the algorithms used by this program to generate random basic event probabilities from various distributions. Also covered are enhance capabilities such as seismic analysis, Workspace algorithms, cut set "recovery," end state manipulation, and use of "compound events."

  9. Reference Sources and Services in the Humanities

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The paper is to discuss the meaning, the nature, and the subject fields of the Humanities; to study the information needs of the Humanists; and to introduce some important reference sources in the Humanities.The paper indicates the future trends of reference services in the Humanities are as follows : to develop on-line searching, to collect various kinds library materials, to educate and train specialized librarians on Humanities, as well as to march towards virtual library era in networking...

  10. Anthropology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Suzy M., Comp.

    The guide identifies approximately 100 anthropology source materials in the reference department of McLennan Library at McGill University. It was designd to help students doing anthropological research and to illustrate the variety of materials on social and cultural anthropology in the McLennan Library. Physical anthropolgy, linguistics, and…

  11. Hispanic Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayman, Valerie, Comp.

    Intended for use by those conducting research in Hispanic literature, this guide contains annotations of more than 100 reference works. Types of materials included in the guide are (1) encyclopedias; (2) guides to literature and to periodicals; (3) literary dictionaries, handbooks, and biographical sources; (4) book reviews; (5) theses and…

  12. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  13. The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Volume 551. Source Books on Education Volume 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Averil Evans

    The bibliography presented in this book introduces the reader to the general subject of the education of girls and women in the United States, with some reference to historical antecedents in western civilization beginning with the ancient Greeks. The bibliography is intended as a guide for further study of the significance of gender for females…

  14. The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Volume 551. Source Books on Education Volume 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Averil Evans

    The bibliography presented in this book introduces the reader to the general subject of the education of girls and women in the United States, with some reference to historical antecedents in western civilization beginning with the ancient Greeks. The bibliography is intended as a guide for further study of the significance of gender for females…

  15. The RASD Outstanding Reference Sources Committee: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Janet; Masters, Deborah C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the Reference and Adult Services Division's Outstanding Reference Sources Committee procedures for preparation of the 1979 listing, discusses expansion to include nonbook sources, and provides a retrospective list of nonbook sources selected by the 1979-80 committee. Nonbook sources include microforms and databases. Six references are…

  16. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  17. The evolution of electronic reference sources

    OpenAIRE

    Van Epps, Amy S

    2004-01-01

    Purpose To provide a historical look at the development of web versions of reference materials and discuss what makes an easy-to-use and useful electronic handbook. Design/methodology/approach Electronic reference materials were limited to handbooks available on the web. Observations and assumptions about usability are tested with an information retrieval test for specific tasks in print and online editions of the same texts. Findings Recommended adoption of those elements which create a w...

  18. The evolution of electronic reference sources

    OpenAIRE

    Van Epps, Amy S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose To provide a historical look at the development of web versions of reference materials and discuss what makes an easy-to-use and useful electronic handbook. Design/methodology/approach Electronic reference materials were limited to handbooks available on the web. Observations and assumptions about usability are tested with an information retrieval test for specific tasks in print and online editions of the same texts. Findings Recommended adoption of those elements which create a w...

  19. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 1 - Executive Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Brau, James; Walker, Nicholas; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Idzik, Marek; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kulis, Szymon; Suszycki, Leszek; Swientek, Krzysztof; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Bernreuther, Werner; Feld, Lutz; Hebbeker, Thomas; Muennich, Astrid; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Tonutti, Manfred; Rindani, Saurabh; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, S.K.; Adloff, Catherine; Delebecque, Pierre; Hermel, Richard; Karyotakis, Yannis; Lafaye, Remi; Prast, Julie; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Singh, R.K.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Antipov, Sergei; Arnold, Ned; Berger, Edmond; Carwardine, John; Drake, Gary; Emery, Louis; Friedsam, Horst; Fuerst, Joel; Gai, Wei; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Kelly, Michael; Kim, Kwang-Je; Lenkszus, Frank; Liu, Wanming; Magill, Stephen; Noonan, John; Repond, Jose; Saunders, Claude; Shepard, Ken; Underwood, David G.; Wang, Haitao; Weerts, Harry; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Zhang, Jinlong; Yock, Philip; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Biswal, S.S.; Godbole, Rohini; Vempati, Sundir K.; Comerma, Albert; Dieguez, Angel; Garrido, Luis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Herms, Atila; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Cabruja, Enric; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Miquel, Ramon; Lux, Thorsten; Martinez, Manel; Padilla, Cristobal; Riu, Imma; Ward, Bennie; Sun, Yipeng; Ablikim, Medina; Bai, Sha; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Cao, J.S.; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chi, Yun Long; Dai, Jian Ping; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Du, Shuxian; Fang, Shou Xian; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gu, Jun; He, An; Hou, Mi; Hu, Tao; Huang, Tong Ming; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jin, Shan; Kang, Wen; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Zhong Quan; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lu, Cai-Dian; Ma, Li; Ma, Qiang; Ouyang, Qun; Pam, Wei Min; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Peng, G.X.; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Shi, Cai Tu; Sun, Hong; Sun, Yi; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jin; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yue, Jun Hui; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zong, Zhang Guo; Liu, Chun; Wu, Yue Liang; Yang, Jin Min; Liang, Jian Tao; Liu, Li Qiang; Lu, Wen Hui; Xiong, Lian You; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Tong Xian; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca; Eigen, Gerald; Osland, Per; Handu, Virender K.; Jawale, Suresh B.; Joshi, Gopal; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Singh, Pitamber; Sinha, Anil K.; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Topkar, Anita; Adey, David; Hawkes, Chris; Hillier, Stephen James; Mikami, Yoshinari; Miller, Owen; Stockton, Mark; Watson, Nigel Keith; Wilson, John A.; Petersen, Troels Christian; Driouichi, Chafik; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Klinkby, Esben; Xella, Stefania; Von Toerne, Eckhard; Brock, Ian; Desch, Klaus; Dreiner, Herbert; Hohlfeld, Mark; Killenberg, Martin; Kittel, Olaf; Koch, Manuel; Kohrs, Robert; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kruger, Hans; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Reuen, Lars; Ummenhofer, Martin; Wermes, Norbert; Wienemann, Peter; Butler, John; Cussans, David; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Helen; Lynch, Clare; Velthuis, Jaap J.; Hearty, Christopher; Mattison, Thomas; Anerella, Michael; Dawson, Sally; Marone, Andrew; Morse, William Michael; Parker, Brett; Parsa, Zohreh; Pogorelsky, Igor; Radeka, Veljko; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Partridge, Richard; Narain, Meenakshi; Coca, Cornelia; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Popescu, Sorina; Teodorescu, Eliza; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Grojean, Christophe; Baddams, Nigel; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Camporesi, Tiziano; Capatina, Ofelia; De Roeck, Albert; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John R.; Ferguson, John; Gastal, Martin; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Hawkings, Richard; Kraml, Sabine; Latina, Andrea; Parma, Vittorio; Pedersen, John; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Rinolfi, Louis; Rolandi, Gigi; Ruehl, Ingo; Sauli, Fabio; Schulte, Daniel; Tavian, Laurent; Zimmermann, Frank; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Hwang, Youngseok; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Youngim; Park, Hwanbae; Shin, Seunghwan; Son, Dongchul; Suh, Jun Suhk; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Datta, Anindya; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Kundu, Anirban; Bhandari, R.K.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Mallik, C.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 200-500 GeV center-of-mass high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider, based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) accelerating cavities. The ILC has a total footprint of about 31 km and is designed for a peak luminosity of 2x10^34 cm^-2s^-1. This report is the Executive Summary (Volume I) of the four volume Reference Design Report. It gives an overview of the physics at the ILC, the accelerator design and value estimate, the detector concepts, and the next steps towards project realization.

  20. Canadian Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lillian, Comp.

    Prepared in response to a growing interest in the two literatures of Canada, this guide presents annotations of more than 100 resource materials dealing with those literatures. Types of materials listed in the guide include (1) guides, (2) bibliographies of bibliographies, (3) general literary bibliographies, (4) indexes and book review sources,…

  1. Arab Americans: A Comparative Critical Analysis of Leading Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines eight reference sources on Arab Americans to investigate how complete the information is on various facets of Arab American presence, history, community life, heritage preservation, organizations, and the press, concluding that the reference sources complement each other, but taken together, they do not cover the entire multidimensional…

  2. Zotero : a free and open-source reference manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Zotero is a free, open-source reference management program compatible with Linux®, Mac®, and Windows® operating systems. Libraries are backed up online allowing sharing between computers and even multiple users. Zotero makes it easy to keep your reference library organised and ‘clean’. Reference...

  3. Zotero : a free and open-source reference manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Zotero is a free, open-source reference management program compatible with Linux®, Mac®, and Windows® operating systems. Libraries are backed up online allowing sharing between computers and even multiple users. Zotero makes it easy to keep your reference library organised and ‘clean’. Reference...

  4. Introducing Students to Reference Sources in Comparative Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenau, A. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a project designed to inform students about library reference sources essential to an introductory course in comparative politics. Suggests how the project can incorporate current topics. Stresses the importance of student familiarity with periodical guides, newspaper indexes, standard biographical sources, and yearbooks. (CH)

  5. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  6. Musicking Online: Organizing Reference Sources in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Kimmy

    2012-01-01

    Online music research resources took center stage at the second plenary session "Wrangling the Information Universe: Moving From Institutional Portals to a Shared Resource for Online Music Sources" held on Friday, February 17, 2012, at the Music Library Association (MLA) 2012 Annual Meeting in Dallas, Texas. The Reference Sources…

  7. Guide to Reference Sources Dealing with North American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindler, Luke

    This is an annotated bibliography of reference sources dealing with North American Indians and includes selected unpublished resources in the Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota. Among the resources presented are encyclopedias, biographical dictionaries, handbooks, general indexes, government publications, theses, and dissertations.…

  8. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R. [and others

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  9. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties pressure-volume-temperature relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1977-01-01

    Recommended Reference Materials for Realization of Physicochemical Properties presents recommendations of reference materials for use in measurements involving physicochemical properties, namely, vapor pressure; liquid-vapor critical temperature and critical pressure; orthobaric volumes of liquid and vapor; pressure-volume-temperature properties of the unsaturated vapor or gas; and pressure-volume-temperature properties of the compressed liquid. This monograph focuses on reference materials for vapor pressures at temperatures up to 770 K, as well as critical temperatures and critical pressures

  10. A reference heat source for solar collector thermal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. J.; Bernier, M. A.

    1984-12-01

    A direct-comparison reference heat source (RHS), used for testing liquid-based solar collectors, is described. A major advantage of the RHS is its capability to measure the product of mass flow and specific heat directly in the test loop. Calibration tests are performed on two reference heat sources over a range of flowrates and inlet temperatures normally encountered in flat-plate solar collector testing (10 C to 95 C). It is shown that at low flowrates (less than or equal to 0.008 kg/s), localized boiling may introduce errors if the heater power density is not reduced as well, whereas operation at flowrates greater than 0.05 kg/s reduces the temperature rise across the RHS, increasing temperature measurement uncertainty. To achieve satisfactory results with an RHS, a stable inlet temperature, good flowrate control, and regulation of the power supplied to the heater are required.

  11. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  12. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  13. Transportation Cluster Volume 3 [Small Power Sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is one of seven volumes of instructional materials developed around a cluster of Transportation Industries. Primarily technical in focus, they are designed to be used in a cluster-concept program and to integrate with a regular General Education Development (G.E.D.) program so that students may attain an employable skill level and a…

  14. A wavelength tunable photon source with sealed inner volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented a method of providing a wavelength tunable photon source (200), comprising bonding a first element (101) with a first mirror (106), a second element (102) with a second mirror (108) and a third element (103) with a photon emitter together in a structure enclosing an inner volume...... (214) being a sealed volume, and forming a bonding interface (212) which is gas-tight, so that the first mirror (106) is placed in the inner volume (214) so the first mirror (106) may move within the inner volume (214). The method provides a relatively simple way of obtaining a tunable photon source...

  15. Ecr Driven Multicusp Volume h- Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A., Jr.; Rouille, C.; Bechu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2004-11-01

    The plasma of the source is created by seven elementary multi-dipolar ECR sources (2.45GHz). Each of these sources consists of a permanent magnet mounted at the extremity of a coaxial feedthrough. This plasma is confined by a cylindrical multicusp configuration, which traps the hot electrons at the outer boundary of the system thus favoring the creation of optimum plasma conditions necessary for H^- generation (in particular, the electron temperature of the order of 0.6 1.0 eV). We studied the density and temperature of the plasma and of the hydrogen negative ions in the center of the source, as well as the extracted currents, in the pressure range 1 to 4 mTorr, with a microwave power of 1 kW. The negative ion density measured at 4.5 to 9.5 cm from the ECR sources is going up with pressure, while the extracted current (measured at 19.5 to 24.5 cm from the sources) attains a maximum at 1.5 mTorr. Approaching the multi-dipolar sources to the extractor leads to the increase of the extracted negative ion current. Tantalum evaporation also leads to the increase of the extracted negative ion current . The effect of a collar in front of the plasma electrode will also be described. . The support of EEC (Contract HPRI-CT-2001-50021) is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Age and gender-specific reference values of orbital fat and muscle volumes in Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensburg, N.I.; Wiersinga, W.M.; van Velthoven, M.E.J.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Zonneveld, F.W.; Baldeschi, L.; Saeed, P.; Mourits, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    To provide age and gender-specific reference values for orbital fat and muscle volumes (MV) in Caucasian adults. Computed tomographic scans of 160 orbits from 52 men and 55 women, aged 20-80 years, not affected by orbital disease were evaluated. Orbital bony cavity volume (OV), fat volume (FV) and M

  17. Age and gender-specific reference values of orbital fat and muscle volumes in Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensburg, N.I.; Wiersinga, W.M.; van Velthoven, M.E.J.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Zonneveld, F.W.; Baldeschi, L.; Saeed, P.; Mourits, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    To provide age and gender-specific reference values for orbital fat and muscle volumes (MV) in Caucasian adults. Computed tomographic scans of 160 orbits from 52 men and 55 women, aged 20-80 years, not affected by orbital disease were evaluated. Orbital bony cavity volume (OV), fat volume (FV) and

  18. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  19. NATO Reference Mobility. Edition I. Users Guide. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    evaluation by bidders and source seleccion boards will be based on the NRMM during the initial acquisition process. The degree of required details in...Interactions of the engineering details with features of the.total operational environment. Between these two extremes, is the person responsible

  20. Recording and Calculating Gunshot Sound—Change of the Volume in Reference to the Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaos, Tsiatis E.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in an open practice ground (shooting range) regarding the recording of the sound of gunshots. Shots were fired using various types of firearms (seven pistols, five revolvers, two submachine guns, one rifle, and one shotgun) in different calibers, from several various distances with reference to the recording sources. Both, a conventional sound level meter (device) and a measurement microphone were used, having been placed in a fixed point behind the shooting line. The sound of each shot was recorded (from the device). At the same time the signal received by the microphone was transferred to a connected computer through an appropriate audio interface with a pre-amplifier. Each sound wave was stored and depicted as a wave function. After the physic-mathematical analysis of these depictions, the volume was calculated in the accepted engineering units(Decibels or dB) of Sound Pressure Level (SPL). The distances from the recording sources were 9.60 meters, 14.40 m, 19.20 m, and 38.40 m. The experiment was carried out by using the following calibers: .22 LR, 6.35 mm(.25 AUTO), 7.62 mm Tokarev(7,62×25), 7.65 mm(.32 AUTO), 9 mm Parabellum(9×19), 9 mm Short(9×17), 9 mm Makarov(9×18), .45 AUTO, .32 S&W, .38 S&W, .38 SPECIAL, .357 Magnum, 7,62 mm Kalashnikov(7,62×39) and 12 GA. Tables are given for the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, altitude & barometric pressure), the length of the barrel of each gun, technical characteristics of the used ammunition, as well as for the volume taken from the SLM. The data for the sound intensity were collected after 168 gunshots (158 single shot & 10 bursts). According to the results, a decreasing of the volume, equivalent to the increasing of the distance, was remarked, as it was expected. Values seem to follow the Inverse square Law. For every doubling of the distance from the sound source, the sound intensity diminishes by 5.9904±0.2325 decibels (on average). In addition, we have the

  1. Reference sources for radionuclide calibrations in nuclear programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Oliveira, E.M. de; Di Prinzio, M.A.R., E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    The radionuclide metrology laboratories aim to provide radioactive standards for detector calibrations in nuclear safety areas. To produce the reference sources to be furnished to users the following standards of {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 241}Am, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 166}Ho are commonly used. In this work was made a verifying of the uncertainties obtained for the two methods: comparative (sample-standards) and efficiency curve. The total uncertainties obtained by sample-standard method varied from 0.4 to 1.2% (k = 1). The results using efficiency curve method to the same radioisotopes and same conditions are between 0.9 to 2.2% (k = 1). (author)

  2. Stepping motor control processor reference manual. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, F.W.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Suski, G.J.; Gant, R.G.; Rash, M.

    1980-06-06

    This manual is intended to serve several purposes. The first goal is to describe the capabilities and operation of the SMC processor package from an operator or user point of view. Secondly, the manual will describe in some detail the basic hardware elements and how they can be used effectively to implement a step motor control system. Practical information on the use, installation and checkout of the hardware set is presented in the following sections along with programming suggestions. Available related system software is described in this manual for reference and as an aid in understanding the system architecture. Section two presents an overview and operations manual of the SMC processor describing its composition and functional capabilities. Section three contains hardware descriptions in some detail for the LLL-designed hardware used in the SMC processor. Basic theory of operation and important features are explained.

  3. Effects of volume conductor and source configuration on simulated magnetogastrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komuro, Rie; Qiao Wenlian; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K, E-mail: l.cheng@auckland.ac.n [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-11-21

    Recordings of the magnetic fields (MFs) arising from gastric electrical activity (GEA) have been shown to be able to distinguish between normal and certain abnormal GEA. Mathematical models provide a powerful tool for revealing the relationship between the underlying GEA and the resultant magnetogastrograms (MGGs). However, it remains uncertain the relative contributions that different volume conductor and dipole source models have on the resultant MFs. In this study, four volume conductor models (free space, sphere, half space and an anatomically realistic torso) and two dipole source configurations (containing 320 moving dipole sources and a single equivalent moving dipole source) were used to simulate the external MFs. The effects of different volume conductor models and dipole source configurations on the MF simulations were examined. The half space model provided the best approximation of the MFs produced by the torso model in the direction normal to the coronal plane. This was despite the fact that the half space model does not produce secondary sources, which have been shown to contribute up to 50% of the total MFs when an anatomically realistic torso model was used. We conclude that a realistic representation of the volume conductor and a detailed dipole source model are likely to be necessary when using a model-based approach for interpreting MGGs.

  4. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume I: technical discussion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a reference document for use by the Air Resources Board, local air pollution control districts, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that describes technological options available for the control of emissions from stationary sources located in California. Control technologies were examined for 10 industry groups and six air pollutants. Volume I, Technical Discussion, includes an overall introduction to the project, descriptions of its major elements, background information for each industry group addressed, and the project bibliography. In Volume II, Control Technology Data Tables, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts, and application status are presented in tabular format. Also included is a code list that classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process and emission source.

  5. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Volume 1, 4th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barry T., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the fourth edition of the encyclopedia contains directory and descriptive listings of organizations in the United States and Canada, resource materials concerning North American Indians, and a bibliography of in-print books about the American Indian. The first section of the volume contains source listings of government agencies,…

  6. Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

  7. Equine Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 27, Number 4 [and] Volume 27, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffert, Kenneth L.; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain 10 lessons to enhance an Agricultural Science I course for grade 9. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction, psychology and handling, conformation and selection, genetics and reproduction, herd health, hoof care, nutrition, equipment and facilities, handling horses,…

  8. Animal Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 3 [and] Volume 28, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andy; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain 4 units that include 30 lessons for a course in animal science for 11th- and 12th-grade agriculture science students. The units cover nutrition, genetics, reproduction, and animal health. The instructor's guide contains the following: objectives, competencies, motivational…

  9. LARGE VOLUME IONIZATION CHAMBER USED AS LABORATORY REFERENCE FOR LOW ENERGY X—RAY MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国山; 薛永库; 等

    1994-01-01

    A large volume spherical ionization chamber of 195mm diameter and 0.36mg/cm2 wall thickness made from conducting carbon-fibre epoxy composite material has been developed.The mechanical intensity of the chamber is satisfactory for a good longterm volume stability.Owing to its large volume and thin wall,the chamber is sensitive to low energy photon beams and has excellent energy-response characteristics.This ionization chamber is suitable not only for a laboratory reference but also for measurement of low energy photon beam exposure rates at protection-level.

  10. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.; Plas, E.M. van der; Goede, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Hack, W.W.M.; Buuren, S. van; Wit, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. Methods The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from ultrasonogr

  11. Reference Equations for Static Lung Volumes and TLCO from a Population Sample in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailopoulos, Pavlos; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Spyratos, Dionisios; Argyropoulou-Pataka, Paraskevi; Sichletidis, Lazaros

    2015-02-14

    Background: The most commonly used reference equations for the measurement of static lung volumes/capacities and transfer factor of the lung for CO (TLCO) are based on studies around 30-40 years old with significant limitations. Objectives: Our aim was to (1) develop reference equations for static lung volumes and TLCO using the current American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines, and (2) compare the equations derived with those most commonly used. Methods: Healthy Caucasian subjects (234 males and 233 females) aged 18-91 years were recruited. All of them were healthy never smokers with a normal chest X-ray. Static lung volumes and TLCO were measured with a single-breath technique according to the latest guidelines. Results: Curvilinear regression prediction equations derived from the present study were compared with those that are most commonly used. Our reference equations in accordance with the latest studies show lower values for all static lung volume parameters and TLCO as well as a different way of deviation of those parameters (i.e. declining with age total lung capacity, TLCO age decline in both sex and functional residual capacity age rise in males). Conclusions: We suggest that old reference values of static lung volumes and TLCO should be updated, and our perception of deviation of some spirometric parameters should be revised. Our new reference curvilinear equations derived according to the latest guidelines could contribute to the updating by respiratory societies of old existing reference values and result in a better estimation of the lung function of contemporary populations with similar Caucasian characteristics. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Manufacture of Single 60Co Source Irradiation Facility and the Measurement of Reference Radiation Filed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; WANG; Hong-yu; NI; Ning; ZHANG; Li; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2012-01-01

    <正>Reference radiation filed produced by isotope source is necessary for calibration of radiation dose meter. 60Co single source radiation facility is an important method to produce reference radiation. Collimation design of the facility is good for characteristics of the field, but there are scattered photon influences however. Scattered radiation is mainly come from collimation, source shield, floor, walls and

  13. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  14. Accuracy and Sources of Error for an Angle Independent Volume Flow Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates sources of error for a vector velocity volume flow estimator. Quantification of the estima tor’s accuracy is performed theoretically and investigated in vivo . Womersley’s model for pulsatile flow is used to simulate velo city profiles and calculate volume flow errors in c...... % underestimated volume flow according to the simulation. Volume flow estimates were corrected for the beam being off- axis, but was not able to significantly decrease the error rel ative to measurements with the reference method.......This paper investigates sources of error for a vector velocity volume flow estimator. Quantification of the estima tor’s accuracy is performed theoretically and investigated in vivo . Womersley’s model for pulsatile flow is used to simulate velo city profiles and calculate volume flow errors....... A BK Medical UltraView 800 ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer is used to obtain Vector Flow Imaging sequences of a superficial part of the fistulas. Cross-sectional diameters of each fistu la are measured on B-mode images by rotating the scan plane 90 degrees. The major axis...

  15. New concept of ECR driven multicusp volume H- source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A., Jr.; Rouillé, C.; Arnal, Y.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2003-10-01

    We propose a new concept of a large volume H- source. The plasma necessary to generate the negative hydrogen ions is created by several elementary multi-dipolar ECR sources. Each of these sources consists of a permanent magnet mounted at the extremity of a coaxial feedthrough. This plasma is confined in a periodic magnetic field configuration known as multicusp configuration. It traps the hot electrons at the outer boundary of the system thus favoring the creation of optimum plasma conditions necessary for H- generation (in particular, the electron temperature of the order of 0.6 - 0.8 eV). To test this idea we installed seven ECR sources (2.45GHz) on the top flange of the volume H- source Camembert III with its cylindrical multicusp configuration. The pressure was varied from 1 to 4 mTorr, the total power of the microwave generator was varied between 500 W and 1 kW. We studied the density and temperature of the plasma and of the hydrogen negative ions. We obtained encouraging results confirming the generation of the optimum plasma conditions in this system. We also compared the obtained results with the previous generation scheme, using filaments. Acknowledgement. The support of EEC (Contract HPRI-CT-2001-50021) is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Reference values for frequency volume chart and uroflowmetry parameters in adolescent and adult enuresis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Brinker, Astrid E.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Mulder, Zwaan; van Capelle, Jan Willem; Feitz, Wout F.J.; Blanker, Marco H.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Reference values of Frequency Volume Chart (FVC) and uroflowmetry parameters for adolescent and adult enuresis patients are lacking. In this study, we aim to describe those parameters, in order to interpret findings from FVCs and uroflowmetries in those patients. Methods: Retrospective, descri

  17. Assessment of minute volume of lung in NPP workers for Korean reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. J.; Song, S. H.; Lee, J.; Jin, Y. W.; Yim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S. [KNETEC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To formulation of the reference Korean for radiation protection purpose, we measured the forced vital capacity(FVC), forced expiratory volume in second(FEVI), minute ventilation(MV) of Nuclear Power Plant workers using SP-1 Spirometry Unit(Schiller AG. 1998) and eatimated the liters of breathed for working and resting, also compared these data with ICRP 23.

  18. Reference values for alveolar membrane diffusion capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanen, P; van der Lee, [No Value; van der Mark, T; van den Bosch, JMM

    2001-01-01

    The reference values for diffusion capacity of the alveolar capillary membrane (Tm,CO) and pulmonary capillary volume (Qc) are scarce, while the standard deviations of the equations are large. New equations and residual standard deviations (RSDs) were determined in a sample of healthy subjects. Tm,C

  19. Numeric data services and sources for the general reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Kellam, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of online access to social science statistical and numeric data sources, such as the U.S. Census Bureau's American Fact Finder, has lead to an increased interest in supporting these sources in academic libraries. Many large libraries have been able to devote staff to data services for years, and recently smaller academic libraries have recognized the need to provide numeric data services and support. This guidebook serves as a primer to developing and supporting social science statistical and numerical data sources in the academic library. It provides strategies for the estab

  20. Reference Sources in Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, H. Robert

    This document is a bibliographic guide of over 2,400 titles in science, engineering, medicine and agriculture. This book is intended for use by librarians for reference updates, researchers and students who need to access information but who are unfamiliar with the particular discipline, and for information science students learning about the…

  1. Sources of inspiration? Making sense of scientific references in patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, Julie; Pellens, Maikel; van Looy, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Scientific references in patent documents can be used as indicators signaling science-technology interactions. Whether they reflect a direct ‘knowledge flow’ from science to technology is subject of debate. Based on 33 interviews with inventors at Belgian firms and knowledge-generating institutes

  2. Sources of inspiration? Making sense of scientific references in patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, Julie; Pellens, Maikel; Looy, Van Bart

    2013-01-01

    Scientific references in patent documents can be used as indicators signaling science-technology interactions. Whether they reflect a direct ‘knowledge flow’ from science to technology is subject of debate. Based on 33 interviews with inventors at Belgian firms and knowledge-generating institutes ac

  3. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and...

  4. A Selected and Annotated Guide to Business Reference Sources in the University of Cincinnati Libraries. Reference List in Business and Economics No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Wahib, Comp.

    This selected, annotated list of business information and reference sources in the University of Cincinnati Libraries includes literature guides, bibliographies, indexing and abstracting services, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, biographical sources, directories, legislative and administrative regulation sources, financial sources, fact…

  5. On Emissivity of Reference Source of IR Radiometer for Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    高木, 亨; 松井, 松長; 宮武, 将浩; タカギ, トオル; マツイ, マツナガ; ミヤタケ, マサヒロ; Tohru, TAKAGI; Matsunaga, MATSUI; Masahiro, MIYATAKE

    1980-01-01

    The reference source of the radiometer for remote sensing should be small and light the emissivity high and the field of view of the optical system wide. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental consideration on emissivity of the cavity type reference source of radiometer for remote sensing is performed. The results are as follows: 1) The simplified equation for calculation of emissivity of cavity type source is introduced. 2) The equation for emissivity of cavity type source at variou...

  6. Select Bibliography and Overview of Bunge's Publications Related to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Julia

    1999-01-01

    Includes citations to five articles written by Charles Bunge related to reference sources and provides an overview of his views on reference materials. Highlights include sources with the most information; images and illustrative material, especially in light of technology; and collection development, including reviewing tools. (LRW)

  7. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    .... 45K). The inflation adjustment factor and reference price are used to determine the credit allowable.... DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and reference price... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit...

  8. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    .... 45K). The inflation adjustment factor and reference price are used to determine the credit allowable.... DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and reference price... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit...

  9. The Supercontinuum Laser Source Fundamentals with Updated References

    CERN Document Server

    Alfano, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Photonics and nonlinear optics are important areas of science, engineering and technology. One of the most important ultrafast nonlinear optical processes is the supercontinuum (SC) – the production of intense white light pulses covering: uv, visible, NIR, MIR, and IR. It is produced using ultrashort laser pulses (ps/fs) to produce the ultrabroad band of frequencies. This book covers the fundamental principles and surveys research of current thinkers and experts in the field with updated references of the key breakthroughs over the past decade and a half. The application of SC are time-resolved pump-SC probe absorption and excitation spectroscopy for chemistry, biology and physics fundamental processes; optical coherence tomography; ultrashort pulse generation in femtosecond and attosecond regions; frequency clocks; phase stabilization; optical communication; atmospheric science; lightning control; optical medical imaging; biological cell imaging; and metrology standards.

  10. Reference Interferometer Using a Semiconductor Laser/LED Reference Source in a Cryogenic Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Anthony J.; Cornwell, Donald M.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of a single mode AlGaAs laser diode and broadband LED was used in a Michelson interferometer to provide reference signals in a Fourier transform spectrometer, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer, on the Cassini mission to Saturn. The narrowband light from the laser produced continuous fringes throughout the travel of the interferometer, which were used to control the velocity of the scan mechanism and to trigger data sampling. The broadband light from the LED produced a burst of fringes at zero path difference, which was used as a fixed position reference. The system, including the sources, the interferometer, and the detectors, was designed to work both at room temperature and instrument operating temperature of 170 Kelvin. One major challenge that was overcome was preservation, from room temperature to 170 K, of alignment sufficient for high modulation of fringes from the broadband source. Another was the shift of the source spectra about 30 nm toward shorter wavelengths upon cooldown.

  11. New conformity indices based on the calculation of distances between the target volume and the volume of reference isodose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J M; Park, S-Y; Ye, S-J; Kim, J H; Carlson, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present conformity indices (CIs) based on the distance differences between the target volume (TV) and the volume of reference isodose (VRI). Methods: The points on the three-dimensional surfaces of the TV and the VRI were generated. Then, the averaged distances between the points on the TV and the VRI were calculated (CIdistance). The performance of the presented CIs were evaluated by analysing six situations, which were a perfect match, an expansion and a reduction of the distance from the centroid to the VRI compared with the distance from the centroid to the TV by 10%, a lateral shift of the VRI by 3 cm, a rotation of the VRI by 45° and a spherical-shaped VRI having the same volume as the TV. The presented CIs were applied to the clinical prostate and head and neck (H&N) plans. Results: For the perfect match, CIdistance was 0 with 0 as the standard deviation (SD). When expanding and reducing, CIdistance was 10 and −10 with SDs 11. The average value of the CIdistance in the prostate and H&N plans was 0.13 ± 7.44 and 6.04 ± 23.27, respectively. Conclusion: The performance of the CIdistance was equal or better than those of the conventional CIs. Advances in knowledge: The evaluation of target conformity by the distances between the surface of the TV and the VRI could be more accurate than evaluation with volume information. PMID:25225915

  12. Sources of Braille Reading Materials. Reference Circular No. 86-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Linda, Comp.

    This reference circular lists sources of braille books available for loan, purchase, rental, or free (give-away) distribution. Divided into four sections, it includes general sources of braille books, sources of specialized braille materials, the major braille presses, and resources for further information about braille books and magazines.…

  13. Reference-based source separation method for identification of brain regions involved in a reference state from intracerebral EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Samareh; Amini, Ladan; Cosandier-Rimélé, Delphine; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Jutten, Christian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present a fast method to extract the sources related to interictal epileptiform state. The method is based on general eigenvalue decomposition using two correlation matrices during: 1) periods including interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) as a reference activation model and 2) periods excluding IEDs or abnormal physiological signals as background activity. After extracting the most similar sources to the reference or IED state, IED regions are estimated by using multiobjective optimization. The method is evaluated using both realistic simulated data and actual intracerebral electroencephalography recordings of patients suffering from focal epilepsy. These patients are seizure-free after the resective surgery. Quantitative comparisons of the proposed IED regions with the visually inspected ictal onset zones by the epileptologist and another method of identification of IED regions reveal good performance.

