WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume osmolality vasopressin

  1. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  2. Regulation of plasma osmolality: thirst and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, K H

    1994-12-01

    Sudden changes in plasma osmolality may have lethal consequences, because of abrupt changes in the volume of cells in the central nervous system. Acute osmotic disequilibrium can result in brain shrinkage or brain swelling. This article explores how the integrated responses of vasopressin and thirst maintain osmotic equilibrium through regulation of body water balance. These two mechanisms provide almost insurmountable barriers to excessive dilution or concentration of body fluids.

  3. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (pplasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (pplasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  4. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  5. Evaluation of Talbot's Safety Zone of Infusion Volume and Osmolality in Infusion Therapy for Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuasa,Shiro

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems with infusion therapy for correcting fluid and sodium imbalance in decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC were investigated by establishing the safety zone of Talbot et al. for parenteral fluid therapy in 4 DLC patients infused with over 900 ml of fluid each day for at least 9 days. The safety zone was different in each case. The safe infusion volume decreased and the safe electrolyte concentration shifted to a lower osmolality when there was ascites with renal failure than ascites without renal failure. Infusion therapy was performed without deterioration of the water and sodium balance in those patients whose infusion volume and fluid osmolality were in the safety zone. In contrast, ascites retention increased and peripheral edema appeared in patients whose infusion volume and osmolality were out of the safety zone. Therefore, the safety zone should be determined repeatedly during infusion therapy.

  6. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug therapies such as mannitol, used to treat cerebral edema . It is also ordered to help monitor the ... stable "therapeutic" osmotic gap and the relief of cerebral edema . Serum osmolality may be increased with: Dehydration Diabetes ...

  7. Frequency of hyponatremia and nonosmolar vasopressin release in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitting, K.E.; Gardenswartz, M.H.; Zabetakis, P.M.; Tapper, M.L.; Gleim, G.W.; Agrawal, M.; Michelis, M.F. (Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-02-16

    The frequency and pathophysiology of hyponatremia were studied in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Of 71 hospitalized patients surveyed retrospectively, hyponatremia was observed in 37 (52%). Of 48 patients studied prospectively, 27 (56%) were hyponatremic. In 16 hyponatremic patients, volume status; serum and urine osmolalities; renal, adrenal, and thyroid function; and plasma vasopressin levels were assessed. Urine osmolalities were inappropriately elevated relative to serum osmolalities. Four patients had moderate renal insufficiency. Plasma vasopressin levels, measured by radioimmunoassay, were elevated in 15 patients, with the highest levels seen in patients who died. Hyponatremia of multiple etiologies occurred in a majority of inpatients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, often following the administration of hypotonic fluids, and was associated with a 30% (8/27) short-term mortality.

  8. Hypothalamic knife cuts alter fluid regulation, vasopressin secretion, and natriuresis during water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealer, S L; Crofton, J T; Share, L

    1983-05-01

    To investigate central neural pathways involved in release of vasopressin and in fluid electrolyte regulation, a retractable wire knife was used to make coronal knife cuts posterior to the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT). 4 days following cuts or control surgery, animals were housed in metabolism cages and: (1) deprived of food and water for 48 h; (2) deprived of water only for 48 h; or (3) allowed continuous access to food and water. Water ingestion, food ingestion, urine volume, sodium excretion and urine osmolality were recorded daily. Trunk blood was then collected following decapitation for determination of plasma vasopressin, sodium, and protein concentrations, and osmolality. Animals with knife cuts and ad libitum access to food and water had significantly higher plasma osmolality (310 +/- 2 mosm/kg), and plasma vasopressin concentration (2.02 +/- 0.5 microunits/ml) than controls (306 +/- 1 mosm/kg and 0.60 +/- 0.04 microunits/ml, respectively). When rats were deprived of both food and water, there were no significant differences between the two groups in plasma vasopressin concentration, although plasma osmolality wa higher in animals with cuts. However, rats with knife cuts deprived of water only had significantly higher plasma osmolality (358 +/- 8 mosm/kg), sodium (164 +/- 19 mEq/l) and vasopressin (17.7 +/- 4 microunits/ml), than similarly treated control animals (317 +/- 1 mosm/kg, 145.5 +/- 1.0 mEq/1, 5.5 +/- 3 microunits/ml, respectively). These data indicate that a neural pathway in this brain region is critical for normal fluid and electrolyte balance during ad libitum access to food and water, and during water deprivation.

  9. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system.

  10. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica T. Perrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  11. Evaluation of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry for the measurement of ethanol, methanol and isopropanol in physiological fluids: effect of osmolality and sample volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Lynn; Workman, Clive; Roberts, Norman B

    2009-09-01

    Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is particularly suited for the analysis of volatile low molecular weight compounds. We have evaluated this technique for the assay of different alcohols in aqueous solutions, including blood plasma, and in particular whether the osmolality or sample volume affected vapourisation. Solutions of three different alcohols (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) ranging from 0.005 to 50 mmol/L were prepared in deionised water (0 milliosmol), phosphate-buffered saline (690 mOsm), isotonic saline (294 mOsm) and plasma (296 mOsm). The vapour above the sample (50 to 1000 microL) contained in air-tight tubes at 37 degrees C was aspirated into the instrument. The outputs for ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were linear over the concentration range and independent of the sample volume and relatively independent of the osmolar concentration. SIFT-MS can reliably and accurately measure common alcohols in the headspace above aqueous solutions, including serum/plasma. This novel application of SIFT-MS is easy to follow, requires no sample preparation and the wide dynamic range will facilitate measurement of alcohols present from normal metabolism as well as when taken in excess or in accidental poisoning.

  12. Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

  13. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  14. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.

  15. Osmolality of nonionic contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklautz, H; Fichte, K; Wegscheider, K

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of different low osmolar contrast media (CM) obviously show clinically relevant differences in the osmolality despite equal iodine concentrations and similar molecular structure. To obtain precise and comparable data, the osmolality of five batches (usually) each of contrast media, iopamidol, iohexol, iopromide, and ioxaglate-all preparations commercially available-were measured by means of the vapor pressure method. The osmolality of the solutions of sodium meglumine ioxaglate with the same iodine concentration is lower than that of the nonionic CM examined. Iopromide showed the lowest osmolality and iohexol the highest value of the nonionic preparations. The differences are statistically significant as a rule. They are attributed to a varying association and hydration of the CM molecules in the solution.

  16. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  17. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Su, Tao; Lee, Sujin; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, A S

    2014-09-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins of the UT-A class are expressed in epithelial cells in kidney tubules, where they are required for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent multiplication. Here, using a recently developed high-throughput assay to identify UT-A inhibitors, a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules identified UT-A inhibitors of aryl-thiazole, γ-sultambenzosulfonamide, aminocarbonitrile butene, and 4-isoxazolamide chemical classes. Structure-activity analysis identified compounds that inhibited UT-A selectively by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 down to ∼1 μM. Molecular modeling identified putative inhibitor binding sites on rat UT-A. To test compound efficacy in rats, formulations and administration procedures were established to give therapeutic inhibitor concentrations in blood and urine. We found that intravenous administration of an indole thiazole or a γ-sultambenzosulfonamide at 20 mg/kg increased urine output by 3-5-fold and reduced urine osmolality by ∼2-fold compared to vehicle control rats, even under conditions of maximum antidiuresis produced by 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). The diuresis was reversible and showed urea > salt excretion. The results provide proof of concept for the diuretic action of UT-A-selective inhibitors. UT-A inhibitors are first in their class salt-sparing diuretics with potential clinical indications in volume-overload edemas and high-vasopressin-associated hyponatremias.

  18. SPORT DRINKS WITH DIFFERENT OSMOLALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the assortment sport drinks’ extending possibility is represented. The juice component compositions for sport drinks with different osmolality were designed. The feasibility of adding into the drink calcium lactate as a source of quick body energy renovation and as calcium deficiency’s reducer were proved.

  19. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    inpatient study under standardized conditions for measurements of plasma vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium and osmolality. Urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin-2 and prostaglandin E2. ResultsPlasma vasopressin expressed a diurnal rhythm with a night-time increase in both......AimWe investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. MethodsFifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian...

  20. Microdrop preparation factors influence culture-media osmolality, which can impair mouse embryo preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D

    2012-02-01

    Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development.

  1. Antidiuretic Action of Collecting Duct (Pro)Renin Receptor Downstream of Vasopressin and PGE2 Receptor EP4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xiaohan; Peng, Kexin; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Li; Su, Jiahui; Nau, Adam; Yang, Kevin T; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-10-01

    Within the kidney, the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the collecting duct (CD), particularly in intercalated cells, and it is regulated by the PGE2 receptor EP4 Notably, EP4 also controls urinary concentration through regulation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2). Here, we tested the hypothesis that sequential activation of EP4 and PRR determines AQP2 expression in the CD, thus mediating the antidiuretic action of vasopressin (AVP). Water deprivation (WD) elevated renal PRR expression and urinary soluble PRR excretion in rats. Intrarenal infusion of a PRR decoy peptide, PRO20, or an EP4 antagonist partially prevented the decrease in urine volume and the increase in urine osmolality and AQP2 expression induced by 48-hour WD. In primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells, AQP2 expression induced by AVP treatment for 24 hours depended on sequential activation of the EP4 receptor and PRR. Additionally, mice lacking PRR in the CD exhibited increased urine volume and decreased urine osmolality under basal conditions and impaired urine concentrating capability accompanied by severe volume loss and a dangerous level of plasma hyperosmolality after WD. Together, these results suggest a previously undescribed linear AVP/PGE2/EP4/PRR pathway in the CD for regulation of AQP2 expression and urine concentrating capability.

  2. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes. Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30 patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent vomiting, with resultant dehydration. A diagnosis of food poisoning was made based on the clinical picture, short incubation period and positive epidemiological history. Plasma osmolality was measured by a freezing point depression with an osmometer, while effective plasma osmolality was determined by using the following formula: EPO (eff. plasma osmolality = 2 x serum sodium concentration + serum glucose level. Apart from plasma osmolality, other parameters were also measured in patients' sera: sodium, chloride, potassium, urea, glucose and hematocrit. In order to follow-up the changes in these parameters, they were also measured after treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. Statistical analysis was performed using the equality of mean values for 2 basic groups. Results. The statistical results showed that the values of total and effective plasma osmolality (TPO and EPO among patients with gastrointestinal disorders were not significantly higher than values after the alimentary infection. Discussion. Such results suggest that food poisoning is associated with disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism, that is isotonic type of dehydration. .

  3. Absence of a difference in the neurosecretory activity of supraoptic nucleus vasopressin neurons of neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malidelis, Y.I.; Panayotacopoulou, M.T.; Heerikhuize, J.J. van; Unmehopa, U.A.; Kontostavlaki, D.P.; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    Dysfunction in water intake and metabolism has frequently been reported in schizophrenia. The general population of schizophrenics under neuroleptic treatment secretes lower amounts of vasopressin than controls at comparable values of plasma osmolality. The purpose of the present study was to

  4. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  5. Effect of osmolality on erythrocyte rheology and perfusion of an artificial microvascular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Walter H; Piety, Nathaniel Z; Goede, Jeroen S; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2015-03-01

    Plasma sodium concentration is normally held within a narrow range. It may however vary greatly under pathophysiological conditions. Changes in osmolality lead to either swelling or shrinkage of red blood cells (RBCs). Here we investigated the influence of suspension osmolality on biophysical properties of RBCs and their ability to perfuse an artificial microvascular network (AMVN). Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers. RBC deformability was measured by osmotic gradient ektacytometry over a continuous range of osmolalities. Packed RBCs were suspended in NaCl solutions (0.45, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 g/dL), resulting in supernatant osmolalities of 179 ± 4, 213 ± 1, 283 ± 2, 354 ± 3, and 423 ± 5 mOsm/kg H2O. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined using centrifuged microhematocrit. RBC suspensions at constant cell numbers were used to measure viscosity at shear rates ranging from 0.11 to 69.5s(-1) and the perfusion rate of the AMVN. MCV was inversely and MCHC directly proportional to osmolality. RBC deformability was maximized at isosmotic conditions (290 mOsm/kg H2O) and markedly decreased by either hypo- or hyperosmolality. The optimum osmolality for RBC suspension viscosity was shifted toward hyperosmolality, while lower osmolalities increased suspension viscosity exponentially. However, the AMVN perfusion rate was maximized at 290 mOsm/kg H2O and changed by less than 10% over a wide range of osmolalities. These findings contribute to the basic understanding of blood flow in health and disease and may have significant implications for the management of osmotic homeostasis in clinical practice.