  14. Reference-based source separation method for identification of brain regions involved in a reference state from intracerebral EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Samareh; Amini, Ladan; Cosandier-Rimélé, Delphine; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Jutten, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fast method to extract the sources related to interictal epileptiform state. The method is based on general eigenvalue decomposition using two correlation matrices during: 1) periods including interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) as a reference activation model and 2) periods excluding IEDs or abnormal physiological signals as background activity. After extracting the most similar sources to the reference or IED state, IED regions are estimated by using multiobjective optimization. The method is evaluated using both realistic simulated data and actual intracerebral electroencephalography recordings of patients suffering from focal epilepsy. These patients are seizure-free after the resective surgery. Quantitative comparisons of the proposed IED regions with the visually inspected ictal onset zones by the epileptologist and another method of identification of IED regions reveal good performance. PMID:23428609

  15. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-04-28

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation.

  16. Design of Radioactive Reference Barrels and Simulation Verification of Linear Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shell source method was used to prepare radioactive reference barrel for the calibration of gamma scan device because filling method in normal ways produces "hot" points easily and decrease the safety in transportation of the barrel.

  17. Reference source of the radon-222 for modern technology of environmental monitoring in radioactive waste storages

    OpenAIRE

    Солодовнікова, Лідія Миколаївна; Тарасов, Володимир Олексійович

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a reference source of the radon-222 created to solve the problem of probability of environmental monitoring of the radon-222 in storages of radioactive wastes, uranium mines, geodynamic landfills over the study of portents of earthquakes.The main objective of the study is to develop a modern technology of environmental radon monitoring using the built-in reference sources of the radon-222 with the metrological characteristics independent of environmental parameters - tem...

  18. Smooth reference equations for slow vital capacity and flow-volume curve indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, F; Bottai, M; Viegi, G; Di Pede, F; Carrozzi, L; Baldacci, S; Pedreschi, M; Giuntini, C

    2000-03-01

    We derived reference values for slow vital capacity (VC) and flow-volume curve indexes (FVC, FEV(1), and flows) from the 1,185 tracings provided by 1,039 "normal" subjects who participated in one or both cross-sectional surveys of the Po River Delta study in 1980-1982 and in 1988-1991. Definition of "normal" was based on negative answers to questions on respiratory symptoms/diseases or recent infections, current/past tobacco smoking, and work exposure to noxious agents. Reference equations were derived separately by sex as linear regressions of body mass index (BMI = weight/height(2)), BMI-squared, height, height-squared, and age. Age entered all the models by natural cubic splines using two break points, except for the ratios FEV(1)/VC and FEV(1)/FVC. Random effects models were applied to adjust for the potential intrasubject correlation. BMI, along with height and age, appeared to be an important predictor, which was significantly associated with VC, FEV(1), FVC, FEV(1)/FVC, and PEF in both sexes, and with FEV(1)/VC and FEF(25-75) in females. Natural cubic splines provided smooth reference equation curves (no "jumps" or "angled points") over the entire age span, differently from the conventional reference equations. Thus, we recommend the use of smooth continuous equations for predicting lung function indexes, along with the inclusion of BMI in the equations.

  19. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the author shave made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ``in press` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number.

  1. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, B. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the authors have made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ``in press` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number.

  2. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  3. SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING REFERENCE SOURCES, A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS AND LIBRARIANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALINOWSKY, HAROLD ROBERT

    THIS TEXTBOOK IS INTENDED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION IN THE SCIENCE-ENGINEERING FIELD. REFERENCES TO STANDARD SOURCES ARE LISTED FOR THE FIELDS OF (1) GENERAL SCIENCE, (2) MATHEMATICS, (3) PHYSICS, (4) CHEMISTRY, (5) ASTRONOMY, (6) GEOLOGY, (7) BIOLOGY, (8) ENGINEERING, AND (9) MEDICINE (LIMITED). WORKS IN ENGLISH ARE…

  4. Efficient Location of Research Reference Sources in the Field of Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Pat; Jay, Danielle

    More than 45 basic dance reference research sources that would be useful to students, scholars, teachers, historians, and therapists are discussed in this bibliographic essay. Aspects of dance covered include choreography, criticism, teaching principles, aesthetic theory, dance therapy, and history. Sources are grouped by type: dictionaries and…

  5. Efficient Location of Research Reference Sources in the Field of Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Pat; Jay, Danielle

    More than 45 basic dance reference research sources that would be useful to students, scholars, teachers, historians, and therapists are discussed in this bibliographic essay. Aspects of dance covered include choreography, criticism, teaching principles, aesthetic theory, dance therapy, and history. Sources are grouped by type: dictionaries and…

  6. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 1E: Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  7. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ˜160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  8. Larger Thyroid Volume and Adequate Iodine Nutrition in Chinese Schoolchildren: Local Normative Reference Values Compared with WHO/IGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid volume measured by ultrasound to define goiter needs reliable local thyroid volume reference from iodine-sufficient populations. The aim of this study is to explore the reference interval for normal thyroid volume in schoolchildren aged 8–10 years from Zhejiang Province, China. Methods. A probability-proportionate-to-size sampling method was applied to select a representative sample of 1213 children aged 8–10 years in Zhejiang Province to detect the thyroid volume, salt iodine, and urine iodine. Results. Median urinary iodine concentration in involved schoolchildren was 178.30 (125.00 μg l−1, with the percentage of samples less than 100 μg l−1 as 12.69% and more than 300 μg l−1 as 15.25%. Thyroid volume was significantly correlated with age and anthropometric measurements independently of each other. The 97th percentile of thyroid volume in our study was larger generally than the new international reference. Conclusions. The iodine nutritional status in Zhejiang Province was at an adequate level. Despite some limitations in this study, we initially established the reference values for thyroid volume in 8–10-year-old schoolchildren in Zhejiang Province, China, as a local reference to be used for monitoring iodine deficiency disorders.

  9. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  10. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  11. Parents and Peers: Serendipity in a Study of Shifting Reference Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Presents and tests a theory which specifies the conditions under which adolescents shift their valuations between three sets of reference sources--fathers, mothers, and peers; the thesis incorporates components from four interpretations of parent--adolescent cleavage, summarily entitle Push, Pull, Selective Attachment, and Drift. (Author/JM)

  12. Parents and Peers: Serendipity in a Study of Shifting Reference Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Presents and tests a theory which specifies the conditions under which adolescents shift their valuations between three sets of reference sources--fathers, mothers, and peers; the thesis incorporates components from four interpretations of parent--adolescent cleavage, summarily entitle Push, Pull, Selective Attachment, and Drift. (Author/JM)

  13. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr. [Atlan-Tech, Rosewll, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  14. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee`s final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE`s two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information.

  15. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  16. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  17. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume II: control technology data tables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report, the Control Technology Data Tables, is the second volume of the three-volume final report for the contract. It presents in tabular format, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts and application status. Also included is a code list which classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process, and emission source.

  18. Education and Social Change in Korea. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 513; Reference Books in International Education, Volume 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Don; Gottlieb, Esther E.

    This book provides students and scholars with an introduction to Korean education and the dynamics of interchange between the educational system and the rapidly changing Korean society. Attention is given only to the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and includes only English language works of reference. The book contains six chapters: (1)…

  19. Metrology of the radon in air volume activity at the italian radon reference chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciocchetti, G.; Cotellessa, G.; Soldano, E.; Pagliari, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The approach of the Italian National Institute of Ionising Radiations (I.N.M.R.I.-ENEA) on radon metrology has been based on a complete and integrated system which can be used to calibrate the main types of {sup 222}Rn in air measuring instruments with international traceability. The Italian radon reference chamber is a research and calibration facility developed at the Casaccia Research Center in Roma. This facility has an inner volume of one m{sup 3}. The wall is a cylindrical stainless steel vessel coupled with an automated climate apparatus operated both at steady and dynamic conditions. The control and data acquisition equipment is based on Radotron system, developed to automate the multitasking management of different sets of radon monitors and climatic sensors. A novel approach for testing passive radon monitors with an alpha track detector exposure standard has been developed. It is based on the direct measurement of radon exposure with a set of passive integrating monitors based on the new ENEA piston radon exposure meter. This paper describes the methodological approach on radon metrology, the status-of-art of experimental apparatus and the standardization procedures. (authors)

  20. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult female—internal electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Shannon E.; DeWeese, Lindsay S.; Maynard, Matthew R.; Rajon, Didier A.; Wayson, Michael B.; Marshall, Emily L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-12-01

    An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for internal electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined reference adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used internal dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida reference adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated

  1. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  2. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  3. Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A; Phillion, D W; Sommargren, G E; Decker, T A; Taylor, J S; Gomei, Y; Kakuchi, O; Takeuchi, S

    2005-07-01

    We have built and calibrated a set of 532-nm wavelength wavefront reference sources that fill a numerical aperture of 0.3. Early data show that they have a measured departure from sphericity of less than 0.2 nm RMS (0.4 milliwaves) and a reproducibility of better than 0.05 nm rms. These devices are compact, portable, fiber-fed, and are intended as sources of measurement and reference waves in wavefront measuring interferometers used for metrology of EUVL optical elements and systems. Keys to wave front accuracy include fabrication of an 800-nm pinhole in a smooth reflecting surface as well as a calibration procedure capable of measuring axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric errors.

  4. State Assessment and Testing Programs: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography. Volume I: General References. Volume II: Individual State Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Deborah Elena; Wildemuth, Barbara

    There is a growing body of literature in the ERIC data base pertaining to state educational assessment and testing programs. Volume I of this bibliography includes abstracts of 39 documents and journal articles describing the design and implementation of programs, as well as the technical and political issues which have been addressed by the…

  5. Gaia Data Release 1. Reference frame and optical properties of ICRF sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignard, F.; Klioner, S.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Bombrun, A.; Hernández, J.; Hobbs, D.; Lammers, U.; Michalik, D.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Biermann, M.; Butkevich, A.; Comoretto, G.; Joliet, E.; Holl, B.; Hutton, A.; Parsons, P.; Steidelmüller, H.; Andrei, A.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.

    2016-11-01

    Context. As part of the data processing for Gaia Data Release 1 (Gaia DR1) a special astrometric solution was computed, the so-called auxiliary quasar solution. This gives positions for selected extragalactic objects, including radio sources in the second realisation of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) that have optical counterparts bright enough to be observed with Gaia. A subset of these positions was used to align the positional reference frame of Gaia DR1 with the ICRF2. Although the auxiliary quasar solution was important for internal validation and calibration purposes, the resulting positions are in general not published in Gaia DR1. Aims: We describe the properties of the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution for a subset of sources matched to ICRF2, and compare their optical and radio positions at the sub-mas level. Methods: Descriptive statistics are used to characterise the optical data for the ICRF sources and the optical-radio differences. The most discrepant cases are examined using online resources to find possible alternative explanations than a physical optical-radio offset of the quasars. Results: In the auxiliary quasar solution 2191 sources have good optical positions matched to ICRF2 sources with high probability. Their formal standard errors are better than 0.76 milliarcsec (mas) for 50% of the sources and better than 3.35 mas for 90%. Optical magnitudes are obtained in Gaia's unfiltered photometric G band. The Gaia results for these sources are given as a separate table in Gaia DR1. The comparison with the radio positions of the defining sources shows no systematic differences larger than a few tenths of a mas. The fraction of questionable solutions, not readily accounted for by the statistics, is less than 6%. Normalised differences have extended tails requiring case-by-case investigations for around 100 sources, but we have not seen any difference indisputably linked to an optical-radio offset in the sources. Conclusions: With

  6. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  7. Gaia Data Release 1: The reference frame and the optical properties of ICRF sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mignard, F; Lindegren, L; Bastian, U; Bombrun, A; Hernandez, J; Hobbs, D; Lammers, U; Michalik, D; Ramos-Lerate, M; Biermann, M; Butkevich, A; Comoretto, G; Joliet, E; Holl, B; Hutton, A; Parsons, P; Steidelmueller, H; Andrei, A; Bourda, G; Charlot, P

    2016-01-01

    As part of the data processing for Gaia Data Release~1 (Gaia DR1) a special astrometric solution was computed, the so-called auxiliary quasar solution. This gives positions for selected extragalactic objects, including radio sources in the second realisation of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) that have optical counterparts bright enough to be observed with Gaia. A subset of these positions was used to align the positional reference frame of Gaia DR1 with the ICRF2. We describe the properties of the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution for a subset of sources matched to ICRF2, and compare their optical and radio positions at the sub-mas level. Their formal standard errors are better than 0.76~milliarcsec (mas) for 50% of the sources and better than 3.35~mas for 90%. Optical magnitudes are obtained in Gaia's unfiltered photometric G band. The comparison with the radio positions of the defining sources shows no systematic differences larger than a few tenths of a mas. The fraction of questionable s...

  8. The 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology 1981. Source Materials Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This is the second of two volumes of source documents commissioned by the National Science Foundation in preparing the second 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology for transmission to the Congress. This volume consists of the views of individuals selected by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for…

  9. Introduction to Animal Nutrition. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 7 [and] Volume 28, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Andrea; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain five lessons about animal science for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover these topics: the monogastric digestive system, the ruminant digestive system, the importance of meeting nutritional needs, how…

  10. Entomology for Agricultural Science II Core Curriculum. Instructor Guide, Volume 23, Number 2, and Student Reference, Volume 23, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelice, Karen L.

    This unit is a basic introduction to entomology. The instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain seven lessons: (1) introduction to entomology; (2) insect collection; (3) insect identification; (4) methods of control; (5) chemical control measures; (6) safe use of insecticides; and (7) integrated pest management. Students…

  11. Introduction to Animal Reproduction. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 5 [and] Volume 28, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Andrea; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain seven lessons about animal reproduction for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover the following topics: the male and female reproductive systems, puberty and the estrous cycle, conception and gestation,…

  12. Influence of applied volume on efficacy of 3-minute surgical reference disinfection method prEN 12791.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2004-12-01

    For assessment of the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection, European reference method prEN 12791 prescribes that the hands must be kept wet with the reference alcohol for 3 min regardless of the applied volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether the applied volume of the reference disinfectant n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) influences the effect on the resident hand flora. Ten experiments with 200 reference disinfections were analyzed. Hands were washed for 1 min with soap. The bacterial prevalue was obtained by rubbing fingertips in tryptic soy broth for 1 min. After this, each subject treated the hands with n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) by using as many portions as necessary to keep hands wet for a total of 3 min. Bacterial postvalues (immediate effect) were obtained for one hand, and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After the gloves were taken off, a second postvalue was obtained (sustained effect). Most surgical reference disinfections (73%) were achieved with 9 ml of the reference alcohol, followed by 12 ml (24%) and 6 ml (3%). There was no significant difference between the mean log10 reduction values for the three treatment groups, both in terms of the immediate effect (P = 0.333, as determined by analysis of variance) and in terms of the sustained effect (P = 0.442). A higher number of portions did not correlate with a higher reduction factor (for immediate effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.028 [P = 0.689]; for sustained effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.059 [P = 0.404]). If the hands were kept wet with the reference alcohol for the total application time, the applied volume could vary, but this did not alter the efficacy.

  13. ECR-Driven Multicusp Volume H- Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Rouillé, C.; Svarnas, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2005-04-01

    We studied the negative ion current extracted from the plasma created by seven elementary ECR sources, operating at 2.45 GHz, placed in the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III". We varied the pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, with a maximum power of 1 kW and studied the plasma created in this system by measuring the various plasma parameters, including the density and temperature of the negative hydrogen ions. We found that the electron temperature is optimal for negative hydrogen ion production at 9.5 cm from the ECR sources. The tantalum-covered wall surface pollution reduces the extracted negative ion current and enhances the electron current. Tantalum evaporation has a positive effect. The use of a grid and of a collar in front of the plasma electrode did not lead to any enhancement of the extracted negative ion current.

  14. Reference Spent Fuel and Its Source Terms for a Design of Deep Geological Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Keun

    2005-12-15

    In this study, current status and future trend of domestic spent fuels were analyzed to propose reference spent nuclear fuel. And then, source terms needed for design of a deep geological disposal system were calculated using ORIGEN-ARP. The reference spent fuels selected based on assembly physical dimension, inventory projection, trend of initial enrichment of 235U, discharge burnup are as follows; The 17x17 Korean Optimized Fuel Assembly with initial enrichment of 4.0 wt.% 235U and discharge burnup of 45 GWD/MTU was adopted as a low-burnup representative fuel. For the high-burnup representative fuel, 16x16 Korean Standard Fuel Assembly with initial enrichment of 4.5 wt.% 235U and discharge burnup of 55 GWD/MTU was chosen. CANDU fuel with initial enrichment of 0.711 wt.% 235U and discharge burnup of 7.5 GWD/MTU was also considered. For these reference fuels, decay heat, radiation intensity and spectrum, nuclide concentration, and individual nuclide radioactivity were calculated using ORIGEN-ARP for a disposal system design. It is expected that the source terms estimated in this study will be applied to the disposal system development in the future.

  15. Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and Reference Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1994-12-22

    The Compliance Plan Volume provides overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) and contains procedures to establish milestones to be enforced under the Order. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume and is provided for informational purposes only.

  16. Radiofrequency and 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance H- volume production ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O.; Peng, S. X.

    2016-10-01

    The volume production of negative hydrogen ions ({{{H}}}-) in plasma ion sources is based on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules (H2), which is a two-step process requiring both, hot electrons for ionization, and vibrational excitation of the H2 and cold electrons for the {{{H}}}- formation through DEA. Traditionally {{{H}}}- ion sources relying on the volume production have been tandem-type arc discharge sources equipped with biased filament cathodes sustaining the plasma by thermionic electron emission and with a magnetic filter separating the main discharge from the {{{H}}}- formation volume. The main motivation to develop ion sources based on radiofrequency (RF) or electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma discharges is to eliminate the apparent limitation of the cathode lifetime. In this paper we summarize the principles of {{{H}}}- volume production dictating the ion source design and highlight the differences between the arc discharge and RF/ECR ion sources from both, physics and technology point-of-view. Furthermore, we introduce the state-of-the-art RF and ECR {{{H}}}- volume production ion sources and review the challenges and future prospects of these yet developing technologies.

  17. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States)], E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu

    2010-04-07

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  18. Source fields reconstruction with 3D mapping by means of the virtual acoustic volume concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, S.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.; Schaeffer, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the theoretical framework of the virtual acoustic volume concept and two related inverse Patch Transfer Functions (iPTF) identification methods (called u-iPTF and m-iPTF depending on the chosen boundary conditions for the virtual volume). They are based on the application of Green's identity on an arbitrary closed virtual volume defined around the source. The reconstruction of sound source fields combines discrete acoustic measurements performed at accessible positions around the source with the modal behavior of the chosen virtual acoustic volume. The mode shapes of the virtual volume can be computed by a Finite Element solver to handle the geometrical complexity of the source. As a result, it is possible to identify all the acoustic source fields at the real surface of an irregularly shaped structure and irrespective of its acoustic environment. The m-iPTF method is introduced for the first time in this paper. Conversely to the already published u-iPTF method, the m-iPTF method needs only acoustic pressure and avoids particle velocity measurements. This paper is focused on its validation, both with numerical computations and by experiments on a baffled oil pan.

  19. Optical counterpart positions of extragalactic radio sources and connecting optical and radio reference frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Z.; Gumerov, R.; Jin, W.; Khamitov, I.; Maigurova, N.; Pinigin, G.; Tang, Z.; Wang, S.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the results of an investigation of astrometric positions of extragalactic radio sources from a list for the International Celestial Reference Frame. About 300 fields around extragalactic radio sources were observed during the years 2000-2003. The observations were performed mainly using two telescopes equipped with CCD cameras at TUG, Turkey (Russian-Turkish Telescope - RTT150) and at YAO (1 m telescope), (Kunming, China). The mean accuracies of the measured positions are 38 mas in right ascension and 35 mas in declination. A comparison between the measured optical positions determined using the UCAC2 catalog and the radio positions from the current ICRF shows that the overall optical-minus- radio offsets are -4 and +15 mas for right ascension and declination, respectively. The formal internal errors of these mean offsets are 4 mas. The results of optical positions with respect to the reference catalogue 2MASS are also given. A search for a relation between optical and radio reference frames indicates that the orientation angles are near zero within their accuracy of about 5 mas. The link accuracy becomes 3 mas when our observations are combined with other studies. Tables 2 and 3 giving the positions are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/510/A10Present address: İstanbul Kültür University, Ataköy Yerleşkesi, 34156 Istanbul, Turkey

  20. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  1. Online blind source separation using incremental nonnegative matrix factorization with volume constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxu; Yang, Zuyuan; Xie, Shengli; Yang, Jun-Mei

    2011-04-01

    Online blind source separation (BSS) is proposed to overcome the high computational cost problem, which limits the practical applications of traditional batch BSS algorithms. However, the existing online BSS methods are mainly used to separate independent or uncorrelated sources. Recently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) shows great potential to separate the correlative sources, where some constraints are often imposed to overcome the non-uniqueness of the factorization. In this paper, an incremental NMF with volume constraint is derived and utilized for solving online BSS. The volume constraint to the mixing matrix enhances the identifiability of the sources, while the incremental learning mode reduces the computational cost. The proposed method takes advantage of the natural gradient based multiplication updating rule, and it performs especially well in the recovery of dependent sources. Simulations in BSS for dual-energy X-ray images, online encrypted speech signals, and high correlative face images show the validity of the proposed method.

  2. 火药比容标准物质的研制%Development of Reference Material of Propellant Specific Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏立; 刘来东; 靳建伟; 赵宝明; 宋长文

    2013-01-01

    A reference material, mainly composed of nitrocellulose (NC),nitroglycerine (NG), centralite and vaseline ,was developed for verifying instruments specific volume of propellant. The homogeneity of characteristic value of the reference material was tested by means of the variance analysis method, and its stability had been examined for more than one year. The reference material of propellant specific volume was determined by multi-department based on same principles, and the certified result was 627.2L/kg. The combined standard uncertainty and expanded uncertainty of standard value of reference material were also evaluated, and the expanded uncertainty was determined 9.0L/kg(k=2). The result showed that the reference material had good homogeneity and stability, its characteristic value was accurate and reliable. The reference material could meet the requirement of transferring the certified value of specific volume, calibrate and verify the instruments specific volume of propellant.%研制了以硝化棉、硝化甘油、中定剂和凡士林为主要成分的火药比容标准物质,采用方差分析方法检验了标准物质的均匀性,并进行了1a以上的稳定性考核;通过多家单位采用同一原理方法进行标准物质定值,分析评估了标准物质标准值的合成标准不确定度和扩展不确定度,得到标准比容值为627.2L/kg,扩展不确定度为9.0L/kg(k=2)。结果表明,该标准物质特性量值准确、可靠,均匀性和稳定性好,能够满足火药比容量值传递的要求,达到校准和检定火药比容测量仪的目的。

  3. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  4. Bargaining Tactics: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G.

    A supplement to an earlier-published volume on bargaining tactics, this document presents specific tactics that can be used in the course of public sector collective bargaining to further management's pre-established negotiating strategies. All the tactics suggested are drawn from the author's personal experience as a public sector labor…

  5. Vector velocity volume flow estimation: Sources of error and corrections applied for arteriovenous fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    A method for vector velocity volume flow estimation is presented, along with an investigation of its sources of error and correction of actual volume flow measurements. Volume flow errors are quantified theoretically by numerical modeling, through flow phantom measurements, and studied in vivo...... than circular, vessel area and correcting the ultrasound beam for being off-axis, gave a significant (p = 0.008) reduction in error from 31.2% to 24.3%. The error is relative to the Ultrasound Dilution Technique, which is considered the gold standard for volume flow estimation for dialysis patients....... This paper investigates errors from estimating volumetric flow using a commercial ultrasound scanner and the common assumptions made in the literature. The theoretical model shows, e.g. that volume flow is underestimated by 15%, when the scan plane is off-axis with the vessel center by 28% of the vessel...

  6. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 3, Subject Area reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-14

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User`s Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help.

  7. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 3, Subject Area reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-14

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User`s Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help.

  8. The fields of reference stars for optical positional observations of astrometric extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, A. A.; Ryl'Kov, V. P.

    The Pulkovo programme (Pul ERS) and the techniques used to create a catalogue of coordinates and magnitudes for more than 7000 faint stars in 73 small fields around extragalactic radiosources (ERS) are described. Accurate positions of stars in the fields around ERS 2200+420 and ERS 2021+614 are given. The catalogue containing 223 stars is presented. The errors of coordinate reductions in the system of reference stars from the CMC catalogue are found to be 1.5-2.0 times smaller than for those in the system of the PPM catalogue. This programme (Pul ERS) is required for quick identification of the extragalactic radio sources and for obtaining their characteristics from observations with large telescopes and CCD detectors.

  9. Cannibalism in Latin-Greek sources: its references in mythology and ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo F. Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and comment on the greater amount of references regarding the phenomenon of cannibalism that there exists in Greek and Latin literary tradition. After reviewing many of the sources, it is possible to distinguish the different ways in which this tradition approached such phenomenon and to discover a common intention: starting from the mythology or the Homeric epic, going through the different philosophical trends and schools of thought, we will begin to realize and conclude that in many occasions there is a use of the concept of cannibalism to negatively define «the other», the outcast or foreigner, opening thus a topic that still survives nowadays.

  10. Volume hologram with random encoded reference beam for secure data encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Vladimir B.; Weber, David C.; Trolinger, James D.

    2000-04-01

    A method is presented to store biometric and/or other important information on an ID card in the form of a Card Hologram that cannot be read or duplicated without the use of a special Key Hologram that is secured inside of an automated reader. The Key Hologram produces the unique wavefront required to release the information contained in a complex, 3D diffraction pattern recorded in a volume hologram attached to the card. Experimental results are presented in which the image of an Air Force resolution target are recorded and reconstructed in a volume material using a random speckle wavefront and that cannot be viewed using a simple wavefront such as a collimated or diverging laser beam.

  11. Plant Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 24, Numbers 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, John Kevin

    This document consists of two separately published guides for a course on plant science: an instructor's guide and a student's reference manual. Each part consists of eight lessons and cover the following topics: (1) importance of plants; (2) classification of plants; (3) plant growth factors; (4) weeds, diseases, insects; (5) germination; (6)…

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  13. Energy Efficient Drivepower : Literature Reference List, Volume 1 General User's Supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ula, Sadrul; Jordan, Don L.; Birnbaum, Larry E.

    1993-01-01

    This document lists a large number of information sources in the area of the efficient use of drivepower. This broad area covers not just electric enters a facility to when the load is driven and controlled.

  14. Energy Efficient Drivepower : Literature Reference List, Volume 1, General User's Supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This document lists a large number of information sources in the area of the efficient use of drivepower. This broad area covers not just electric enters a facility to when the load is driven and controlled.

  15. Dosimetry calculations for internal electron sources using a Korean reference adult stylised phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Lee, J K; Lee, C; Lee, C

    2008-01-01

    Absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for internally deposited electron were calculated using a Korean reference adult stylised phantom, where a total of 15 internal organ volumes and external body dimension were designed to match average Korean adult male. The walls of oesophagus, stomach, colon and urinary bladder were additionally divided into the mucosal layer and residual wall to accommodate dose calculation for weakly penetrating electron. The mucosal wall thicknesses were determined by the data reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 89 and other literature resources and by direct measurements. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX (version 2.5.0) was employed to calculate the electron energy deposited. The SAFs and AFs for monoenergetic electrons with the energies ranging from 10 keV to 2 MeV were calculated. The results were compared with those of the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory phantoms and showed considerable differences up to 150% in SAFs, whereas no substantial differences were observed in the AFs.

  16. Biographical Sources in Science and Technology, Engineering Reference Books, and General Sources for Financial Ratios and Operating Ratios. Bibliographic Series No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Joan

    The selected information sources held by the Arkansas University library which are listed include such general sources as Moody's and Standard and Poor's publications and bibliographies for financial and operating ratios. Reference books for engineering published between 1965-1976 include handbooks, dictionaries, manuals, encyclopedias,…

  17. Biographical Sources in Science and Technology, Engineering Reference Books, and General Sources for Financial Ratios and Operating Ratios. Bibliographic Series No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Joan

    The selected information sources held by the Arkansas University library which are listed include such general sources as Moody's and Standard and Poor's publications and bibliographies for financial and operating ratios. Reference books for engineering published between 1965-1976 include handbooks, dictionaries, manuals, encyclopedias,…

  18. Performance of the High Sensitivity Open Source Multi-GNSS Assisted GNSS Reference Server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Ali; Rizos, Chris; Glennon, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The Open Source GNSS Reference Server (OSGRS) exploits the GNSS Reference Interface Protocol (GRIP) to provide assistance data to GPS receivers. Assistance can be in terms of signal acquisition and in the processing of the measurement data. The data transfer protocol is based on Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) schema. The first version of the OSGRS required a direct hardware connection to a GPS device to acquire the data necessary to generate the appropriate assistance. Scenarios of interest for the OSGRS users are weak signal strength indoors, obstructed outdoors or heavy multipath environments. This paper describes an improved version of OSGRS that provides alternative assistance support from a number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The underlying protocol to transfer GNSS assistance data from global casters is the Networked Transport of RTCM (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services) over Internet Protocol (NTRIP), and/or the RINEX (Receiver Independent Exchange) format. This expands the assistance and support model of the OSGRS to globally available GNSS data servers connected via internet casters. A variety of formats and versions of RINEX and RTCM streams become available, which strengthens the assistance provisioning capability of the OSGRS platform. The prime motivation for this work was to enhance the system architecture of the OSGRS to take advantage of globally available GNSS data sources. Open source software architectures and assistance models provide acquisition and data processing assistance for GNSS receivers operating in weak signal environments. This paper describes test scenarios to benchmark the OSGRSv2 performance against other Assisted-GNSS solutions. Benchmarking devices include the SPOT satellite messenger, MS-Based & MS-Assisted GNSS, HSGNSS (SiRFstar-III) and Wireless Sensor Networks Assisted-GNSS. Benchmarked parameters include the number of tracked satellites, the Time to Fix First (TTFF), navigation availability

  19. [Normal macular thickness and volume using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a reference population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé González, L; Abreu González, R; Alonso Plasencia, M; Abreu Reyes, P

    2013-09-01

    To establish normal values of macular thickness and volume obtained by the Cirrus SD-OCT (Carl ZeissMeditec, Dublin, CA, U.S.A.). Secondly, to assess the association between macular thickness and volume, sex and age. A prospective study was conducted on patients who were seen in a hospital Retina Unit, and who only had retinal disease in one eye. All the Macular Cube 512 × 128 scan protocols were performed by the same operator. Only the healthy eye was scanned in each patient. A total of 100 eyes of 100 patients were analysed. The mean central foveal thickness was 261.31 ± 17.67 microns, and was significantly (P<.05) higher in males (267.74 ± 16.98 microns) than in females (255.60 ± 16.40 microns). The mean obtained for the volume of the cube was 10.09 ± 0.37mm 3, and the mean thickness of 280.33 ± 10.34 cube um, with no statistically significant differences between gender being found (P<.05). The mean macular thickness is less at central level, increases in the inner perifoveal ring, and then decreases in the outer perifoveal ring. Furthermore, of all quadrants the greatest thickness was the nasal (328.27 ± 12.96 microns), followed by the upper (326.27 ± 11.89 microns), lower (322.53 ± 12.37mm) sectors, with the temporal sector being the thinnest (313.35 ± 14.20 microns). The mean age of the patients was 60.86 ± 14 years. The mean central foveal thickness and the thickness of the inner perifoveal ring are significantly higher in men than in women. Both the mean volume and thickness of the cube, as well as nasal and inner superior sectors decrease with age, being significantly only in women. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  1. Vector velocity volume flow estimation: Sources of error and corrections applied for arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Hansen, Peter Møller; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-08-01

    A method for vector velocity volume flow estimation is presented, along with an investigation of its sources of error and correction of actual volume flow measurements. Volume flow errors are quantified theoretically by numerical modeling, through flow phantom measurements, and studied in vivo. This paper investigates errors from estimating volumetric flow using a commercial ultrasound scanner and the common assumptions made in the literature. The theoretical model shows, e.g. that volume flow is underestimated by 15%, when the scan plane is off-axis with the vessel center by 28% of the vessel radius. The error sources were also studied in vivo under realistic clinical conditions, and the theoretical results were applied for correcting the volume flow errors. Twenty dialysis patients with arteriovenous fistulas were scanned to obtain vector flow maps of fistulas. When fitting an ellipsis to cross-sectional scans of the fistulas, the major axis was on average 10.2mm, which is 8.6% larger than the minor axis. The ultrasound beam was on average 1.5mm from the vessel center, corresponding to 28% of the semi-major axis in an average fistula. Estimating volume flow with an elliptical, rather than circular, vessel area and correcting the ultrasound beam for being off-axis, gave a significant (p=0.008) reduction in error from 31.2% to 24.3%. The error is relative to the Ultrasound Dilution Technique, which is considered the gold standard for volume flow estimation for dialysis patients. The study shows the importance of correcting for volume flow errors, which are often made in clinical practice.

  2. Reference values of Forced Expiratory Volumes and pulmonary flows in 3–6 year children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordola Giorgio

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to verify the feasibility of respiratory function tests and to assess their validity in the diagnosis of respiratory disorders in young children. Methods We performed spirometry and collected information on health and parents' lifestyle on a sample of 960 children aged 3–6. Results The cooperation rate was 95.3%. Among the valid tests, 3 or more acceptable curves were present in 93% of cases. The variability was 5% within subjects in 90.8% of cases in all the parameters. We propose regression equations for FVC (Forced Vital Capacity, FEV1, FEV0.5, FEV0.75 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, in half a second and in 3/4 of a second, and for Maximum Expiratory Flows at different lung volume levels (MEF75, 50, 25. All parameters are consistent with the main reference values reported in literature. The discriminating ability of respiratory parameters versus symptoms always shows a high specificity (>95% and a low sensitivity ( Conclusion Our study confirms the feasibility of spirometry in young children; however some of the current standards are not well suited to this age group. Moreover, in this restricted age group the various reference values have similar behaviour.

  3. delta 15N and non-carbonate delta 13C values for two petroleum source rock reference materials and a marine sediment reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Otter, Marshall L.; Silva, Steven R.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Certified Reference Materials USGS Devonian Ohio Shale (SDO-1), and USGS Eocene Green River Shale (SGR-1), and National Research Council Canada (NRCC) Certified Marine Sediment Reference Material (PACS-2), were sent for analysis to four separate analytical laboratories as blind controls for organic rich sedimentary rock samples being analyzed from the Red Dog mine area in Alaska. The samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon (delta13Cncc) and nitrogen (delta15N), percent non-carbonate carbon (Wt % Cncc) and percent nitrogen (Wt % N). SDO-1, collected from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, near Morehead, Kentucky, and SGR-1, collected from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation are petroleum source rocks used as reference materials for chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. PACS-2 is modern marine sediment collected from the Esquimalt, British Columbia harbor. The results presented in this study are, with the exceptions noted below, the first published for these reference materials. There are published information values for the elemental concentrations of 'organic' carbon (Wt % Corg measured range is 8.98 - 10.4) and nitrogen (Wt % Ntot 0.347 with SD 0.043) only for SDO-1. The suggested values presented here should be considered 'information values' as defined by the NRCC Institute for National Measurement Reference Materials and should be useful for the analysis of 13C, 15N, C and N in organic material in sedimentary rocks.

  4. Negotiator Risk: Sources of Uncertainty and the Impact of Reference Points on Negotiated Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom

    1998-11-01

    The settlement of a complex business negotiation inevitably requires the parties to assume substantial risks. Bargaining experiments, including those studying framing effects, have not. Two experiments examined the impact of reference points on negotiator tactics, concessions, and settlements in games with nondeterministic payoffs. In these experiments, subjects negotiated over chances to win a prize rather than directly over shares of the prize. In a reversal of the conventional findings with deterministic games, loss frame negotiators were more cooperative and more likely to settle. In the second experiment, subjects negotiated simultaneously over three linked lotteries, providing an opportunity to create value through risk spreading. In another reversal from deterministic games, loss frame negotiators created more integrative agreements. The impact of framing is clearly not uniform across all types of negotiations. It depends on the source of uncertainty confronting the parties. These experiments further establish and clarify the importance of variable risk preferences in understanding the negotiator framing effect. They also modify the conventional prescriptions given to negotiators and mediators regarding how to frame outcomes. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. The moon as a radiometric reference source for on-orbit sensor stability calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of data generated by the world's Earth-observing satellites, now spanning decades, allows the construction of long-term climate records. A key consideration for detecting climate trends is precise quantification of temporal changes in sensor calibration on-orbit. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (near-UV to shortwave-IR), the Moon can be viewed as a solar diffuser with exceptional stability properties. A model for the lunar spectral irradiance that predicts the geometric variations in the Moon's brightness with ???1% precision has been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, AZ. Lunar model results corresponding to a series of Moon observations taken by an instrument can be used to stabilize sensor calibration with sub-percent per year precision, as demonstrated by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The inherent stability of the Moon and the operational model to utilize the lunar irradiance quantity provide the Moon as a reference source for monitoring radiometric calibration in orbit. This represents an important capability for detecting terrestrial climate change from space-based radiometric measurements.

  6. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  7. Source-based morphometry reveals distinct patterns of aberrant brain volume in delusional infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Robert Ch; Huber, Markus; Lepping, Peter; Sambataro, Fabio; Depping, Malte S; Karner, Martin; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2014-01-03

    Little is known about the neural correlates of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. So far, evidence comes mainly from case reports and case series. We investigated brain morphology in 16 DI patients and 16 healthy controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging and a multivariate data analysis technique, i.e. source-based morphometry (SBM). In addition, we explored differences in brain structure in patient subgroups based on disease aetiology. SBM revealed two patterns exhibiting significantly (pdisorder) and "organic" DI (DI due to a medical condition). In contrast, aberrant white matter volume was only confirmed for the "organic" DI patient subgroup. These results suggest prefrontal, temporal, parietal, insular, thalamic and striatal dysfunction underlying DI. Moreover, the data suggest that aetiologically distinct presentations of DI share similar patterns of abnormal grey matter volume, whereas aberrant white matter volume appears to be restricted to organic cases. © 2013.

  8. The enhanced volume source boundary point method for the calculation of acoustic radiation problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiufeng; CHEN Xinzhao; WANG Youcheng

    2003-01-01

    The Volume Source Boundary Point Method (VSBPM) is greatly improved so that it will speed up the VSBPM's solution of the acoustic radiation problem caused by the vibrating body. The fundamental solution provided by Helmholtz equation is enforced in a weighted residual sense over a tetrahedron located on the normal line of the boundary node to replace the coefficient matrices of the system equation. Through the enhanced volume source boundary point analysis of various examples and the sound field of a vibrating rectangular box in a semi-anechoic chamber, it has revealed that the calculating speed of the EVSBPM is more than 10 times faster than that of the VSBPM while it works on the aspects of its calculating precision and stability, adaptation to geometric shape of vibrating body as well as its ability to overcome the non-uniqueness problem.

  9. Characterization of volume type ion source for $p$, $H_2^+$ and $H_3^+$ beams

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Meusel, O; Ratzinger, U

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is an increasing need for $H_{2}^+$ and $H_{3}^+$ ion sources. One example are ion therapy facilities, where $C^{4+}$ and $H_{3}^+$ ion beams along the linac are of great interest. Another example is a $H_{2}^+$ test beam for linacs finally operated with intense deuteron beams. At Frankfurt, a simple proton ion source is needed to test a new kind of beam injection into a magnetic storage ring\\cite{EPAC08}\\cite{EPAC06}. This article describes a volume type ion source which can deliver upto $3.05~mA$ beam current at $10~keV$ in stable dc operation. It is a hot filament driven ion source which can provide high fractions of $p$, $H_{2}^+$ or $H_{3}^+$, depending on the operation settings.

  10. HTGR accident initiation and progression analysis status report. Volume V. AIPA fission product source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberstein, D.; Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Hanson, D.L.; Myers, B.F.; Pfeiffer, W.W.

    1976-02-01

    The primary objective of the Accident Initiation and Progression Analysis (AIPA) Program is to provide guidance for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety research and development. Among the parameters considered in estimating the uncertainties in site boundary doses are uncertainties in fission product source terms generated under normal operating conditions, i.e., fuel body inventories, circulating coolant activity, total plateout activity in the primary circuit, and plateout distributions. The volume presented documents the analyses of these source term uncertainties. The results are used for the detailed consequence evaluations, and they provide the basis for evaluation of fission products important for HTGR maintenance and shielding.

  11. Advanced energy sources and conversion techniques. Proceedings of a seminar. Volume 1. [35 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-11-01

    The Seminar was organized as a series of tutorial presentations and round table discussions on a technical level to implement the following: (a) to identify and explore present and projected needs for energy sources and conversion techniques for military applications; (b) to exchange information on current and planned efforts in these fields; (c) to examine the effect of anticipated scientific and technological advances on these efforts; and (d) to present suggested programs aimed at satisfying the military needs for energy sources and conversion techniques. Volume I contains all of the unclassified papers presented at the Seminar. (W.D.M.)

  12. Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-02-18

    A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

  13. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  14. Evaluation of error sources in a gravimetric technique for preparation of a reference gas mixture (carbon dioxide in synthetic air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Shimosaka, Takuya; Watanabe, Takuro; Kato, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    One method of preparing a primary reference gas mixture is the gravimetric blending method. Uncertainty of a few mg in mass measurements is unavoidable when preparing reference gas mixtures under current laboratory conditions with our facilities, equipment, and materials. There are many sources of errors when using this method. In this study, several sources of errors were re-evaluated for our process for preparation of carbon dioxide in synthetic air. As a consequence of the re-evaluation, it was found that some sources of errors had significant effects on gravimetric concentrations of the gas mixtures. These sources are: (1) different masses of the reference cylinder and sample cylinder (an error in the readings of the electronic mass comparator), (2) leakage of the inner gas from valves of the cylinders, and (3) cooling of the gas cylinder caused by filling with high-pressure liquefied carbon dioxide gas. When the mass measurements were performed under uncontrolled conditions, the errors due to sources (1), (2), and (3) were as high as 20 mg, 24 mg, and 13 mg, respectively. In this paper, the detailed results from re-evaluation of these sources of errors are discussed.

  15. The Chandra Local Volume Survey: The X-ray Point Source Catalog of NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, Breanna; Eracleous, Michael; Gaetz, Terrance J; Plucinsky, Paul P; Skillman, Evan D; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Anderson, Scott F; Weisz, Daniel R; Kong, Albert K H

    2012-01-01

    We present the source catalog of a new Chandra ACIS-I observation of NGC 300 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. Our 63 ks exposure covers ~88% of the D25 isophote (R~6.3 kpc) and yields a catalog of 95 X-ray point sources detected at high significance to a limiting unabsorbed 0.35-8 keV luminosity of ~10^36 erg s^-1. Sources were cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalog, and we find 75 "X-ray transient candidate" sources that were detected by one observatory, but not the other. We derive an X-ray scale length of 1.7+/-0.2 kpc and a recent star formation rate of 0.12 Msun yr^-1, in excellent agreement with optical observations. Deep, multi-color imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, covering ~32% of our Chandra field, was used to search for optical counterparts to the X-ray sources, and we have developed a new source classification scheme to determine which sources are likely X-ray binaries, supernova remnants, and background AGN candidates. Finally, we present the X-ray luminos...

  16. Reference Librarians use Electronic Sources Six Times More than Print Sources to Answer Patrons' Questions. A review of: Bradford, Jane T., Barbara Costello, and Robert Lenholt. “Reference Service in the Digital Age: An Analysis of Sources Used to Answer Reference Questions.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31.3 (May 2005: 263-72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test the hypothesis that electronic sources are used by librarians more often than print sources to answer questions at the reference desk. Design – Use study. Setting – Small, private university in the United States. Subjects – Five full-time and two part‐time librarians working at the reference desk for four months (two months in the fall of 2002, and two months in the spring of 2003. Methods – The study recorded every question asked by library patrons during the two study periods, with the exception of non‐library related directional questions and hardware problems. For each question recorded, librarians, while working solo at the reference desk, paraphrased the question and recorded the source(s used to answer each question. Although questions were recorded regardless of source – in person, via email, or by telephone – the medium in which each question was asked and answered was not recorded. For the first half of the study period (fall 2002 semester, librarians kept manual records that were subsequently transcribed into a spreadsheet by a student assistant. In the second half of the study period (spring 2003 semester, the librarians entered data directly into a spreadsheet. The study’s data monitor (who was also a study participant was responsible for ensuring the integrity of the data and for assigning a category to each source. The source category ‘librarian’ was problematic in that it was unclear whether or not the actual source of the answer was the librarian or a source located by the librarian. After the first half of the study, the procedure was changed to require that a reference librarian was to label a source used to answer a question as ‘librarian’ only if the answer came from a librarian’s own knowledge, and if it did not require consultation of an outside source. Categories were generated on the fly, as the data monitor reviewed the recorded questions and sources. By the end of the

  17. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  18. Health Reference Center™: A User-Friendly, Hypertext Information Source for Consumer Health and Patient Education

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    This demonstration shows a hypertext-linked integrated database consisting of a variety of sources of consumer health information that enables the user to retrieve and understand information more easily than consulting independent sources in the traditional fashion.

  19. THE CHANDRA LOCAL VOLUME SURVEY: THE X-RAY POINT-SOURCE CATALOG OF NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Anderson, S. F.; Weisz, D. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Skillman, E. D. [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-10

    We present the source catalog of a new Chandra ACIS-I observation of NGC 300 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. Our 63 ks exposure covers {approx}88% of the D{sub 25} isophote (R Almost-Equal-To 6.3 kpc) and yields a catalog of 95 X-ray point sources detected at high significance to a limiting unabsorbed 0.35-8 keV luminosity of {approx}10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Sources were cross-correlated with a previous XMM-Newton catalog, and we find 75 'X-ray transient candidate' sources that were detected by one observatory, but not the other. We derive an X-ray scale length of 1.7 {+-} 0.2 kpc and a recent star formation rate of 0.12 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} in excellent agreement with optical observations. Deep, multi-color imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, covering {approx}32% of our Chandra field, was used to search for optical counterparts to the X-ray sources, and we have developed a new source classification scheme to determine which sources are likely X-ray binaries, supernova remnants, and background active galactic nucleus candidates. Finally, we present the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) at different X-ray energies, and we find the total NGC 300 X-ray point-source population to be consistent with other late-type galaxies hosting young stellar populations ({approx}< 50 Myr). We find that XLF of sources associated with older stellar populations has a steeper slope than the XLF of X-ray sources coinciding with young stellar populations, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  20. Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference The Definitive Source for Clear and Concise Writing

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference is the comprehensive resource on grammar and usage, a necessity for every writer's desk. It presents balanced instruction and real-world examples that will ensure professional and flawless work on every occasion.

  1. Beam formation in CERNs cesiated surfaces and volume H- ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Lettry, Jacques; Minea, Tiberiu

    2016-08-01

    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator named Linac4. The source should deliver 80 mA H- ion beams within an emittance of 0.25 mm·mrad. For this purpose two ion sources were developed: IS01 is based on the NI volume production and IS02 provides additional NI by surface production via H interaction on a cesiated Molybdenum plasma electrode. The development of negative ion sources for Linac4 is accompanied by modelling activities. ONIX code has been modified and adapted to investigate the transport of NI and electrons in the extraction region of the CERN negative ion sources. The simulated results from modeling of IS01 and IS02 extraction regions, which were obtained in 2012 during source commissioning, are presented and benchmarked with experimental measurements obtained after 2013. The formation of the plasma meniscus and the screening of the extraction field by the source plasma are discussed. The NI production is compared between two types of sources, the first one based on volume production only and the second one encompassing NI cesiated surface production. For the IS02 source, different states of conditioning were simulated by changing the NI emission flux from the plasma electrode and Cs+ density in the bulk plasma region. The numerical results show that in low work function regime, with high NI surface emission rate of 3000 A m-2 and Cs-density of nCs+ = 3.8 × 1016 m-3, the total extracted NI current could reach ~80 mA. At the less favorable Cs-coverage, when the surface NI emission rate becomes significantly lower, namely 300 A m-2 with nCs+ = 3.3 × 1015 m-3, the total extracted NI current only reaches ~20 mA. A good agreement between simulation and experimental results is observed in terms of extracted NI current for both extraction systems, including the case of reversed extraction potential that corresponds to positive (H+) ion extraction.

  2. Negative hydrogen ion production in multicusp volume source with a pulsed discharge (abstract)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Belchenko, Yu. I.

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed operation of a negative ion volume source has been investigated, both with a magnetic filter present and without it, under conditions of full-scale acceleration of the extracted negative hydrogen ion beam. We report the observation of three afterglow negative ion peaks. As the negative ion current during the discharge pulse, each of the afterglow peaks can be optimized by varying the pressure, the plasma electrode bias and the extraction voltage. Under optimum conditions, the negative ion current during the discharge pulse exceeds the afterglow peaks.

  3. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  4. The Role of Virtual Reference in Library Web Site Design: A Qualitative Source for Usage Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Amanda Clay; Shedd, Julie; Hill, Clay

    2011-01-01

    Gathering qualitative information about usage behavior of library Web sites is a time-consuming process requiring the active participation of patron communities. Libraries that collect virtual reference transcripts, however, hold valuable data regarding how the library Web site is used that could benefit Web designers. An analysis of virtual…

  5. Utilization of PowerPoint Presentation Software in Library Instruction of Subject Specific Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Sara

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if PowerPoint presentation is the most effective medium to explain two reference books: "The Storyteller's Sourcebook" and "A Guide to Folktales in the English Language." A secondary purpose was to see if the students who saw the PowerPoint presentation received higher…

  6. Motion Pictures: An Update Survey of Reference Sources, 1982-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eleanor S.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys motion picture reference materials published since 1982. Materials are presented in the following categories: encyclopedic works about films, filmmakers and the industry; film criticism; people on the screen and behind it; horror, science fiction and Westerns; literature on film; catalogs and filmographies; and special collections. (70…

  7. Calibration of the KRISS reference ionization chamber for certification of ²²²Rn gaseous sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Lee, K B; Lee, S H; Oh, P J; Park, T S; Kim, B C; Lee, M S

    2013-11-01

    A primary measurement system for gaseous (222)Rn based on the defined solid angle counting method has recently been constructed at KRISS and the reference ionization chamber used to measure the activities of gamma-emitting single radionuclides was adopted as a secondary standard for gaseous (222)Rn. A 20 mL flame-sealed glass ampoule source from the primary measurement system was used to calibrate the ionization chamber for (222)Rn. The (222)Rn efficiency of the ionization chamber was compared with that calculated by using a photon energy-dependent efficiency curve and that measured by using a standard (226)Ra solution. From the comparisons we draw the conclusion that the reference ionization chamber for gamma-emitting radionuclides can be a suitable secondary measurement system for gaseous (222)Rn sources.

  8. Water heat pipe blackbody as a reference spectral radiance source between 50°C and 250°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorma, M.; Mekhontsev, S.; Khromchenko, V.; Litorja, M.; Cagran, C.; Zeng, J.; Hanssen, L.

    2006-04-01

    Realization of a radiometric temperature scale for near ambient temperatures with accuracy at the 20 to 50 mK level is crucial for a number of demanding military and commercial applications. In support of such measurements, radiation sources with high stability and spatial uniformity must be developed as reference and working standards. Traditionally, the temperature scale, maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), relies on water bath and oil bath blackbodies in this temperature range. Recently, a water heat pipe blackbody was used at NIST as a spectral radiance source in a spectral emissivity measurement facility. Now a new, more versatile high emissivity water heat pipe blackbody was designed and characterized to be used as a reference radiance source for the radiometric temperature scale realization between 50 °C and 250 °C. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference source for the infrared spectral radiance measurements between 2.5 μm and 20 μm. The calculated spectral emissivity of the painted copper alloy cavity was verified by reflectance measurements using a CO II laser at 10.6 μm wavelength. The spatial thermal uniformity and stability of the blackbody were characterized. Two independent realizations of the radiometric temperature scale were compared in order to verify the accuracy of the scale. Radiance temperature, calculated from the cavity temperature measured with a calibrated PRT contact thermometer and from the emissivity of the cavity, was compared to the radiance temperature, directly measured with a reference pyrometer, which was calibrated with a set of fixed point blackbodies. The difference was found to be within measurement uncertainties.

  9. The Chandra Local Volume Survey: The X-ray Point Source Population of NGC 404

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B; Eracleous, M; Gaetz, T J; Kong, A K H; Skillman, E D; Weisz, D R

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new, 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of ~123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of ~6x10^35 erg s^-1 in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping HST observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background AGN. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% comple...

  10. H- ion production in electron cyclotron resonance driven multicusp volume source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Rouillé, C.; Bacal, M.; Arnal, Y.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2004-05-01

    We have used the existing magnetic multicusp configuration of the large volume H- source Camembert III to confine the plasma created by seven elementary multidipolar electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) sources, operating at 2.45 GHz. We varied the pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, while the total power of the microwave generator was varied between 500 W and 1 kW. We studied the plasma created by this system and measured the various plasma parameters, including the density and temperature of the negative hydrogen ions which are compared to the data obtained in a chamber with elementary ECR sources without multicusp magnetic confinement. The electron temperature is lower than that obtained with similar elementary sources in the absence of the magnetic multicusp field. We found that at pressures in the range from 2 to 4 mTorr and microwave power of up to 1 kW, the electron temperature is optimal for H- ion production (0.6-0.8 eV). This could indicate that the multicusp configuration effectively traps the fast electrons produced by the ECR discharge.

  11. A High-Temperature, "Volume-Type" ECR Ion Source for RIB Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Reed, C.A.; Williams, C.; Zhang, T.

    1999-03-29

    A high temperature, low-charge-state, "volume-type" source has been designed for use in the nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research radioactive ion beam (RIB) programs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF). The source utilizes electromagnetic coils to generate a large and uniformly distributed central magnetic field with magnitude (875 G) chosen to be in electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) with single- frequency (2.45 GHz) microwave radiation. Among the features of the source includti a variable mirror-ratio at ion extraction as required for optimizing low-charge state ion beam generation, a right-hand, circularly-polarized RF injection system to overcome the relatively-low, cutoff-density, (nC - 7.4x10'0/cm3) associated with the use of 2.45 GHz microwave radiatiom, and a high temperature, Ir- or Re-coated-Ta plasma chamber to reduce the residence times of radioactive species that are adsorbed on the walls of the chamber. No provisions are made for radial plasma confinement due to the sensitivity of permanent magnets to degradation by the huge fluxes of neutrons incumbent during target irradiation, routinely used for this purpose. Aspects of the design features of the source are described in this report.

  12. The extraction of negative carbon ions from a volume cusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stephane; Dehnel, Morgan; Potkins, Dave; McDonald, Hamish; Hollinger, Craig; Theroux, Joseph; Martin, Jeff; Stewart, Thomas; Jackle, Philip; Philpott, Chris; Jones, Tobin; Kalvas, Taneli; Tarvainen, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Acetylene and carbon dioxide gases are used in a filament-powered volume-cusp ion source to produce negative carbon ions for the purpose of carbon implantation for gettering applications. The beam was extracted to an energy of 25 keV and the composition was analyzed with a spectrometer system consisting of a 90° dipole magnet and a pair of slits. It is found that acetylene produces mostly C2- ions (up to 92 µA), while carbon dioxide produces mostly O- with only trace amounts of C-. Maximum C2- current was achieved with 400 W of arc power and, the beam current and composition were found to be highly dependent on the pressure in the source. The beam properties as a function of source settings are analyzed, and plasma properties are measured with a Langmuir probe. Finally, we describe testing of a new RF H- ion source, found to produce more than 6 mA of CW H- beam.

  13. Calibration of a 2D-CDB spectrometer using a reference {sup 133}Ba source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy) and IFIMAT, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNICEN, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil, Argentina. (Argentina)]. E-mail: cmacchi@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Karwasz, G.P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Trento, I-38050 Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Somoza, A. [IFIMAT, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNICEN, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Brusa, R.S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    A procedure for calibrating a FAST-ComTec 2D-CDB spectrometer using a {sup 133}Ba source is presented. The energy calibration consisted of acquiring two-dimensional (2D) spectra by measuring simultaneously with two HPGe detectors the 356 and 511 keV peaks. As the {sup 133}Ba source only emits one photon per decay, the Ba contribution to the 2D spectra was built up by taking two successive and uncorrelated events, i.e. one from each detector (pseudo-coincidence technique). The FWHM of the spectrometer was estimated from the E {sub 1}=E {sub 2} diagonal of the spectra.

  14. Chief sources of brachiopod recovery from the end Ordovician mass extinction with special references to progenitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎嘉余; 詹仁斌

    1999-01-01

    Survivor, Lazarus and progenitor taxa are sources of biotic recovery following mass extinction. Investigations of the benthic brachiopods through the latest Ordovician mass extinction shows that progenitors developed many evolutionary novelties and successful surviving mechanisms. They are superior to survivors and Lazarus taxa in their ability to adapt to environmental changes. They are the primary source of macroevolution and the ancestors of a number of new taxa. Three kinds of progenitors are recognized based on the Ordovician-Silurian brachiopods from South China: survivor-progenitors, crisis-progenitors and Lazarus-progenitors; the last has the strongest ability to resist adverse environments, and is the most diverse and abundant.

  15. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived...... by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solution. The transformation employs the Hankel function wave transformation to express the eigenfunction series of higher-order Hankel functions, with their singularities at the coordinate system origin as a superposition of zero-order Hankel functions...... with their singularities at different positions away from the origin. The transformation necessitates a truncation of the wave transformation but the inaccuracy introduced hereby is shown to be negligible. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is employed as a reference to investigate the accuracy...

  16. A study on the Open Source Digital Library Software's: Special Reference to DSpace, EPrints and Greenstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramboo, Shahkar; Humma, Humma; M Shafi, S.; Gul, Sumeer

    2012-12-01

    The richness in knowledge has changed access methods for all stake holders in retrieving key knowledge and relevant information. This paper presents a study of three open source digital library management software used to assimilate and disseminate information to world audience. The methodology followed involves online survey and study of related software documentation and associated technical manuals.

  17. Is the Surface Potential Integral of a Dipole in a Volume Conductor Always Zero? A Cloud Over the Average Reference of EEG and ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dezhong

    2017-02-14

    Currently, average reference is one of the most widely adopted references in EEG and ERP studies. The theoretical assumption is the surface potential integral of a volume conductor being zero, thus the average of scalp potential recordings might be an approximation of the theoretically desired zero reference. However, such a zero integral assumption has been proved only for a spherical surface. In this short communication, three counter-examples are given to show that the potential integral over the surface of a dipole in a volume conductor may not be zero. It depends on the shape of the conductor and the orientation of the dipole. This fact on one side means that average reference is not a theoretical 'gold standard' reference, and on the other side reminds us that the practical accuracy of average reference is not only determined by the well-known electrode array density and its coverage but also intrinsically by the head shape. It means that reference selection still is a fundamental problem to be fixed in various EEG and ERP studies.

  18. THE CHANDRA LOCAL VOLUME SURVEY: THE X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATION OF NGC 404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Weisz, D. R. [University of Washington, Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gaetz, T. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Skillman, E. D. [University of Minnesota, Astronomy Department, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point-source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of {approx}123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping Hubble Space Telescope observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background active galactic nuclei. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% completeness limit of 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} and 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}, respectively, significantly lower than previous X-ray studies of NGC 404. We find the XLFs to be consistent with those of other X-ray populations dominated by LMXBs. However, the number of luminous (>10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}) X-ray sources per unit stellar mass in NGC 404 is lower than is observed for other galaxies. The relative lack of luminous XRBs may be due to a population of LMXBs with main-sequence companions formed during an epoch of elevated star formation {approx}0.5 Gyr ago.

  19. Environmental Toxicology: A Guide to Information Sources. Volume 7 in the "Man and the Environment Information Guide" Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert L.

    This annotated bibliography on environmental toxicology brings together a diverse set of information sources from the physical, social, and natural sciences. These sources include periodical literature, government documents, scientific journals, and teaching materials. The volume is divided into sixteen sections organized into four parts: (1)…

  20. ECR-driven multicusp H^- volume source operated in pulsed or cw mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, Panayiotis

    2005-10-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) driven multicusp H^- volume hybrid source [1, 2] operates in continuous (cw) or pulsed microwave (2.45 GHz) mode up to 3 kW. The hydrogen plasma is produced between 1 and 7 mTorr by seven elementary ECR sources housed in the magnetic multipole chamber ``Camembert III'' [3]. This ECR configuration could be applied both to accelerator and fusion ion sources. Negative ion or electron extracted currents and plasma characteristics are studied in both modes with electrical measurements, electrostatic probe and photodetachment. The role of the plasma electrode bias in the values of the extracted currents is major. H^- current is maximized for a bias voltage close to plasma potential. An optimum pressure at 4-5 mTorr yields enhanced H^- density in the center of the chamber, under cw regime. Finally, the post-discharge formation of H^-, in the pulsed mode, is observed. [1] A.A. Ivanov Jr., C. Rouille, M. Bacal, Y. Arnal, S. Bechu, J. Pelletier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5), 1750 (2004) [2] M. Bacal, A.A. Ivanov Jr., C. Rouille, P. Svarnas, S. Bechu, J. Pelletier, AIP Conf. Proc. No 763 (Kiev, Ukraine) (2004) [3] C. Courteille, A.M. Bruneteau, M. Bacal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(3), 2533 (1995)

  1. Acoustic beam steering by light refraction: illustration with directivity patterns of a tilted volume photoacoustic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetz, Samuel; Dehoux, Thomas; Perton, Mathieu; Audoin, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    The symmetry of a thermoelastic source resulting from laser absorption can be broken when the direction of light propagation in an elastic half-space is inclined relatively to the surface. This leads to an asymmetry of the directivity patterns of both compressional and shear acoustic waves. In contrast to classical surface acoustic sources, the tunable volume source allows one to take advantage of the mode conversion at the surface to control the directivity of specific modes. Physical interpretations of the evolution of the directivity patterns with the increasing light angle of incidence and of the relations between the preferential directions of compressional- and shear-wave emission are proposed. In order to compare calculated directivity patterns with measurements of normal displacement amplitudes performed on plates, a procedure is proposed to transform the directivity patterns into pseudo-directivity patterns representative of the experimental conditions. The comparison of the theoretical with measured pseudo-directivity patterns demonstrates the ability to enhance bulk-wave amplitudes and to steer specific bulk acoustic modes by adequately tuning light refraction.

  2. Fixing the Reference Frame for PPMXL Proper Motions Using Extragalactic Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowski, Kathleen; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Beers, Timothy C; Chen, Li; Deng, Licai; Grillmair, Carl J; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hou, Jinliang; Lepine, Sebastien; Liu, Chao; Liu, Xiaowei; Luo, A-Li; Smith, Martin C; Yanny, Brian; Zhang, Haotong; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    We quantify and correct systematic errors in PPMXL proper motions using extragalactic sources from the first two LAMOST data releases and the Veron-Cetty & Veron Catalog of Quasars. Although the majority of the sources are from the Veron catalog, LAMOST makes important contributions in regions that are not well-sampled by previous catalogs, particularly at low Galactic latitudes and in the south Galactic cap. We show that quasars in PPMXL have measureable and significant proper motions, which reflect the systematic zero-point offsets present in the catalog. We confirm the global proper motion shifts seen by Wu, Ma, & Zhou (2011), and additionally find smaller-scale fluctuations of the QSO-derived corrections to an absolute frame. We average the proper motions of 158,106 extragalactic objects in bins of 3x3 degrees and present a table of proper motion corrections.

  3. Numerical study of cesium effects on negative ion production in volume sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Niitani, Eiji [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Effects of cesium vapor injection of H{sup -} production in a tandem negative ion source are studied numerically as a function of plasma parameters. Model calculation is done by solving a set of particle balance equations in a steady-state hydrogen discharge plasmas. Here, the results which focus on gas pressure and electron temperature dependences of H{sup -} volume production are presented and discussed. With including H{sup -} surface production processes caused by both H atoms and positive hydrogen ions, enhancement of H{sup -} production and pressure dependence of H{sup -} production observed experimentally are well reproduced in the model. To enhance H{sup -} production, however, so-called electron cooling is not so effective if plasma parameters are initially optimized with the use of magnetic filter. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiangjia; Wolff, Don; Zhao, Zhennan; Sun, Xinghuai; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL) related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm(3) (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm(3)). The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P = 0.001). ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C) grading of the lens (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = -0.443, P ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = 0.552, P ACV (F = 10.252  P ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL.

  5. A Repetitive Nanosecond Pulse Source for Generation of Large Volume Streamer Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Fengbo; ZHANG Qiaogen; GAO Bo; WANG Hu; LI Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Using a unipolar pulse with the rise time and the pulse duration in the order of microsecond as the primary pulse,a nanosecond pulse with the repetitive frequency of several kilohertz is generated by a spark gap switch.By varying both the inter-pulse duration and the pulse frequency,the voltage recovery rate of the spark gap switch is investigated at different working conditions such as the gas pressure,the gas composition as well as the bias voltage.The results reveal that either increase in gas pressure or addition of SF6 to the air can increase the voltage recovery rate.The effect of gas composition on the voltage recovery rate is discussed based on the transferring and distribution of the residual space charges.The repetitive nanosecond pulse source is also applied to the generation of large volume,and the discharge currents are measured to investigate the effect of pulse repetition rate on the large volume streamer discharge.

  6. Generalized source Finite Volume Method for radiative transfer equation in participating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xu, Chuan-Long; Wang, Shi-Min

    2017-03-01

    Temperature monitoring is very important in a combustion system. In recent years, non-intrusive temperature reconstruction has been explored intensively on the basis of calculating arbitrary directional radiative intensities. In this paper, a new method named Generalized Source Finite Volume Method (GSFVM) was proposed. It was based on radiative transfer equation and Finite Volume Method (FVM). This method can be used to calculate arbitrary directional radiative intensities and is proven to be accurate and efficient. To verify the performance of this method, six test cases of 1D, 2D, and 3D radiative transfer problems were investigated. The numerical results show that the efficiency of this method is close to the radial basis function interpolation method, but the accuracy and stability is higher than that of the interpolation method. The accuracy of the GSFVM is similar to that of the Backward Monte Carlo (BMC) algorithm, while the time required by the GSFVM is much shorter than that of the BMC algorithm. Therefore, the GSFVM can be used in temperature reconstruction and improvement on the accuracy of the FVM.

  7. A compiled catalogue of reference stars around 227 ICRF extragalactic radio sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryl'kov, V. P.; Narizhnaya, N. V.; Dement'eva, A. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Maigurova, N. V.; Martinov, M. V.