  6. Relationship between urinary concentrating ability, arginine vasopressin in plasma and blood pressure after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1985-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in plasma before and after a 24-h period of water deprivation in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), 14 patients with normal blood pressure after renal transplantation (group II), and 16 healthy control subjects (group III). Urine was collected in four periods of 6 h each for measurement of urine volume (V), urine osmolality (Uosm) and tubular capacity for reabsorption of water (Tc water). AVP and Sosm increased significantly in all groups. The AVP levels were the same in groups I and II, but higher in group I than III both before and after water deprivation. In group II, AVP was higher than in group III only after water deprivation; V was significantly reduced in all groups. In groups I and II, V, Tc water and Uosm were the same. In group III, V was significantly lower than in groups I and II in the last three 6-h periods, and in group III, Tc water was higher in the first 6-h period than in groups I and II. There was a significant positive correlation between AVP and Sosm in all groups. In conclusion, renal water excretion cannot be reduced as rapidly and to the same degree in renal transplant recipients as in control subjects because of a decreased renal capacity for reabsorption of water. The higher AVP level in the transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon for the decreased responsiveness of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidneys. The sensitivity of the osmoreceptors to changes in osmotic stimuli was normal.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in Rhesus Monkey plasma. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, J.N.; Pavasuthipaisit, K.; Perez-Lopez, F.R.; Sofroniew, M.V.

    1976-04-01

    Using a new antiserum and an enzymatic radioiodination of arginine vasopressin (AVP), we have developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for plasma AVP in the monkey. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.5 ..mu..U/ml, the cross reaction with oxytocin (OT), minimal. We used this assay to study the effects that variations in blood osmolality have in regulating AVP secretion in unanesthetized, chair-restrained, chamber-isolated, adult female rhesus monkeys. Under water ad lib conditions, plasma AVP and osmolality were relatively constant, averaging 1.7 +- 0.6 (SD) ..mu..U/ml and 298 +- 3 mosmol/kg, respectively. Water loading decreased plasma AVP and osmolality to 0.6 +- 0.2 ..mu..U/ml and 282 +- 6 mosmol/kg, respectively. When fluid restriction increased osmolality, plasma AVP rose progressively to twice the baseline after 1 day, and to 6 times the baseline after 3 days. The rise in plasma AVP was linearly correlated with the rise in osmolality (r = 0.93; P less than 0.001). Intravenous infusions of hypertonic saline produced significant rises in plasma osmolality and plasma AVP. There was a dose-related rise in plasma AVP that declined later at the expected rate with the infusion of physiological amounts of synthetic AVP.

  8. Dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion in humans: involvement of the histaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, A; Knigge, U; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    2000-12-01

    In rats, the hypothalamic neurotransmitter histamine participates in regulation of vasopressin secretion and seems to be of physiological importance, because blockade of the histaminergic system reduces dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion. We investigated whether histamine is also involved in regulation of vasopressin secretion during dehydration in humans. We found that 40 h of dehydration gradually increased plasma osmolality by 10 mosmol/kg and induced a fourfold increase in vasopressin levels. Pretreatment with the H(2)-receptor antagonists cimetidine or ranitidine significantly reduced the dehydration-induced increase in vasopressin levels approximately 40% after 34 and 37 h of dehydration, whereas this was not the case with the H(1)-receptor antagonist mepyramine. Dehydration reduced aldosterone secretion by approximately 50%. This effect of dehydration was reduced by both H(1)- and H(2)-receptor blockade after 16 and/or 34 h of dehydration. We conclude that vasopressin secretion in response to dehydration in humans is under the regulatory influence of histamine and that the effect seems to be mediated via H(2)-receptors. In addition, the regulation of aldosterone secretion during dehydration also seems to involve the histaminergic system via H(1) and H(2) receptors.

  9. Effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Dilek Duzgun; Karis, Denizhan; Alkan, Fatma Ates; Cakmak, Gulfidan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ercan, Meltem

    2016-10-05

    Cigarette smoking deteriorates human health via vascular disorders, cancer and especially respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function in individuals without diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients diagnosed without COPD utilizing respiratory function test were enrolled in the study with three groups, ex-smokers (n = 21), current-smokers (n = 35) and never-smokers (n = 43). Hemorheologic parameters and plasma osmolality were measured in hemorheology laboratory. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and hematocrit levels, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly elevated in ex-smokers and current-smokers compared to never-smokers. The standardized red blood cell deformability and oxygen delivery index and lung function were statistically lower in current-smokers than never-smokers. Pulmonary blood flow rate was statistically lower in current-smokers and ex-smokers than never-smokers. Plasma osmolality was statistically significantly higher in ex-smokers and current-smokers than never-smokers. Our findings clearly show that cigarette smoking has severe effects on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function even in individuals without COPD. Blood and plasma viscosity with plasma osmolality might be useful markers to detect early hemorheologic-hemodynamic alterations in cigarette smokers.

  10. Effect of a multistage ultraendurance triathlon on aldosterone, vasopressin, extracellular water and urine electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Morales, N P Hernández; González, E Ruvalcaba; Gutierrez, A A Aguirre; Sevilla, J Noriega; Gómez, R Amézquita; Robledo, A R Estrada; Rodríguez, A L Marroquín; Fraire, O Salas; Andonie, J L; Lopez, L C; Kohler, G; Rosemann, T

    2012-02-01

    Prolonged endurance exercise over several days induces increase in extracellular water (ECW). We aimed to investigate an association between the increase in ECW and the change in aldosterone and vasopressin in a multistage ultraendurance triathlon, the 'World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon' with 10 Ironman triathlons within 10 days. Before and after each Ironman, body mass, ECW, urinary [Na(+)], urinary [K(+)], urinary specific gravity, urinary osmolality and aldosterone and vasopressin in plasma were measured. The 11 finishers completed the total distance of 38 km swimming, 1800 km cycling and 422 km running within 145.5 (18.8) hours and 25 (22) minutes. ECW increased by 0.9 (1.1) L from 14.6 (1.5) L prerace to 15.5 (1.9) L postrace (P triathlon, but vasopressin did not. The increase in ECW and the increase in aldosterone were not associated.

  11. The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, A J

    2012-02-03

    These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley\\'s First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm\\/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm\\/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm\\/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.

  12. Vasopressin and oxytocin in stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, D; Skultetyova, I; Tokarev, D I; Bakos, P; Vigas, M

    1995-12-29

    Though oxytocin and vasopressin are similar in structure and are produced in the same brain regions, they show specific responses under stress conditions. In humans, increases in peripheral blood vasopressin appear to be a consistent finding during many acute stress situations, while in rats, vasopressin secretion is unresponsive to several stimuli known to induce ACTH and catecholamine release. Even decreases in vasopressin levels during stress were described. In accordance with others, we observed enhanced vasopressin release in response to stress stimuli with an osmotic component such as hypertonic saline injection but also during exposure of rats to a warm environment. Immobilization stress which fails to induce vasopressin release was reported to increase hypothalamic vasopressin mRNA and plasma vasopressin levels in chronically adreno-demedullated rats. Unlike vasopressin, oxytocin may be considered a typical stress hormone responding to osmotic as well as other stress stimuli. We found that acute exposure of rats to immobilization stress resulted in an increase in oxytocin mRNA level. In addition, we have shown that magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, but not the supraoptic nucleus, are essential for oxytocin release during immobilization stress. The release of posterior pituitary hormones represents an important component of the stress response.

  13. Vasopressin and oxytocin secretion in response to the consumption of ecstasy in a clubbing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kim; Tsapakis, E M; Winstock, A R; Hartley, D; Holt, D; Forsling, M L; Aitchison, Katherine J

    2006-05-01

    Despite the common use of MDMA (ecstasy) in the UK, the mechanism underlying associated potentially fatal cerebral oedema is unclear. We used a new experimental approach working directly with clubbers to perform a study on 30 (17 male) experienced clubbers (mean 6.6 years of clubbing). Pre- and post-clubbing measurements were performed to compare plasma levels of pituitary hormones (vasopressin, oxytocin), plasma and urine osmolality, urinary pH, and plasma sodium and urea. Ecstasy consumption was confirmed by using urinary drug screening pre- and post-clubbing. MDMA was detected in the urine samples of 17 subjects, three of which tested positive during pre-clubbing tests. Mean plasma vasopressin concentration increased in the MDMA group (1.28 +/- 0.29 to 1.43 +/- 0.41 pmol/l), but fell in other participants (1.23 +/- 0.42 to 1.16 +/- 0.0.34 pmol/l). Similarly, mean plasma oxytocin concentrations increased after ingestion of MDMA (2.02 +/- 0.29 to 2.43 +/- 0.24 pmol/l), but fell in the group that did not use MDMA (2.17 +/- 0.36 pmol/l to 1.89 +/- 0.37 pmol/l). There was a significant group by time interaction for plasma osmolality and plasma sodium (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) and between change in urinary osmolality (p ecstasy-using "clubbers", which has important clinical implications.

  14. The Effect of Drinking on Plasma Vasopressin and Renin in Dehydrated Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mechanisms activated by drinking have been shown to induce a rapid decline in plasma vasopressin which preceeds postabsorptive changes in plasma composition in the dehydrated dog. The present study was undertaken to determine what factor(s) inhibit(s) vasopressin secretion after rehydration in water deprived human subjects. Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined on the day of the experiment, together with electrolytes and osmolalities which were measured on freshly separated serum. Plasma was immediately frozen and further analyzed by radioimmunoassay for renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone. The data were analyzed using an analysis of variance for repeated measurements and significant differences between the dehydrated control period and various time points after the start of rehydration were determined using a multiple-range test. began and reached water replete levels 15 minutes after drinking in the absence of any detectable decline in serum sodium or osmolality, we conclude that 427 oropharyngeal factors, alone or combined with gastric distension account for the extremely rapid inhibition of AVP secretion after drinking in the water-deprived human, as has been shown to be the case in dogs. Our findings are also in agreement wiht the recent demonstration that at the onset of drinking in the dehydrated monkey, there is an abrupt fall in plasma AVP concentration associated with a considerable decrease in the firing rate of the supraoptic neurosecretory neurons.

  15. Effects of the nonpeptide V(1) vasopressin receptor antagonist SR49059 in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibonnier, M; Kilani, A; Rahman, M; DiBlasi, T P; Warner, K; Smith, M C; Leenhardt, A F; Brouard, R

    1999-12-01

    We assessed the clinical and pharmacological profile of the orally active V(1) vascular vasopressin (AVP) receptor nonpeptide antagonist SR49059 (SR) during the osmotic stimulation of AVP release in hypertensive patients. In a double-blind crossover-versus-placebo study, 24 untreated stage I or II essential hypertensive patients (12 whites and 12 blacks) received a single 300 mg oral dose of SR 2 hours before the stimulation of AVP secretion with a 5% hypertonic saline infusion. Hemodynamic, humoral, and hormonal parameters were monitored for up to 28 hours after drug administration. SR did not alter blood pressure or heart rate before the saline infusion and did not reduce the blood pressure increment induced by the hypertonic saline infusion. However, the blood pressure peak at the end of the hypertonic saline infusion was slightly lower in the presence of SR (P=0.04). Heart rate was significantly faster between 4 and 6 hours after SR administration (P=0.02). The rise in plasma sodium and osmolality triggered by the saline infusion was not modified by SR, but AVP release was slightly greater in the presence of SR (P<0.0003). AVP-induced aggregation of blood platelets in vitro was significantly reduced by SR, with a peak effect 2 hours after drug administration that coincided with the SR peak plasma concentration. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone before and after the saline infusion were not modified by SR. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by SR administration. SR effects were similar in the 2 ethnic groups as well as in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant patients. In a situation of AVP osmotic release and volume expansion in hypertensive patients, a single oral dose of the V(1) vascular AVP receptor nonpeptide antagonist SR49059, which is able to block AVP-induced platelet aggregation, exerts a transient vasodilation effect that is not associated with a sustained blood pressure reduction. SR49059 is a pure V(1) vascular receptor antagonist that

  16. A C-terminal segment of the V{sub 1}R vasopressin receptor is unstructured in the crystal structure of its chimera with the maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Mahmood, Syed Saad; Stanley, Nithianantham; Xu, Zhen; Wu, Nan [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Thibonnier, Marc [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Shoham, Menachem, E-mail: mxs10@case.edu [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The 1.8 Å crystal structure of an MBP-fusion protein with the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment of the V1 vasopressin receptor reveals that the receptor segment is unstructured. The V{sub 1} vascular vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1}R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of body-fluid osmolality, blood volume and blood pressure. Signal transduction is mediated by the third intracellular loop of this seven-transmembrane protein as well as by the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment. A chimera of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and the C-terminal segment of V{sub 1}R has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.10, b = 66.56, c = 115.72 Å, β = 95.99°. The 1.8 Å crystal structure reveals the conformation of MBP and part of the linker region of this chimera, with the C-terminal segment being unstructured. This may reflect a conformational plasticity in the C-terminal segment that may be necessary for proper function of V{sub 1}R.