    A compiled catalogue of21440 stars with magnitudes from 10 to 17 is prepared on the basis of original observations made from the end of the 20th to the beginning of the 21th century. The catalogue con tains 227 fields of the cetes tial sphere around extragalactic radio sources in a declination zone from -17 to +89°. The field size is 40' for both right ascension and declination. The internal accuracy of positions for both coordinates is not worse than 0.1". The comparison of stellar positions with the use of the UCAC2 and CMC13 catalogues shows that the average external accuracy is about 0.05-0.15" for the majority ofchosenfields of the compiled catalogue. The positions of 10795 stars up to +50° in declination are given at epoch J2000.0, whereas the positions of other stars are given at the epoch of an observation.

  8. Light-assisted drying (LAD) of small volume biologics: a comparison of two IR light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Madison A.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2016-03-01

    Protein therapeutics have been developed to treat diseases ranging from arthritis and psoriasis to cancer. A challenge in the development of protein-based drugs is maintaining the protein in the folded state during processing and storage. We are developing a novel processing method, light-assisted drying (LAD), to dehydrate proteins suspended in a sugar (trehalose) solution for storage at supra-zero temperatures. Our technique selectively heats the water in small volume samples using near-IR light to speed dehydration which prevents sugar crystallization that can damage embedded proteins. In this study, we compare the end moisture content (EMC) as a function of processing time of samples dried with two different light sources, Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and Thulium fiber (1850 nm) lasers. EMC is the ratio of water to dry weight in a sample and the lower the EMC the higher the possible storage temperature. LAD with the 1064 and 1850 nm lasers yielded 78% and 65% lower EMC, respectively, than standard air-drying. After 40 minutes of LAD with 1064 and 1850 nm sources, EMCs of 0.27+/-.27 and 0.15+/-.05 gH2O/gDryWeight were reached, which are near the desired value of 0.10 gH2O/gDryWeight that enables storage in a glassy state without refrigeration. LAD is a promising new technique for the preparation of biologics for anhydrous preservation.

  9. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume I. Sources, trends, and costs of control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I deals with sources (what the emissions are and where they come from), trends (quantities of emissions and their dispersion with time), and costs of control (what it takes in time, energy, and money to meet minimum standards). Volume II concerns itself with the public health effects of energy production and utilization. Volume III summarizes the various techniques for controlling emissions, technological as well as economic, social, and political. (For abstracts of Vols. II and III, see ERDA Energy Research Abstracts, Vol. 2, Absts. 5764 and 5670, respectively) Each volume is divided into sections dealing with the atmosphere, water, land, and social activities--each division indicating a particular sphere of man's environment affected by energy production and use. The sources of information that were used in this study included textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. These are cited in the text at the end of each subsection and on the applicable tables and figures.

  10. Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, M J; Bach, A; Kohlmeier, M

    1996-04-01

    Vitamin K occurs in nature as a series of compounds with a common 2-methyl- 1,4 naphthoquinone nucleus and differing isoprenoid side chains at the 3 position. They comprise a single major plant form, phylloquinone with a phytyl side chain and a family of bacterially synthesized menaquinones (MKs) with multiprenyl side chains. The major dietary source to humans is phylloquinone for which the chief food contributors are green, leafy vegetables followed by certain vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed and olive oils). Recent analyses by high pressure liquid chromatography are now providing a wide-ranging database of phylloquinone in foods. Menaquinones are found in moderate concentrations in only a few foods such as cheeses (MK-8 and MK-9). A wider spectrum of MKs is synthesized by the gut microflora, and their intestinal absorption probably accounts for most of the hepatic stores, particularly those with very long side chains (MKs-10--13) synthesized by members of the genus Bacteroides. The site of absorption of floral MKs is not known, but reasonable concentrations are found in the terminal ileum where bile salt-mediated absorption is possible. Both phylloquinone and menaquinones are bioactive in hepatic gamma-carboxylation but long-chain MKs are less well absorbed. Liver stores of vitamin K are relatively small and predominantly MKs-7--13. The hepatic reserves of phylloquinone (approximately 10% of the total) are labile and turn over at a faster rate than menaquinones. Trabecular and cortical bone appear to contain substantial concentrations of both phylloquinone and menaquinones. A majority (approximately 60-70%) of the daily dietary intake of phylloquinone is lost to the body by excretion, which emphasizes the need for a continuous dietary supply to maintain tissue reserves.

  11. User perception towards Open Source Operating Systems with special reference to GNU/Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakshaiah Musunuru Assistant Professor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is almost twenty years after GNU/Linux has beenoverblown. Still the market figures of Linux use are at veryabysmal levels. In spite of the maturity and adoption, Linux isstill remained as a second hand option for many users across theworld. Linux has many advantages compared to its counterpartsin the market and unlike any other proprietary operating system;some of the distributions are available for users as full featuredsoftware (wholesome OS. Even though Linux is proved to be bestsoftware in server market, the desktop market remained feeble.The market share of Linux is only laying less than 2% but rest isshared by all other operating systems. Windows alone attribute toapproximately 85% of market share. Under the commonmarketing tenet that if a product is not adopted by market then itmight be that, the users in the market either might not be awareof it or if they are aware, might not like it, or if they like it andstill don’t use then it is the problem of availability, but this is notthe problem to Linux. It is available freely (as a source codefrom the respective websites and users across the world arefamiliar. Then where is the problem? Exactly here the need forthis study arises. User perception is one of the importantattributes which characterizes market share. In this study asurvey was done to know if expertise of individuals influencestheir perception towards Linux. A hypothesis was formulated totest if any dependency exists in between these two variables(namely individual expertise and their perception towardsLinux. It was found that the two variables are not significantlydifferent; which means expertise of individuals significantlyinfluences their perception towards Linux.

  12. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm3 (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm3. The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P=0.001. ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C grading of the lens (Pearson’s correlation analysis, r=-0.443, P<0.001, and Spearman’s correlation analysis, ρ=-0.450, P<0.001. ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson’s correlation analysis, r=0.552, P<0.001. Multiple linear regression showed that, with all of the covariates entered into the model, gender (P=0.002, age (P=0.015, LOCS III C grade (P=0.043, and AXL (P=0.001 were still associated with ACV (F=10.252  P<0.001  R2=0.498. Conclusion. With SS-OCT, we found that, in healthy cataract patients, ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL.

  13. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  14. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  15. Study of association between ovarian volume with the number of antral follicles and third day of menstruation FSH in infertile patients referred to Omid Persian gulf infertility Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rahmani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian reserve tests have appeared as important, useful and new tools in evaluation of infertile women and by doing these tests, we can do for infertile couples advanced and necessary measures quickly. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between ovarian volume, Antral follicle counts and serum level of FSH at the third day of menstruation. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 78 women between 18-49 years old who referred to Omid Persian gulf infertility Clinic with complaining of infertility in 2014. In patients who had inclusion criteria, measurement of ovarian volume were done with calculation of three diameters and the number of antral follicles by using vaginal ultrasound in third day of menstruation. Also, in this patients were measured the levels of FSH&LH in third day of menstruation. Pearson correlation coefficient were used to examine the relationship between ovarian volume and the number of Antral follicles and serum levels. Results: ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts (p=0.0001 decreased and serum level of FSH (p=0.0001 and LH (p=0,022 increased significantly with increasing of age. There was a strong positive correlation between ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts (r=0.96, p=0.0001 and there was a strong reversed correlation between ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts with FSH (r=0.50, p=0.0001. Conclusion: By increasing age, ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts decreased and FSH&LH levels increased. In fact, in the initial study of infertile patients, even by diagnosis of reduction in ovarian volume and Antral follicle count should be performed advanced therapies and there is no need to wait for expensive tests result.

  16. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 7E: Right ascension range 20h 00m to 23h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  17. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 5E: Right ascension range 12h 00m to 15h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  18. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 6E: Right ascension range 16h 00m to 19h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2 launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  19. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  20. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 4E: Right ascension range 08h 00m to 11h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images, The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentaion describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  1. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 3E: Right ascension range 04h 00m to 07h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  2. Characteristics of the negative ion beam extracted from an LBL multicusp volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiak, T.W.; Solensten, L.; Sredniawski, J.J.; Ng, Y.C.; Heuer, R. (Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, New York 11714 (US))

    1990-01-01

    This work encompasses a study of the beam position, profile, and emittance of a Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) multicusp volume source. The study includes a comparison of different extraction geometries with single- and multiple-hole apertures. Our work is currently based on single-gap extraction and acceleration. These experiments are the first of a planned series of studies with various extractor geometries. The beam profile full width at half-maximum ranged from 5.7 to 10.2 mm at a position 69 mm from the emission aperture. Measurements of profile and position in the vertical direction indicate that the beam is significantly bent in the direction expected due to the field of the electron separation magnet. Phase space contour plots in the horizontal plane have been obtained for circular extraction apertures with a diameter of 1.0 and 2.0 mm, and a multiple-hole aperture with an overall diameter of 2.46 mm. Emittances were calculated to be as low as 0.0010 {pi} cm mrad for the 1-mm aperture and 0.0014 {pi} cm mrad for the 2-mm aperture. Emittances are not reported for the multiple-hole aperture due to the shape of the phase space contours; however, analysis of the data is in progress to provide a meaningful comparison of the single-hole and multiple-hole beam characteristics.

  3. Open-source software for demand forecasting of clinical laboratory test volumes using time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  4. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  5. Reference masses for precision mass spectrometry design and implementation of a Pierce geometry to the cluster Ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Lommen, Jonathan

    At the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP carbon clusters ($^{12}$Cn, 1$\\leqslant$n$\\leqslant$25) are provided as reference masses, which are of particular importance in higher mass ranges (m $\\geqslant$ 200u). In this mass range the measurlment uncertainty is increasingly dominated by the difference of the reference mass and the mass of the ion of interest. Using carbon clusters instead of the common $^{133}$Cs ions, this difference decreases. The carbon clusters are produced in a laser ion source which has been improved in the frame of this thesis. The fluctuations of the count rate have been investigated as a function of the laser energy. Furthermore, the energy density at the target has been increased by implementation of a telescope into the laser beam line, which leads to a more narrow energy distribution of the ions. Through the exact adjustment of timing and length of a pulsed cavity an energy range with constant count rate could be selected. In order to provide ideal starting conditions during and after the ...

  6. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2013-01-01

    Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mat......Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops...... and the mathematical models of the VSIs are based on the stationary reference frame. A hierarchical control scheme for the paralleled VSI system is developed comprising two levels. The primary control includes the droop method and the virtual impedance loops, in order to share active and reactive power. The secondary...... control restores the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the primary control. Also, a synchronization algorithm is presented in order to connect the MicroGrid to the grid. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the parallel VSI system control...

  7. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  8. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  9. Extrasynaptic exocytosis and its mechanisms: a source of molecules mediating volume transmission in the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlali eTrueta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the evidence of exocytosis from extrasynaptic sites in the soma, dendrites and axonal varicosities of central and peripheral neurons of vertebrates and invertebrates, and how it may contribute to signaling in the nervous system. The finding of secretory vesicles in extrasynaptic sites of neurons, the presence of transmitters in the extracellular space outside synaptic clefts, and the mismatch between exocytosis sites and the location of receptors for these molecules in neurons and glial cells, have long suggested that in addition to synaptic communication, transmitters are released and act extrasynaptically. The catalog of these molecules includes low molecular weight transmitters such as monoamines, acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, ATP, and a list of peptides including substance P, BDNF, and oxytocin. By comparing the mechanisms of extrasynaptic exocytosis of different molecules in various neuron types we show that extrasynaptic exocytosis is a widespread mechanism for communication in the nervous system that uses certain common mechanisms, which are different from those of synaptic exocytosis but similar to those of exocytosis from excitable endocrine cells. Somatic exocytosis, which has been measured directly in different neuron types, starts after high-frequency electrical activity or long experimental depolarizations and may continue for several minutes after the end of stimulation. Activation of L-type calcium channels, calcium release from intracellular stores and vesicle transport couples excitation and exocytosis from small clear or large dense core vesicles in release sites lacking postsynaptic counterparts. The presence of synaptic and extrasynaptic exocytosis endows individual neurons with a wide variety of time- and space-dependent communication possibilities. Extrasynaptic exocytosis may be the major source of signaling molecules producing volume transmission and by doing so may be part of a long duration signaling mode in

  10. The New York Head-A precise standardized volume conductor model for EEG source localization and tES targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C; Haufe, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    In source localization of electroencephalograpic (EEG) signals, as well as in targeted transcranial electric current stimulation (tES), a volume conductor model is required to describe the flow of electric currents in the head. Boundary element models (BEM) can be readily computed to represent major tissue compartments, but cannot encode detailed anatomical information within compartments. Finite element models (FEM) can capture more tissue types and intricate anatomical structures, but with the higher precision also comes the need for semi-automated segmentation, and a higher computational cost. In either case, adjusting to the individual human anatomy requires costly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus head modeling is often based on the anatomy of an 'arbitrary' individual (e.g. Colin27). Additionally, existing reference models for the human head often do not include the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and their field of view excludes portions of the head and neck-two factors that demonstrably affect current-flow patterns. Here we present a highly detailed FEM, which we call ICBM-NY, or "New York Head". It is based on the ICBM152 anatomical template (a non-linear average of the MRI of 152 adult human brains) defined in MNI coordinates, for which we extended the field of view to the neck and performed a detailed segmentation of six tissue types (scalp, skull, CSF, gray matter, white matter, air cavities) at 0.5mm(3) resolution. The model was solved for 231 electrode locations. To evaluate its performance, additional FEMs and BEMs were constructed for four individual subjects. Each of the four individual FEMs (regarded as the 'ground truth') is compared to its BEM counterpart, the ICBM-NY, a BEM of the ICBM anatomy, an 'individualized' BEM of the ICBM anatomy warped to the individual head surface, and FEMs of the other individuals. Performance is measured in terms of EEG source localization and tES targeting errors. Results show that the ICBM-NY outperforms

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  12. Introduction to Agricultural Business Unit. Student Reference for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. [Volume 19, Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Joseph J.; Birkenholz, Robert J.

    This student reference on agricultural business, designed to accompany the lessons outlined in the 1984 instructor's guide, "Introduction to Agricultural Business," has seven lessons: (1) introduction to agribusiness; (2) careers in agribusiness; (3) agribusiness in the community; (4) the role of the employee in an agribusiness; (5)…

  13. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  14. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  15. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  16. Guide to Reference Sources on Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and Russia and East Europe: Selected and Annotated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James R., Jr.; And Others

    This selected annotated bibliography of reference sources is designed to help college students prepare for the future by identifying critical sources on the societies and cultures of most of the world's people who have long been neglected in higher education. Encyclopedias, handbooks, and yearbooks are listed first under each area. Next are the…

  17. Contrast volume reduction using third generation dual source computed tomography for the evaluation of patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Daniel O. [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Arnold, Martin; Klinghammer, Lutz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Hell, Michaela M.; Muschiol, Gerd; Gauss, Soeren; Achenbach, Stephan; Marwan, Mohamed [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Chronic renal failure is common in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). CT angiography is recommended and provides crucial information prior to TAVI. We evaluated the feasibility of a reduced contrast volume protocol for pre-procedural CT imaging. Forty consecutive patients were examined with prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition using a novel third-generation dual-source CT system; 38 ml contrast agent was used. Image quality was graded on a visual scale (1-4). Contrast attenuation was measured at the level of the aortic root and at the iliac bifurcation. Mean patient age was 82 ± 6 years (23 males; 58 %). Mean attenuation/average image quality was 285 ± 60 HU/1.5 at the aortic annulus compared to 289 ± 74 HU/1.8 at the iliac bifurcation (p = 0.77/p = 0.29). Mean estimated effective radiation dose was 2.9 ± 0.3 mSv. A repeat acquisition was necessary in one patient due to image quality. Out of the 35 patients who underwent TAVI, 31 (89 %) patients had no or mild aortic regurgitation. Thirty-two (91 %) patients were discharged successfully. Pre-procedural CTA with a total of 38 ml contrast volume is feasible and clinically useful, using third-generation dual-source CT, allowing comprehensive imaging for procedural success. (orig.)

  18. Seneca Falls: Achieving Woman's Rights. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Elaine Prater

    This volume provides documentation on the origin of the women's rights movement placing the documents in a context that aims to show the rationale that blocked women from achieving full equality. The volume contains 127 fully annotated documents presented in chronological order (with a few exceptions) beginning in 1632 with colonial laws regarding…

  19. An open source workflow for 3D printouts of scientific data volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, P.; Klump, J. F.; Wickert, J.; Ludwig, M.; Frigeri, A.

    2013-12-01

    As the amount of scientific data continues to grow, researchers need new tools to help them visualize complex data. Immersive data-visualisations are helpful, yet fail to provide tactile feedback and sensory feedback on spatial orientation, as provided from tangible objects. The gap in sensory feedback from virtual objects leads to the development of tangible representations of geospatial information to solve real world problems. Examples are animated globes [1], interactive environments like tangible GIS [2], and on demand 3D prints. The production of a tangible representation of a scientific data set is one step in a line of scientific thinking, leading from the physical world into scientific reasoning and back: The process starts with a physical observation, or from a data stream generated by an environmental sensor. This data stream is turned into a geo-referenced data set. This data is turned into a volume representation which is converted into command sequences for the printing device, leading to the creation of a 3D printout. As a last, but crucial step, this new object has to be documented and linked to the associated metadata, and curated in long term repositories to preserve its scientific meaning and context. The workflow to produce tangible 3D data-prints from science data at the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) was implemented as a software based on the Free and Open Source Geoinformatics tools GRASS GIS and Paraview. The workflow was successfully validated in various application scenarios at GFZ using a RapMan printer to create 3D specimens of elevation models, geological underground models, ice penetrating radar soundings for planetology, and space time stacks for Tsunami model quality assessment. While these first pilot applications have demonstrated the feasibility of the overall approach [3], current research focuses on the provision of the workflow as Software as a Service (SAAS), thematic generalisation of information content and

  20. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  1. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  2. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  3. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients - Detailed Conceptual Diagram (P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  4. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients - Detailed Conceptual Diagram (N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  5. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  6. Quantitation of mandibular symphysis volume as a source of bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2010-06-01

    Autogenous intramembranous bone graft present several advantages such as minimal resorption and high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins. A method for measuring the amount of bone that can be harvested from the symphysis area has not been reported in real patients. The aim of the present study was to intrasurgically quantitate the volume of the symphysis bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients and compare it with AutoCAD (version 16.0, Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) tomographic calculations. AutoCAD software program quantitated symphysis bone graft in 40 patients using computerized tomographies. Direct intrasurgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared with AutoCAD data. The bone volume was measured at the recipient sites of a subgroup of 10 patients, 6 months post sinus augmentation. The volume of bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 1.4 mL (SD 0.6 mL, range: 0.5-2.7 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intrasurgically averaged 2.3 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range 1.7-2.8 mL). The statistical difference between the two measurement methods was significant. The bone volume measured at the recipient sites 6 months post sinus augmentation averaged 1.9 mL (SD 0.3 mL, range 1.3-2.6 mL) with a mean loss of 0.4 mL. AutoCAD did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular symphysis. The use of the design software program may improve surgical treatment planning prior to sinus augmentation.

  7. Transfer factor (diffusing capacity) standardized for alveolar volume: validation, reference values and applications of a new linear model to replace KCO (TL/VA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Flowers, R; Marks, A M; Reed, J W

    1996-06-01

    Transfer factor (TL) varies with alveolar volume (VA), but not in the manner implied by the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO (TL/VA)). This paper considers two other simple models (one linear and one exponential) which might standardize TL for VA, and asks the questions: 1) Is either model valid? 2) What are appropriate reference values? and 3) Will the model be useful? The relationship of TL to VA within subjects at different depths of inspiration, and between subjects having lungs of different sizes, were measured and compared. The subjects were asymptomatic, nonsmoking, Caucasian adults, including 31 males assessed in the laboratory and 503 male and female participants in population studies. The linear partial regression coefficients of TL on VA (L corrected for body temperature, atmospheric pressure and water saturation (BTPS)) standardized for height (H) in metres, were similar within- and between-subjects; the coefficients applied over a wide range of values for VA. This was not the case for the exponential model. The resulting reference equations in SI units for males and females were: TL = 11.52 H + 2.72 VA.H-2 - 0.051 Age -12.35. RSD 1.17; and TL = 4.87 H + 2.29 VA.H-2 - 0.019 Age -3.03. RSD 0.92, respectively. The residual standard deviations (RSD) about the new relationships were less than in other series. The new linear model could account for much of the variation between different published reference values for TL; it could be useful clinically, in circumstances when VA deviates from the norm. The model does not explain differences in TL associated with gender. Inclusion of VA.H-2 as a covariate in the reference equation for transfer factor, in addition to age and height, improves the accuracy of prediction of normal transfer factor compared with current reference values; its use suggests that some of the differences between published values is due to the volume term. The equations can be used clinically, and eliminate the need for carbon

  8. A Novel 800mV Reference Current Source Circuit for Low-Power Low-Voltage Mixed-Mode Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jun; Kwack, Kae Dal

    In this paper, a novel 800mV beta-multiplier reference current source circuit is presented. In order to cope with the narrow input common-mode range of the Opamp in the reference circuit, the resistive voltage divider was employed. High gain Opamp was designed to compensate for the intrinsic low output resistance of the MOS transistors. The proposed reference circuit was designed in a standard 0.18µm CMOS process with nominal Vth of 420mV and -450mV for n-MOS and p-MOS transistor, respectively. The total power consumption including Opamp is less than 50µW.

  9. Quantitation of mandibular ramus volume as a source of bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2009-10-01

    When alveolar atrophy impairs dental implant placement, ridge augmentation using mandibular ramus graft may be considered. In live patients, however, an accurate calculation of the amount of bone that can be safely harvested from the ramus has not been reported. The use of a software program to perform these calculations can aid in preventing surgical complications. The aim of the present study was to intra-surgically quantify the volume of the ramus bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients, and compare it to presurgical computerized tomographic calculations. The AutoCAD software program quantified ramus bone graft in 40 consecutive patients from computerized tomographies. Direct intra-surgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared to software data (n = 10). In these 10 patients, the bone volume was also measured at the recipient sites 6 months post-sinus augmentation. The mandibular second and third molar areas provided the thickest cortical graft averaging 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm. The thinnest bone was immediately posterior to the third molar (1.9 +/- 0.3 mm). The volume of ramus bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 0.8 mL (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 mL, range: 0.4-1.2 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intra-surgically averaged 2.5 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range: 1.8-3.0 mL). The difference between the two measurement methods was significant (p AutoCAD software program did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular ramus.

  10. Light sources for high-volume manufacturing EUV lithography: technology, performance, and power scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkov, Igor; Brandt, David; Ershov, Alex; Schafgans, Alexander; Tao, Yezheng; Vaschenko, Georgiy; Rokitski, Slava; Kats, Michael; Vargas, Michael; Purvis, Michael; Rafac, Rob; La Fontaine, Bruno; De Dea, Silvia; LaForge, Andrew; Stewart, Jayson; Chang, Steven; Graham, Matthew; Riggs, Daniel; Taylor, Ted; Abraham, Mathew; Brown, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is expected to succeed in 193-nm immersion multi-patterning technology for sub-10-nm critical layer patterning. In order to be successful, EUV lithography has to demonstrate that it can satisfy the industry requirements in the following critical areas: power, dose stability, etendue, spectral content, and lifetime. Currently, development of second-generation laser-produced plasma (LPP) light sources for the ASML's NXE:3300B EUV scanner is complete, and first units are installed and operational at chipmaker customers. We describe different aspects and performance characteristics of the sources, dose stability results, power scaling, and availability data for EUV sources and also report new development results.

  11. Everything in its place. Social bookmarking and reference manager tools to collect, manage and cite information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, E

    2010-06-01

    Aim of this contribution was to present some free reference manager software and social bookmarking tools. They help scholars and authors in recording, managing and re-using Web pages, scientific articles and bibliographic citations. Most of them support integration within the commonly used browsers or word processors, in order to easily create or import a full bibliography or a single reference.

  12. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lakey, L. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  13. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Neuhaus, Sibylle [eds.

    1999-09-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. A series of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, is described in this annual report for 1998 figs., tabs., refs.

  14. Methylobacterium genome sequences: a reference blueprint to investigate microbial metabolism of C1 compounds from natural and industrial sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Vuilleumier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. The genomes of two pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria of the Alpha-proteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, the reference species Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 and the dichloromethane-degrading strain DM4, were compared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids, while the 6.12 Mb genome of strain DM4 features a 5.94 Mb chromosome and two plasmids. The chromosomes are highly syntenic and share a large majority of genes, while plasmids are mostly strain-specific, with the exception of a 130 kb region of the strain AM1 megaplasmid which is syntenic to a chromosomal region of strain DM4. Both genomes contain large sets of insertion elements, many of them strain-specific, suggesting an important potential for genomic plasticity. Most of the genomic determinants associated with methylotrophy are nearly identical, with two exceptions that illustrate the metabolic and genomic versatility of Methylobacterium. A 126 kb dichloromethane utilization (dcm gene cluster is essential for the ability of strain DM4 to use DCM as the sole carbon and energy source for growth and is unique to strain DM4. The methylamine utilization (mau gene cluster is only found in strain AM1, indicating that strain DM4 employs an alternative system for growth with methylamine. The dcm and mau clusters represent two of the chromosomal genomic islands (AM1: 28; DM4: 17 that were defined. The mau cluster is flanked by mobile elements, but the dcm cluster disrupts a gene annotated as chelatase and for which we propose the name "island integration determinant" (iid. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These two genome sequences provide a platform for intra- and interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and for investigations of the

  15. On the efficiency of stochastic volume sources for the determination of light meson masses

    CERN Document Server

    Endress, E; Wittig, H

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the efficiency of single timeslice stochastic sources for the calculation of light meson masses on the lattice as one varies the quark mass. Simulations are carried out with Nf = 2 flavours of non-perturbatively O(a) improved Wilson fermions for pion masses in the range of 450 - 760 MeV. Results for pseudoscalar and vector meson two-point correlation functions computed using stochastic as well as point sources are presented and compared. At fixed computational cost the stochastic approach reduces the variance considerably in the pseudoscalar channel for all simulated quark masses. The vector channel is more affected by the intrinsic stochastic noise. In order to obtain stable estimates of the statistical errors and a more pronounced plateau for the effective vector meson mass, a relatively large number of stochastic sources must be used.

  16. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.

    1982-11-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This second volume includes the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Japan to Yugoslavia. Information on international agencies and associations, particularly the IAEA, NEA, and CEC, is provided also.

  17. Verification of Conjugate Heat Transfer Models in a Closed Volume with Radiative Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of verification of mathematical model of convective-conductive heat transfer in a closed volume with a thermally conductive enclosing structures are presented. Experiments were carried out to determine the temperature of floor premises in the working conditions of radiant heating systems. Comparison of mathematical modelling of temperature fields and experiments showed their good agreement. It is concluded that the mathematical model of conjugate heat transfers in the air cavity with a heat-conducting and heat-retaining walls correspond to the real process of formation of temperature fields in premises with gas infrared heaters system.

  18. Radiation Detection Equipment (RDE) Comparative Evaluation Test Program. Volume 1. Point Source Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    OC W 1. AGINCY USE ONLY M.enm bika ) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED I 940801 I Technical 930201 - 930731 4. TITLE AND SUB`TITLE 5...unmoderaled source. 2/18/93 Detector: Ludlum Model 15 Positve radil alis 1000. of counts 9ma A Xakn~mrfli zab .02 Lim mromm 928 32.5 100 0.040 66.7 32.5...16100 16100 161 D- 16 Table D-48. Am(U) measurement data for "strong" shielded source. (page 7 of 7) Detctor. INF Stong Am(U) Afeswemenft-Ostector lim

  19. Simulation study of a magnetocardiogram based on a virtual heart model: effect of a cardiac equivalent source and a volume conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou Guo-Fa; Xia Ling; Ma Ping; Tang Fa-Kuan; Dai Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a magnetocardiogram (MCG) simulation study using the boundary element method (BEM) and based on the virtual heart model and the realistic human volume conductor model. The different contributions of cardiac equivalent source models and volume conductor models to the MCG are deeply and comprehensively investigated. The single dipole source model, the multiple dipoles source model and the equivalent double layer (EDL) source model are analysed and compared with the cardiac equivalent source models. Meanwhile, the effect of the volume conductor model on the MCG combined with these cardiac equivalent sources is investigated. The simulation results demonstrate that the cardiac electrophysiological information will be partly missed when only the single dipole source is taken, while the EDL source is a good option for MCG simulation and the effect of the volume conductor is smallest for the EDL source. Therefore, the EDL source is suitable for the study of MCG forward and inverse problems, and more attention should be paid to it in future MCG studies.

  20. Macular Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measured by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Wook; Song, In Seok; Lee, Ju-hyang; Shin, Yong Un; Lim, Han Woong; Lee, Won June; Lee, Byung Ro

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the thickness and volume of the choroid in healthy Korean children using swept-source optical coherence tomography. We examined 80 eyes of 40 healthy children and teenagers (choroidal thickness map. We also examined 44 eyes of 35 healthy adult volunteers (≥18 years) and compared adult measurements with the findings in children. The mean age of the children and teenagers was 9.47 ± 3.80 (4 to 17) vs. 55.04 ± 12.63 years (36 to 70 years) in the adult group (p choroid were thinner (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively) than the surrounding areas. The mean choroidal volumes of the inner and outer nasal areas were smaller (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) than those of all the other areas in each circle. Among the nine subfields, all areas in the children, except the outer nasal subfield, were thicker than those in adults (p choroidal thickness (p choroidal thickness and volume in children and teenagers were significantly greater than in adults. The nasal choroid was significantly thinner than the surrounding areas. The pediatric subfoveal choroid is prone to thinning with increasing age, axial length, and refractive error. These differences should be considered when choroidal thickness is evaluated in children with chorioretinal diseases.

  1. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  3. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Schuetz, Christine [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. The progress of the construction of pre-injector, booster and storage ring as well as some of the details of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, are described in this annual report for 1999. An overview of the concept and status of the four SLS beamlines and the related infrastructure is also given. The last chapter contains 11 contributions which report on scientific activities of SLS staff members at synchrotron radiation facilities all over the world.

  4. Singles transmission in volume-imaging PET with a 137Cs source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J S; Muehllehner, G; Qu, H; Yan, X H

    1995-05-01

    The feasibility of a new method of attenuation correction in PET has been investigated, using a single-photon emitter for the transmission scan. The transmission scan is predicted to be more than a factor of ten faster with the singles method than the standard coincidence method, for comparable statistics. Thus, a transmission scan be completed in 1-2 min, rather than 10-20 min, as is common practice with the coincidence method. In addition, a potential advantage of using the single-photon source 137Cs, which has an energy of 662 keV, is that postinjection transmission studies can be performed using energy discrimination to separate the transmission from the emission data at 511 keV. In order to compensate for the energy difference of the attenuation coefficients at 662 keV compared to 511 keV, the transmission images are segmented into two compartments, tissue and lung, and known values (for 511 keV) of attenuation are inserted into these compartments. This technique also compensates for the higher amount of scatter present with the singles method, since it is not possible to use a position gate (based on collinearity of the source and two detector positions) as is commonly done with a positron-emitting source. We have demonstrated, with experimental phantom studies, that the singles transmission method combined with segmentation gives results equivalent both qualitatively and quantitatively to the coincidence method, but requires significantly less time.

  5. A bandgap design of reference voltage source%一种带隙基准电压源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯新宇; 蒋洪波

    2012-01-01

    基准电压源是在电路系统中为其它功能模块提供高精度的电压基准.它是模拟集成电路和混合集成电路中非常重要的模块。文中主要研究了带隙基准基本原理的基础上。设计了一款应用于折叠插值ADC中粗量化电路部分CMOS带隙基准源。最后通过Pspice仿真给出了实验仿真的结果。%The voltage reference is provided high-precision voltage for the other functional modules of reference circuit system. It is a very important module of analog integrated circuits and hybrid integrated circuits. In this paper, the basic principle of the bandgap reference on the design of a folding and interpolation ADC circuit part of the coarse quantization CMOS bandgap reference. At last, it gets the results of experimental simulation of Pspice simulation.

  6. Searching for Information on Tests: Reference Sources and a Search Strategy. Iowa Testing Programs Occasional Papers Number 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert P.

    Research methodologies in several of the social sciences require the use of tests. When assisting social science researchers who seek information on tests, reference librarians do not, themselves, always have direct access to the instruments. Librarians should not only have the knowledge that various print and electronic database resources are…

  7. Open-source algorithm for automatic choroid segmentation of OCT volume reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferri, Javier; Beaton, Luke; Hounye, Gisèle; Sayah, Diane N.; Costantino, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study ocular diseases associated with choroidal physiology is sharply limited by the lack of available automated segmentation tools. Current research largely relies on hand-traced, single B-Scan segmentations because commercially available programs require high quality images, and the existing implementations are closed, scarce and not freely available. We developed and implemented a robust algorithm for segmenting and quantifying the choroidal layer from 3-dimensional OCT reconstructions. Here, we describe the algorithm, validate and benchmark the results, and provide an open-source implementation under the General Public License for any researcher to use (https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61275-choroidsegmentation).