  17. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  18. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Hemodilution, vasopressin suppression, and diuresis during water immersion in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Shvartz, E.

    1981-01-01

    The possible role of hemodilution in the early stages of water immersion in the suppression of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and subsequent diuresis in man is investigated. Parameters characterizing hemodilution as well as water balance and intercompartmental fluid levels were measured before, during and after the immersion of ten subjects in a semireclining position in tap water up to their necks at 34.6 C for 8 hr. Results indicate that hemodilution and the suppression of vasopressin and plasma renin activity were present by the second hour of immersion, with the early hemodilution due to a slight increase in plasma volume with no change in plasma sodium or osmotic contents, even though urine volume and osmotic excretion rates increased significantly. Hyponatremia, hyposmotemia and plasma renin activity suppression are observed to continue to the end of immersion, resulting in final decreases of 15.6% in plasma volume, 18.8% in extracellular volume, 19.6% in interstitial volume and 10.7% in red cell volume. Findings suggest the transfer of hypotonic fluid into the vascular system, which contributes to vasopressin suppression observed during immersion.

  20. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  1. Whole-body volume regulation and escape from antidiuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2006-07-01

    Both individual cells and organs regulate their volume in response to sustained hypo-osmolality via solute and water losses. Similar processes occur in the whole body to regulate the volumes of extracellular fluid (ECF) and intravascular spaces toward normal levels. Body water losses occur via the phenomena "escape from antidiuresis"; solute losses occur through the secondary natriuresis induced by water retention. As a result of resistance to arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling, escape from antidiuresis is caused by downregulation of kidney aquaporin-2 expression despite high AVP plasma levels. Recent data have implicated downregulation of vasopressin V2R as a potential mechanism of resistance, and suggest that this may be a result of decreased intrarenal angiotensin II signaling in combination with increased intrarenal nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 signaling. The natriuresis that results in volume regulation of the ECF and vascular spaces is the result of intrarenal hemodynamic changes produced by volume expansion, but the degree to which these effects are modulated by aldosterone secretion and the activity of distal sodium cotransporters and channels remains to be elucidated. The clinical implication of these volume-regulatory processes is that the chronic hyponatremic state is one of water retention and solute losses from intracellular fluid and ECF compartments. The degree to which solute losses versus water retention contribute to hyponatremia will vary in association with many factors, including the etiology of the hyponatremia, the rapidity of development of the hyponatremia, the chronicity of the hyponatremia, the volume of daily water loading, and individual variability. Understanding these volume-regulatory processes allows a better understanding of many aspects of the conundrum of patients with "clinical euvolemia" and dilutional hyponatremia from AVP-induced water retention.

  2. Long-term gene therapy in the CNS: reversal of hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in the Brattleboro rat by using an adenovirus expressing arginine vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, B J; Harding, T C; Lightman, S L; Uney, J B

    1997-12-01

    The ability of adenovirus (Ad) to transfect most cell types efficiently has already resulted in human gene therapy trials involving the systemic administration of adenoviral constructs. However, because of the complexity of brain function and the difficulty in noninvasively monitoring alterations in neuronal gene expression, the potential of Ad gene therapy strategies for treating disorders of the CNS has been difficult to assess. In the present study, we have used an Ad encoding the arginine vasopressin cDNA (AdAVP) in an AVP-deficient animal model of diabetes insipidus (the Brattleboro rat), which allowed us to monitor chronically the success of the gene therapy treatment by noninvasive assays. Injection of AdAVP into the supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus resulted in expression of AVP in magnocellular neurons. This was accompanied by reduced daily water intake and urine volume, as well as increased urine osmolality lasting 4 months. These data show that a single gene defect leading to a neurological disorder can be corrected with an adenovirus-based strategy. This study highlights the potential of using Ad gene therapy for the long-term treatment of disorders of the CNS.

  3. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion: A Case of High Osmolal Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Courtney A; Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  4. Estradiol and osmolality: Behavioral responses and central pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Regulation of appropriate osmolality of body fluid is critical for survival, yet there are sex differences in compensatory responses to osmotic challenges. Few studies have focused on the role of sex hormones such as estradiol in behavioral responses to increases or decreases in systemic osmolality, and even fewer studies have investigated whether central actions of estrogens contribute to these responses. This overview integrates findings from a series of ongoing and completed experiments conducted in my laboratory to assess estradiol effects on water and NaCl intake in response to osmotic challenges, and on activity in central pathways that mediate such responses.

  5. Plasma vasopressin levels in patients with right-sided heart dysfunction and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Liem; Banks, Dalia; Manecke, Gerard; Shurter, Jesse; Schilling, Jan M; Patel, Hemal H; Madani, Michael M; Roth, David M

    2014-06-01

    Patients with left-sided heart dysfunction and volume overload often have associated elevations in vasopressin from neuroendocrine activation. The authors investigated perioperative levels of vasopressin in patients with isolated right-sided heart dysfunction from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Prospective, observational study. Single center, tertiary hospital. Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Vasopressin levels were measured in 22 patients during the perioperative period. Vasopressin was undetectable in 8/22 patients at baseline. As a group, vasopressin levels at baseline and after induction of anesthesia were 0.8 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.5, interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and 0.7 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.4, interquartile range of 25% and 75%), respectively. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), vasopressin increased to 13.9 pg/mL (median; 6.7-19.9, interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin remained elevated after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) at 10.5 pg/mL (median; 6.5-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and after CPB at 19.9 pg/mL (median; 11.1-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin levels in PTE patients are in the low-to-normal range at baseline and may be a clinically relevant issue in the hemodynamic management of PTE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  7. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... water. However, urine osmolality has been shown to. 1Division of Nephrology, .... Osmolality was determined by the freezing point depression method using the Precision Osmette ..... associated with a salt-losing syndrome.

  8. Hormonal and electrolyte responses to acute isohemic volume expansion in unanesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenault, V. M.; Morris, M.; Lynch, C. D.; Maultsby, S. J.; Hutchins, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the time course of the metabolic response to isohemic blood volume expansion (30%) in normotensive, unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole blood, drawn from a femoral artery catheter of conscious donor rats, was infused into the jugular vein of recipient rats. Blood samples were drawn from a carotid artery of recipient rats at time points beginning immediately post-volume expansion (IPVE) up through 5 days post-volume expansion (PVE). To characterize the attendant compensatory mechanisms, the plasma concentrations of electrolytes and fluid regulatory hormones were determined. Hematocrit began to raise IPVE and was significantly elevated above control IPVE 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr PVE. Consistent with our current understanding of the hormonal response to excess volume, atrial natriuretic factor was significantly increased above the prevolume expansion (control) values 0-30 min PVE. Surprisingly, plasma aldosterone levels were significantly increased above control at 20 and 30 min and 6 hr PVE, whereas plasma renin activity was significantly decreased 30-40 min PVE. Plasma sodium was not changed from control values except for a significant increase at 6 hr post-volume expansion. Plasma potassium, osmolality, and arginine vasopressin levels were not altered by the volume expansion. These studies delineate the physiologic time scheme operative in the regulation of fluid volume during acute ischemic volume expansion.

  9. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-12-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero.

  10. Normal hemodynamic and coagulation responses to 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin in a case of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Results of treatment by a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor (indomethacin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hober, C; Vantyghem, M C; Racadot, A; Cappoen, J P; Lefebvre, J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) on mean arterial pressure, pulse rate (PR), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma factor VIIIc and von Willebrand factor were studied in a case of persistent lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (LINDI). 20% decrease in MAP, 22% increase in PR, 100% in PRA, and release of coagulation factors (2- to 3-fold) were noticed after infusion of 0.3 micrograms/kg DDAVP. Urinary prostaglandin (PG) E2 were enhanced. The treatment of this LINDI by PG synthesis inhibitor (PSI) combined with a low osmotic diet (LOD) led to a 51% fall in urine volume, 57% in free water clearance and 75% in sodium clearance. Urinary osmolality rose by 42% but remained low, probably in part because of the LOD. Urinary PGE2 was about one fifth of the initial high value. The results argue for (1) an end-organ resistance to DDAVP confined to the kidneys in LINDI and (2) an effectiveness of indomethacin combined with an LOD.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R. (Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport)

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  12. Vasopressin increases expression of UT-A1, UT-A3, and ER chaperone GRP78 in the renal medulla of mice with a urinary concentrating defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qi; Nelson, Sarah K; McReynolds, Matthew R; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie Keck; Elliott, David; Brooks, Heddwen L

    2010-10-01

    Activation of V2 receptors (V2R) during antidiuresis increases the permeability of the inner medullary collecting duct to urea and water. Extracellular osmolality is elevated as the concentrating capacity of the kidney increases. Osmolality is known to contribute to the regulation of collecting duct water (aquaporin-2; AQP2) and urea transporter (UT-A1, UT-A3) regulation. AQP1KO mice are a concentrating mechanism knockout, a defect attributed to the loss of high interstitial osmolality. A V2R-specific agonist, deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), was infused into wild-type and AQP1KO mice for 7 days. UT-A1 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly increased in the medullas of wild-type and AQP1KO mice following dDAVP infusion. The mRNA and protein abundance of UT-A3, the basolateral urea transporter, was significantly increased by dDAVP in both wild-type and AQP1KO mice. Semiquantitative immunoblots revealed that dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase in the medullary expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that GRP78 expression colocalized with AQP2 in principal cells of the papillary tip of the renal medulla. Using immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that vasopressin induced a marked apical targeting of GRP78 in medullary principal cells. Urea-sensitive genes, GADD153 and ATF4 (components of the ER stress pathway), were significantly increased in AQP1KO mice by dDAVP infusion. These findings strongly support an important role of vasopressin in the activation of an ER stress response in renal collecting duct cells, in addition to its role in activating an increase in UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundance.

  13. Vasopressin – Emerging Importance in Sepsis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    ited by Vasopressin. This may prevent the smooth muscle hy- ... insertion, and in vascular smooth muscle, to vasodilation. ... This may well explain its multitude of uses in the body, ... The regional variations in blood flow secondary to low dose.

  14. San Antonio Vasopressin in Shock Symposium Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    physiology and clinical strategies. Anesthesiology 2006;105:599–612, quiz 639–40. 7. Russell JA,Walley KR, Singer J, et al. Vasopressin versus...Medicine, Miami, FL, United States e University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada f Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine...after pulmonary contusion. J Trauma 2005;59:876–82, dis- cussion 882–3. 16. Voelckel WG, Raedler C, Wenzel V, et al. Arginine vasopressin, but not

  15. Effect of hydration on plasma vasopressin, renin, and aldosterone responses to head-up tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Hill, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    If plasma vasopressin (PVP), plasma renin (PRA), and plasma aldosterone (PA) responses to change in posture are mediated only by alterations in intrathoracic baroreceptor activity hydration status should have minimal influence on these responses. To test this hypothesis, six male subjects underwent 45 min of 70 deg head-up tilt (HUT) following 26 h dehydration, and again, 105 min later, following rehydration. Compared with preceding supine hydrated control values, PVP, PRA, and PA increased (p less than 0.001) during dehydrated HUT, but only PVP and PRA increased during rehydrated HUT (p less than 0.001). The dissociation during rehydrated HUT of PRA and PA may have been related more to the reduction (p less than 0.001) in plasma potassium concentration than to the accompanying decrease (p less than 0.001) in plasma osmolality and sodium concentration. Although increases in PVP and PRA during HUT were attenuated (p less than 0.01) following rehydration, this attenuation was associated with the absence of symptoms of overt hypotension following rehydration. However, since rehydration did not abolish the increases in PVP and PRA induced by HUT, it is concluded that the present observations support the concept of intrathoracic baroreceptor involvement in the regulation of vasopressin secretion and renin release.

  16. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Influences of hypertonic and hypovolemic treatments on vasopressin response in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid rat and effect on supplementation with L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Leyla; Mogulkoc, R; Baltaci, A K

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of L-thyroxine treatment on plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Animals were separated into three groups each having 6 rats: control, PTU, PTU+L-thyroxine groups. Then, the groups were further divided into 3 sub-groups including 6 rats (a; basal, b; hypertonic stimulated and c; hypovolemic stimulated). At the end of the experiments all rats were decapitated in order to obtain plasma samples for analysis in terms of Hct, osmolality, TT 3 , TT 4 and vasopressin. Haematocrit (Hct) levels were the highest in hypovolemic stimulated sub-group (P PTU group and the highest in the L-thyroxine treated group (P PTU group (P PTU-induced hypothyroidism. However, L-thyroxine treatment following hypothyroidism prevents this reduction.

  18. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols' often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC, a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2 to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical

  19. Expansion of extracellular volume in early polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Nielsen, A H; Herlevsen, P; Kornerup, H J; Posborg, V

    1986-01-01

    Blood volume (BV), extracellular volume (ECV), blood pressure (BP), creatinine clearance (CCr), plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII), aldosterone (Aldo) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in 18 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease, 8 normotensive (group I), 10 hypertensive (group II), and in 11 control subjects (group III). ECV but not BV was increased in group I compared with group III, whereas BV and ECV did not differ significantly between groups II and III. In group II, Aldo and AVP were increased and AII tended to be increased, while in group I the hormone levels did not differ significantly from those in group III. Sosm did not differ significantly between the groups. In the combined patient group, CCr correlated positively with BV and ECV and negatively with BP. In the patients, AII and AVP were positively correlated with BP but not with CCr. The results suggest that both the renin-angiotensin system and AVP might be involved in the BP elevation, whereas expansion of ECV can be found without an increase in BP.

  20. Use of spin labels to evaluate effects of cold shock and osmolality on sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstedt, R.H.; Keith, A.D.; Snipes, W.; Amann, R.P.; Arruda, D.; Griel, L.C. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Spin labels were used to evaluate the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C and osmolality on the integrity of sperm membranes. In vitro incubation of rabbit sperm with 0.5 mM BHT prior to artificial insemination did not alter the fertilizing ability of the sperm. Sperm from 6 species were ranked in terms of susceptibility to membrane damage caused by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. The integrity of bull and ram sperm membranes was destroyed by the rapid cooling; BHT protected membranes of these spermatozoa from cold-induced lysis. Boar sperm membranes were porous after rapid cooling and BHT did not prevent this membrane damage. Membranes of rabbit and rooster sperm were not damaged by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. Stallion sperm could not be analyzed because their membranes were altered by addition of reagents necessary to use the technique. The responses of bull, ram and rabbit sperm membranes to hyper- and hypo-osmotic conditions were determined. Hypotonic treatment (less than 200 mOsm) resulted in a 50 percent expansion of the volume of the aqueous compartment of sperm while hypertonic (700 mOsm) conditions compressed the volume of the aqueous compartment to 25 to 30 percent of the volume measured at 300 mOsm. Bull sperm, but not rabbit or ram sperm, responded as ''perfect osmometers'' between 300 and 700 mOsm.

  1. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  2. Infinite dilution conductimetry of plasma and urine: correlation with osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genain, C; Tellier, P; Syrota, A; Pocidalo, J J; Hans, M

    1978-08-15

    The infinite dilution conductivity (IDC) of plasma and urine allows a measurement of the electrolyte content in small samples (5 to 15 microliter). The method was compared to the corrected osmolality (II'p) measured by the freezing-point depression. A linear correlation existed between II'p and the IDC: for plasma: II'p = 13.10 sigma o,p + 37.00 (n = 46 and r = 0.9949) for urine: II'u = 12.75 sigma o,u + 16.56 (n = 85 and r = 0.9504). The measurement of the IDC does not depend on protein concentration and can be used instead of the osmometer methods to determine the total plasma and urine electrolyte content.

  3. Vapor pressure and freezing point osmolality measurements applied to a volatile screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draviam, E J; Custer, E M; Schoen, I

    1984-12-01

    This is a report of a rapid and precise screening procedure, developed for the determination of ethanol in serum using osmolality measurements. The osmolality of the patient is determined by freezing point method (freezing point osmometry) and dew point (water vapor pressure osmometry) method. The difference between freezing point osmolality and vapor pressure osmolality (delta osm) is due to the presence of volatiles in the serum, because the volatiles are not measured by vapor pressure osmometry. The amount of ethanol (mg/dL) in serum is estimated by multiplying delta osm by a factor of 4.2. As a comparison method, ethanol also is measured by a spectrophotometric alcohol dehydrogenase method. In addition, a significant difference between an osmometric alcohol assayed value and enzymatic spectrophotometric measurement indicates the presence of volatiles, other than ethanol. In addition to ethanol there is a linear relationship between osmolality and isopropanol or methanol when added in vitro to serum.

  4. Cholinergic regulation of the vasopressin neuroendocrine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the physical and functional relationship between the cholinergic system, and the neurodocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus, a combination of experiments on receptor binding, localization and function were carried out. The putative nicotinic receptor probe (/sup 125/I)alpha bungarotoxin ((/sup 125/I)alpha BTX) bound with high affinity and specificity to the vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, nucleus circularis, and paraventricular nucleus. Binding of (/sup 125/I)alpha BTX within the neural lobe was very low. In contrast, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor probe (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) did not bind to magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin cell groups. The median eminence, which contains the neurosecretory axons, and the neural lobe of the pituitary contain low levels of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. The physiological significance of these cholinergic receptors in regulation of vasopressin release was tested using an in vitro preparation of the supraoptic - neural lobe system.

  5. Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krull Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might

  6. Plasma osmolality predicts mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, HakkI; Yücel, Oğuzhan; Ege, Meltem Refiker; Zorlu, Ali; Yücel, Hasan; Güneş, Hakan; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a fatal disease. Plasma osmolality with individual impacts of sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose has not been studied prognostically in patients with HF. This study aims to investigate the impact of serum osmolality on clinical endpoints in HF patients. A total of 509 patients (383 males, 126 females) with HF with reduced ejection fraction in three HF centres were retrospectively analysed between January 2007 and December 2013. Follow-up data were completed for 496 patients. Plasma osmolality was calculated as (2 × Na) + (BUN/2.8) + (Glucose/18). Quartiles of plasma osmolality were produced, and the possible relationship between plasma osmolality and cardiovascular mortality was investigated. The mean follow-up was 25 ± 22 months. The mean age was 56.5 ± 17.3 years with a mean EF of 26 ± 8%. The mean levels of plasma osmolality were as follows in the quartiles: 1st % = 280 ± 6, 2nd % = 288 ± 1, 3rd % = 293 ± 2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 292.72-293.3), and 4th % = 301 ± 5 mOsm/kg. The EF and B-type natriuretic peptide levels were similar in the four quartiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses in the Cox proportional hazard model revealed a significantly higher rate of mortality in the patients with hypo-osmolality. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed graded mortality curves with the 1st quartile having the worst prognosis, followed by the 4th quartile and the 2nd quartile, while the 3rd quartile was shown to have the best prognosis. Our study results suggest that normal plasma osmolality is between 275 and 295 mOsm/kg. However, being close to the upper limit of normal range (292-293 mOsm/kg) seems to be the optimal plasma osmolality level in terms of cardiovascular prognosis in patients with HF.

  7. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Wibroe

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with IIH.We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer.We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1 patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86, 2 patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97, and 3 patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79. Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6-25 cmH2O (n = 41 did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21 (p = 0.86 and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4 (p = 0.32, respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267-272 for both patients and controls.CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched.

  8. Copeptin as a marker for arginine-vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone secretion in the diagnosis of paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, A; Dixit, K C; Szinnai, G; Werth, S C; Haagen, U; Christ-Crain, M; Morgenthaler, N; Brabant, G

    2013-12-01

    Direct measurement of arginine-vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone (AVP/ADH) concentrations is not included in the standard diagnostic procedures for paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). Here, we evaluate the potential of copeptin measurement as a surrogate marker of AVP/ADH secretion for the direct diagnosis of suspected SIADH in cancer patients. Forty-six unselected cancer patients with serum sodium concentrations permanently below 135 mmol/L were included in this study. We compared standard diagnostic criteria for SIADH to the measurement of plasma copeptin in relation to osmolality. Normative data for comparison were constructed from 24 healthy controls studied under basal conditions, experimental dehydration, and hypotonic hypervolemia as well as from 222 hospital patients with no suspicion of an altered ADH regulation. Log transformation of copeptin revealed a linear relationship to plasma osmolality in the controls (R = 0.495, p < 0.001). Compared to these normative data, copeptin levels in most cancer patients were inappropriately high for plasma osmolality and were not significantly correlated. These results, suggestive for paraneoplastic SIADH, could be confirmed by conventional diagnostic procedures for SIADH. Current strategies to diagnose SIADH are difficult to perform under outpatients conditions. Our approach allows screening from a single plasma sample for true paraneoplastic ADH oversecretion and thus rapid selection for a specific therapy with an AVP receptor antagonist.

  9. Role of diet in the management of vasopressin-responsive and -resistant diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, T; Gerron, G; Quiter, E; Rudman, D

    1977-07-01

    Dietary protein and NaCl are the precursors of about 60% of the urinary osmoles (urea and NaCl). This investigation tested the hypothesis that in patients with dieabetes insipidus, intake of dietary protein and salt will directly influence the degree of polyuria. Four subjects with pituitary and one with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus were studied. All medications were discontinued. To provide diets ranging between "low-solute" and "high-solute," protein was varied in increments from 40 to 130 g/day and NaCl was varied simultaneously from 0.5 to 10 g/day. In all patients, each increment in protein and salt caused a prompt increase in 24-hr urinary osmoles in the form of urea, Na+, and Cl-. The 24-hr urine volume likewise increased progressively. Average increase in urine osmoles and volume from low- to high-solute diet was +224% and +127%, respectively. In four of the five patients, Reduction of protein/salt intake from habitual dietary at home to the recommedded daily allowance caused a 50 to 100% reduction in the magnitude of polyuria.

  10. Vanadate inhibition of hepatocytic autophagy. Calcium-modulated and osmolality-modulated antagonism by asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, M; Berg, T O; O'Reilly, D S; Seglen, P O

    1995-05-15

    The phosphate analogue vanadate, at 10 mM, strongly (approximately 90%) inhibited the autophagic sequestration of endogenous lactate dehydrogenase in isolated rat hepatocytes. The effect of vanadate was markedly (approximately 80%) antagonized by asparagine (20 mM), and to a lesser extent by glutamine, glycine, and alanine. The antagonism was only observed in the presence of Ca2+ when an isotonic standard incubation medium was used, but by increasing the medium osmolality this Ca2+ requirement could be eliminated. Asparagine induced a cell swelling (17% at 20 mM) that might account for at least part of its vanadate antagonism, since hypotonic cell swelling by itself stimulated autophagy (with a maximal effect at approximately 200 mosM). Conversely, hypertonic media inhibited autophagy and were additive to vanadate. In a strongly hypotonic medium (less than 200 mosM), both asparagine and vanadate were inhibitory. However, since vanadate alone had no effect on cell volume, the vanadate-asparagine antagonism could not be exerted exclusively at the level of cell volume regulation. An additional mechanism might be a partial deamination of asparagine, generating ammonia, which was found to oppose the vanadate inhibition of autophagy while having no effect on cell volume. Other metabolizable amino acids, like alanine and glycine, were moderately vanadate-antagonistic while failing to induce cell swelling. These results are compatible with a vanadate-antagonistic effect of asparagine mediated partly through an unknown mechanism (possibly pH change) by its deamination product, ammonia, partly through cell swelling and a secondary Ca2+ influx that could compensate for a vanadate-induced depletion of intracellular calcium stores.

  11. Roles of forebrain GABA receptors in controlling vasopressin secretion and related phenomena under basal and hyperosmotic circumstances in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ken'ichi; Yamada, Takaho

    2008-09-05

    Although the anteroventral third ventricular region (AV3V), a forebrain area essential for homeostatic responses, includes receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the roles of these receptors in controlling vasopressin (AVP) secretion and related phenomena have not been clarified as yet. This study aimed to pursue this problem in conscious rats implanted with indwelling catheters. Cerebral injection sites were determined histologically. Applications of bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, to the AV3V induced prompt and marked augmentations in plasma AVP, osmolality, glucose, arterial pressure and heart rate, without affecting plasma electrolytes. Such phenomena did not occur when phaclofen, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, was applied to the AV3V. All of the effects of AV3V-administered bicuculline were abolished by preadministration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. Preadministration of either MK-801 or NBQX, ionotropic glutamatergic receptor antagonists, was also potent to abolish the AVP response to AV3V bicuculline. When hypertonic saline was infused intravenously, plasma AVP increased progressively, in parallel with rises in plasma osmolality, sodium and arterial pressure. AV3V application of muscimol or baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, was found to abolish the response of plasma AVP, without inhibiting that of the osmolality or sodium. The response of arterial pressure was also blocked by muscimol treatment, but not by baclofen treatment. Based on these results, we concluded that, under basal conditions, GABA receptors in the AV3V or vicinity may tonically operate to attenuate AVP secretion and cardiovascular functions through mechanisms associated with glutamatergic activity, and that plasma hyperosmolality may cause facilitation of AVP release by decreasing forebrain GABAergic activity.