  8. Volume-Averaged Model of Inductively-Driven Multicusp Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kedar K.; Lieberman, M. A.; Graf, M. A.

    1998-10-01

    A self-consistent spatially averaged model of high-density oxygen and boron trifluoride discharges has been developed for a 13.56 MHz, inductively coupled multicusp ion source. We determine positive ion, negative ion, and electron densities, the ground state and metastable densities, and the electron temperature as functions of the control parameters: gas pressure, gas flow rate, input power and reactor geometry. Neutralization and fragmentation into atomic species are assumed for all ions hitting the wall. For neutrals, a wall recombination coefficient for oxygen atoms and a wall sticking coefficient for boron trifluoride (BF_3) and its dissociation products are the single adjustable parameters used to model the surface chemistry. For the aluminum walls of the ion source used in the Eaton ULE2 ion implanter, complete wall recombination of O atoms is found to give the best match to the experimental data for oxygen, whereas a sticking coefficient of 0.62 for all neutral species in a BF3 discharge was found to best match experimental data.

  9. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Schuetz, Christine [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is presently being constructed at PSI. The year 2000 was crucial for maintaining the project milestones with the start of storage ring commissioning for beginning of 2001 and first light on the probe at the four beamlines of phase I for August 2001. The major goals of 2000 were the completion of accelerator installation, the commissioning of linac and booster and the beginning of beamline assembly. In the first half of the year in parallel to the installation, major fabrication procedures were going on, that had to be thoroughly followed up in order to guarantee their completion in time. The overview and detailed description of these developments is supplemented in this annual report by 8 contributions on scientific activities of SLS staff members at synchrotron radiation facilities all over the world. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  10. Source appointment of fine particle number and volume concentration during severe haze pollution in Beijing in January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yuesi; Hu, Bo; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-04-01

    Extreme haze episodes repeatedly shrouded Beijing during the winter of 2012-2013, causing major environmental and health problems. To better understand these extreme events, particle number size distribution (PNSD) and particle chemical composition (PCC) data collected in an intensive winter campaign in an urban site of Beijing were used to investigate the sources of ambient fine particles. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis resolved a total of eight factors: two traffic factors, combustion factors, secondary aerosol, two accumulation mode aerosol factors, road dust, and long-range transported (LRT) dust. Traffic emissions (54%) and combustion aerosol (27%) were found to be the most important sources for particle number concentration, whereas combustion aerosol (33%) and accumulation mode aerosol (37%) dominated particle volume concentrations. Chemical compositions and sources of fine particles changed dynamically in the haze episodes. An enhanced role of secondary inorganic species was observed in the formation of haze pollution. Regional transport played an important role for high particles, contribution of which was on average up to 24-49% during the haze episodes. Secondary aerosols from urban background presented the largest contributions (45%) for the rapid increase of fine particles in the severest haze episode. In addition, the invasion of LRT dust aerosols further elevated the fine particles during the extreme haze episode. Our results showed a clear impact of regional transport on the local air pollution, suggesting the importance of regional-scale emission control measures in the local air quality management of Beijing.

  11. 一种新型基准电流源电路设计%The Design of a New Reference Current Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄召军; 朱琪; 施斌友; 陈钟鹏; 万书芹; 张涛

    2014-01-01

    With the miniaturization and low power of Integrated circuit, it is a chiefly problem that analog circuit works in low voltage. Reference current source is very important block in analog circuit. So reference current source working in low voltage is very important for low power integrated circuit. A new reference current source fabricated in 0.13μm,1.2 V CMOS technology is described in the article. Post-simulation shows that the reference current source can work in 1.2 V voltage and its power is 380μW, its temperature coefficient is 15×10-6·℃-1.%模拟电路工作在低电源电压下是集成电路小型化和低功耗要解决的首要难题,而基准电流源电路是模拟电路中最常用的模块。因此,低压基准电流源电路对集成电路低功耗设计具有重要意义。描述了一种在0.13μm、1.2 V CMOS工艺下实现的基准电流源电路,后仿真结果表明,电路能够在1.2 V电源电压下工作,功耗380μW,温漂值为15×10-6·℃-1。

  12. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  13. H- extraction from electron-cyclotron-resonance-driven multicusp volume source operated in pulsed mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Bacal, M.; Auvray, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2006-03-01

    H2 microwave (2.45GHz) pulsed plasma is produced from seven elementary electron cyclotron resonance sources installed into the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III" (École Polytechnique—Palaiseau) from which H- extraction takes place. The negative-ion and electron extracted currents are studied through electrical measurements and the plasma parameters by means of electrostatic probe under various experimental conditions. The role of the plasma electrode bias and the discharge duty cycle in the extraction process is emphasized. The gas breakdown at the beginning of every pulse gives rise to variations of the plasma characteristic parameters in comparison with those established at the later time of the pulse, where the electron temperature, the plasma potential, and the floating potential converge to the values obtained for a continuous plasma. The electron density is significantly enhanced in the pulsed mode.

  14. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  15. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991. Volume 1, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  16. Development of a plume-in-grid model for industrial point and volume sources: application to power plant and refinery sources in the Paris region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Duclaux, O.

    2014-04-01

    Plume-in-grid (PinG) models incorporating a host Eulerian model and a subgrid-scale model (usually a Gaussian plume or puff model) have been used for the simulations of stack emissions (e.g., fossil fuel-fired power plants and cement plants) for gaseous and particulate species such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM) and mercury (Hg). Here, we describe the extension of a PinG model to study the impact of an oil refinery where volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions can be important. The model is based on a reactive PinG model for ozone (O3), which incorporates a three-dimensional (3-D) Eulerian model and a Gaussian puff model. The model is extended to treat PM, with treatments of aerosol chemistry, particle size distribution, and the formation of secondary aerosols, which are consistent in both the 3-D Eulerian host model and the Gaussian puff model. Furthermore, the PinG model is extended to include the treatment of volume sources to simulate fugitive VOC emissions. The new PinG model is evaluated over Greater Paris during July 2009. Model performance is satisfactory for O3, PM2.5 and most PM2.5 components. Two industrial sources, a coal-fired power plant and an oil refinery, are simulated with the PinG model. The characteristics of the sources (stack height and diameter, exhaust temperature and velocity) govern the surface concentrations of primary pollutants (NOx, SO2 and VOC). O3 concentrations are impacted differently near the power plant than near the refinery, because of the presence of VOC emissions at the latter. The formation of sulfate is influenced by both the dispersion of SO2 and the oxidant concentration; however, the former tends to dominate in the simulations presented here. The impact of PinG modeling on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is small and results mostly from the effect of different oxidant concentrations on biogenic SOA formation. The investigation of the criteria for injecting

  17. Integrated Spectroscopy of the Herschel Reference Survey. The spectral line properties of a volume-limited, K-band selected sample of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; Gavazzi, G; Buat, V

    2012-01-01

    We present long-slit integrated spectroscopy of 238 late-type galaxies belonging to the Herschel Reference Survey, a volume limited sample representative of the nearby universe. This sample has a unique legacy value since ideally defined for any statistical study of the multifrequency properties of galaxies spanning a large range in morphological type and luminosity. The spectroscopic observations cover the spectral range 3600-6900 A at a resolution R ~ 1000 and are thus suitable for separating the underlying absorption from the emission of the Hbeta line as well as the two [NII] lines from the Halpha emission. We measure the fluxes and the equivalent widths of the strongest emission lines ([OII], Hbeta, [OIII], [NII], Halpha, and [SII]). The data are used to study the distribution of the equivalent width of all the emission lines, of the Balmer decrement C(Hbeta) and of the observed underlying Balmer absorption under Hbeta in this sample. Combining these new spectroscopic data with those available at other f...

  18. Temperature and relative density of atomic hydrogen in a multicusp H sup minus volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneteau, A.M.; Hollos, G.; Bacal, M. (Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises, Laboratoire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, (France)); Bretagne, J. (Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, LA73 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France))

    1990-06-15

    The Balmer {beta} and {gamma} line shapes have been analyzed to determine the relative density and the temperature of hydrogen atoms in magnetic multicusp plasma generators. Results for a 90-V, 4--40-mTorr, 1--18-A conventional multicusp plasma generator and a 50-V, 4-mTorr, 1--15-A hybrid multicusp plasma generator are presented. The relative number density of hydrogen atoms increased smoothly with pressure and discharge current but never exceeded 10%. The absolute atomic number density in a 90-V 10-A discharge varied in proportion with pressure. The atomic temperature (in the 0.1--0.4-eV range) decreased with pressure and slowly increased with the discharge current. The role of atoms in the processes determining the H{sup {minus}} temperature and the H{sub 2} vibrational and rotational temperatures is discussed. The results confirm that in multicusp negative-ion sources collisional excitation of ground state atoms and molecules by energetic electrons is the dominant process in Balmer-{beta} and -{gamma} light emission.

  19. Atomic temperature and density in multicusp H sup minus volume sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneteau, A.M.; Hollos, G.; Leroy, R.; Berlemont, P.; Bacal, M. (Laboratoire du C.N.R.S., Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)); Bertagne, J. (Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, LA73 du CNRS, Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France))

    1990-08-05

    The Balmer {beta} and {gamma} line shapes have been analyzed to determine the relative density and the temperature of hydrogen atoms in magnetic multicusp plasma generators. Results for a 90 V, 4--40 mTorr, 1--18 A conventional multicusp plasma generator and a 50 V, 4 mTorr, 1--15 A hybrid multicusp plasma generator are presented. The relative number density of hydrogen atoms increases smoothly with pressure and discharge current but never exceeds 10%. The absolute atomic number density in a 90 V--10 A discharge varies in proportion with pressure. The atomic temperature (in the 0.1--0.4 eV range) decreases with pressure and slowly increases with the discharge current. The role of atoms in the processes determining the H{sup {minus}} temperature and the H{sub 2} vibrational and rotational temperatures is discussed. The results confirm that in multicusp negative ion sources collisional excitation of ground-state atoms and molecules by energetic electrons is the dominant process in Balmer {beta} and {gamma} light emission.

  20. The Use of General and Specialized Corpora as Reference Sources for Academic English Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…

  1. The Use of General and Specialized Corpora as Reference Sources for Academic English Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…

  2. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D–T fusion reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 (252Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D2O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252Cf. To be viable, the 14.6 MeV D-T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2 to 5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered.

  3. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses; Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States)

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community.

  4. Source habitats for terrestrial vertebrates of focus in the interior Columbia basin: broadscale trends and management implications. Volume 1—Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Richard S. Holthausen; Barbara C. Wales; Christina D. Hargis; Victoria A. Saab; Danny C. Lee; Wendel J. Hann; Terrell D. Rich; Mary M. Rowland; Wally J. Murphy; Michelle R. Eames

    2000-01-01

    We defined habitat requirements (source habitats) and assessed trends in these habitats for 91 species of terrestrial vertebrates on 58 million ha (145 million acres) of public and private lands within the interior Columbia basin (hereafter referred to as the basin). We also summarized knowledge about species-road relations for each species and mapped source habitats...

  5. OFF, Open source Finite volume Fluid dynamics code: A free, high-order solver based on parallel, modular, object-oriented Fortran API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, S.

    2014-07-01

    OFF, an open source (free software) code for performing fluid dynamics simulations, is presented. The aim of OFF is to solve, numerically, the unsteady (and steady) compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics by means of finite volume techniques: the research background is mainly focused on high-order (WENO) schemes for multi-fluids, multi-phase flows over complex geometries. To this purpose a highly modular, object-oriented application program interface (API) has been developed. In particular, the concepts of data encapsulation and inheritance available within Fortran language (from standard 2003) have been stressed in order to represent each fluid dynamics "entity" (e.g. the conservative variables of a finite volume, its geometry, etc…) by a single object so that a large variety of computational libraries can be easily (and efficiently) developed upon these objects. The main features of OFF can be summarized as follows: Programming LanguageOFF is written in standard (compliant) Fortran 2003; its design is highly modular in order to enhance simplicity of use and maintenance without compromising the efficiency; Parallel Frameworks Supported the development of OFF has been also targeted to maximize the computational efficiency: the code is designed to run on shared-memory multi-cores workstations and distributed-memory clusters of shared-memory nodes (supercomputers); the code's parallelization is based on Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigms; Usability, Maintenance and Enhancement in order to improve the usability, maintenance and enhancement of the code also the documentation has been carefully taken into account; the documentation is built upon comprehensive comments placed directly into the source files (no external documentation files needed): these comments are parsed by means of doxygen free software producing high quality html and latex documentation pages; the distributed versioning system referred as git

  6. Natural sources of salinity in the Brazos River, Texas with particular reference to the Croton and salt Croton Creek basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R.C.; Hughes, Leon S.; Yost, I.D.

    1964-01-01

    The average daily load of the Brazos River at Possum Kingdom Reservoir is about 2,800 tons of dissolved solids, of which 1,000 tons is chloride. More than 85 percent of the chloride load is contributed by the Salt Fork Brazos River, and more than 50 percent of the chloride load of the Brazos River originates from salt springs and seeps in Croton and Salt Crotdn Creeks, which are tributaries of Salt Fork Brazos River. The rest of the chloride is contributed from many small sources.

  7. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  8. Determination of absorbed dose in water at the reference point d(r0, theta0) for an 192Ir HDR brachytherapy source using a Fricke system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerlitz, C; Mota, H C; Sempau, J; Benhabib, S M; Campos, D; Allison, R; DeAlmeida, C E; Zhu, D; Sibata, C H

    2008-12-01

    A ring-shaped Fricke device was developed to measure the absolute dose on the transverse bisector of a 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) source at 1 cm from its center in water, D(r0, theta0). It consists of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) rod (axial axis) with a cylindrical cavity at its center to insert the 192Ir radioactive source. A ring cavity around the source with 1.5 mm thickness and 5 mm height is centered at 1 cm from the central axis of the source. This ring cavity is etched in a disk shaped base with 2.65 cm diameter and 0.90 cm thickness. The cavity has a wall around it 0.25 cm thick. This ring is filled with Fricke solution, sealed, and the whole assembly is immersed in water during irradiations. The device takes advantage of the cylindrical geometry to measure D(r0, theta0). Irradiations were performed with a Nucletron microselectron HDR unit loaded with an 192Ir Alpha Omega radioactive source. A Spectronic 1001 spectrophotometer was used to measure the optical absorbance using a 1 mL quartz cuvette with 1.00 cm light pathlength. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code (MC) was utilized to simulate the Fricke device and the 192Ir Alpha Omega source in detail to calculate the perturbation introduced by the PMMA material. A NIST traceable calibrated well type ionization chamber was used to determine the air-kerma strength, and a published dose-rate constant was used to determine the dose rate at the reference point. The time to deliver 30.00 Gy to the reference point was calculated. This absorbed dose was then compared to the absorbed dose measured by the Fricke solution. Based on MC simulation, the PMMA of the Fricke device increases the D(r0, theta0) by 2.0%. Applying the corresponding correction factor, the D(r0, theta0) value assessed with the Fricke device agrees within 2.0% with the expected value with a total combined uncertainty of 3.43% (k=1). The Fricke device provides a promising method towards calibration of brachytherapy radiation sources in terms of D(r0

  9. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmly, Lloyd M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m{sup 2} vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m{sup 2}, P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  10. Reference Physics Design for 1 GeV Injector Linac and Accumulator Ring for Indian Spallation Neutron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Amalendu; Patidar, Chirag Bhai; Pal, Mukesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Nita; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Jana, Prasanta Kumar; Gaur, Rahul; Prakash, Ram; Dhingra, Rinky; Singh, Urmila; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing plan project titled 'R&D activities for high energy proton linac based spallation neutron source', the work on physics design of various subsystems of the injector linac and accumulator ring has been taken up. For the 1 GeV H- injector linac, physics design studies of individual systems have been completed, and the end to end beam dynamics simulation studies have been performed to ensure that the stringent beam dynamics criteria are satisfied for the optimized lattice. Physics design studies to optimize the linear lattice of the accumulator ring have also been completed. The design studies for the beam transport lines from the injector linac to the accumulator ring, and from the accumulator ring to target are currently in progress. This report describes the physics design of various systems of the injector linac and the accumulator ring.

  11. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    and discussed. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the VSIs functionality during Islanded and grid-connected operations, allowing a seamless transition between these modes through control hierarchies by regulating frequency and voltage, main-grid interactivity......Power electronics based microgrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mathematical models...... the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the primary control. And the tertiary control regulates the power flow between the grid and the microgrid. Also, a synchronization algorithm is presented in order to connect the microgrid to the grid. The evaluation of the hierarchical control is presented...

  12. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  13. Design aspects of a compact, single-frequency, permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.; Reed, C.A.; Haynes, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    A compact, all-permanent-magnet single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume has been designed and is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central region of the field is designed to achieve a flat-field (constant mod-B) which extends over the length of the central field region along the axis of symmetry and radially outward to form a uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume. The magnetic field design strongly contrasts with those used in conventional ECR ion sources where the central field regions are approximately parabolic and the consequent ECR zones are surfaces. The plasma confinement magnetic field mirror has a mirror ratio B{sub max}/B{sub ECR} of slightly greater than two. The source is designed to operate at a nominal RF frequency of 6 GHz. The central flat magnetic field region can be easily adjusted by mechanical means to tune the source to the resonant conditions within the limits of 5.5 to 6.8 GHz. The RF injection system is broadband to ensure excitation of transverse electric (TE) modes so that the RF power is largely concentrated in the resonant plasma volume which lies along and surrounds the axis of symmetry of the source. Because of the much larger ECR zone, the probability for absorption of microwave power is dramatically increased thereby increasing the probability for acceleration of electrons, the electron temperature of the plasma and, consequently, the hot electron population within the plasma volume of the source. The creation of an ECR volume rather than a surface is commensurate with higher charge states and higher beam intensities within a particular charge state.

  14. Dose response explorer: an integrated open-source tool for exploring and modelling radiotherapy dose-volume outcome relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqa, I El [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Suneja, G [Brown Medical School, Providence, RI (United States); Lindsay, P E [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hope, A J [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Alaly, J R [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Vicic, M [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Bradley, J D [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Apte, A [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Deasy, J O [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2006-11-21

    Radiotherapy treatment outcome models are a complicated function of treatment, clinical and biological factors. Our objective is to provide clinicians and scientists with an accurate, flexible and user-friendly software tool to explore radiotherapy outcomes data and build statistical tumour control or normal tissue complications models. The software tool, called the dose response explorer system (DREES), is based on Matlab, and uses a named-field structure array data type. DREES/Matlab in combination with another open-source tool (CERR) provides an environment for analysing treatment outcomes. DREES provides many radiotherapy outcome modelling features, including (1) fitting of analytical normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability (TCP) models, (2) combined modelling of multiple dose-volume variables (e.g., mean dose, max dose, etc) and clinical factors (age, gender, stage, etc) using multi-term regression modelling, (3) manual or automated selection of logistic or actuarial model variables using bootstrap statistical resampling, (4) estimation of uncertainty in model parameters, (5) performance assessment of univariate and multivariate analyses using Spearman's rank correlation and chi-square statistics, boxplots, nomograms, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves, and (6) graphical capabilities to visualize NTCP or TCP prediction versus selected variable models using various plots. DREES provides clinical researchers with a tool customized for radiotherapy outcome modelling. DREES is freely distributed. We expect to continue developing DREES based on user feedback.

  15. Dose response explorer: an integrated open-source tool for exploring and modelling radiotherapy dose volume outcome relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naqa, I.; Suneja, G.; Lindsay, P. E.; Hope, A. J.; Alaly, J. R.; Vicic, M.; Bradley, J. D.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2006-11-01

    Radiotherapy treatment outcome models are a complicated function of treatment, clinical and biological factors. Our objective is to provide clinicians and scientists with an accurate, flexible and user-friendly software tool to explore radiotherapy outcomes data and build statistical tumour control or normal tissue complications models. The software tool, called the dose response explorer system (DREES), is based on Matlab, and uses a named-field structure array data type. DREES/Matlab in combination with another open-source tool (CERR) provides an environment for analysing treatment outcomes. DREES provides many radiotherapy outcome modelling features, including (1) fitting of analytical normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability (TCP) models, (2) combined modelling of multiple dose-volume variables (e.g., mean dose, max dose, etc) and clinical factors (age, gender, stage, etc) using multi-term regression modelling, (3) manual or automated selection of logistic or actuarial model variables using bootstrap statistical resampling, (4) estimation of uncertainty in model parameters, (5) performance assessment of univariate and multivariate analyses using Spearman's rank correlation and chi-square statistics, boxplots, nomograms, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves, and (6) graphical capabilities to visualize NTCP or TCP prediction versus selected variable models using various plots. DREES provides clinical researchers with a tool customized for radiotherapy outcome modelling. DREES is freely distributed. We expect to continue developing DREES based on user feedback.

  16. Utilizing a Multi-Source Forest Inventory Technique, MODIS Data and Landsat TM Images in the Production of Forest Cover and Volume Maps for the Terai Physiographic Zone in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on the nearest neighbors techniques is presented for producing thematic maps of forest cover (forest/non-forest and total stand volume for the Terai region in southern Nepal. To create the forest cover map, we used a combination of Landsat TM satellite data and visual interpretation data, i.e., a sample grid of visual interpretation plots for which we obtained the land use classification according to the FAO standard. These visual interpretation plots together with the field plots for volume mapping originate from an operative forest inventory project, i.e., the Forest Resource Assessment of Nepal (FRA Nepal project. The field plots were also used in checking the classification accuracy. MODIS satellite data were used as a reference in a local correction approach conducted for the relative calibration of Landsat TM images. This study applied a non-parametric k-nearest neighbor technique (k-NN to the forest cover and volume mapping. A tree height prediction approach based on a nonlinear, mixed-effects (NLME modeling procedure is presented in the Appendix. The MODIS image data performed well as reference data for the calibration approach applied to make the Landsat image mosaic. The agreement between the forest cover map and the field observed values of forest cover was substantial in Western Terai (KHAT 0.745 and strong in Eastern Terai (KHAT 0.825. The forest cover and volume maps that were estimated using the k-NN method and the inventory data from the FRA Nepal project are already appropriate and valuable data for research purposes and for the planning of forthcoming forest inventories. Adaptation of the methods and techniques was carried out using Open Source software tools.

  17. Effects of pore-scale dispersion, degree of heterogeneity, sampling size, and source volume on the concentration moments of conservative solutes in heterogeneous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele Tonina; Alberto Bellin

    2008-01-01

    Pore-scale dispersion (PSD), aquifer heterogeneity, sampling volume, and source size influence solute concentrations of conservative tracers transported in heterogeneous porous formations. In this work, we developed a new set of analytical solutions for the concentration ensemble mean, variance, and coefficient of variation (CV), which consider the effects of all these...

  18. Identification and validation of reference genes to study the gene expression in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus grown in different carbon sources using RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisa, Péricles S; da Silva, Helder A P; Macedo, Aline V M; Reis, Verônica M; Vidal, Márcia S; Baldani, José I; Simões-Araújo, Jean L

    2012-10-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 is a nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium originally isolated from sugarcane and later on was found to colonize other plants such as rice, elephant grass, sweet potato, coffee, and pineapple. Currently, G. diazotrophicus has been considered a plant growth-promoting bacterium due to its characteristics of biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormone secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and antagonism to phytopathogens. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a method applied for the quantification of nucleic acids because of its specificity and high sensitivity. However, the decision about the reference genes suitable for data validation is still a major issue, especially for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To evaluate and identify suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization in the diazotrophic G. diazotrophicus, mRNA levels of fourteen candidate genes (rpoA, rpoC, recA, rpoD, fabD, gmk, recF, rho, ldhD, gyrB, gyrBC, dnaG, lpxC and 23SrRNA) and three target genes (matE, omp16 and sucA) were quantified by RT-qPCR after growing the bacteria in different carbon sources. The geNorm and Normfinder programs were used to calculate the expression stabilities. The analyses identified three genes, rho, 23SrRNA and rpoD, whose expressions were stable throughout the growth of strain PAL5 in the chosen carbon sources. In conclusion our results strongly suggest that these three genes are suitable to be used as reference genes for real-time RT-qPCR data normalization in G. diazotrophicus.

  19. Inclusion of thin target and source regions in alimentary and respiratory tract systems of mesh-type ICRP adult reference phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sung; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Choi, Chansoo; Han, Min Cheol; Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik; Qiu, Rui; Eckerman, Keith; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-03-01

    It is not feasible to define very small or complex organs and tissues in the current voxel-type adult reference computational phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which limit dose coefficients for weakly penetrating radiations. To address the problem, the ICRP is converting the voxel-type reference phantoms into mesh-type phantoms. In the present study, as a part of the conversion project, the micrometer-thick target and source regions in the alimentary and respiratory tract systems as described in ICRP Publications 100 and 66 were included in the mesh-type ICRP reference adult male and female phantoms. In addition, realistic lung airway models were simulated to represent the bronchial (BB) and bronchiolar (bb) regions. The electron specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for the alimentary and respiratory tract systems were then calculated and compared with the values calculated with the stylized models of ICRP Publications 100 and 66. The comparisons show generally good agreement for the oral cavity, oesophagus, and BB, whereas for the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, extrathoracic region, and bb, there are some differences (e.g. up to ~9 times in the large intestine). The difference is mainly due to anatomical difference in these organs between the realistic mesh-type phantoms and the simplified stylized models. The new alimentary and respiratory tract models in the mesh-type ICRP reference phantoms preserve the topology and dimensions of the voxel-type ICRP phantoms and provide more reliable SAF values than the simplified models adopted in previous ICRP Publications.

  20. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  1. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 4 (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    II series. Volume I examines the relationships between the regime of Saddam Hussein and terrorism in its local, regional, and global context. Volumes 2...be behind this accident because of the number of American casualties. Then, he xpresses his suspects about Israel to be the real criminal, and then...Saddam Hussein and terrorism in its local, regional, and global context. Volumes 2 through 4 contain the English translations and detailed summaries of

  2. 斩波调制的1.25V CMOS带隙基准电压源%1.25V Chopped CMOS Bandgap Voltage Reference Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄灿灿

    2014-01-01

    带隙基准电压源广泛应用在模拟集成电路中,为集成电路芯片系统提供稳定的直流参考电压,是电路设计中不可或缺的一个单元模块。设计了1.25V CMOS 带隙基准电压源电路,采用斩波调制技术改进了电路结构,以提高输出基准电压的精度。基于CSMC 0.5μm CMOS 工艺,使用Cadence工具对未采用斩波调制的电路和采用斩波调制的电路的输出电压分别在typical工艺角下进行仿真。仿真结果显示,采用斩波调制后,输出基准电压由1.05V变化到1.21V,误差由16%减小到了3.28%。%As one of the most important unit or module, bandgap voltage reference source is widely used in analog integrated circuits, in order to provide stable DC reference for the integrated circuits (IC) chip systems. A 1.25V CMOS bandgap voltage reference source is designed and the schematic diagram is restructured by adding chopper structure to improve the accuracy of output reference voltage. In this paper, based on CSMC’s 0.5μm CMOS process, the output voltages of the circuit without chopped structure and the chopped circuit is respectively simulated under typical process corner with Cadence tools. The simulation results show that output voltage of circuit changes from 1.06V to 1.21V by adding chopped structure;the error of output accuracy is decreased from16%to 3.28%.

  3. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters.

  4. 高电源电压抑制比基准电压源的设计%Design of reference voltage source with high power supply rejection ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承蓬; 许维胜; 王翠霞

    2014-01-01

    在此通过对带隙基准电压源电路进行建模分析,针对逆变电路的中低频使用环境,设计了一个应用于高压逆变器电路中的高电源电压抑制比,低温度系数的带隙基准电压源。该电路采用1μm,700 V高压CMOS工艺,在5 V供电电压的基础上,采用一阶温度补偿,并通过设计高开环增益共源共栅两级放大器来提高电源电压抑制比,同时使用宽幅镜像电流偏置解决因共源共栅引起的输出摆幅变小的问题。基准电压源正常输出电压为2.394 V,温度系数为8 ppm/℃,中低频电压抑制比均可达到-112 dB。%Based on modeling and analysis of the bandgap reference voltage source circuit,a bandgap reference voltage source with high power supply rejection ratio and low temperature coefficient was designed for high-voltage low-frequency inverter circuit. CMOS process of 1 μm and 700 V high-voltage is used in this circuit,which adopts first-order temperature compensa-tion at 5 V voltage. A cascode two-stage amplifier with high open-loop gain was designed to improve the power supply rejection ratio. The wide mirror current bias circuit is used to solve the problem that the output swing becomes smaller due to the cascode circuit. The normal output voltage of the reference voltage source is 2.394 V,its temperature coefficient is 8 ppm/℃,and its low-medium frequency voltage rejection ratio can reach -112 dB.

  5. A compact time-of-flight SANS instrument optimised for measurements of small sample volumes at the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynde, Søren; Hewitt Klenø, Kaspar; Nagy, Gergely; Mortensen, Kell; Lefmann, Kim; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Arleth, Lise

    2014-11-01

    The high flux at European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with relatively small beam-sizes while maintaining a high intensity of the incoming beam. The pulsed nature of the source makes the facility optimal for time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (ToF-SANS). We find that a relatively compact SANS instrument becomes the optimal choice in order to obtain the widest possible q-range in a single setting and the best possible exploitation of the neutrons in each pulse and hence obtaining the highest possible flux at the sample position. The instrument proposed in the present article is optimised for performing fast measurements of small scattering volumes, typically down to 2×2×2 mm3, while covering a broad q-range from about 0.005 1/Å to 0.5 1/Å in a single instrument setting. This q-range corresponds to that available at a typical good BioSAXS instrument and is relevant for a wide set of biomacromolecular samples. A central advantage of covering the whole q-range in a single setting is that each sample has to be loaded only once. This makes it convenient to use the fully automated high-throughput flow-through sample changers commonly applied at modern synchrotron BioSAXS-facilities. The central drawback of choosing a very compact instrument is that the resolution in terms of δλ / λ obtained with the short wavelength neutrons becomes worse than what is usually the standard at state-of-the-art SANS instruments. Our McStas based simulations of the instrument performance for a set of characteristic biomacromolecular samples show that the resulting smearing effects still have relatively minor effects on the obtained data and can be compensated for in the data analysis. However, in cases where a better resolution is required in combination with the large simultaneous q-range characteristic of the instrument, we show that this can be obtained by inserting a set of choppers.

  6. A compact time-of-flight SANS instrument optimised for measurements of small sample volumes at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kynde, Søren, E-mail: kynde@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hewitt Klenø, Kaspar [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nagy, Gergely [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Mortensen, Kell; Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Kohlbrecher, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.kohlbrecher@psi.ch [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Arleth, Lise, E-mail: arleth@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-11

    The high flux at European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with relatively small beam-sizes while maintaining a high intensity of the incoming beam. The pulsed nature of the source makes the facility optimal for time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (ToF-SANS). We find that a relatively compact SANS instrument becomes the optimal choice in order to obtain the widest possible q-range in a single setting and the best possible exploitation of the neutrons in each pulse and hence obtaining the highest possible flux at the sample position. The instrument proposed in the present article is optimised for performing fast measurements of small scattering volumes, typically down to 2×2×2 mm{sup 3}, while covering a broad q-range from about 0.005 1/Å to 0.5 1/Å in a single instrument setting. This q-range corresponds to that available at a typical good BioSAXS instrument and is relevant for a wide set of biomacromolecular samples. A central advantage of covering the whole q-range in a single setting is that each sample has to be loaded only once. This makes it convenient to use the fully automated high-throughput flow-through sample changers commonly applied at modern synchrotron BioSAXS-facilities. The central drawback of choosing a very compact instrument is that the resolution in terms of δλ/λ obtained with the short wavelength neutrons becomes worse than what is usually the standard at state-of-the-art SANS instruments. Our McStas based simulations of the instrument performance for a set of characteristic biomacromolecular samples show that the resulting smearing effects still have relatively minor effects on the obtained data and can be compensated for in the data analysis. However, in cases where a better resolution is required in combination with the large simultaneous q-range characteristic of the instrument, we show that this can be obtained by inserting a set of choppers.