  12. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...... beneficial during cold periods (winter). It is suggested, therefore, that the seasonal migrations of P. fluviatilis between brackish and fresh water is to select an environment that is optimal for metabolism and aerobic scope....

  13. Interaction of a vasopressin antagonist with vasopressin receptors in the septum of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Brot, M.D.; Shewey, L.M.; Meyers, K.M.; Szot, P.; Miller, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine-8-vasopressin, an antagonist of peripheral pressoric (V1-type) vasopressin receptors, to label vasopressin binding sites in the septum of the rat brain was evaluated. Using crude membrane preparations from the septum, /sup 3/H-arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) specifically labels a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 2.9 nM and maximum binding site concentration of 19.8 fmole/mg protein. /sup 3/H-Antag also labels a single class of membrane sites but with higher affinity (Kd = 0.47 nM) and lower capacity (10.1 fmole/mg protein) than /sup 3/H-AVP. The rank order of potency of various competitor peptides for /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag binding was similar. Oxytocin was 100-1,000 fold less potent than AVP in competing for binding with both ligands. /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag showed similar labeling patterns when incubated with septal tissue slices. Unlabeled Antag also effectively antagonized vasopressin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in septal tissue slices.

  14. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  15. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  16. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, G.; Balestre, M.N.; Roberts, J.M.; Bottari, S.P.

    1987-06-01

    The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)oxytocin (( /sup 3/H)OT) and (/sup 3/H)lysine vasopressin (( /sup 3/H)LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas (/sup 3/H)OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity (Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM) and low capacity (maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein), (/sup 3/H)LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for (/sup 3/H)OT and (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin.

  17. Impaired behavioral sensitization to cocaine in vasopressin deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R M; Contel, N R; Gold, P

    1982-12-13

    Behavioral sensitization to cocaine involves progressive and long-lasting increases in hyperactivity and stereotypy in response to the same daily dose. In order to test whether vasopressin, a neuro-hormone implicated in drug tolerance and in other models of learning and memory, affected behavioral sensitization, cocaine was administered daily to animals with hereditary absence of vasopressin. Brattleboro homozygotes which lack vasopressin show deficient onset and persistence of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization compared to heterozygote, litter-mate controls. These data extend previous reports of vasopressin's role in memory and long-term coding of behavior to the model of pharmacologically-induced behavioral sensitization.

  18. Osmolality of antisense oligonucleotide parenteral formulations: Implications on counterion dissociation and recommended osmometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Marc; Dibble, Andrew

    2016-12-30

    The intrinsic osmolality of aqueous solutions of sodium salt antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) has been studied to inform formulation practices, understand the molecular basis underlying the difference between theoretical and empirical results, and determine suitable measurement methods. It was found that regardless of nucleotide sequence, ASO concentration of ∼140mg/mL has isotonic osmolality of ∼290mOsm/kg water (SI unit: mmol osmotically-active particles/kg water), such that lower concentration formulations require excipients for tonicity adjustment. The range of osmolality values at a given active ingredient concentration can be ascribed to drug substance lot-to-lot purity differences impacting total oligonucleotide content (i.e., including oligonucleotide-related impurities). Empirical osmolality measurements were found to be ∼70% of theoretical values, which corresponds to an osmotic coefficient value of ∼0.7, thus inferring incomplete counterion dissociation. When comparing theoretical (ideal) osmolality of multiple sequences with various nucleotide compositions and chemistries at the same w/v concentration, the "average osmolar mass" (molar mass of the oligonucleotide, including the sodium counterions, divided by the ideal Van't Hoff factor, i(id)) appears to be the strongest factor governing theoretical osmolality values. Other factors examined were the sequence length, backbone chemistry, 2' sugar chemistry, and nucleotide composition. A head-to-head comparison between two osmolality techniques showed that vapor pressure osmometry is generally more suitable than freezing point osmometry for oligonucleotide solutions greater than ∼150mg/mL due to viscosity effects, but the two techniques are comparable otherwise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Renal function, aldosterone, and vasopressin excretion following repeated long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dressendorfer, R H; O'Brien, J C; Claybaugh, J R

    1981-04-01

    Renal and endocrine responses were studied in 10 male runners during a 20-day 500-km race. Overnight urine and prerun blood samples were taken prior to running on days 1, 2, 5, 8, 14, 17, and 20. Day 13 followed 70 h of rest. Urine flow rate, osmotic clearance, tubular free water reabsorption, urinary vasopressin excretion rate, and body weight were not significantly changed. Creatinine clearance was constant except for an elevation on day 5. Plasma osmolality was elevated on days 2, 14, and 17. Plasma sodium was increased (P less than 0.05) on days 2 and 13 but reduced on day 20. The percentage of filtered sodium excreted was significantly reduced on all nights following running and elevated on recovery day 13. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate was significantly elevated 162, 117, and 97% on days 5, 8, and 20 and returned to control levels on day 13 after 70 h of rest. These data suggest that in response to repeated long-distance running normal fluid balance is regained within 12 h. However, it is necessary to conserve sodium for at least 24 h after exercise as evidenced by the decrease in the percent filtered sodium excreted and continued elevation of aldosterone excretion.

  20. Prolonged hypobaric hypoxemia attenuates vasopressin secretion and renal response to osmostimulation in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, Morten H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, Troels D

    2002-01-01

    Effects of hypobaric hypoxemia on endocrine and renal parameters of body fluid homeostasis were investigated in eight normal men during a sojourn of 8 days at an altitude of 4,559 m. Endocrine and renal responses to an osmotic stimulus (5% hypertonic saline, 3.6 ml/kg over 1 h) were investigated...... at sea level and on day 6 at altitude. Several days of hypobaric hypoxemia reduced body weight (-2.1 +/- 0.4 kg), increased plasma osmolality (+5.3 +/- 1.4 mosmol/kgH(2)O), elevated blood pressure (+12 +/- 1 mmHg), reduced creatinine clearance (122 +/- 6 to 96 +/- 10 ml/min), inhibited the renin system...... (19.5 +/- 2.0 to 10.9 +/- 0.9 mU/l) and plasma vasopressin (1.14 +/- 0.16 to 0.38 +/- 0.06 pg/ml), and doubled circulating levels of norepinephrine (103 +/- 16 to 191 +/- 35 pg/ml) and endothelin-1 (3.0 +/- 0.2 to 6.3 +/- 0.6 pg/ml), whereas urodilatin excretion rate decreased from day 2 (all changes...

  1. Osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Pitta-Grós Dias, M; Virella, D; Serelha, M

    2008-12-01

    Elemental and semi-elemental formulas are used to feed infants with short bowel syndrome, who may not be able to tolerate feeds of more than 310 mOsm kg(-1). The present study aimed to measure the osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, with and without the addition of nonprotein energy supplements. The osmolality of one elemental and three semi-elemental formulas was measured by the freezing point depression method at concentrations of 10, 12, 14 and 16 g per 100 mL, with and without 10% or 20% of additional calories, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were less than 3.9%. The mean osmolalities of formulas reconstituted up to 12 g per 100 mL did not exceed 305.3 mOsm kg(-1), even with added energy supplements. The mean osmolalities of formulas at 14 and 16 g per 100 mL, with or without added energy supplements varied between 205.8 and 421.6 mOsm kg(-1). A comprehensive list of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, enriched or not with calories, is made available. This will enable professionals to customize feeds with the optimum composition, without exceeding the osmolality suggested for infants with short bowel syndrome.

  2. NFAT5 Contributes to Osmolality-Induced MCP-1 Expression in Mesothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Küper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of the C-C chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in mesothelial cells in response to high glucose concentrations and/or high osmolality plays a crucial role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Recent studies suggest that in kidney cells osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation is mediated by the osmosensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5. The present study addressed the question of whether activation of NFAT5 by hyperosmolality, as present in PD fluids, contributes to MCP-1 expression in the mesothelial cell line Met5A. Hyperosmolality, induced by addition of glucose, NaCl, or mannitol to the growth medium, increased NFAT5 activity and stimulated MCP-1 expression in Met5A cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFAT5 attenuated osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation substantially. Hyperosmolality also induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB significantly decreased osmolality-induced MCP-1 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that high osmolalities activate the transcription factor NFAT5 in mesothelial cells. NFAT5 in turn upregulates MCP-1, likely in combination with NF-κB, and thus may participate in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during CAPD.

  3. Effect of the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-hui TANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP, Chinese Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, and Wan Fang Digital Journal Full-text Database were retrieved to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of hepatic cirrhosis with ascites treated by selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists. Meta analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0. Results Nine randomized controlled trials including 1884 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that: 1 The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists were associated with a significant reduction in body weight compared with placebo (WMD=–1.98kg, 95%CI:–3.24-–0.72kg, P=0.002. Treatment with selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists was associated with an improvement of low serum sodium concentration compared to placebo (WMD=3.74mmol/L, 95%CI: 0.91-6.58mmol/L, P=0.01. The percentage of patients with worsening ascites was higher in the group of patients treated with placebo (RR=0.51, 95%CI: 0.34-0.77, P=0.001. 2 The amplitude of increased urine volume was obviously higher in selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group than in placebo group (WMD=1437.65ml, 95%CI: 649.01-2226.30ml, P=0.0004. The difference of serum creatinine in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group was not statistically significant compared with the control group (WMD=–3.49μmol/L, 95%CI: –12.54¬5.56μmol/L, P=0.45. 3 There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and mortality (P>0.05. The rate of other adverse reactions was higher in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group compared with that of placebo group (P=0.003. Conclusion

  4. Gene Regulation System of Vasopressin and Corticotoropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, play a crucial role in the physiological and behavioral response to various kinds of stresses. Both neuropeptides activate the hypophysialpituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is a central mediator of the stress response in the body. Conversely, they receive the negative regulation by glucocorticoid, which is an end product of the HPA axis. Vasopressin and CRH are closely linked to immune response; they also interact with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, as for vasopressin, it has another important role, which is the regulation of water balance through its potent antidiuretic effect. Hence, it is conceivable that vasopressin and CRH mediate the homeostatic responses for survival and protect organisms from the external world. A tight and elaborate regulation system of the vasopressin and CRH gene is required for the rapid and flexible response to the alteration of the surrounding environments. Several important regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter region in the vasopressin and CRH gene. Many transcription factors and intracellular signaling cascades are involved in the complicated gene regulation system. This review focuses on the current status of the basic research of vasopressin and CRH. In addition to the numerous known facts about their divergent physiological roles, the recent topics of promoter analyses will be discussed.

  5. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; Arx, Von Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Juan, Sílvia Roig; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied

  6. Central cholinergic control of vasopressin release in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iitake, K.; Share, L.; Ouchi, Y.; Crofton, J.T.; Brooks, D.P.

    1986-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of carbachol into conscious rats evoked a substantial increase in vasopressin secretion and blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the muscarinic blocker, atropine (10 g icv), but not by the nicotinic blocker, hexamethonium (10 g icv). Hexamethonium did, however, block the increase in blood pressure, the decrease in heart rate, and they very small elevation in the plasma vasopressin concentration induced by nicotine (10 g icv). These results indicate that stimulation of either central nicotinic or muscarinic receptors can affect the cardiovascular system and suggest that the cholinergic stimulation of vasopressin secretion may involve primarily muscarinic receptors in the conscious rat.

  7. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Blocker Conivaptan Reduces Brain Edema and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Experimental Stroke in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zeynalov

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP. AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2 and tolvaptan (V2 are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate if these drugs can prevent brain edema and BBB disruption in mice after stroke.Experimental mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with reperfusion. Mice were treated with conivaptan, tolvaptan, or vehicle. Treatments were initiated immediately at reperfusion and administered IV (conivaptan or orally (tolvaptan for 48 hours. Physiological variables, neurological deficit scores (NDS, plasma and urine sodium and osmolality were recorded. Brain water content (BWC and Evans Blue (EB extravasation index were evaluated at the end point.Both conivaptan and tolvaptan produced aquaresis as indicated by changes in plasma and urine sodium levels. However plasma and urine osmolality was changed only by conivaptan. Unlike tolvaptan, conivaptan improved NDS and reduced BWC in the ipsilateral hemisphere: from 81.66 ± 0.43% (vehicle to 78.28 ± 0.48% (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05 vs vehicle. Conivaptan also attenuated the EB extravasation from 1.22 ± 0.08 (vehicle to 1.01 ± 0.02 (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05.Continuous IV infusion with conivaptan for 48 hours after experimental stroke reduces brain edema, and BBB disruption. Conivaptan but not tolvaptan may potentially be used in patients to prevent brain edema after stroke.

  8. Arginine Vasopressin-Independent Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in a Patient with Sarcoidosis Complicated by Central Diabetes Insipidus and Glucocorticoid Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunobu Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of reduced livido and increased fatigability. Four months before admission, he noticed polyuria, which was gradually relieved by admission. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhancing lesion centrally in the pituitary stalk. Biopsy from the skin revealed noncaseating granuloma composed of epithelioid cells, and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made. Although plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP was undetectable after administration of hypertonic saline, urinary output was within normal range (1.5 to 2.2 L/day. The urine osmolality became above plasma levels during the hypertonic saline test. Hormonal provocative tests revealed partial glucocorticoid deficiency. Soon after the glucocorticoid therapy was begun, moderate polyuria (from 3.5–4.0 liters daily occurred. At this time, plasma AVP was undetectable, and urine osmolality was consistently below plasma levels during the hypertonic saline test. In conclusion, we showed in human study that masked diabetes insipidus could be mediated by AVP-independent mechanisms.

  9. Hypothalamic adipic hypernatraemia syndrome with normal osmoregulation of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Capapé, Marta; Golmayo, Luz; Lorenzo, Gustavo; Gallego, Nieves; Barrio, Raquel

    2004-10-01

    Adipsic hypernatraemia is an uncommon disorder in childhood caused by a defect in the osmoregulation of thirst, leading to impairment of water homeostasis and chronic hyperosmolality of body fluids. Adipsia is often associated with an abnormality in osmoregulated vasopressin secretion due to the close proximity of the hypothalamic osmoreceptors that control thirst with those regulating vasopressin secretion. Hypothalamic lesions of diverse aetiology (vascular abnormalities, neoplasms, granulomatous diseases, trauma etc.) have been described in this syndrome. We report a 12-year-old boy with evident weight loss due to hypernatraemic dehydration with a selective defect in osmoregulation of thirst and normal vasopressin secretion with no demonstrable structural lesion. To date, only six paediatric patients with this condition have been described in the literature. Hypothalamic adipsic hypernatraemia syndrome must be suspected when a dehydrated patient denies thirst. The study of antidiuretic function is necessary because the osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion could be altered.

  10. Vasopressin Bolus Protocol Compared to Desmopressin (DDAVP for Managing Acute, Postoperative Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukrati Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Management of postoperative central diabetes insipidus (DI can be challenging from changes in volume status and serum sodium levels. We report a case successfully using a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol in managing hypovolemic shock in acute, postoperative, central DI. Case Report. Patient presented after bifrontal decompressive craniotomy for severe traumatic brain injury. He developed increased urine output resulting in hypovolemia and hypernatremia. He was resuscitated with intravenous fluids including a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol. This protocol consisted of 1 unit of vasopressin in 1 liter of 0.45% normal saline. This protocol was given in boluses based on the formula: urine output minus one hundred. Initial serum sodium was 148 mmol/L, and one-hour urine output was 1 liter. After 48 hours, he transitioned to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP. Pre-DDAVP serum sodium was 149 mmol/L and one-hour urine output 320 cc. Comparing the bolus protocol to the DDAVP protocol, the average sodium was 143.8 ± 3.2 and 149.6 ± 3.2 mmol/L (p=0.0001, average urine output was 433.2 ± 354.4 and 422.3 ± 276.0 cc/hr (p=0.90, and average specific gravity was 1.019 ± 0.009 and 1.016 ± 0.01 (p=0.42, respectively. Conclusion. A protocol using dilute vasopressin bolus can be an alternative for managing acute, central DI postoperatively, particularly in setting of hypovolemic shock resulting in a consistent control of serum sodium.

  11. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Laban Riyad B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1 to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2 to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Methods Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. Results One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the

  12. Radioimmunoassay of (8-arginine)-vasopressin. II. Application to determination of antidiuretic hormone in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkelbach, U; Czernichow, P; Gaillard, R C; Vallotton, M B

    1975-11-01

    A radioimmunoassay for [8-arginine]-vasopressin (AVP), previously described (Czernichow et al. 1975) has been used for the determination of antidiuretic hormone in a 4 ml urine sample. AVP is extracted from acidified urine with a cation exchanger (Amberlite CG 50) with an overall recovery of 72%. The blank value measured in extracted samples of urine was 0.29 pg/ml +/- 0.21 (SEM) and calculated by extrapolation of the regression line of the recovery experiment was 0.49 pg/ml. The coefficient of variation within-assay was 13% and between-assay 18%. Addition of the amounts of AVP found in each specimen of urine voided gave results nearly identical to those of the amounts found in 24 h pool of urine, indicating that the assay was not affected by changes in concentration of the other urinary components during the day. The daily urinary excretion of AVP measured in 34 subjects was found to be 34 ng in 17 women and 70 ng in 17 men, a significant difference. Urinary concentration and excretion rate of AVP rose during thirst test and during Carter-Robbins test performed in 13 healthy subjects. In the latter test it was observed that the women displayed a strikingly more pronounced AVP elevation after the osmolar stimulus than the men. In both sexes a significant correlation was found between AVP excretion rate and plasma osmolality as well as free water clearance. Three cases of complete or incomplete diabetes insipidus and potomania could be clearly differentiated according to the total output of AVP during the thirst test. Extremely high values of AVP were found in the urine of 5 subjects with Schwartz-Bartter syndrome associated with bronchogenic tumours.

  13. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.;

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  14. The vasopressin receptor of the blood-brain barrier in the rat hippocampus is linked to calcium signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, J.; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, vasopressin receptor, VI subtype, blood-brain barrier, cerebral endothelium, hippocampus, Fura-2......Neuropathology, vasopressin receptor, VI subtype, blood-brain barrier, cerebral endothelium, hippocampus, Fura-2...

  15. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196 fed-batch fermentation at elevated osmolality for enhancing acarbose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Li-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Shan; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Acarbose, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, is as an oral anti-diabetic drug for treatment of the type two, noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196, an osmosis-resistant actinomycete, had a broad osmolality optimum between 309 mOsm kg(-1) and 719 mOsm kg(-1). Utilizing this unique feature, an fed-batch culture process under preferential osmolality was constructed through intermittently feeding broths with feed medium consisting of 14.0 g l(-1) maltose, 6.0 g l(-1) glucose and 9.0 g l(-1) soybean meal, at 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h. This intermittent fed-batch culture produced a peak acarbose titer of 4878 mg l(-1), increased by 15.9% over the batch culture.

  16. Leucocytosis, Thrombocytosis, and Plasma Osmolality During Rest and Exercise: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. A.; Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism for inducing leucocytosis (increase in white blood cells) and thrombocytosis (increase in platelets) during exercise is unclear. Because plasma osmolality (Osm) may influence T-cell proliferation, Osm and the number of leucocytes (WBC) and platelets in blood were measured periodically during a 90 min rest period, and were compared with those during upright sitting ergometer exercise in six unt.rained, healthy men who cycled for 70 min at 71% of their maximal oxygen uptake (V prime O(sub 2(sub max)). There were 6 experiments in which the subjects drank different fluid formula-t4ilons (10 ml/kg) of various ionic and osmotic concentrations intermittently during 60 min of the rest period and during the exercise period. Osmolality, and WBC and platelet counts increased significantly (pexercise, but the additional 60 min of exercise did not significantly change the leucocytosis or thrombocytosis. There were low but significant correlations between individual values of total WBC and total Osm during exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),284) = 0.39) and during rest plus exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),499) = 0.43). With combined data from the six experiments, mean Osm correlated highly and significantly with both mean WBC (r(sub 0.001(2),6) = 0.95, p exercise phase. These data indicate that increases in leucocytes, thrombocytes, and osmolality occur primarily within the first 10 min of high-intensity exercise, but neither hypovolemia nor hyperthermia during exercise contributed to the leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, or hyperosmolality. The high correlations between plasma Osm and WBC or platelet counts suggest changes in osmolality may contribute to the mechanism of leucocytosis and thrombocytosis induced by exercise.

  17. Suprachiasmatic vasopressin and the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Holly C; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; Karatsoreos, Ilia N; Koletar, Margaret M; Ralph, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    A role for arginine vasopressin in the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior (wheel running activity) was investigated in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Spontaneous nocturnal running was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by systemic injections of vasopressin, and also in a concentration-dependent manner by microinjections directly into the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Pre-injections of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist into the nucleus reduced the suppression of behavior by vasopressin. Ethogram analyses revealed that peripheral drug injections predominantly increased grooming, flank marking, and sleep-related behaviors. Central injections did not induce sleep, but increased grooming and periods of 'quiet vigilance' (awake but not moving). Nocturnal behavioral profiles following either peripheral or central injections were similar to those shown by untreated animals in the hour prior to the onset of nocturnal wheel running. Site control vasopressin injections into the medial preoptic area or periaqueductal gray increased flank marking and grooming, but had no significant effect on locomotion, suggesting behavioral specificity of a vasopressin target near the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Both peripheral and central administration increased FOS-like immunoreactivity in the retinorecipient core of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The distribution of FOS-positive cells overlapped the calbindin subregion, but was more extensive, and most calbindin-positive cells did not co-express FOS. We propose a model of temporal behavioral regulation wherein voluntary behavior, such as nocturnal locomotor activity, is inhibited by the activity of neurons in the suprachiasmatic ventrolateral core that project to the posterior hypothalamus and are driven by rhythmic vasopressin input from the dorsomedial shell.

  18. Serum osmolality in the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae: urea retention and ion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, G E; Grant, F B

    1967-02-03

    Samples of blood (hemolyzed) were obtained from the renal vein, the hepatic portal vein, and the heart of a freshly thawed specimen of Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth uses high concentrations of urea to maintain its serum osmolality at approximately that of sea water. The mean value for the total osmolality was 1181 milliosmoles per liter. The mean values (milliequivalents per liter) were: for sodium, 181; for potassium, 51.3; for calcium, 6.9; for magnesium, 28.7; for chloride, 199; and for bicarbonate, 4.7. The mean urea concentration was 355 millimoles per liter, and the mean nonprotein nitrogen was 1343 milligrams percent. Heart blood showed significantly lower values for osmolality (921 milliosmoles per liter) and nonprotein nitrogen (1030 mg percent) and was probably less severely contaminated with products of protein breakdown. Fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye showed values of 952 milliosmole/liter; the urea value for this fluid was 303 mmole/liter, and the magnesium was 7.3 meq/liter. The magnesium value for the aqueous humor was used to correct the abnormally high concentrations in the hemolyzed serum. The high level of serum potassium also was attributed to hemolysis.

  19. Leucocytosis, Thrombocytosis, and Plasma Osmolality During Rest and Exercise: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. A.; Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism for inducing leucocytosis (increase in white blood cells) and thrombocytosis (increase in platelets) during exercise is unclear. Because plasma osmolality (Osm) may influence T-cell proliferation, Osm and the number of leucocytes (WBC) and platelets in blood were measured periodically during a 90 min rest period, and were compared with those during upright sitting ergometer exercise in six unt.rained, healthy men who cycled for 70 min at 71% of their maximal oxygen uptake (V prime O(sub 2(sub max)). There were 6 experiments in which the subjects drank different fluid formula-t4ilons (10 ml/kg) of various ionic and osmotic concentrations intermittently during 60 min of the rest period and during the exercise period. Osmolality, and WBC and platelet counts increased significantly (pthrombocytosis. There were low but significant correlations between individual values of total WBC and total Osm during exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),284) = 0.39) and during rest plus exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),499) = 0.43). With combined data from the six experiments, mean Osm correlated highly and significantly with both mean WBC (r(sub 0.001(2),6) = 0.95, p thrombocytosis, or hyperosmolality. The high correlations between plasma Osm and WBC or platelet counts suggest changes in osmolality may contribute to the mechanism of leucocytosis and thrombocytosis induced by exercise.