  7. Use of Lagrangian transport models and Sterilized High Volume Sampling to pinpoint the source region of Kawasaki disease and determine the etiologic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcoll Masanes, Roger; Rodó, Xavier; Anton, Jordi; Ballester, Joan; Jornet, Albert; Nofuentes, Manel; Sanchez-Manubens, Judith; Morguí, Josep-Anton

    2015-04-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, coronary artery vasculitis of young children, and still a medical mystery after more than 40 years. A former study [Rodó et al. 2011] demonstrated that certain patterns of winds in the troposphere above the earth's surface flowing from Asia were associated with the times of the annual peak in KD cases and with days having anomalously high numbers of KD patients. In a later study [Rodó et al. 2014], we used residence times from an Air Transport Model to pinpoint the source region for KD. Simulations were generated from locations spanning Japan from days with either high or low KD incidence. In order to cope with stationarity of synoptic situations, only trajectories for the winter months, when there is the maximum in KD cases, were considered. Trajectories traced back in time 10 days for each dataset and location were generated using the flexible particle Lagrangian dispersion model (FLEXPART Version 8.23 [Stohl et al. 2005]) run in backward mode. The particles modeled were air tracers, with 10,000 particles used on each model run. The model output used was residence time, with an output grid of 0.5° latitude × longitude and a time resolution of 3 h. The data input used for the FLEXPART model was gridded atmospheric wind velocity from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim at 1°). Aggregates of winter period back-trajectories were calculated for three different regions of Japan. A common source of wind air masses was located for periods with High Kawasaki disease. Knowing the trajectories of winds from the air transport models, a sampling methodology was developed in order to capture the possible etiological agent or other tracers that could have been released together. This methodology is based on the sterilized filtering of high volumes of the transported air at medium tropospheric levels by aircraft sampling and a later analyze these filters with adequate techniques. High purity

  8. First VLTI infrared spectro-interferometry on GCIRS 7 - Characterizing the prime reference source for Galactic center observations at highest angular resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pott, J -U; Glindemann, A; Kraus, S; Schödel, R; Ghez, A M; Woillez, J; Weigelt, G

    2008-01-01

    Investigating the environment of the massive black hole SgrA* at the center of the Galaxy requires the highest angular resolution available to avoid source confusion and to study the physical properties of the individual objects. GCIRS7 has been used as wavefront and astrometric reference. Our studies investigate, for the first time, its properties at 2&10um using VLTI/AMBER and MIDI. We aim at analyzing the suitability of IRS7 as an IF-phase-reference for the upcoming generation of dual-field facilities at optical interferometers. We observed with (R~30) and 50m (proj.) baseline, resulting in 9 and 45mas resolution for NIR and MIR, resp. The first K-band fringe detection of a GC star suggests that IRS7 could be marginally resolved at 2um, which would imply that the photosphere of the supergiant is enshrouded by a molecular and dusty envelope. At 10um, IRS7 is strongly resolved with a visibility of approximately 0.2. The MIR is dominated by moderately warm (200 K), extended dust, mostly distributed outsid...

  9. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Flow cytometers have a constant flow rate. This enables flow cytometers to measure leukocyte concentrations in a determined volume by acquiring data at a fixed rate over a fixed time and is called constant volume acquisition (CVA). The volume aspirated by a FACS Calibur flow cytometer in 4 min...... at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (pCVA (p

  10. Best Reference Practices are Not Observed in Telephone Ready Reference Services. A review of: Agosto, Denise A. and Holly Anderton. “Whatever Happened to ‘Always Cite the Source?’” Reference & User Services Quarterly 47.1 (2007: 44-54.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study source citing practice in telephone reference service in large public libraries in the United States and Canada. Design – Field simulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Large public libraries in the United States and Canada.Subjects – Telephone reference staff of the 25 largest public libraries in the United States and Canada.Methods – The 2005 World Book Almanac was used to select the 25 largest (in terms of population served public libraries in Canada and the United States. Each system’s Web site was checked to locate the telephone number for reference service. For some systems it was necessary to call the general telephone number for the main library or the first branch listed on the Web site. Five ready reference test questions were developed from a list of questions that students in a graduate library and information science course had previously asked of public library telephone reference services. The selected questions in the order that they were asked were: 1. Can you tell me when Valentine’s Day is?2. Who is the current governor/premier (of the state/province where the library is located?3. What is the population of Montana?4. In which state is the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC located?5. What is the French word for “chiropractor”?The authors called each of the 25 libraries during five consecutive weeks at different times of the business day. Each week, one question was asked; once an answer was received, no clarification was requested and the call was ended. The study reports the results of 125 reference transactions. For this study, the following definitions were used to assess complete citation for each type of information resource:• For a Web site – the complete URL (title and sponsor of the site not required.• For a digital database – the database title and the title and year of the specific item (author, publisher, page number not required.• For a print resource – the title

  11. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors; Avaliacao da homogeneidade das fontes planas de referencia utilizadas na calibracao de monitores de contaminacao de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: iremarjr@ipen.br, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm{sup 2} of {sup 241}Am, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y and {sup 99}Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm{sup 2} of {sup 14}C, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm{sup 2}) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm{sup 2} in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of {sup 241}Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of {sup 241}Am (5.7%), {sup 137}Cs (8.8%), {sup 90}Sr+{sup 9}'0Y (8, 8%) and {sup 99}Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of {sup 14}C (53.3%) and {sup 36}Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm{sup 2}, show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources {sup 14}C (46.7%) and {sup 60}Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions

  12. Correlation of choroidal thickness and volume measurements with axial length and age using swept source optical coherence tomography and optical low-coherence reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalewski, Janusz; Michalewska, Zofia; Nawrocka, Zofia; Bednarski, Maciej; Nawrocki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    To report choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). A prospective observational study of 122 patients examined with swept source OCT (DRI-OCT, Topcon, Japan). In each eye, we performed 256 horizontal scans, 12 mm in length and centered on the fovea. We calculated choroidal thickness manually with a built-in caliper and automatically using DRI-OCT mapping software. Choroidal volume was also automatically calculated. We measured axial length with optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland). The choroid has focally increased thickness under the fovea. Choroid was thinnest in the outer nasal quadrant. In stepwise regression analysis, age was estimated as the most significant factor correlating with decreased choroidal thickness (F=23.146, Pchoroidal thickness and volume maps. Choroidal thickness is increased at the fovea and is thinnest nasally. Age and axial length are critical for the estimation of choroidal thickness and volume. Choroidal measurements derived from SS-OCT images have potential value for objectively documenting disease-related choroidal thickness abnormalities and monitoring progressive changes over time.

  13. A Low Temperature Coefficient Bandgap Voltage Reference Source%一种低温度系数带隙基准电压源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大开; 李斌桥; 徐江涛; 李晓晨

    2012-01-01

    描述了一个具有高电源抑制比和低温度系数的带隙基准电压源电路.基于1阶零温度系数点可调节的结构,通过对不同零温度系数点带隙电压的转换实现低温度系数,并采用了电源波动抑制电路.采用SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS工艺,经过Cadence Spectre仿真验证,在-20℃~100℃温度范围内,电压变化范围小于0.5 mV,温度系数不超过7×1006/℃.低频下的电源抑制比为-107 dB,在10 kHz下,电源抑制比可达到-90 dB.整个电路在供电电压大于2.3V时可以实现正常启动,在3.3V电源供电下,电路的功耗约为1.05 mW.%A bandgap voltage reference source with high PSRR and low temperature coefficient was presented, in which low temperature coefficient was achieved by switching between bandgap voltages at different zero-temperature coefficient points, and a power noise rejection circuit was designed. The circuit was simulated with Spectre of Cadence based on SMIC's 0. 18 祄 CMOS process. Simulation results showed that the circuit had a voltage swing less the 0. 5 mV, a max temperature coefficient of 7X 10-6/?in the temperature range from -20 'C to 120 ?, a PSSR of -107 dB and -90 dB at DC power supply and 10 kHz of AC frequency, respectively. The bandgap reference source could start properly at a supply voltage higher than 2. 3 V, and it dissipated 1. 05 mW of power from a 3. 3 V supply.

  14. Long-range and wide field of view optical coherence tomography for in vivo 3D imaging of large volume object based on akinetic programmable swept source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozhen; Xu, Jingjiang; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-11-01

    Current optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging suffers from short ranging distance and narrow imaging field of view (FOV). There is growing interest in searching for solutions to these limitations in order to expand further in vivo OCT applications. This paper describes a solution where we utilize an akinetic swept source for OCT implementation to enable ~10 cm ranging distance, associated with the use of a wide-angle camera lens in the sample arm to provide a FOV of ~20 x 20 cm(2). The akinetic swept source operates at 1300 nm central wavelength with a bandwidth of 100 nm. We propose an adaptive calibration procedure to the programmable akinetic light source so that the sensitivity of the OCT system over ~10 cm ranging distance is substantially improved for imaging of large volume samples. We demonstrate the proposed swept source OCT system for in vivo imaging of entire human hands and faces with an unprecedented FOV (up to 400 cm(2)). The capability of large-volume OCT imaging with ultra-long ranging and ultra-wide FOV is expected to bring new opportunities for in vivo biomedical applications.

  15. Assessing and accounting for the impact of respiratory motion on FDG uptake and viable volume for liver lesions in free-breathing PET using respiration-suspended PET images as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Humm, John L. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Burger, Irene A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Ridge, Carole A.; Solomon, Stephen B. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To assess and account for the impact of respiratory motion on the variability of activity and volume determination of liver tumor in positron emission tomography (PET) through a comparison between free-breathing (FB) and respiration-suspended (RS) PET images. Methods: As part of a PET/computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous liver ablation procedure performed on a PET/CT scanner, a patient's breathing is suspended on a ventilator, allowing the acquisition of a near-motionless PET and CT reference images of the liver. In this study, baseline RS and FB PET/CT images of 20 patients undergoing thermal ablation were acquired. The RS PET provides near-motionless reference in a human study, and thereby allows a quantitative evaluation of the effect of respiratory motion on PET images obtained under FB conditions. Two methods were applied to calculate tumor activity and volume: (1) threshold-based segmentation (TBS), estimating the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and the segmented volume and (2) histogram-based estimation (HBE), yielding the background-subtracted lesion (BSL) activity and associated volume. The TBS method employs 50% of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) as the threshold for tumors with SUV{sub max} ≥ 2× SUV{sub liver-bkg}, and tumor activity above this threshold yields TLG{sub 50%}. The HBE method determines local PET background based on a Gaussian fit of the low SUV peak in a SUV-volume histogram, which is generated within a user-defined and optimized volume of interest containing both local background and lesion uptakes. Voxels with PET intensity above the fitted background were considered to have originated from the tumor and used to calculate the BSL activity and its associated lesion volume. Results: Respiratory motion caused SUV{sub max} to decrease from RS to FB by −15% ± 11% (p = 0.01). Using TBS method, there was also a decrease in SUV{sub mean} (−18% ± 9%, p = 0.01), but an increase in TLG{sub 50%} (18

  16. Interbasin flow in the Great Basin with special reference to the southern Funeral Mountains and the source of Furnace Creek springs, Death Valley, California, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, W.R.; Bedinger, M.S.; Back, J.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Interbasin flow in the Great Basin has been established by scientific studies during the past century. While not occurring uniformly between all basins, its occurrence is common and is a function of the hydraulic gradient between basins and hydraulic conductivity of the intervening rocks. The Furnace Creek springs in Death Valley, California are an example of large volume springs that are widely accepted as being the discharge points of regional interbasin flow. The flow path has been interpreted historically to be through consolidated Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the southern Funeral Mountains. This work reviews the preponderance of evidence supporting the concept of interbasin flow in the Death Valley region and the Great Basin and addresses the conceptual model of pluvial and recent recharge [Nelson, S.T., Anderson, K., Mayo, A.L., 2004. Testing the interbasin flow hypothesis at Death Valley, California. EOS 85, 349; Anderson, K., Nelson, S., Mayo, A., Tingey, D., 2006. Interbasin flow revisited: the contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, California. Journal of Hydrology 323, 276-302] as the source of the Furnace Creek springs. We find that there is insufficient modern recharge and insufficient storage potential and permeability within the basin-fill units in the Furnace Creek basin for these to serve as a local aquifer. Further, the lack of high sulfate content in the spring waters argues against significant flow through basin-fill sediments and instead suggests flow through underlying consolidated carbonate rocks. The maximum temperature of the spring discharge appears to require deep circulation through consolidated rocks; the Tertiary basin fill is of insufficient thickness to generate such temperatures as a result of local fluid circulation. Finally, the stable isotope data and chemical mass balance modeling actually support the interbasin flow conceptual model rather than the alternative presented in Nelson et al. [Nelson

  17. Spectral responsivity calibration of the reference radiation thermometer at KRISS by using a super-continuum laser-based high-accuracy monochromatic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Gun Jung; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Hak

    2016-12-01

    We report on the calibration of the relative spectral responsivity of the reference radiation thermometer, model LP4, which is used for the experimental realisation of the international temperature scale of 1990 above 960 °C at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The relative spectral responsivity of LP4 is measured by using a monochromatic source consisting of a super-continuum laser and a double-grating monochromator. By monitoring the wavelength of the output beam directly with a calibrated wavelength-meter, we achieved a high-accuracy measurement of spectral responsivity with a maximum wavelength error of less than 3 pm, a narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.4 nm, and a high dynamic range over 8 decades. We evaluated the contributions of various uncertainty components of the spectral responsivity measurement to the uncertainty of the temperature scale based on a practical estimation approach, which numerically calculates the maximal effects of the variations of each component. As a result, we evaluate the uncertainty contribution from the spectral responsivity measurement to the temperature scale to be less than 64 mK (k  =  1) in a range from 660 °C to 2749 °C for the LP4 with a filter at 650 nm.

  18. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SOURCES MANUSCRITES Archives nationales Rôles de taille 1768/71 Z1G-344/18 Aulnay Z1G-343a/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-340/01 Ivry Z1G-340/05 Orly Z1G-334c/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-344/18 Sevran Z1G-340/05 Thiais 1779/80 Z1G-391a/18 Aulnay Z1G-380/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-385/01 Ivry Z1G-387b/05 Orly Z1G-388a/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-391a/18 Sevran Z1G-387b/05 Thiais 1788/89 Z1G-451/18 Aulnay Z1G-452/21 Chennevières Z1G-443b/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-440a/01 Ivry Z1G-452/17 Noiseau Z1G-445b/05 ...

  19. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE. This volume contains the appendices.

  20. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  1. The Chandra Local Volume Survey I: The X-ray Point Source Populations of NGC 55, NGC 2403, and NGC 4214

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B; Eracleous, M; Plucinsky, P P; Gaetz, T J; Anderson, S F; Skillman, E D; Dalcanton, J J; Kong, A K H; Weisz, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present comprehensive X-ray point source catalogs of NGC~55, NGC~2403, and NGC~4214 as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. The combined archival observations have effective exposure times of 56.5 ks, 190 ks, and 79 ks for NGC~55, NGC~2403, and NGC~4214, respectively. When combined with our published catalogs for NGC 300 and NGC 404, our survey contains 629 X-ray sources total down to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of $\\sim5\\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in the 0.35-8 keV band in each of the five galaxies. We present X-ray hardness ratios, spectral analysis, radial source distributions, and an analysis of the temporal variability for the X-ray sources detected at high significance. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, we carried out cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data sets. We searched overlapping Hubble Space Telescope observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections to provide preliminary classifications for each X-ray source as a likely X-ray binary, background AGN, su...

  2. Freight Volume Forecasting for Newly-built Djibouti Railway and Its Reference Meaning%新建吉布提铁路货运量预测及其借鉴意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿成俊

    2016-01-01

    介绍了吉布提区域经济概况和吉布提港口现状及发展概况,以及吉布提铁路货运量预测方法的选择及研究思路。通过对区域经济分析,预期发展趋势;建立 GDP 与外贸额间的一元一次线性回归模型,预测外贸增长态势;并基于历史交通量结合相关几何增长率模型与埃塞俄比亚国家增长和转型计划(GTP),预测吉布提港进出口运量;根据通道内综合交通规划,分配铁路通过运量,并叠加地方运量,形成本项目铁路预测货运量;同时,对吉布提铁路货运量预测影响因素进行了分析,这可为非洲同类型项目铁路货运量预测提供参考。%This paper introduces regional economic situation of Djibouti,the current status and the development situation of Djibouti Port,as well as the selection of freight volume forecasting method and its research ideas for Djibouti Railway. Through the analysis of regional economy,we can forecast the GDP development trend.Simultaneously,we can forecast the growth trend of foreign trade value in the future years by establishing first-order simple linear regression modeling on nation-al GDP and foreign trade value.And then the import and export traffic volume is forecasted by using simple geometrical growth rate model and based on the analysis on the historical traffic volume along with Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP)of Ethiopia.The freight traffic volume of this line is generated by allocating railway passing traffic volume according to the comprehensive traffic planning of the channel,and combining with the forecasting results of local traffic volume. Meanwhile,the influence factors on freight traffic volume forecasting for Djibouti Railway are analyzed,which can provide a reference for freight volume forecasting of similar railway projects in Africa.

  3. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  4. Calculation of Intercepted Volume of Sewer Overflows: a Model for Control of Nonpoint Pollution Sources in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. Choi; D. I. Jung; C. H. Won; J. M. Rim

    2006-01-01

    The authors discovered large differences in the characteristics of overflows by the calculation of 1) intercepting volume of overflows for sewer systems using SWMM model which takes into consideration the runoff and pollutants from rainfalls and 2) the intercepted volume in the total flow at an investigation site. The intercepting rate at the investigation point of CSOs showed higher values than the SSDs. Based on the modeling of the receiving water quality after calculating the intercepting amount of overflows by considering the characteristics of outflows for a proper management of the overflow of sewer systems with rainfalls, it is clear that the BOD decreased by 82.9%-94.0% for the discharge after intercepting a specific amount of flows compared to the discharge from unprocessed overflows.

  5. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.

    2013-12-19

    In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content can exhibit very different ignition delay periods than similarly blended reference fuels. The experiments further showed that n-butanol blends behaved unlike PRF blends when comparing the autoignition behavior as a function of the percentage of low reactivity component. The HCCI and FIT experimental results favorably compared against single and multizone models with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms - both an existing mechanism as well as one developed during this study were used. The experimental and modeling results suggest that that the FIT instrument is a valuable tool for analysis of high pressure, low temperature chemistry, and autoignition for future fuels in advanced combustion engines. Additionally, in both the FIT and engine experiments the fraction of low temperature heat release (fLTHR) was found to correlate very well with the crank angle of maximum heat release and shows promise as a useful metric for fuel reactivity in advanced combustion applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Characteristics of Optical Fire Detector False Alarm Sources and Qualification Test Procedures to Prove Immunity. Phase 2. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Features of Typical Lightning Flashes 95 xii LIST OF FIGURES (CONCLUDED) FIGURE TITLE PAGE 32 Examples of Spectral Energy Distribution of 98 Various...Yel IR..IR IR Eastern Electric 3 N/A N/A SB-1O1W 4 N/A N/A 21 UV Bug Lamp 3 0 0O 145 Tabla 29 (Continued)[SOURCE TEST OISTANC CHOP0 NO. SOURCE NO

  7. Reference intervals for biochemical blood variables, packed cell volume, and body temperature in pet rats (Rattus norvegicus) using point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, Anneleen; Duchateau, Luc; Grünewald, Bettina; Hermans, Katleen

    2016-12-01

    Rats (Rattus norvegicus) are increasingly kept as pets, thus more and more requiring veterinary care. Important differences exist between pet and laboratory rats, but little information is available on pet rats. Diagnosis and treatment of pet rat diseases would benefit from RIs specific for this animal population. The aim was to establish RIs for biochemical blood variables, PCV, and body temperature in pet rats. Additionally, influences of sex and feed rationing method (ad libitum, restricted) on these variables were determined. American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) recommendations were followed. Biochemical variables were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer, the VetScan VS2. Nonparametric statistical methods were used to determine RIs and effects of sex and feed rationing method. Reference intervals were established using values of 123 clinically healthy pet rats (except for globulins and albumin/globulin ratio, n = 120) and were: glucose 6.6-13.7 mmol/L, total proteins 66-88 g/L, albumin ≥ 38 g/L, globulins 12-35 g/L, albumin/globulin ratio 1.0-4.7, urea nitrogen 2.5-6.6 mmol/L, creatinine ≤ 53 μmol/L, total bilirubin 4-7 μmol/L, ALP 40-442 IU/L, ALT 22-137 IU/L, amylase 502-1113 IU/L, sodium 133-144 mmol/L, potassium 3.6-5.3 mmol/L, calcium 9.5-10.9 mg/dL, phosphorus 2.3-7.0 mg/dL, PCV 40-50%, and body temperature 35.8-39.3°C. Sex significantly affected 10 variables. No significant influence was found with feed limitation CONCLUSIONS: Reference intervals reported in this study will be useful for interpretation of biochemistry analysis in pet rats and therefore improve pet rat medicine. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Project Head Start: Models and Strategies for the Twenty-First Century. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Source Books on Education, Volume 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Valora; Bailey, Ura Jean Oyemade

    Head Start, the nation's largest early childhood intervention, has enjoyed public and political support. The program has also been haunted by persistent questions about its role in communities, its sustainable impacts, and its quality. This book discusses the past, present, and future of Head Start in the hope of creating better partnerships…

  9. The Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; Bendo, G; Chanial, P; Buat, V; Davies, J; Auld, R; Rigby, E; Baes, M; Barlow, M; Bock, J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Charlot, S; Clements, D; Cormier, D; Dwek, E; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Zeilinger, W

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Reference Survey is a guaranteed time Herschel key project and will be a benchmark study of dust in the nearby universe. The survey will complement a number of other Herschel key projects including large cosmological surveys that trace dust in the distant universe. We will use Herschel to produce images of a statistically-complete sample of 323 galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 micron. The sample is volume-limited, containing sources with distances between 15 and 25 Mpc and flux limits in the K-band to minimize the selection effects associated with dust and with young high-mass stars and to introduce a selection in stellar mass. The sample spans the whole range of morphological types (ellipticals to late-type spirals) and environments (from the field to the centre of the Virgo Cluster) and as such will be useful for other purposes than our own. We plan to use the survey to investigate (i) the dust content of galaxies as a function of Hubble type, stellar mass and environment, (ii) the connection betwe...

  10. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 2 (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Nederland. (1) case. Thirdly, we used some ofthe sources working in the Greek field to move toward the American field in order to try to know what the...have homosexual action with me and asked my supervisors what I should do. I was astonished, because the answer was if that deed yields a benefit, it is

  11. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  12. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Forest stands volume estimation by using Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory in Stołowe Mountains National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachana Przemko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to convey to the reader the method and application of the Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI that was devised in the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The study area concerned is Stołowe Mountains National Park, which is located in the south-western Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic. To accomplish the above mentioned aim, the following data have been applied: timber volume derived from field sample plots, satellite image, digital map data and digital elevation model. The Pearson correlation coefficient between independent and dependent variables has been verified. Furthermore, the non-parametric k-nearest neighbours (k-NN technique and genetic algorithm have been used in order to estimate forest stands biomass at the pixel level. The error estimates have been obtained by leave-one-out cross-validation method. The main computed forest stands features were total and mean timber volume as well as maximum and minimum biomass occurring in the examined area. In the final step, timber volume map of the growing stock has been created.

  14. Accuracy and variability of right ventricular volumes and mass assessed by dual-source computed tomography: influence of slice orientation in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J. [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Duke University Medical Center, Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wolf, Alexander; Eberle, Holger C.; Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Nassenstein, Kai; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the accuracy and variability of right ventricular (RV) volumes and mass using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of slice orientation in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). In 33 patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR, RV parameters were calculated using the short-axis (DSCT, CMR) and axial orientation (DSCT). Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Short-axis orientation: RV parameters of the two techniques were not statistically different. Axial orientation: RV volumes and mass were significantly overestimated compared with short-axis parameters whereas EF was similar. The short-axis approach resulted in low variability, although the axial orientation had the least amount of intra- and interobserver variability. RV parameters can be more accurately assessed by DSCT compared with CMR using short-axis slice orientation. RV volumes and mass are significantly higher using axial compared with short-axis slices, whereas EF is unaffected. RV parameters derived from both approaches yield high reproducibility. (orig.)

  15. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on Burkholderia tropica strain Ppe8, a sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacterium grown with different carbon sources or sugarcane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Renata Alves; Vidal, Marcia Soares; de Paula Soares, Cleiton; Polese, Valéria; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luís; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-11-01

    Among the members of the genus Burkholderia, Burkholderia tropica has the ability to fix nitrogen and promote sugarcane plant growth as well as act as a biological control agent. There is little information about how this bacterium metabolizes carbohydrates as well as those carbon sources found in the sugarcane juice that accumulates in stems during plant growth. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) can be used to evaluate changes in gene expression during bacterial growth on different carbon sources. Here we tested the expression of six reference genes, lpxC, gyrB, recA, rpoA, rpoB, and rpoD, when cells were grown with glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, aconitic acid, and sugarcane juice as carbon sources. The lpxC, gyrB, and recA were selected as the most stable reference genes based on geNorm and NormFinder software analyses. Validation of these three reference genes during strain Ppe8 growth on the same carbon sources showed that genes involved in glycogen biosynthesis (glgA, glgB, glgC) and trehalose biosynthesis (treY and treZ) were highly expressed when Ppe8 was grown in aconitic acid relative to other carbon sources, while otsA expression (trehalose biosynthesis) was reduced with all carbon sources. In addition, the expression level of the ORF_6066 (gluconolactonase) gene was reduced on sugarcane juice. The results confirmed the stability of the three selected reference genes (lpxC, gyrB, and recA) during the RT-qPCR and also their robustness by evaluating the relative expression of genes involved in glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis when strain Ppe8 was grown on different carbon sources and sugarcane juice.

  16. Source document compilation: Los Alamos investigations related to the environment, engineering, geology, and hydrology, 1961--1990. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    This document is a compilation of informal reports, letters, and memorandums regarding geologic and hydrologic studies and investigations such as foundation investigations for structures, drilling or coring for environmental studies, development of water supply, or construction of test or observation wells for monitoring. Also included are replies requested for specific environmental, engineering, geologic, and hydrologic problems. The purpose of this document is to preserve and make the original data available to the environmental studies that are now in progress at Los Alamos and provide a reference for and supplement the LAMS report ``Records of Observation Wells, Test Holes, Test Wells, Supply Wells, Springs, and Surface water stations at Los Alamos: with Reference to the Geology and Hydrology,`` which is in preparation. The informal reports and memorandums are listed chronologically from December 1961 to January 1990. Item 208 is a descriptive history of the US Geological Survey`s activities at Los Alamos from 1946 through 1972. The history includes a list of published and unpublished reports that cover geology, hydrology, water supply, waste disposal, and environmental monitoring in the Los Alamos area.

  17. Source document compilation: Los Alamos investigations related to the environment, engineering, geology, and hydrology, 1961--1990. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    This document is a compilation of informal reports, letters, and memorandums regarding geologic and hydrologic studies and investigations such as foundation investigations for structures, drilling or coring for environmental studies, development of water supply, or construction of test or observation wells for monitoring. Also included are replies requested for specific environmental, engineering, geologic, and hydrologic problems. The purpose of this document is to preserve and make the original data available to the environmental studies that are now in progress at Los Alamos and provide a reference for and supplement the LAMS report ``Records of Observation Wells, Test Holes, Test Wells, Supply Wells, Springs, and Surface water stations at Los Alamos: with Reference to the Geology and Hydrology,`` which is in preparation. The informal reports and memorandums are listed chronologically from December 1961 to January 1990. Item 208 is a descriptive history of the US Geological Survey`s activities at Los Alamos from 1946 through 1972. The history includes a list of published and unpublished reports that cover geology, hydrology, water supply, waste disposal, and environmental monitoring in the Los Alamos area.

  18. A reference voltage source with complementary temperature compensation by reference current core%一种用电流基准核作温度互补性补偿的基准电压源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧龙振; 李琦; 刘云

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome defects of the conventional bandgap reference in temperature performance, a bandgap reference circuit with low temperature coefficient was designed. High-level compensation is achieved in this circuit by introducing a current generated by reference current nuclear working in subthreshold region based on the traditional structure of current-mode bandgap reference. Temperature coefficient was greatly reduced by further compensation of compensatory current based on the first-order compensation. Designed with 0. 18 μm standard CMOS process, and simulated with Spectre simulation tools of Cadence, the circuit exhibits a reference voltage 1. 265 V with a voltage change only 0. 2 mV in the temperature range from —40 to 125 ℃ at 2. 7 V supply voltage, compared to the change(about 2. 5 mV) of first-order compensation, accuracy of which is improved by 10 times. When supply voltage ranges from 1. 8 to 3. 5 V, the reference voltage changes 4. 5 mV. With the excellent temperature performance and good anti-disturbance, the requirements of high-performance reference are met.%为克服传统带隙基准源在温度性能上的缺陷,设计了一种低温度系数的带隙基准电路.该电路在传统电流模基准结构的基础上,引入一个工作在亚阈值区电流基准核产生的电流来达到高阶补偿的目的.在一阶补偿的基础上,补偿电流的进一步补偿,大大降低了基准输出的温度系数.电路设计采用0.18 μm的CMOS工艺,利用Cadence软件的Spectre仿真工具对电路进行仿真,仿真结果表明,在2.7V电源电压下,基准输出电压为1.265 V,温度在-40~125℃变化时,基准输出电压仅变化0.2 mV,相比一阶补偿的变化(约为2.5 mV),精度提升了10多倍;电源电压在1.8~3.5 V变化时,基准输出电压变化4.5 mV;在出色的温度性能下有良好的抗干忧性,满足了高性能基准源的要求.

  19. Unmapped reads from cattle RNAseq data: A source for missing and misassembled sequences in the reference assemblies and for detection of pathogens in the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Tahir; Hadlich, Frieder; Demasius, Wiebke; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa

    2017-01-01

    Usually, reads from transcriptome sequencing data unmapped to the target species' reference genome are disregarded. A recent RNAseq project on the new fatal disease Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia had indicated an unexplained immune response signature to a double-stranded RNA virus. To unravel its background, contigs were de novo assembled from unmapped RNAseq reads and aligned against the bovine genome assemblies and multispecies NCBI databases. Lack of genuine virus sequence contigs rejected the hypothesis of a live virus being causal for the unexplained immune response. Alignment data also demonstrated incomplete bovine reference genome assemblies. In addition, we found that several parasite and virus genome reference assemblies in NCBI were contaminated with bovine DNA and confirmed recombination of bovine DNA into BVD virus strains. Exploring unmapped reads can extract useful biological information regarding the presence of microorganisms and can highlight issues with reference genome assemblies of host and pathogen species. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. About the possible options for models of convective heat transfer in closed volumes with local heating source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in air area surrounded on all sides enclosing structures, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the media are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The process of convective heat transfer is calculated using the models of turbulence Prandtl and Prandtl-Reichard. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. Is carried out the analysis of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient at interfaces “air – enclosures”. The distributions average along the gas temperature range are obtained.

  1. The application of large volume airgun sources to the onshore-offshore seismic surveys: implication of the experimental results in northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU XueLin; CHEN Yong; ZHU RiXiang; XU HuiLong; SHI XiaoBin; YE ChunMing; ZHAO MingHui; XIA ShaoHong

    2007-01-01

    Onshore-offshore seismic experiments were carried out for the first time in northern South China Sea using large volume airgun sources at sea and seismic stations on land. The experimental results indicate that seismic signals from the new airgun array of R/V Shiyan 2 can be detected as far as 255 km. The signal effective area reaches nearly 50000 km2, which covers Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta. Compared with the old airgun array, the signal amplitude, propagation distance and effective area of the new airgun array have been increased notably, which demonstrates that the upgrade of the airgun source was successful. Comparisons with previous experimental results in other regions show that the shooting effect of the new airgun array is similar to those best airgun sources in the world. Especially, it is a new breakthrough in using the permanent seismic stations onshore to record long distance airgun signals offshore, which has great significance to the realization of the "seismic radar" concept and the 3D seismic surveys of crustal structure in coastal areas.

  2. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  3. Modification to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 2: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code, which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented i report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is a available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  4. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  5. Reference Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  6. A highly detailed FEM volume conductor model based on the ICBM152 average head template for EEG source imaging and TCS targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-08-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) source imaging as well as in transcranial current stimulation (TCS), it is common to model the head using either three-shell boundary element (BEM) or more accurate finite element (FEM) volume conductor models. Since building FEMs is computationally demanding and labor intensive, they are often extensively reused as templates even for subjects with mismatching anatomies. BEMs can in principle be used to efficiently build individual volume conductor models; however, the limiting factor for such individualization are the high acquisition costs of structural magnetic resonance images. Here, we build a highly detailed (0.5mm(3) resolution, 6 tissue type segmentation, 231 electrodes) FEM based on the ICBM152 template, a nonlinear average of 152 adult human heads, which we call ICBM-NY. We show that, through more realistic electrical modeling, our model is similarly accurate as individual BEMs. Moreover, through using an unbiased population average, our model is also more accurate than FEMs built from mismatching individual anatomies. Our model is made available in Matlab format.

  7. Environmental Monitoring and Characterization of Radiation Sources on UF Campus Using a Large Volume NaI Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Jesse A.; Gardiner, Hannah E.; Jordan, Kelly A.; Baciak, James E.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental radiation surveys are important for applications such as safety and regulations. This is especially true for areas exposed to emissions from nuclear reactors, such as the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR). At the University of Florida, surveys are performed using the RSX-1 NaI detector, developed by Radiation Solutions Inc. The detector uses incoming gamma rays and an Advanced Digital Spectrometer module to produce a linear energy spectrum. These spectra can then be analyzed in real time with a personal computer using the built in software, RadAssist. We report on radiation levels around the University of Florida campus using two mobile detection platforms, car-borne and cart-borne. The car-borne surveys provide a larger, broader map of campus radiation levels. On the other hand, cart-borne surveys provide a more detailed radiation map because of its ability to reach places on campus cars cannot go. Throughout the survey data, there are consistent radon decay product energy peaks in addition to other sources such as medical I-131 found in a large crowd of people. Finally, we investigate further applications of this mobile detection platform, such as tracking the Ar-41 plume emitted from the UFTR and detection of potential environmental hazards.

  8. Low Volume, Funding, Staffing and Technical Problems are Key Reasons for Discontinuation of Chat Reference Services. A review of: Radford, Marie L., and M. Kathleen Kern. “A Multiple‐case Study Investigation of the Discontinuation of Nine Chat Reference Services.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006: 521‐47.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R. Walker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the reasons behind the cessation of 9 virtual (chat reference services.Design – Multiple case‐study investigationSetting – Academic, public, and special libraries in the United States.Subjects – Five academic libraries, 1 public library, and 3 library consortia.Methods – The initial method used to identify discontinued chat reference services was via a posting to DIG_REF, the digitalreference services listserv. From this initial posting, librarians on the list also suggested other cases, for a total of 7. Two cases later came to the authors’ attention and were added. The 9 cases included academic libraries, a public library, and consortia who used tools provided by four major software vendors, giving a good cross‐section of the types of libraries participating in VR and the major software packages available at the time. A contact person for each discontinued service was invited to participate. The participants were geographically scattered, so data were collected via e‐mail questionnaires, telephone interviews, and examination of available documents describing the services, audiences, demographics, operations, and any decision‐making processes either for starting or discontinuing the service. The authors then compared and contrasted results obtained from the 9 services. The authors analysed reasons for discontinuation of services, the decision making processes, volume of questions, service hours, marketing, evaluation, and whether the service might be restarted atsome time in the future.Main Results – Although the VR services discussed were being delivered by diverse organizations, some commonalities emerged. All 9 services used existing staff and added chat reference to their duties. In all but one case, the hours of service offered when VRbegan were within the hours that the libraries were already open to the public. In the exception (Case E, there were hours of service after the libraries were

  9. Design of 0.18 μm CMOS bandgap reference voltage source%0.18μm CMOS带隙基准电压源的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈双文; 刘章发

    2011-01-01

    Reference voltage source can be used broadly in ADC, DAC, RAM, flash memory and other integrated circuit. This paper designed a high stability, low temperature coefficient and 0.6 V output bandgap reference voltage source using 0.18 μm CMOS.%基准电压源可广泛应用于A/D、D/A转换器、随机动态存储器、闪存以及系统集成芯片中.使用0.18 μm CMOS工艺设计了具有高稳定度、低温漂、低输出电压为0.6 V的CMOS基准电压源.

  10. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  11. 高性能可配置带隙基准源的设计%Design of a high performance and configurable bandgap reference source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹勇生; 权磊; 邓红辉

    2012-01-01

    A configurable, low temperature coefficient and high power supply rejection ratio bandgap voltage reference is designed for different reference voltages in high performance analog and mixed integrated circuits. Four different reference voltages are generated which are controlled by the digital logic circuit. A Brokaw bandgap reference is employed, and the output voltage is 0.5 V. The whole circuits are simulated by Spectre based on chartered 0.18μm 1P5M 1.8V CMOS technology. It's clear from the simulation result that four different reference voltages are obtained, the temperature coefficient of the bandgap reference core can be reach 9.2 x 10-6/℃ over the military temperature range and the power supply rejection ratio(PSRR) approaches 107.2 dB at low frequency in TT corner, and the proposed circuits meet the design requirements.%为满足高性能模拟及数模混合集成电路中多种基准电压的需求,设计了可配置,低温度系数和高电源抑制比的带隙基准电压源.通过逻辑电路控制,可配置电路使带隙基准源输出4种不同的参考电压;带隙基准源核心电路采用改进的Brokaw结构,输出电压为0.5 V.基于Chartered 0.18μm Mixed Signal 1P5M工艺模型,在电源电压1.8 V下,对设计的电路进行了仿真验证.仿真结果显示,可配置基准电压源可以实现4种不同的参考电压;在TT工艺角下,-40~ 125℃的温度范围内,基准源核心输出电压的温度系数达到9.2×10-6/℃;低频时,电源抑制比为107.2 dB,满足了设计指标要求.

  12. Duty factor variation possibility from 1% to 100% with PKU microwave driven Cs-free volume H{sup −} sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhang, T.; Ren, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, J. F.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, A. L. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Microwave driven cesium-free volume H{sup −} sources, that have the ability to deliver tens of mA H{sup −} at 35 keV both in CW and 10% duty factor (100 Hz/1 ms), were developed at Peking University (PKU) [S. X. Peng et al., in Proceeding of IPAC 2015, WEPWA027, Richmond, Virginia, USA, 3–8 May 2015]. Recently, special efforts were paid on the investigation of duty factor variation possibility from 1% to 100% with them. Most of the experiments were carried out with a pulsed length (τ) of 1 ms and different intervals of 99 ms, 49 ms, 39 ms, 29 ms, 19 ms, 9 ms, 4 ms, 2 ms, 1 ms, 0.5 ms, and 0 ms, respectively. Other experiments were focused on CW operation and fixed duty factor of 1%. Experimental results prove that PKU H{sup −} sources can deliver tens of mA H{sup −} at duty factor from 1% to 100%. The RF power efficiency increases steadily with the increasing of duty factor from 1% to CW at a fixed pulsed length. Under a given duty factor and pulsed length, RF power efficiency keeps constant and the H{sup −} current increases with RF power linearly. Details will be presented in the paper.

  13. Dry lake beds as sources of dust in Australia during the Late Quaternary: A volumetric approach based on lake bed and deflated dune volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farebrother, Will; Hesse, Paul P.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Jones, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Dust affects Earth's climate, ecology and economies across a broad range of scales, both temporally and spatially, and is an integral part of the earth's climate system. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of inland lake beds to dust emissions both locally and globally. This study aims to explore the relative volumetric importance of ephemeral lakes that emit dust to the Australian southeastern dust path over the last glacial cycle. SRTM DEMs and GIS analyses of long-term (up to 80 ka) lake-bed deflation volumes and deposition of sand-sized sediment onto downwind source bordering dunes were used to derive estimates of transported dust mass. A strong power relationship was found between lake area and the mass of deflated lake bed sediments. Total dust masses for the largest 53 lakes in southeastern Australia were derived using the relationship between lake area and dust mass and used to determine an upper value for total dust mass deflated from lake beds in southeastern Australia. Ephemeral lake-derived dust was found to represent at most 13% of the dust derived from southeastern Australia deposited in the southern Pacific over the last 80 ka or 22% over the last 40 ka. Lake Eyre (the largest lake) has contributed at most 3% of the Australian southeast dust plume. These results imply that there are significant additional sources of dust in Australia over these timescales, such as floodplains or dunefields, and that modelling must allow for diverse climatic and geomorphic controls on dust production.

  14. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  15. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  16. A survey of the optical hazards associated with hospital light sources with reference to the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, A; Fedele, F; Freeman, P [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Khazova, M [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Sarkany, R, E-mail: andrew.coleman@gstt.nhs.u [St John' s Institute of Dermatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Workplace exposure to coherent and incoherent optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive (AORD) 2006/25/EC, now implemented in the UK under the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations (AOR) 2010. These regulations set out exposure limit values. Implementing the AOR (2010 Health and Safety Statutory Instrument No 1140 www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1140/pdf/uksi{sub 2}0101140{sub e}n.pdf) requirements in a hospital environment is a potentially complex problem because of the wide variety of sources used for illumination, diagnosis and therapy. A survey of sources of incoherent optical radiation in a large hospital is reported here. The survey covers examples of office lighting, operating theatre lighting, examination lamps, and sources for ultraviolet phototherapy and visible phototherapies, including photodynamic therapy and neonatal blue-light therapy. The results of the survey are used to inform consideration of the strategy that a hospital might reasonably adopt both to demonstrate compliance with the AOR (2010) and to direct implementation effort.

  17. Identification of a common reference gene pair for qPCR in human mesenchymal stromal cells from different tissue sources treated with VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tratwal, Josefine; Follin, Bjarke; Ekblond, Annette

    2014-01-01

    on reference genes (RGs) for the normalization of qPCR data. RESULTS: BMSCs and ASCs were stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factor A-165 (VEGF) for one week, and compared with un-stimulated cells from the same donor. The stability of nine RGs through VEGF treatment as well as the donor variation...... gene, TBP, was found to be the most stable standalone gene, while TBP and YWHAZ were found to be the best two-RG combination for qPCR analyses for both BMSCs and ASCs through the VEGF stimulation. The presented stepwise elimination procedure was validated, while we found the final normalization...

  18. The use of standardized infinity reference in EEG coherency studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, L; Nolte, G; Perrucci, M G; Romani, G L; Del Gratta, C

    2007-05-15

    The study of large scale interactions in the brain from EEG signals is a promising method for the identification of functional networks. However, the validity of a large scale parameter is limited by two factors: the use of a non-neutral reference and the artifactual self-interactions between the measured EEG signals introduced by volume conduction. In this paper, we propose an approach to study large scale EEG coherency in which these factors are eliminated. Artifactual self-interaction by volume conduction is eliminated by using the imaginary part of the complex coherency as a measure of interaction and the Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) is used for the approximate standardization of the reference of scalp EEG recordings to a point at infinity that, being far from all possible neural sources, acts like a neutral virtual reference. The application of our approach to simulated and real EEG data shows that the detection of interaction, as opposed to artifacts due to reference and volume conduction, is a goal that can be achieved from the study of a large scale parameter.

  19. First experience with single-source dual-energy computed tomography in six patients with acute arthralgia: a feasibility experiment using joint aspiration as a reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Kiefer, Tobias; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ziegeler, Katharina; Feist, Eugen [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Berlin (Germany); Mews, Juergen [Toshiba Medical Systems Europe, BV, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an emerging imaging technique for examining patients with suspected gout. Single-source dual-energy CT (S-DECT) is a new way of obtaining DECT information on conventional CT scanners rather than using special dual-source CT systems. We tested the feasibility of S-DECT (320-row CT; Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara, Japan) in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean age 61.3, range 48 to 69 years) with acute arthralgia and suspected gout, and compared the S-DECT findings with the results of joint aspiration. Three patients had a diagnosis of gouty arthritis with negatively birefringent crystals in synovial fluid, in addition to gouty tophi in S-DECT. Three patients had no detectable crystals by polarization microscopy and no tophi on DECT. Their final diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis, activated osteoarthritis, and septic arthritis in one case each. This initial experience suggests that S-DECT might be a valuable alternative to dual-source CT. Hence, more patients may benefit from its additional diagnostic abilities in the future. (orig.)

  20. A high-accuracy bandgap reference source used for curvature compensation of ADC%一种应用于ADC带曲率补偿的高精度带隙基准源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓宇; 居水荣

    2015-01-01

    设计了一种应用于工作电压为1.8 V的流水型模数转换器(ADC)的带隙基准源。与传统电流模式带隙基准源不同,该带隙基准源采用曲率补偿技术,降低了温度系数,提高了精度。分析提高电源抑制比的方法,设计低压共源共栅电流镜偏置的折叠式共源共栅运放,提高了带隙基准源的电源抑制比。采用CSMC 0.18μm CMOS工艺,获得了900 mV的带隙基准, Spectre仿真结果表明,带隙基准源正常启动,在-40~125℃温度范围内温度系数低至3 ppm/℃,低频时的电源抑制比达89 dB。%A high⁃accuracy bandgap reference source used for curvature compensation of 1.8 V pipeline ADC was designed. Different from traditional current⁃mode bandgap reference source,the curvature compensation technology was adopted in this bandgap reference source,which reduced low temperature coefficient and improved precision. The methods to improve PSRR are analyzed in this paper. A folded cascode amplifier with the bias of high⁃swing cascode current mirrors was designed,which im⁃proved PSRR of bandgap reference source. Based on the CSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process,the bandgap reference gains an output voltage of 900 mV. Simulation results indicate that the circuit can start up normally,the temperature coefficient is 3 ppm/℃ be⁃tween -40 ℃ and 125 ℃ and the PSRR is 89 dB at low frequency.

  1. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  2. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  3. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  4. New astronomical references in two Catalonian late medieval documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María José; Marco, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, after 13 years of preparation, the Generalitat of Catalunya finished the publication of the 10 volumes of the Dietaris de la Generalitat de Catalunya. The Dietaris, as well as a closely related source, the llibre de Jornades 1411/1484 de Jaume Safont, cover the period of 1411 to 1539. In this article, we examine astronomical references contained in these two sources, and place them in their historical context. Our main focus lies on astronomical phenomena that have not previously been published in the astronomical literature. In fact, relatively few astronomical records are accessible in Spanish medieval and early modern history, and our paper intends to fill this gap partially.

  5. Determination of absorbed dose in water at the reference point D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}) for an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source using a Fricke system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austerlitz, C.; Mota, H. C.; Sempau, J.; Benhabib, S. M.; Campos, D.; Allison, R.; Almeida, C. E. de; Zhu, D.; Sibata, C. H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834 (United States); Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Radiation Oncology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834 (United States); Laboratorio de Cie circumflex ncias Radiologicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Radiation Oncology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A ring-shaped Fricke device was developed to measure the absolute dose on the transverse bisector of a {sup 192}Ir high dose rate (HDR) source at 1 cm from its center in water, D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}). It consists of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) rod (axial axis) with a cylindrical cavity at its center to insert the {sup 192}Ir radioactive source. A ring cavity around the source with 1.5 mm thickness and 5 mm height is centered at 1 cm from the central axis of the source. This ring cavity is etched in a disk shaped base with 2.65 cm diameter and 0.90 cm thickness. The cavity has a wall around it 0.25 cm thick. This ring is filled with Fricke solution, sealed, and the whole assembly is immersed in water during irradiations. The device takes advantage of the cylindrical geometry to measure D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}). Irradiations were performed with a Nucletron microselectron HDR unit loaded with an {sup 192}Ir Alpha Omega radioactive source. A Spectronic 1001 spectrophotometer was used to measure the optical absorbance using a 1 mL quartz cuvette with 1.00 cm light pathlength. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code (MC) was utilized to simulate the Fricke device and the {sup 192}Ir Alpha Omega source in detail to calculate the perturbation introduced by the PMMA material. A NIST traceable calibrated well type ionization chamber was used to determine the air-kerma strength, and a published dose-rate constant was used to determine the dose rate at the reference point. The time to deliver 30.00 Gy to the reference point was calculated. This absorbed dose was then compared to the absorbed dose measured by the Fricke solution. Based on MC simulation, the PMMA of the Fricke device increases the D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}) by 2.0%. Applying the corresponding correction factor, the D(r{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0}) value assessed with the Fricke device agrees within 2.0% with the expected value with a total combined uncertainty of 3.43%(k=1). The Fricke device provides a promising

  6. Design of a Reference Current Source for Current-Steering DAC in DDS Circuit%用于高速DDS中电流舵DAC的基准电流源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杏; 周启才; 陶建中

    2014-01-01

    A reference current source circuit for the current-steering DAC in the high speed DDS( Digital Direct Fre-quency Synthesis)was introduced,as foundation of the traditional reference current source circuit,the base of the two triodes were connected which produced the△VBE ,and then two amplifiers,were added to make the collector and the base clamp at the same potential. So the transistors in the condition of the saturation region to delete the error Vos that caused by the offset of the amplifiers. The VOS was eliminated in the reference current source circuit. In addition,a circuit for compensating the nonlinear term that is in the expression of VBE to T is proposed. Fabricated by 0. 18 μm N-wells 1P5M process,the NPN type triodes were used. Results showed that in the condition of tt,the tem-perature coefficient of reference output voltage was 10í10-9/℃, the temperature coefficient of reference output current was 10í10-9/℃.%介绍一种用于高速DDS中电流舵DAC的带隙基准电流源电路,在传统带隙基准源电路的基础上将产生△VBE的两个三极管基极相连,使用两个运放分别将其集电极与基极钳至于相同电位,在保证三极管处于饱和区的基础上消除传统基准电路中由运放失调带来的误差VOS,通过温度补偿电路,补偿VBE与温度T的非线性项。电路采用0.18μm的深N阱1P5M工艺,选用NPN型三极管,仿真结果表明tt条件下基准电压输出温漂系数抑10×10-9/℃,基准电流输出温漂系数抑10×10-9/℃。

  7. Design of low temperature drift and low power consumption bandgap reference source with curvature compensation%一种带曲率补偿的低温漂低功耗带隙基准源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 冯全源; 王丹

    2015-01-01

    基于OKI(冲电气工业株式会社)0.5μm BCD(Bipolar, CMOS and DMOS)工艺,设计了一种带曲率补偿的低温漂低功耗带隙基准电压源。采用放大器钳位的传统实现方式,将一个类指数性质的电流叠加到基准源的核心部分,达到曲率补偿的效果。仿真结果表明,在5 V供电电压下,223~423 K (–50~+150℃)内,基准电压的波动范围为1.175~1.182 V,温漂为2.15×10–6/K,具有较高精度,低频时电路电源抑制比为–64 dB,整体静态电流仅为5.6μA。%Based on OKI 0.5μm BCD process, a low temperature drift and low power consumption bandgap reference voltage source with curvature compensation was designed. With traditional amplifier clamping method, a quasi exponent property current was added up the core part of the reference to achieve curvature compensation effect. Simulation results show that under the power supply voltage of 5 V from 223 K to 423 K, the output reference voltage range is from 1.175 V to 1.182 V, with a temperature drift of about 2.15×10–6/K. The power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) is–64 dB when the reference source is high precision and low frequency;the static current of the reference source is only 5.6μA.

  8. Reference problems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    in science or for that ma t ter, in any other subject. Indeed, the sorry state of science education is only a small part of the much deeper sy s temic rot. A colleague in IIT - Kanpur cynically remarked to me that IIT did not even need to teach... annual budget. (This takes into consideration only 50,000 seriously working scientists out of a total r e search and teaching staff of over 0.4 million in CSIR, ICAR, ICMR, un i ver sities, etc.). Following are some good examples for referring...

  9. Effects of tetracyclines on neutrophil, gingival, and salivary collagenases. A functional and western-blot assessment with special reference to their cellular sources in periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, T; Ding, Y; Salo, T; Lauhio, A; Teronen, O; Ingman, T; Ohtani, H; Andoh, N; Takeha, S; Konttinen, Y T

    1994-09-06

    The characterization and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been studied to determine their role(s) in periodontal tissue destruction. Progress in elucidating the roles of MMPs in periodontal tissue destruction has led to a new concept involving the chemotherapeutic inhibition on MMPs, a therapeutic strategy which less than a decade ago was considered "a difficult and perhaps impossible task." Tetracyclines/doxycycline (DOXY) and their chemically modified nonantimicrobial derivatives (CMTs) are known to inhibit the matrix metalloproteinases, especially preferring human neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8), and prevent the oxidative activation of procollagenases. We characterized by Western blotting the molecular forms and cellular sources of gingival tissue, dental plaque, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and salivary MMPs associated with periodontitis. Also the molecular forms of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in periodontitis were studied by Western blot. Neutrophil (PMN)-derived MMPs were found to predominate in periodontitis, and phospholipase C present in increased amounts in periodontitis sites was found to be a potential inducer of PMN degranulation. We further studied the effects of DOXY on molecular forms of different latent and active MMPs purified from different cellular sources (PMNs, fibroblasts, keratinocytes) and present in vivo in oral exudates (gingival extracts, GCF, and saliva). DOXY inhibition of activated (oxidatively or proteolytically) MMPs were not associated with MMP fragmentation. Michaelis-Menten plots of initial rates of degradation of soluble type I collagen revealed an apparent Km value of 0.3-0.6 microM for MMP-8, and 75 microM DOXY inhibited MMP-8 in a manner which did not result in changes in apparent Km value but did prevent the initial degradation reaching Vmax providing evidence for noncompetitive inhibition. Treatment of patients with long-term DOXY medication results in decreased

  10. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: a rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-09-30

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  11. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-01-01

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources. PMID:19243576

  12. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basáñez María-Gloria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO. There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  13. TclTk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The Tcl/Tk combination is increasingly popular because it lets you produce sophisticated graphical interfaces with a few easy commands, develop and change scripts quickly, and conveniently tie together existing utilities or programming libraries. The Tcl/Tk Pocket Reference,a handy reference guide to the basic Tcl language elements, Tcl and Tk commands, and Tk widgets, is a companion volume to Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell.

  14. Changing Roles for References Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Julia; Robbins, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the future outlook for reference librarians, with topics including: "Technology as the Source of Change"; "Impact of the Internet"; "Defining the Virtual Library"; "Rethinking Reference"; "Out of the Library and into the Streets"; "Asking Users About Their Needs"; "Standardization and Artificial Intelligence"; "The Financial Future"; and…

  15. Design of multi-output CMOS bandgap reference voltage source with low cost%低成本多路输出CMOS带隙基准电压源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡元; 张涛

    2012-01-01

    在传统Brokaw带隙基准源的基础上,提出一种采用自偏置结构和共源共栅电流镜的低成本多路基准电压输出的CMOS带隙基准源结构,省去了一个放大器,并减小了所需的电阻阻值,大大降低了成本,减小了功耗和噪声.该设计基于华虹1 μm的CMOS工艺,进行了设计与仿真实现.Cadence仿真结果表明,在-40~140℃的温度范围内,温度系数为23.6 ppm/℃,静态电流为24μA,并且能够产生精确的3V,2V,1V和0.15V基准电压,启动速度快,能够满足大多数开关电源的设计需求与应用.%Based on the traditional Brakaw bandgap reference source, a CMOS bandgap reference source structure of low-cost multi-path reference voltage output is presented, which adopts a self-biased structure and cascode current mirror instead of an amplifier. It decreases the demands of the resistance value, and reduces the cost, power consumption and noise greatly. The circuit was implemented with Hua Hong lμm CMOS technology. Cadence simulation results show that its temperature coefficient is 23. 6 ppm/℃ and the quiescent current is 24 μA at the range of - 40~140℃ , it can generate accurate reference vultages of 3 V, 2 V, 1 V and 0.15 V, has a advantage of fast start-up, and meets the design requirements of the most switching power supplies.

  16. Facilitating Physician Access to Medical Reference Information

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Context: Computer-based medical reference information is augmenting—and in some cases, replacing—many traditional sources. For Kaiser Permanente (KP) physicians, this change presents both advantages and obstacles to finding medical reference information.

  17. A CMOS bandgap voltage reference source for audio Σ-ΔA/D converter%一种用于音频Σ-ΔA/D转换器的CMOS带隙电压基准源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉左

    2012-01-01

    在传统带隙基准电压源电路结构的基础上,通过在运放中引入增益提高级,实现了一种用于音频Σ-ΔA/D转换器的CMOS带隙电压基准源。在一阶温度补偿下实现了较高的电源抑制比(PSRR)和较低的温度系数。该电路采用SIMC 0.18-μm CMOS工艺实现。利用Cadence/Spectre仿真器进行仿真,结果表明,在1.8 V电源电压下,-40~125℃范围内,温度系数为9.699 ppm/℃;在27℃下,10 Hz时电源抑制比为90.2 dB,20 kHz时为74.97 dB。%An optimized PSR enhance stage was inserted in OPAMP of the classic CMOS bandgap voltage reference source, and one CMOS bandgap voltage reference source for audio Σ-ΔA/D converter was designed. It featured high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and low temperature coefficient with first-order temperature compensation. The circuit was implemented in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The simulation results in Cadence/Spectre showed that the circuit had a temperature coefficient of 9.699ppm/℃ at 1.8V supply voltage from -40℃ to 125℃ and a PSRR up to 90.2 dB (10 Hz) and 74.97 dB(20 kHz) at 27℃.

  18. 10 CFR 851.27 - Reference sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....nfpa.org. (v) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), 1330 Kemper Meadow...). (2) ANSI Z136.1, “Safe Use of Lasers,” (2000). (3) ANSI Z49.1, “Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied...) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, “Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances...

  19. Buddhism: A Brief Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jerry

    The annotated bibliography lists 48 articles, atlases, dictionaries, bibliographies, and general and subject indexes on Buddhism. The bibliography is intended to provide college students with an introduction to the more complex literature of Buddhism and to stimulate further research and study. Topics include the history of Buddhism; the practice…

  20. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  1. Library Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  2. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  3. Collected software engineering papers, volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1992 through November 1993. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 11th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  4. Collected software engineering papers, volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1993 through October 1994. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 12th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  5. Database of potential sources for earthquakes larger than M 5.5 in Italy. Version 2.0-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valensise, G.; Pantatosti, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This volume presents and describes Version 2.0 of the Database of potential sources for earthquakes larger than M 5.5 in Italy (also referred to as DISS, the acronym of the short form database of Italy's seismogenic sources, or simply as database) that was first conceived at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia of Rome in 1996.

  6. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  7. Project X: Accelerator Reference Design

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, S D; Chase, B; Gollwitzer, K; Johnson, D; Kaducak, M; Klebaner, A; Kourbanis, I; Lebedev, V; Leveling, A; Li, D; Nagaitsev, S; Ostroumov, P; Pasquinelli, R; Patrick, J; Prost, L; Scarpine, V; Shemyakin, A; Solyak, N; Steimel, J; Yakovlev, V; Zwaska, R

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". Part 1 contains the volume Preface and a description of the conceptual design for a high-intensity proton accelerator facility being developed to support a world-leading program of Intensity Frontier physics over the next two decades at Fermilab. Subjects covered include performance goals, the accelerator physics design, and the technological basis for such a facility.

  8. Solving hyperbolic equations with finite volume methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez-Cendón, M Elena

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used in numerous applications and by a broad multidisciplinary scientific community. The book communicates this important tool to students, researchers in training and academics involved in the training of students in different science and technology fields. The selection of content is based on the author’s experience giving PhD and master courses in different universities. In the book the introduction of new concepts and numerical methods go together with simple exercises, examples and applications that contribute to reinforce them. In addition, some of them involve the execution of MATLAB codes. The author promotes an understanding of common terminology with a balance between mathematical rigor and physical intuition that characterizes the origin of the methods. This book aims to be a first contact with finite volume methods. Once readers have studied it, they will be able to follow more specific bibliographical references and use commercial programs or open source software withi...

  9. Editorial: Topical Volume on Earth’s Magnetic Field—Understanding Geomagnetic Sources from the Earth’s Interior and Its Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Olsen, Nils; Richmond, Arthur D.

    2017-01-01

    (seconds to days) magnetic field variations that are caused by currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere when solar activity, and correspondingly the electric currents in Earth’s environment, are enhanced. However, for studying the internal sources of the geomagnetic field, originating in the core......The Earth’s magnetic field results from different sources in the Earth’s interior and in near Earth space. Commonly, when investigating solar-terrestrial interactions where the Earth’s internal field plays a major role, scientists concentrate on strong (tens to thousands of nanotesla) and rapid...... in characterizing the long term behaviour of external sources, e.g., seasonal and solar cycle variations of the magnetospheric ring current, polar convection currents or ionospheric dynamo currents driven by atmospheric tides, since they have amplitudes and spatial scales similar to those of the core field...

  10. Fracture source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The fracture properties of many different types of fibers are covered in a timely new book that will prove to be a tremendous source of information and references for researchers in the wide and diverse field of fibers and composites, says Bill Clegg.

  11. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  12. Proposal for an advanced heat source assembly for the Isotope Brayton Power System. Volume 1. Technical program and statement of work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    The technical program plan for evaluating the performance and safety of a radioisotope-fueled Brayton power system for space vehicles is presented with schedules for evaluating heat source design and safety, for specifying power system requirements, and for the development and operation of a ground demonstration system. (LCL)

  13. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Cheng, Chih-Yao, E-mail: shic@uthscsa.ed [Radiation Oncology Department, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V{sub 100} reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as

  14. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 6; Theoretical Analysis for Coupling of Active Noise Control Actuator Ring Sources to an Annular Duct with Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an analytical model for the coupling of active noise control (ANC) piston-type actuators that are mounted flush to the inner and outer walls of an annular duct to the modes in the duct generated by the actuator motion. The analysis will be used to couple the ANC actuators to the modal analysis propagation computer program for the annular duct, to predict the effects of active suppression of fan-generated engine noise sources. This combined program will then be available to assist in the design or evaluation of ANC systems in fan engine annular exhaust ducts. An analysis has been developed to predict the modes generated in an annular duct due to the coupling of flush-mounted ring actuators on the inner and outer walls of the duct. The analysis has been combined with a previous analysis for the coupling of modes to a cylindrical duct in a FORTRAN computer program to perform the computations. The method includes the effects of uniform mean flow in the duct. The program can be used for design or evaluation purposes for active noise control hardware for turbofan engines. Predictions for some sample cases modeled after the geometry of the NASA Lewis ANC Fan indicate very efficient coupling in both the inlet and exhaust ducts for the m = 6 spinning mode at frequencies where only a single radial mode is cut-on. Radial mode content in higher order cut-off modes at the source plane and the required actuator displacement amplitude to achieve 110 dB SPL levels in the desired mode were predicted. Equivalent cases with and without flow were examined for the cylindrical and annular geometry, and little difference was found for a duct flow Mach number of 0.1. The actuator ring coupling program will be adapted as a subroutine to the cylindrical duct modal analysis and the exhaust duct modal analysis. This will allow the fan source to be defined in terms of characteristic modes at the fan source plane and predict the propagation to the

  15. Sealed source and device design safety testing. Volume 5: Technical report on the findings of Task 4, Investigation of failed radioactive stainless steel troxler gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benac, D.J.; Schick, W.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report covers the Task 4 activities for the Sealed Source and Device Safety testing program. SwRI was contracted to investigate failed radioactive stainless steel troxler gauges. SwRI`s task was to determine the cause of failure of the rods and the extent of the problem. SwRI concluded that the broken rod failed in a brittle manner due to a hard zone in the heat affected zone.

  16. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  17. Space VLBI and the Radio Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, P.

    2009-08-01

    The current radio reference frame is defined by the VLBI positions of several hundreds of extragalactic sources measured with sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. We discuss whether space VLBI can be used to improve the accuracy of the frame, either directly by conducting absolute astrometric observations using space VLBI baselines, or in an indirect way by making available VLBI images of the reference frame sources with increased angular resolution. The VSOP-2 project, in its present state, is found to have the necessary capabilities for accurate absolute astrometry although there may be limitations due to scheduling constraints. Space VLBI images are essential for pinpointing accurately a stable reference feature within the extended structure of each source. In this respect, the VSOP-2 project may have a significant impact on the definition of the radio reference frame if targeting such reference frame sources on a regular basis.

  18. Virtual reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Márdero Arellano, Miguel Ángel

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of virtual reference services, their standandars and new technologies that have changed the tradicional practice at the library’s reference desk. Major American virtual reference services initiatives and their characteristics are described.

  19. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  20. Turbidite record of frequency and source of large volume (>100 km3) Canary Island landslides in the last 1.5 Ma: Implications for landslide triggers and geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. E.; Wynn, R. B.; Talling, P. J.; Masson, D. G.

    2013-07-01

    During the last two decades, numerous studies have focused on resolving the landslide histories of the Canary Islands. Issues surrounding the preservation and dating of onshore and proximal submarine landslide deposits precludes accurate determination of event ages. However, submarine landslides often disaggregate and generate sediment gravity flows. Volcaniclastic turbidites sampled from Madeira Abyssal Plain piston cores represent a record of eight large-volume failures from the Western Canary Islands in the last 1.5 Ma. During this time, there is a mean recurrence rate of 200 ka, while the islands of El Hierro and Tenerife have individual landslide recurrences of 500 ka and 330 ka, respectively. Deposits from the 15 ka El Golfo landslide from El Hierro and 165 ka Icod landslide from Tenerife are examined. This study also identifies potential deposits associated with the Orotava (535 ka), Güímar (850 ka), and Rogues de García landslides (1.2 Ma) from Tenerife, El Julan (540 ka), and El Tiñor (1.05 Ma) landslides from El Hierro, and the Cumbre Nueva landslide (485 ka) from La Palma. Seven of eight landslides occurred during major deglaciations or subsequent interglacial periods, which represent 55% of the time. However, all of the studied landslides occur during or at the end of periods of protracted island volcanism, which generally represent 60% of the island histories. Although climate may precondition failures, it is suggested that volcanism presents a more viable preconditioning and trigger mechanism for Canary Island landslides.

  1. The soil reference shrinkage curve

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural...

  2. Reference and information services an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bopp, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting the dramatic changes shaped by rapidly developing technologies over the past six years, this new fourth edition of Reference and Information Services takes the introduction to reference sources and services significantly beyond the content of the first three editions. In Part I, Concepts and Processes, chapters have been revised and updated to reflect new ideas and methods in the provision of reference service in an era when many users have access to the Web. In Part II, Information Sources and Their Use, discussion of each source type has been updated to encompass key resources in

  3. Numerical Analysis of Spatial Unsteady Regimes of Conjugate Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer in a Closed Volume with an Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, S. G.; Miroshnichenko, I. V.; Sheremet, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Unsteady regimes of convective-radiative heat transfer in a cubic enclosure with finitely thick heat-conducting walls in the presence of a constant-temperature energy source have been modeled mathematically under the conditions of convective heat exchange with the environment. A mathematical model has been formulated in dimensionless variables "vector potential-vorticity vector-temperature;" the model was realized numerically by the finite-difference method. An analysis of radiative heat transfer has been made on the basis of the surface-radiation approximation with the balance method in Polyak's version. Three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields and dependences for the average Nusselt number have been obtained; they reflect the influence of the reduced emissivity factor of interior surfaces of enclosing walls, of the relative thermal conductivity, and of the unsteadiness factor on the flow regimes and heat transfer.

  4. Doing the work of reference practical tips for excelling as a reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Become more versatile, competent, and resourceful with these practical suggestions!Becoming a first-class reference librarian demands proficiency in a wide range of skills. Doing the Work of Reference offers sound advice for the full spectrum of your responsibilities. Though many aspects of a reference librarian's work are changing with astonishing speed, the classic principles in this volume will never go out of date. This comprehensive volume begins with hints for orienting yourself to a new job and concludes with ideas for serving the profession. On the way, Doing the Wo

  5. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Technology that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of... Procedures,” Amended July 30, 2002, Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board 1065.805...