  20. Increased arginine vasopressin mRNA expression in the human hypothalamus in depression: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Meynen; U.A. Unmehopa; J.J. van Heerikhuize; M.A. Hofman; D.F. Swaab; W.J.G. Hoogendijk

    2006-01-01

    Background: Elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) plasma levels have been observed in major depression, particularly in relation to the melancholic subtype. Two hypothalamic structures produce plasma vasopressin: the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The aim of this study

  1. Bench-to-bedside review: Vasopressin in the management of septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This review of vasopressin in septic shock differs from previous reviews by providing more information on the physiology and pathophysiology of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors, particularly because of recent interest in more specific AVPR1a agonists and new information from the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial (VASST), a randomized trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine in septic shock. Relevant literature regarding vasopressin and other AVPR1a agonists was reviewed and synthesized. Vasopressin, a key stress hormone in response to hypotension, stimulates a family of receptors: AVPR1a, AVPR1b, AVPR2, oxytocin receptors and purinergic receptors. Rationales for use of vasopressin in septic shock are as follows: first, a deficiency of vasopressin in septic shock; second, low-dose vasopressin infusion improves blood pressure, decreases requirements for norepinephrine and improves renal function; and third, a recent randomized, controlled, concealed trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine (VASST) suggests low-dose vasopressin may decrease mortality of less severe septic shock. Previous clinical studies of vasopressin in septic shock were small or not controlled. There was no difference in 28-day mortality between vasopressin-treated versus norepinephrine-treated patients (35% versus 39%, respectively) in VASST. There was potential benefit in the prospectively defined stratum of patients with less severe septic shock (5 to 14 μg/minute norepinephrine at randomization): vasopressin may have lowered mortality compared with norepinephrine (26% versus 36%, respectively, P = 0.04 within stratum). The result was robust: vasopressin also decreased mortality (compared with norepinephrine) if less severe septic shock was defined by the lowest quartile of arterial lactate or by use of one (versus more than one) vasopressor at baseline. Other investigators found greater hemodynamic effects of higher dose of vasopressin (0.06 units/minute) but also unique adverse

  2. Arginine vasopressin and copeptin in perinatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Suzanne Evers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arginine vasopressin (AVP plays a major role in the homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and the regulation of the endocrine stress response. The measurement of AVP levels is difficult due to its short half-life and laborious method of detection. Copeptin is a more stable peptide derived from the same precursor molecule, is released in an equimolar ratio to AVP and has a very similar response to osmotic, hemodynamic and stress-related stimuli. In fact, copeptin has been propagated as surrogate marker to indirectly determine circulating AVP concentrations in various conditions. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge on AVP and copeptin in perinatology with a particular focus on the baby’s transition from placenta to lung breathing. We performed a systematic review of the literature on fetal stress hormone levels, including norepinephrine, cortisol, AVP and copeptin, in regard to birth stress. Finally, diagnostic and therapeutic options for copeptin measurement and AVP functions are discussed.

  3. Nutritional state-dependent ghrelin activation of vasopressin neurons via retrograde trans-neuronal-glial stimulation of excitatory GABA circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Halmos, Katalin C; Di, Shi; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2014-04-30

    Behavioral and physiological coupling between energy balance and fluid homeostasis is critical for survival. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been shown to stimulate the secretion of the osmoregulatory hormone vasopressin (VP), linking nutritional status to the control of blood osmolality, although the mechanism of this systemic crosstalk is unknown. Here, we show using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in rat brain slices that ghrelin stimulates VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in a nutritional state-dependent manner by activating an excitatory GABAergic synaptic input via a retrograde neuronal-glial circuit. In slices from fasted rats, ghrelin activation of a postsynaptic ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), in VP neurons caused the dendritic release of VP, which stimulated astrocytes to release the gliotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP activation of P2X receptors excited presynaptic GABA neurons to increase GABA release, which was excitatory to the VP neurons. This trans-neuronal-glial retrograde circuit activated by ghrelin provides an alternative means of stimulation of VP release and represents a novel mechanism of neuronal control by local neuronal-glial circuits. It also provides a potential cellular mechanism for the physiological integration of energy and fluid homeostasis.

  4. Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-07-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (Ppike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile sperm and spermatozoa velocity due to changes in flagellar wave parameters.

  5. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  6. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of vasopre

  7. Radioprotection of the digestive tract by intravenous infusion of vasopressin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juillard, G.J.F.; Peter, H.H.; Weisenburger, T.H.; Tesler, A.S.; Langdon, E.A.; Barenfus, M.; Lagasse, L.D.; Watring, W.E.; Smith, M.L.

    1975-09-01

    The effect of venous infusions of vasopressin during fractionated abdominal radiation exposures was evaluated in four pairs of dogs. In each pair, the control dog was given venous infusion of saline during irradiation. The results were analyzed from clinical observation, autopsy findings, and pathological examination. It appears that venous infusion of vasopressin has a definite and reproducible effect of radioprotection on the gastrointestinal tract, the dose modifying factor (DMF) being 1.5. Radiation therapy of the gynecologic malignancies would be one major application since the radiosensitivity of the intestinal tract is often a limiting factor in delivering high doses to the tumor, and further investigations are being done to study the effects of vasopressin on the radiosensitivity of malignant tumors.

  8. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have signs of any of the following: Low sodium ( hyponatremia ) or water loss Poisoning from harmful substances ... lung cancer Drinking too much water or fluid Low sodium level (hyponatremia) Underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ) Risks Veins ...

  9. Hypo - and hypernatremia results in inaccurate Erythrocytes mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) measurement in vitro, when using Sysmex XE 2100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Vikkelsø; Philipsen, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Automated hematology analyzers dilute patient erythrocytes with an isosmotic diluent before quantitating the erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume (MCV). However, if patient plasma osmolality differs from the diluent, water will cross the erythrocytes membrane and establish a new equilibrium...

  10. Identification of five novel arginine vasopressin gene mutations in patients with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dan; Cen, Jing; Nie, Min; Gu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a genetic disorder presenting with polyuria and polydipsia and is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. The clinical manifestations of this disorder vary greatly depending on different mutations. The present study reports the genetic, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with FNDI caused by five novel mutations. Ten patients encompassing two pedigrees and four individual cases diagnosed with FNDI were included. Biochemical markers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated and genomic DNA was sequenced. The results revealed that age at onset ranged from 1.0 to 11.0 years. Daily urine volumes ranged from 2.0 to 12.0 liters. One patient had mental retardation and three patients had puberty retardation; one patient had nausea, vomiting and mental retardation; and two patients had fever. Treatments, if given, included desmopressin and vasopressin tannate. Posterior pituitary T1-weighted MRI high-intensity signals were absent in two cases and present in four cases. Sequencing revealed five novel mutations in the AVP-NPII gene. On the whole, the findings of the present study indicate that FNDI exhibits different clinical manifestations and a diverse age at onset. Posterior pituitary MRI does not provide a definite diagnosis of FNDI. We also identified five novel AVP-NPII mutations. Thus, an enhanced understanding of FNDI pathogenesis may provide a basis for the development of presymptomatic FNDI diagnotic tools.

  11. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Elisabeth A; Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH. METHODS: We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred...... on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after...

  12. Effects of vasopressin on active and passive avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Ader, R.; Wied, D. de

    1972-01-01

    Male rats were trained in an active avoidance and/or a “step-through” type of passive avoidance situation. Lysine vasopressin administration resulted in resistance to extinction of active avoidance behavior if it was injected 1 hr prior to the third and final acquisition session; peptide treatment 6

  13. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were ap...

  14. A novel splicing mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Siggaard, C; Herlin, Troels

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the molecular basis and the clinical characteristics of X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) in a kindred of Danish descent, we performed direct sequencing of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene in five members of the family, as well...

  15. Experimental Cardiac Arrest Treatment with Adrenaline, Vasopressin, or Placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palácio, Manoel Ângelo Gomes; de Paiva, Edison Ferreira; de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Timerman, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of vasoconstrictors in prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has not been fully clarified. Objectives To evaluate adrenaline and vasopressin pressure effect, and observe the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Methods A prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study. After seven minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, pigs received two minutes cycles of CPR. Defibrillation was attempted (4 J/kg) once at 9 minutes, and after every cycle if a shockable rhythm was present, after what CPR was immediately resumed. At 9 minutes and every five minutes intervals, 0.02 mg/kg (n = 12 pigs) adrenaline, or 0.4 U/kg (n = 12) vasopressin, or 0.2 mL/kg (n = 8) 0.9% saline solution was administered. CPR continued for 30 minutes or until the ROSC. Results Coronary perfusion pressure increased to about 20 mmHg in the three groups. Following vasoconstrictors doses, pressure level reached 35 mmHg versus 15 mmHg with placebo (p < 0.001). Vasopressin effect remained at 15-20 mmHg after three doses versus zero with adrenaline or placebo. ROSC rate differed (p = 0.031) among adrenaline (10/12), vasopressin (6/12), and placebo (2/8). Time-to-ROSC did not differ (16 minutes), nor the number of doses previously received (one or two). There was no difference between vasoconstrictors, but against placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate (p = 0.019). Conclusion The vasoconstrictors initial pressure effect was equivalent and vasopressin maintained a late effect at prolonged resuscitation. Nevertheless, when compared with placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate. PMID:24173134

  16. Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin modulate human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Uzefovsky, Florina; Shalev, Idan; Gritsenko, Inga; Riebold, Mathias; Salomon, Shahaf; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that two nonapeptides, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, shape human social behavior in both nonclinical and clinical subjects. Evidence is discussed that in autism spectrum disorders genetic polymorphisms in the vasopressin-oxytocin pathway, notably the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a), the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), neurophysin I and II, and CD38 (recently shown to be critical for social behavior by mediating oxytocin secretion) contribute to deficits in socialization skills in this group of patients. We also present first evidence that CD38 expression in lymphoblastoid cells derived from subjects diagnosed with autism is correlated with social skill phenotype inventoried by the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales. Additionally, we discuss molecular genetic evidence that in nonclinical subjects both AVPR1a and OXTR genes contribute to prosocial or altruistic behavior inventoried by two experimental paradigms, the dictator game and social values orientation. The role of the AVPR1a is also analyzed in prepulse inhibition. Prepulse inhibition of the startle response to auditory stimuli is a largely autonomic response that resonates with social cognition in both animal models and humans. First results are presented showing that intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin increases salivary cortisol levels in the Trier Social Stress test. To summarize, accumulating studies employing a broad array of cutting-edge tools in psychology, neuroeconomics, molecular genetics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, and brain imaging are beginning to elaborate the intriguing role of oxytocin and arginine vasopressin in human social behavior. We expect that future studies will continue this advance and deepen our understanding of these complex events.

  17. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14, co

  18. Estimation of Plasma Arginine Vasopressin Concentration Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: In human, thirst and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are controlled by similar sensitive osmoregulatory ... and dehydrated (group C, 0.0 ml/kg body weight of distilled water) subjects. A total of twenty .... Packed cell volume, PCV, urine.

  19. Long-lasting enhancement of synaptic excitability of CA1/subiculum neurons of the rat ventral hippocampus by vasopressin and vasopressin(4-8)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Chepkova, A.N.; French, P.; Wied, D. de; Ontskul, A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.; Skrebitski, V.G.; Urban, I.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into

  20. Vasopressin Proves Es-sense-tial: Vasopressin and the Modulation of Sensory Processing in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kay Bester-Meredith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As mammals develop, they encounter increasing social complexity in the surrounding world. In order to survive, mammals must show appropriate behaviors toward their mates, offspring, and same-sex conspecifics. Although the behavioral effects of the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP have been studied in a variety of social contexts, the effects of this neuropeptide on multimodal sensory processing has received less attention. AVP is widely distributed through sensory regions of the brain and has been demonstrated to modulate olfactory, auditory, gustatory, and visual processing. Here we review the evidence linking AVP to the processing of social stimuli in sensory regions of the brain and explore how sensory processing can shape behavioral responses to these stimuli. In addition, we address the interplay between hormonal and neural AVP in regulating sensory processing of social cues. Because AVP pathways show plasticity during development, early life experiences may shape life-long processing of sensory information. Furthermore, disorders of social behavior such as autism and schizophrenia that have been linked with AVP also have been linked with dysfunctions in sensory processing. Together, these studies suggest that AVP’s diversity of effects on social behavior across a variety of mammalian species may result from the effects of this neuropeptide on sensory processing.

  1. Quantitative phosphoproteomics in nuclei of vasopressin-sensitive renal collecting duct cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Steven J.; Hurtado, Patricia A. Gonzales; Hoffert, Jason D.; Saeed, Fahad; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin regulates transport across the collecting duct epithelium in part via effects on gene transcription. Transcriptional regulation occurs partially via changes in phosphorylation of transcription factors, transcriptional coactivators, and protein kinases in the nucleus. To test whether vasopressin alters the nuclear phosphoproteome of vasopressin-sensitive cultured mouse mpkCCD cells, we used stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry to quantify thousands of phosphorylation sites...