  7. Model-Based Analysis and Optimization of the Mapping of Cortical Sources in the Spontaneous Scalp EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Sazonov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mapping of brain sources into the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG depends on volume conduction properties of the head and on an electrode montage involving a reference. Mathematically, this source mapping (SM is fully determined by an observation function (OF matrix. This paper analyses the OF-matrix for a generation model for the desynchronized spontaneous EEG. The model involves a four-shell spherical volume conductor containing dipolar sources that are mutually uncorrelated so as to reflect the desynchronized EEG. The reference is optimized in order to minimize the impact in the SM of the sources located distant from the electrodes. The resulting reference is called the localized reference (LR. The OF-matrix is analyzed in terms of the relative power contribution of the sources and the cross-channel correlation coefficient for five existing references as well as for the LR. It is found that the Hjorth Laplacian reference is a fair approximation of the LR, and thus is close to optimum for practical intents and purposes. The other references have a significantly poorer performance. Furthermore, the OF-matrix is analyzed for limits to the spatial resolution for the EEG. These are estimated to be around 2 cm.

  8. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  9. References for Galaxy Clusters Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinkov, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Kuneva, I.

    1998-01-01

    A bibliographic database will be constructed with the purpose to be a general tool for searching references for galaxy clusters. The structure of the database will be completely different from the available now databases as NED, SIMBAD, LEDA. Search based on hierarchical keyword system will be performed through web interfaces from numerous bibliographic sources -- journal articles, preprints, unpublished results and papers, theses, scientific reports. Data from the very beginning of the extra...

  10. Valores de referência do RDW-CV e do RDW-SD e sua relação com o VCM entre os pacientes atendidos no ambulatório do Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz - Recife, PE Reference values for RDW-CV and RDW-SD and their relationship to mean corpuscular volume among clinical patients of the Oswald Cruz Teaching Hospital, Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Monteiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O termo anisocitose indica o grau de variação do tamanho dos eritrócitos observado ao microscópio. Essa expressão, é observada no hemograma automatizado através de dois parâmetros: RDW-CV (Amplitude de Distribuição dos Eritrócitos medido como Coeficiente de Variação e RDW-SD (o mesmo sendo medido como Desvio Padrão, que são calculados a partir do volume corpuscular médio (VCM, que representa a média do tamanho dos eritrócitos. Juntos, os dois parâmetros RDW e o VCM podem auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial de diversas enfermidades, em especial alguns tipos de anemias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os valores de referência dos parâmetros RDW, bem como verificar a existência de relação desses índices com o VCM a partir dos hemogramas de 306 pacientes atendidos no ambulatório do Laboratório Central do Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz. Foram também determinados os valores de referência em relação ao sexo e por faixa etária. A fim de verificar a possível relação dos parâmetros RDW com VCM, foram realizados testes estatísticos de correlação de Pearson. Os valores de referência para a população geral foram semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura, enquanto que a comparação dos resultados entre sexos não apresentou diferença significativa para nenhum dos índices estudados. O estudo por faixa etária mostrou a necessidade de reavaliar a divisão das faixas etárias em estudos posteriores com esses mesmos parâmetros, pois alguns desses grupos etários não apresentaram diferença significativa entre eles. Os testes estatísticos de correlação mostraram resultados significativos para a relação entre VCM microcítico e RDW-CV, bem como entre o VCM macrocítico e o RDW-SD. Para o VCM normocítico foi observada correlação significativa apenas com o RDW-SD.The term anisocytosis indicates the degree of variation in the size of red cells observed on the microscope. The above expression is

  11. Automating Your Ready-Reference File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joy; Sottong, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the automation of the ready reference card file at the California State University, Long Beach library. Topics discusses include the use of dBase III Plus software; keyword fields for multiple access points; the source field and other fields; a menu-driven interface; and file creation and maintenance. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  12. COMPUTERS IN INFORMATION SCIENCES, VOLUME 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unclassified and unlimited bibliography compiles references dealing specifically with the role of computers in information sciences . The volume contains 239 annotated references grouped under three major headings: Artificial and Programming Languages, Computer Processing of Analog Data, and Computer Processing of Digital Data. The references

  13. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  14. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  15. Reference frames and refbits

    CERN Document Server

    Van Enk, S J

    2004-01-01

    We define a new quantity called refbit, which allows one to quantify the resource of sharing a reference frame in quantum communication protocols. By considering various protocols we find relations between refbits and other resources such as cbits, ebits, cobits, and qubits. We also consider the same resources in encoded, reference-frame independent, form. This allows one to rephrase and unify previous work on phase references, reference frames, and superselection rules.

  16. Reference Management and Citation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2014-01-01

    Reference Management system offers an easy way of collecting references from online databases, organizing them in a database, and citing them in documents in Microsoft Word. Documents can be shared with colleagues/publish online. A reference management system can facilitate the keeping track of the literature.

  17. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  18. Independent EEG sources are dipolar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG...

  19. EEG and MEG source localization using recursively applied (RAP) MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Signal and Image Processing Inst.

    1996-12-31

    The multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) algorithm locates multiple asynchronous dipolar sources from electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. A signal subspace is estimated from the data, then the algorithm scans a single dipole model through a three-dimensional head volume and computes projections onto this subspace. To locate the sources, the user must search the head volume for local peaks in the projection metric. Here we describe a novel extension of this approach which we refer to as RAP (Recursively APplied) MUSIC. This new procedure automatically extracts the locations of the sources through a recursive use of subspace projections, which uses the metric of principal correlations as a multidimensional form of correlation analysis between the model subspace and the data subspace. The dipolar orientations, a form of `diverse polarization,` are easily extracted using the associated principal vectors.

  20. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book is the second of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation and high-velocity impact and penetration events. Of the four extensive chapters in this volume, the first two describe the reactive behavior of condensed phase explosives, - Condensed-Phase Explosives: Shock Initiation and Detonation Phenomena (SA Sheffield and R Engelke) - First Principles Molecular Simulations of Energetic Materials at High-Pressures (F Zhang, S Alavi, and TK Woo), and the remaining two discuss the inert, mechanical response of solid materials. - Combined Compression and Shear Plane Waves (ZP Tang and JB Aidun), and - Dynamic Fragmentation of Solids (D Grady). All chapters are each self-contained, and can be read independently of each other. They offer a timely reference, for beginners as well as professional scientists and engineers, on the foundations of detonation phenomen...

  1. References in the Australasian Medical Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Adhikari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReferences serve as an important tool in providing credibility to the published literature and to assist retrieval of the cited and related information. This study was done to observe the accuracy of references in articles published in Australasian Medical Journal.Method Fifty references were randomly selected from two different issues of Australasian Medical Journal (AMJ: Volume 3, Number 11, 2010 and Volume 3, Number 10, 2010. The instructions for authors of this journal were examined. References from each article were compared with the original for accuracy, using the following six elements: 1 authors; including spelling, initials, order and number; 2 title, including spelling and punctuation; 3 journal name, including use of correct abbreviation as listed in Index Medicus; 4 year; 5 volume; and 6 page numbers, including first and last page numbers. Citations were considered incorrect if there was an error in any of these six elements. References not cited from indexed journals were excluded. Statistical analysis was done by using frequency and percentage.ResultsResults show that 14.0% references in AMJ were inaccurate. Most common errors were author’s name and journal name. Author’s names were found to be incorrect in 10.0% references while journal name (either incorrect abbreviations or incorrect instructions or punctuation errors were found to be incorrect in 4.0%. Least common error was found in writing the title of the article (2.0%. There were no errors found in other elements.ConclusionErrors in citing the references are also found in the AMJ. The quoted error in this study (14.0% is comparable to other international literature. The majority of errors are avoidable. So, the authors, editors and the reviewers have to check for any errors seriously before publication in the journal.

  2. Indirect boundary element method on recursive matrix operation to compute waves in irregularly stratified media with infinitely extended interfaces. Perturbation by a point source; Kansetsu kyokai yosoho ni yoru fukisoku seiso kozochu no hadoba no keisanho. Tenshingen ni taisuru reference solution no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-05-01

    As a method of computation of wave fields in irregularly stratified media by use of the indirect boundary element method, an induction formula was proposed in a previous report, utilizing the reference solution representing the wave field in corresponding horizontally stratified media. This algorithm applies to other types of vibration source. In computation of a wave field with the focus in presence on the ground or in the ground, the algorithm is incorporated into the computation as a vector including the reference solution as a variable. There exists no need to modify the algorithm. Once the reference solution is obtained, the wave field in the irregularly stratified media is automatically constructed by the proposed algorithm. The wave field to be the reference solution to a point source in the horizontally stratified media, is determined when the solution is obtained of the frequency/wavenumber domain by use of the reflection/transmission matrix of Kennet (1983) and converted into the solution of the spatial domain by use of the discrete wavenumber representation of Bouchon and Aki (1977). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. (comp.)

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF/sub 6/ conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables.

  4. Dual-source CT with multiplanar reconstruction and volume rendering three-dimensional reconstruction in the evaluation of rib fractures%双源CT结合多平面重建与容积再现三维重建技术评价肋骨骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱斌; 邹新农; 姚选军; 陶广宇; 王凯; 陈宏伟

    2011-01-01

    背景:依靠胸部摄片诊断肋骨骨折常导致误诊和漏诊.目的:分析双源CT 结合三维重建技术在肋骨骨折中的应用价值.方法:使用双源CT 对65 例肋骨骨折患者进行薄层扫描,将数据发送至工作站行多平面重建、容积再现技术,得到肋骨骨折高清晰度的三维图像后,从不同角度观察骨折线走行、骨折移位及成角情况.结果与结论:双源CT 结合三维重建图像清晰显示65 例患者286 根骨折,其中52 例保守治疗,其余13 例行切开复位、内固定治疗.制定手术方案时均参考了三维重建图像,所显示的骨折部位、移位、成角等情况与术中所见一致.提示双源CT 能明确诊断肋骨骨折,多平面重建和容积再现技术互相补充对诊断肋骨骨折及指导治疗方案有明显的优势.%BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of rib fractures relying on the chest radiograph diagnosis often leads to misdiagnos is. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application of dual-source CT with three-dimensional reconstruction in rib fractures. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with rib fractures were scanned with dual-source CT. The data were sent to the workstation line of multi-planar reconstruction using volume rendering technique, to obtain high-resolution three-dimersion al images of rib fractures, and to observe the fracture line courses, fracture displacement and angulation of the situation from different angles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The combination of dual-source CT and three-dimensional reconstruction images clearly showed 286 fractures in 65 patients, including 52 cases of consenrvative treatment, and the remaining 13 cases of surgery. The surgery programs in all patients were developed with reference to three- dimensional reoonstruction images showing the fracture position, displacement, angulation. Etc., consistent with the intraoperative findings. Dual-source CT can confirm the diagnose of rib fractures, and multi-planar reconstruction and volume

  5. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  6. Calibration coefficient of reference brachytherapy ionization chamber using analytical and Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Srinivasan, P; Sharma, S D

    2010-06-01

    A cylindrical graphite ionization chamber of sensitive volume 1002.4 cm(3) was designed and fabricated at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for use as a reference dosimeter to measure the strength of high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. The air kerma calibration coefficient (N(K)) of this ionization chamber was estimated analytically using Burlin general cavity theory and by the Monte Carlo method. In the analytical method, calibration coefficients were calculated for each spectral line of an HDR (192)Ir source and the weighted mean was taken as N(K). In the Monte Carlo method, the geometry of the measurement setup and physics related input data of the HDR (192)Ir source and the surrounding material were simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle code. The total photon energy fluence was used to arrive at the reference air kerma rate (RAKR) using mass energy absorption coefficients. The energy deposition rates were used to simulate the value of charge rate in the ionization chamber and N(K) was determined. The Monte Carlo calculated N(K) agreed within 1.77 % of that obtained using the analytical method. The experimentally determined RAKR of HDR (192)Ir sources, using this reference ionization chamber by applying the analytically estimated N(K), was found to be in agreement with the vendor quoted RAKR within 1.43%.

  7. Sources of Information for French Language, Literature, and Culture in Washington State University Libraries Incorporating Checklist of Basic Reference Materials for French Language and Literature in the Humanities Library, Washington State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifler, Henrietta, Comp.; Jackson, Marilyn, Comp.

    This bibliography contains entries in the following areas: (1) bibliographic guides, bibliographies, and checklists; (2) encyclopedias, language dictionaries, glossaries, literary dictionaries, handbooks, histories, and manuals covering literature and performing arts; (3) sources of critical reviews; (4) checklist and indexes to journal articles;…

  8. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  9. ModSAF Programmers Reference Manual. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-20

    geographically close areas, and applications will typically be accessing geographically close areas, cache consistency (the probability a needed page is in the...code segement : cmpnt.invoke(HULLS.SET.DIRECTION.SPEED.FCN. Hvid, Hcnuz, (ADDRESS)k..hif); HULLS..SETDIRECTION.SPEED.FCN serves as the function

  10. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume I, Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive precipitation and gene...

  11. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  12. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Pratt, Robert G.; Akyol, Bora A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Foster, Nikolas AF; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Somani, Abhishek; Steckley, Andrew C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-04-28

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  13. Groundwater Contamination Response Guide. Volume 2. Desk Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    in Table 29. (c) Design Considerations The major design factors are (Adams & Eckenfelder , 1974): * retention time 0 oxygen requirements a food to...needs defined. Design equations can be found in Adams and Eckenfelder (1974). To generate quantitative design information, the following site...specific information is necessary (Adams and Eckenfelder , 1974): * biodegradable sludge fraction ~ total Kjedahl nitrogen in influent (TKN) 4 total

  14. Reference Manual, Background Materials for the CONUS Volumes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-25

    invisible rays "X-rays." In 1896, Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium emitted similar kinds of *rays. These rays, along with X-rays, were shown to...Librarian ATTN: Librarian Georgia Southwestern College Haydon Burns Library ATTN: Director of Libraries ATTN: Librarian Georgia State Univ Lib Henry Ford

  15. NATO Reference Mobility Model. Edition I. Users Guide. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    11 Operational Modules TABLE I.C.1 Terrain, Vehicle, Driver Attributes Characterized in INRMM Data Base Terrain Vehicle Driver Surface Composition ...C AND GRAEB R~ESISTANCE C~~--------------- ---------- ------ ------a~e e e e epa C C SECTION IA - INITIAILIZATION C FCC = 0. FCTkAK =0. FR = 0. FTC...PLCT CHARS C C COMPUTE SCALE FACTOR C IPT=IN I(0.5b((DATA- BMI •i/SCALE)I C C DETEMINE PRINT CHARACTEF C ;IF(IPT.LE.0 OR.IPT.GT,.1201 RETURN IFl

  16. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume II – Hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive precipitation and gene...

  17. Reference Book for the Nitrogen Industry Worker. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-19

    TALLE 11-7. PRESSURE OF WATEr . VAPORS ABOVE SOLUTIONS OF AMONIUM NITRATE" TewMiOTa AMfOmSe jiMe Teunepypa Xanm ALM pr.nC. e/1O0 a am pM.cm. C a/1O0 BOMA...ammonium nitrate are autocatalytic processes. Only water puts out the fires. The production of amonium nitrate is fire- and explosion-dangercus. 191...additives of water - soluble inorganic salts; 3) treatment of particles of ammonium nitrate with incombustible hydrophobic substances; 4) dusting of the

  18. The Calibration Reference Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a software architecture and implementation for using rules to determine which calibration files are appropriate for calibrating a given observation. This new system, the Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS), replaces what had been previously used for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) calibration pipelines, the Calibration Database System (CDBS). CRDS will be used for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) calibration pipelines, and is currently being used for HST calibration pipelines. CRDS can be easily generalized for use in similar applications that need a rules-based system for selecting the appropriate item for a given dataset; we give some examples of such generalizations that will likely be used for JWST. The core functionality of the Calibration Reference Data System is available under an Open Source license. CRDS is briefly contrasted with a sampling of other similar systems used at other observatories.

  19. Minimize reference sideband generation in microwave PLLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stan

    1991-02-01

    The processes responsible for producing reference sidebands are outlined, and the sources of coupling to the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) tune line including power-supply-generated signals, TTL-controlled interface signals, intermediate programmable-divider signals, and radiated TTL signals are discussed. It is noted that filtering alone is inadequate for reference-sideband suppression, while minimizing the tuning slope and maximizing the reference frequency will result in a reduced reference-sideband level. Minimizing offset currents by using a differential amplifier connection may reduce the reference-sideband level aggravated by an opamp. The selection of a TTL, ECL, or GaAs phase/frequency detector can determine the level of reference sidebands, as well as PCB isolation techniques.

  20. Reference depth for geostrophic computation - A new method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Various methods are available for the determination of reference depth for geostrophic computation. A new method based on the vertical profiles of mean and variance of the differences of mean specific volume anomaly (delta x 10) for different layers...

  1. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1-30, 1995. Volume 17, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This document is NUREG-0540, Volume 17, Number 4. The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication, It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US NRC. This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by the NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which the NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a personal author index, a corporate source index, and a report number index.

  2. Reference Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, John; Young, William

    This manual is primarily designed as an orientation program for librarians new to the Reference Services Division at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries. It contains practical information and some of the procedures necessary for providing service at the reference desk in these libraries. The appendices provide samples…

  3. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  4. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  5. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  6. Aspect and Reference time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borik, O.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis provides a theory of aspect in Russian based on the notion of Reference time. The main claim advocated in this study is that there are two types of aspect, predicational/telicity aspect and perspective or Reference time aspect. It is argued that these two types should be carefully distin

  7. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  8. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  9. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collaborating on Referring Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter A.; Hirst, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model of how conversational participants collaborate in order to make a referring action successful. The model is based on the view of language as goal-directed behavior. We propose that the content of a referring expression can be accounted for by the planning paradigm. Not only does this approach allow the processes of building referring expressions and identifying their referents to be captured by plan construction and plan inference, it also allows us to account for how participants clarify a referring expression by using meta-actions that reason about and manipulate the plan derivation that corresponds to the referring expression. To account for how clarification goals arise and how inferred clarification plans affect the agent, we propose that the agents are in a certain state of mind, and that this state includes an intention to achieve the goal of referring and a plan that the agents are currently considering. It is this mental state that sanctions the adoption of g...

  11. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  12. Family of Quantum Sources for Improving Near Field Accuracy in Transducer Modeling by the Distributed Point Source Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Placko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The distributed point source method, or DPSM, developed in the last decade has been used for solving various engineering problems—such as elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, electrostatic, and fluid flow problems. Based on a semi-analytical formulation, the DPSM solution is generally built by superimposing the point source solutions or Green’s functions. However, the DPSM solution can be also obtained by superimposing elemental solutions of volume sources having some source density called the equivalent source density (ESD. In earlier works mostly point sources were used. In this paper the DPSM formulation is modified to introduce a new kind of ESD, replacing the classical single point source by a family of point sources that are referred to as quantum sources. The proposed formulation with these quantum sources do not change the dimension of the global matrix to be inverted to solve the problem when compared with the classical point source-based DPSM formulation. To assess the performance of this new formulation, the ultrasonic field generated by a circular planer transducer was compared with the classical DPSM formulation and analytical solution. The results show a significant improvement in the near field computation.

  13. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  14. Olfactory Reference Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory reference syndrome is a delusional disorder in which the patient persistently and falsely believes that his or her body emits a foul odor. The disease is considered a variant of somatic type of delusional disorder under the diagnostic systems. Similarities between olfactory reference syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder have also been noted. The etiopathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been clarified. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review clinical features, neurobiology, differantial diagnosis, classification problems and treatment of olfactory reference syndrome.

  15. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  16. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  17. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  18. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  19. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  20. Animation framework using volume visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenxuan; Wang, Hongli

    2004-03-01

    As the development of computer graphics, scientific visualization and advanced imaging scanner and sensor technology, high quality animation making of volume data set has been a challenging in industries. A simple animation framework by using current volume visualization techniques is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of two pipelines: one is surface based method by using marching cubes algorithm, the other is volume rendering method by using shear-warp method. The volume visualization results can not only be used as key frame sources in the animation making, but also can be directly used as animation when the volume visualization is in stereoscopic mode. The proposed framework can be applied into fields such as medical education, film-making and archaeology.

  1. Does Glass Size and Shape Influence Judgements of the Volume of Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Attwood, Angela S; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Munafò, Marcus R; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Woods, Andy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Judgements of volume may influence the rate of consumption of alcohol and, in turn, the amount consumed. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the size and shape of wine glasses on perceptions of wine volume. Online experiment: Participants (n = 360; recruited via Mechanical Turk) were asked to match the volume of wine in two wine glasses, specifically: 1. the Reference glass holding a fixed reference volume, and 2. the Comparison glass, for which the volume could be altered until participants perceived it matched the reference volume. One of three comparison glasses was shown in each trial: 'wider' (20% wider but same capacity); 'larger' (same width but 25% greater capacity); or 'wider-and-larger' (20% wider and 25% greater capacity). Reference volumes were 125 ml, 175 ml and 250 ml, in a fully factorial within-subjects design: 3 (comparison glass) x 3 (reference volume). Non-zero differences between the volumes with which participants filled comparison glasses and the corresponding reference volumes were identified using sign-rank tests. Participants under-filled the wider glass relative to the reference glass for larger reference volumes, and over-filled the larger glass relative to the reference glass for all reference volumes. Results for the wider-and-larger glass showed a mixed pattern across reference volume. For all comparison glasses, in trials with larger reference volumes participants tended to fill the comparison glass less, relative to trials with smaller reference volumes for the same comparison glass. These results are broadly consistent with people using the relative fullness of glasses to judge volume, and suggest both the shape and capacity of wine glasses may influence perceived volume. Perceptions that smaller glasses contain more than larger ones (despite containing the same volume), could slow drinking speed and overall consumption by serving standard portions in smaller glasses. This hypothesis awaits testing.

  2. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  3. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  4. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  5. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  6. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hypermethioninemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Mutations in human glycine N-methyltransferase give insights into its role in methionine metabolism. Hum Genet. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  8. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  9. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  10. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),2011,205:88–92.

  11. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),

  12. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  13. Reference Based Genome Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Bobbie; Ochoa, Idoia; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target gen...

  14. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  15. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  16. Online Sources of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagers, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach to using online sources of information for competitor intelligence (i.e., monitoring industry and tracking activities of competitors); identifies principal sources; and suggests some ways of making use of online databases. Types and sources of information and sources and database charts are appended. Eight references are…

  17. Open source community organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  18. Scientific Opinion on Review of the European Union Summary Report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks—Terms of reference 2 to 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated the European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks by EFSA and ECDC (the report with regard to data needs and subsequent analyses that will minimise the impact of existing data gaps and inconsistencies. Specific assessments performed for bovine tuberculosis, echinococcosis, Q fever, brucellosis, rabies, cysticercosis and tularaemia show that the report gives an accurate picture of the epidemiological situation for the infections which have an EU harmonised monitoring system. Generally the data analysis is descriptive; further analysis for specific purposes and quantification of the trends should be considered. Specific information for each disease should contain (i a clear case definition, (ii a clear description of sampling techniques and diagnostic tests used, (iii relevant epidemiological characteristics and (iv relevant control measures or surveillance. Prioritisation of diseases from a public health viewpoint is not in the remit of the AHAW Panel. Proposed criteria to assess the value of including additional diseases in the report are (1 the disease is reported regularly in animals and humans in some EU Member States; (2 the disease is considered a serious public health issue; and (3 monitoring in animals is epidemiologically justifiable. The first two criteria are inclusion criteria; the third is used to prioritise diseases for inclusion in the report. The last section of the opinion addresses the value of the data included in the report for AHAW risk assessment. Their usefulness is often compromised by missing case definition, insufficient metadata or outdated data. It is recommended that data needs are further analysed to improve the preparedness of the AHAW Panel to answer risk questions, via some readily available and stable data as well as good knowledge of ad-hoc data models

  19. What's New? Children Prefer Novelty in Referent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Kucker, Sarah C.; McMurray, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Determining the referent of a novel name is a critical task for young language learners. The majority of studies on children's referent selection focus on manipulating the sources of information (linguistic, contextual and pragmatic) that children can use to solve the referent mapping problem. Here, we take a step back and explore how children's…

  20. What's New? Children Prefer Novelty in Referent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Kucker, Sarah C.; McMurray, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Determining the referent of a novel name is a critical task for young language learners. The majority of studies on children's referent selection focus on manipulating the sources of information (linguistic, contextual and pragmatic) that children can use to solve the referent mapping problem. Here, we take a step back and explore how children's…

  1. "Would You Move, Please?" Weeding Science Reference Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Tchangalova, Nedelina; Zdravkovska, Nevenka

    2007-01-01

    In the last five years the Engineering & Physical Sciences Library underwent a major staff shortage that resulted in the slowing-down of some services and the abandonment of other vital activities like regular weeding of the reference collection. Many print indexes and abstracts (e.g., Science Citation Index and Chemical Abstracts) were canceled in favor of electronic access but the old print volumes remained in reference. The reference collection occupies a prime location in the library. Thi...

  2. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  3. New celestial reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. K.; Kaplan, G. H.; van Flandern, T. C.

    It is pointed out that the IAU (1976) System of Astronomical Constants, the FK5 and new lunar and planetary theories are being introduced in 1984. The investigation and planning for the transition have revealed the complex interdependencies between observational techniques and the reference systems and their strong link to the rotating and orbiting earth. Details for the conversion to the new system are given. The concepts for a future reference system are developed, based on separating the real motions involved in such a way that observations from various moving platforms can be related to the appropriate coordinate system without involving motions that are not intrinsically involved in the observations. As a consequence, the reference systems determined or used in space, while affected by aberration and parallax, would logically be defined with no dependence on precession, nutation, polar motion, or Universal Time, all of which are concerned with motions of the earth's surface.

  4. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  5. A Low Voltage High PSRR Reference Source Based on Regulated Current Mode Structure%基于电流控制模式的低压、高PSRR基准源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 周云; 王璐霞; 袁凯

    2011-01-01

    A new bandgap voltage reference circuit with low voltage .high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) based on a regulated current mode structure is presented. The proposed circuit utilizes a regulated current mode structure and some feedback loops to improve the overall PSRR. Using resistive subdivision reaches a low voltage and provides the bias voltage of transistors,simplified bias circuit. The circuit was designed with 0. 5μn complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor (CMOS) N - well technology, which worked at 1.5V power voltage. Cadence Spectre simulation results show PSRR is 107dB at low frequencies, the temperature coefficient from - 10°C to 125°C temperature range is 7.17 ppm/°C and the power consumption is only 0. 525mW. This circuit shows robustness against process variation.%基于可调电流控制模式设计出一种低压、高电源抑制比的带隙基准电压源电路.采用电流控制模式和多反馈环路,提高电路的整体电源抑制比;通过电阻分压的方式,使电路达到低压,同时提供偏压,简化偏置电路.采用0.5μmCMOS N阱工艺,电路可在电源电压为1.5V时正常工作.使用Cadence Spectre进行仿真结果表明,低频时电源抑制比(PSRR)高达107dB.- 10℃~125℃温度范围内,平均温度系数约7.17ppm/℃,功耗仅为0.525mW.此电路能有效地抑制制程变异.

  6. bash Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In this quick reference, you'll find everything you need to know about the bash shell. Whether you print it out or read it on the screen, this PDF gives you the answers to the annoying questions that always come up when you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you need to quote? How do you get variable substitution to do exactly what you want? How do you use arrays? It's also helpful for interactive use. If you're a Unix user or programmer, or if you're using bash on Windows, you'll find this quick reference indispensable.

  7. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  8. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  9. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  10. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  11. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  12. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  13. ALGUNAS MENCIONES EN LAS FUENTES ETNOHISTÓRICAS DE LAS MINAS DE CHALCHIHUITES EN EL NOROESTE DE ZACATECAS (Some references in ethnohistorical sources to the Chalchihuites mines in northwestern Zacatecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Cabrero G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se ha creído que las minas que existen en el valle del río Súchil, en el noroeste de Zacatecas, fueron creación de la gente que vivió antes de la llegada de los conquistadores durante el siglo XVI; sin embargo, no hay evidencia de que el mundo prehispánico que habitó el territorio mexicano conociera la tecnología para construir minas con pozos, túneles y galerías. Las fuentes del siglo XVI mencionan la «fiebre» que se desató en la búsqueda de oro y plata y las vicisitudes que tuvieron que vivir los mineros de origen español para extraer la plata y, en mucha menor cantidad, el oro. En este artículo se comentan algunos pasajes de la historia que dejaron los misioneros religiosos y sus apreciaciones de la vida recién iniciada por los colonos extranjeros en su búsqueda inagotable de los metales preciosos. Por último, se exponen las dudas sobre los creadores de las minas que aún permanecen en esta parte de Zacatecas. ENGLISH: Is believed that the existing mines located in the Suchil river valley in northwest Zacatecas, Mexico, were constructed by people settled there before the conquerors’ arrival during the 16th century. However, there is no evidence linking the technology to build mines with wells, tunnels and galleries to prehispanic people. 16th century bibliographic sources describe the gold and silver rush that caused all kinds of difficulties for Spanish miners seeking silver and the even more rare gold. This article mentions a few stories left by religious miners concerning their way of living and that of the foreign pioneers during their constant search for precious metals. Last but not least, doubts emerge about who were the real creators of these mines.

  14. Accuracy of references in Internet Journal of Medical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Adhikari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to observe the accuracy of references in articles published in Internet Journal of Medical Update (IJMU. Sixty references were randomly selected from IJMU (Volume 5, Number 2, July 2010, Volume 4, Number 2, July 2009 and Volume 4, Number 1, January 2009. The instructions for authors of this journal were looked carefully. All the references were compared with the original for accuracy, using the following six elements: authors name; journal name as per Index Medicus; year; volume; and page numbers. References were considered incorrect if there was an error in any of these six elements. Statistical analysis was done by using frequency and percentage. Ten percent references in Internet Journal of Medical Update were inaccurate. Most common errors were author’s name and title of the article. Author’s names were found to be incorrect in 5.0% references while title of the article was found to be incorrect in 3.3%. Least common error was found in writing the journal name (either incorrect abbreviations or incorrect instructions or punctuation errors in (1.7%. Inaccuracies of references are also found in the Internet Journal of Medical Update. The majority of errors in IJMU are avoidable. So, the authors, editors and the reviewers have to check for any errors seriously before publication in the journal.

  15. CVS pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Purdy, Gregor N

    2003-01-01

    The beauty of open source is making code freely available. The curse is trying to organize the chaos that code development can evolve into. CVS, the Concurrent Version System, is an open source tool for managing and distributing source code. It allows multiple users dispersed over a wide geographic area to work on the same file at the same time, using a shared directory. Under CVS, multiple users can check out files from a directory tree, make changes, and then commit those changes back into the directory. CVS is a pivotal tool on many projects involving information or software, whether in-ho

  16. Reader association participation-based crowd sourcing of virtual reference service in medical college and university libraries%基于读者协会参与的医学院校图书馆虚拟参考咨询众包服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪娇; 李晋瑞

    2015-01-01

    As a brand new service mode on Internet,crowd sourcing can solve the problems that need high cost and professionals by drawing on the wisdom of tens of thousands of Internet users. Medical college and university libraries should thus strengthen their virtual reference service teams and further improve their virtual reference service level by introducing the crowd sourcing concept,depending on the support of reader association and drawing on the wisdom of readers.%众包作为一种全新的互联网服务模式,低成本地汲取网络上成千上万用户的集体智慧,解决原本需要高昂成本以及专业人士才能解决甚至不能解决的问题。医学院校图书馆应引入众包理念,借助图书馆的新生力量“读者协会”,不断充实图书馆虚拟参考咨询服务队伍,汇集全体读者的聪明才智,进一步提高图书馆虚拟参考咨询的服务水平与质量。

  17. Role and Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  18. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  19. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  20. Digital Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Lorri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing demand for digital reference services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)

  1. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  2. An Amharic Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

  3. The Reference Encounter Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  4. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  5. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  6. X Python reference manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manu

  7. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, G. van

    1995-01-01

    Python is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not describe the

  8. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  9. Ndiff Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Deniau, L

    2013-01-01

    ndiff is an efficient and flexible tool designed to compare unformatted text files with numerical content. It is well suited for regression testing, for validating data versus templates, and for filtering data following templates. This technical note is the reference manual of the ndiff tool initially developed for the MAD-X test system and subsequently extended for data validation.

  10. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  11. References on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  12. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  13. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  14. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  15. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  16. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  17. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  18. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  19. New Danish reference values for spirometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis; Mortensen, Jann

    2013-01-01

    years of age or older with adequate lung function. Results:  We used sex-stratified multiple linear regression analysis to find prediction formulas for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1) ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1) /FVC adjusted for age and height. The cutoff value of normal lung......Introduction:  International recommendations state that reference values for lung function should derive from cross-sectional studies of healthy nonsmokers and be renewed from time to time because of cohort effect and newer, more accurate, technical equipment. In 1986, the Danish Lung Society...... published reference values for spirometry based on 570 individuals aged 30-70 years. Objectives:  To produce new reference values for lung function and to extend the existing values by including individuals between 20 and 30 years of age and older than 70 years of age. Methods:  Two similar but independent...

  20. Environmental Reference Series, Conservation and Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the environment and influences upon it. Specific categories are conservation and wildlife and pesticides. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)