  2. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based...... on the fact that the sexually dimorphic neuropeptide vasopressin has its receptors in the part of the brain involved in music and dance performance (the basal ganglia), and its concentrations rise during sexual arousal in men. In addition, music, dance, and courtship phenotypes seem to be in part regulated...... by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis...

  3. A novel splicing mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Siggaard, C; Herlin, Troels;

    2000-01-01

    of the gene in both the affected male (hemizygous) and his mother (heterozygous). This mutation is likely to cause aberrant splicing of the terminal intron of the gene, leading to a non-functional AVP receptor. The clinical studies were consistent with such a hypothesis, as the affected subject had a severe......In order to elucidate the molecular basis and the clinical characteristics of X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) in a kindred of Danish descent, we performed direct sequencing of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene in five members of the family, as well...... as clinical investigations comprising a fluid deprivation test and a 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (dDAVP) infusion test in the study subject and his mother. We found a highly unusual, novel, de novo 1447A-->C point mutation (gDNA), involving the invariable splice acceptor of the second intron...

  4. Effects of pH, temperature and osmolality on the level and composition of soluble N in feedstuffs for ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de L.H.; Spek, J.W.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Solubility of N is an important parameter in many protein evaluation systems for ruminants. The influence of different rumen conditions, such as pH, osmolality and temperature of solvents, on solubility of N compounds in various animal feed ingredients was examined in two experiments. In the first e

  5. Does body weight impact the efficacy of vasopressin therapy in the management of septic shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James T; Welage, Lynda S; Kraft, Michael D; Alaniz, Cesar

    2012-06-01

    Vasopressors used for the management of septic shock are often dosed according to body weight. Use of vasopressin for physiologic replacement in patients with septic shock is usually administered as a standard non-weight-based dose. We hypothesized that the efficacy of vasopressin may be influenced by body weight. The primary objective was to determine if the effects of vasopressin on other vasopressor dosing requirements is related to body weight. Secondary objectives included evaluation of blood pressure and heart rate after the start of vasopressin infusion. A retrospective, cohort study in a large academic health center was conducted. Sixty-four adult inpatients with septic shock (26 medical intensive care unit and 38 surgical intensive care unit) who required vasopressor administration including vasopressin therapy were included. Dosing requirements of vasopressors were captured 1 hour before and during the hour of vasopressin initiation and 2 and 4 hours later. Other information collected during the study period included blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. Most of the patients (n = 61) received vasopressin at a dose of 0.04 U/min. Changes in vasopressor dosing were significantly correlated with weight-adjusted vasopressin at 2 hours (correlation coefficient = -0.36, P = .03) and 4 hours (correlation coefficient = -0.46, P weight. Prospective studies are needed to examine weight-based dosing of vasopressin in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lack of effect of vasopressin replacement on renin hypersecretion in Brattleboro rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golin, Raffaello M. A.; Gotoh, Eiji; Keil, Lanny C.; Shackelford, Roy L.; Ganong, William F.

    1989-01-01

    The congenital vasopressin deficiency in homozygous Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus is associated with elevated plasma renin activity at rest and supernormal responses to stimuli that increase renin secretion. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon was investigated by infusing homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with a dose of arginine vasopressin that restored plasma vasopressin to normal in the homozygous animals. The resulting data indicate that increased renin secretion in homozygous rats results from increased sympathetic activity. Because circulating vasopressin does not cross the blood-brain barrier, it seems likely that the increased sympathetic activity is central in origin.

  7. Lack of effect of vasopressin replacement on renin hypersecretion in Brattleboro rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golin, Raffaello M. A.; Gotoh, Eiji; Keil, Lanny C.; Shackelford, Roy L.; Ganong, William F.

    1989-01-01

    The congenital vasopressin deficiency in homozygous Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus is associated with elevated plasma renin activity at rest and supernormal responses to stimuli that increase renin secretion. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon was investigated by infusing homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with a dose of arginine vasopressin that restored plasma vasopressin to normal in the homozygous animals. The resulting data indicate that increased renin secretion in homozygous rats results from increased sympathetic activity. Because circulating vasopressin does not cross the blood-brain barrier, it seems likely that the increased sympathetic activity is central in origin.

  8. Effect of exercise on plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of angiotensin II (A II), aldosterone (Aldo) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined before and after gradually increasing exercise loads on a bicycle ergometer in 10 hypertensive (group I) and 10 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II), and in 15 healthy control subjects (group III). Working capacity was reduced in groups I and II. The A II, Aldo, AVP, Sosm increased in all groups after exercise. The A II was higher in group I than II and the percentage changes were significantly lower in groups I and II than in group III. There were no significant differences in Aldo between the groups either before or after exercise. The AVP was the same in groups I and II, and AVP in these groups was higher than in group III. The Sosm and AVP were significantly correlated in all groups. Neither A II, Aldo nor AVP were significantly correlated to systolic blood pressure (BP). Alterations in AVP, but not in A II or Aldo, were correlated to the degree of exercise load. It can be concluded that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the osmoregulatory system are stimulated during exercise in renal transplant recipients. The A II is elevated in post-renal transplant hypertension, but the responsiveness is reduced in both hypertensive and normotensive recipients. The alterations in AVP are probably secondary to changes in Sosm, and the higher AVP levels in recipients could be due to a decreased responsiveness of the renal tubules to AVP. Our findings are in good agreement with the hypothesis that hypertension after renal transplantation is angiotensin II-dependent.

  9. Vasopressin secretion in response to osmotic stimulation and effects of desmopressin on urinary concentrating capacity in dogs with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiene, Reidun; van Vonderen, Ilse K; Moe, Lars; Mølmen, Guro S; Larsen, Nina H; Kooistra, Hans S

    2004-04-01

    To determine vasopressin (VP) secretory capacity during osmotic stimulation and the response to desmopressin treatment in dogs with pyometra and control dogs. 6 dogs with pyometra before and after ovariohysterectomy and 6 control dogs. Urine osmolality (Uosm) was measured during 12 hours. Values measured on the first day defined the basal Uosm pattern. On the second day, dogs were given desmopressin to induce a desmopressin-stimulated Uosm pattern. On day 3, the VP response to osmotic stimulation was examined. Median Uosm on day 1 was 340 mOsm/kg (range, 104 to 1,273 mOsm/kg) and 807 mOsm/kg (range, 362 to 1,688 mOsm/kg) in dogs with pyometra before and after surgery, respectively, and 1,511 mOsm/kg (range, 830 to 1,674 mOsm/kg) in control dogs. Median Uosm during desmopressin treatment was 431 mOsm/kg (range, 168 to 1,491 mOsm/kg) and 1,051 mOsm/kg (range, 489 to 1,051 mOsm/kg) in dogs with pyometra before and after surgery, respectively, and 1,563 mOsm/kg (range, 1,390 to 2,351) in control dogs. In dogs with pyometra, threshold for VP secretion was lower before surgery (median, 340 mOsm/kg; range, 331 to 366 mOsm/kg) than after surgery (median, 358 mOsm/kg; range, 343 to 439 mOsm/kg) or in control dogs (median, 347 mOsm/kg; range, 334 to 360 mOsm/kg). Highest maximum plasma VP values were found in dogs with pyometra. Dogs with pyometra had increased urine concentration in response to desmopressin but not to the degree of control dogs, whereas VP secretory ability was not reduced.

  10. Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

  11. Dehydration-induced drinking decreases Fos expression in hypothalamic paraventricular neurons expressing vasopressin but not corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotus, Cheryl; Arnhold, Michelle M; Engeland, William C

    2007-03-01

    Water-restricted (WR) rats exhibit a rapid suppression of plasma corticosterone following drinking. The present study monitored Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos) to assess the effect of WR-induced drinking on the activity of vasopressin (VP)-positive magnocellular and parvocellular neurons and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adult male rats received water for 30 min (WR) in the post meridiem (PM) each day for 6 days and were killed without receiving water or at 1 h after receiving water for 15 min. In WR rats, Fos increased in VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons but not CRH neurons. After drinking, Fos was reduced in VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons but did not change in CRH neurons. To assess the severity of osmotic stress, rats were sampled throughout the final day of WR. Plasma osmolality, hematocrit and plasma VP were increased throughout the day before PM rehydration, and plasma ACTH and corticosterone were elevated at 1230 and 1430, respectively, showing that WR activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the early PM before the time of rehydration. To determine the effects of WR-induced drinking on CRH neurons activated by acute stress, WR rats underwent restraint. Restraint increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone and Fos in CRH neurons; although rehydration reduced plasma ACTH and Fos expression in VP neurons, Fos in CRH neurons was not affected. These results suggest that inhibition of VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons, but not CRH parvocellular neurons, contributes to the suppression of corticosterone after WR-induced drinking.

  12. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  13. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  14. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  15. Diabetes insipidus: celebrating a century of vasopressin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sana; Galiveeti, Sneha; Bichet, Daniel G; Roth, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus, widely known to the ancients for polyuria and glycosuria, budded off diabetes insipidus (DI) about 200 years ago, based on the glucose-free polyuria that characterized a subset of patients. In the late 19th century, clinicians identified the posterior pituitary as the site of pathology, and pharmacologists found multiple bioactivities there. Early in the 20th century, the amelioration of the polyuria with extracts of the posterior pituitary inaugurated a new era in therapy and advanced the hypothesis that DI was due to a hormone deficiency. Decades later, a subset of patients with polyuria unresponsive to therapy were recognized, leading to the distinction between central DI and nephrogenic DI, an early example of a hormone-resistant condition. Recognition that the posterior pituitary had 2 hormones was followed by du Vigneaud's Nobel Prize winning isolation, sequencing, and chemical synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin. The pure hormones accelerated the development of bioassays and immunoassays that confirmed the hormone deficiency in vasopressin-sensitive DI and abundant levels of hormone in patients with the nephrogenic disorder. With both forms of the disease, acquired and inborn defects were recognized. Emerging concepts of receptors and of genetic analysis led to the recognition of patients with mutations in the genes for 1) arginine vasopressin (AVP), 2) the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2), and 3) the aquaporin 2 water channel (AQP2). We recount here the multiple skeins of clinical and laboratory research that intersected frequently over the centuries since the first recognition of DI.

  16. Vasopressin contributes to hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and renal hypertrophy in diabetes mellitus: Study in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bardoux, Pascale; Martin, Hélène; Ahloulay, Mina; Schmitt, François; Bouby, Nadine; Trinh-Trang-Tan, Marie-Marcelle; Bankir, Lise

    1999-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and the origin of this complication is poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP), which is elevated in type I and type II DM, has been shown to increase glomerular filtration rate in normal rats and to contribute to progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. The present study was thus designed to evaluate whether VP contributes to the renal disorders of DM. Renal function was compared in Brattlebor...

  17. Involvement of oxytocin and vasopressin in the pathophysiology of preterm labor and primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlund, Mats

    2002-01-01

    Important sources of oxytocin and vasopressin in the human, apart from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the brain, may be the fetus during labor as well as the endometrium and decidua of the uterus itself. The release of oxytocin and vasopressin to plasma is under influence of ovarian steroids. The two hormones stimulate uterine contractions in pregnant and non-pregnant women via myometrial oxytocin and vasopressin V1a receptors. At the onset of human labor preterm or at term no clear rise in the maternal plasma concentration of oxytocin and/or vasopressin has been demonstrated, but there may be an increased pulse frequency of the release of oxytocin to plasma with the advance of labor. Vasopressin is more potent than oxytocin on isolated myometrium from women undergoing Cesarean section at term. The myometrial concentration of the two receptors is about equal. At the onset of labor preterm and at term there is a tendency to an increase in the density of oxytocin and vasopressin V1a receptors, but there may be a heterogeneous expression of at least the former receptor between different myometrial cells. In advanced labor or after oxytocin treatment the receptors are markedly downregulated. The importance of oxytocin and vasopressin in mechanisms of preterm labor is confirmed by the therapeutic effect in the condition of the oxytocin and vasopressin V1a receptor blocking oxytocin analogue, atosiban. In women with primary dysmenorrhea the plasma concentration of vasopressin is elevated. The in vivo effect of vasopressin on uterine activity in non-pregnant women is about five times more pronounced than that of oxytocin, and it increases premenstrually. Correspondingly, the density of vasopressin V1a and oxytocin receptors vary to the same degree, and a premenstrual rise in the former receptor is seen. Atosiban and the non-peptide compound, SR 49059, which binds to the two receptors in a similar way as atosiban, are therapeutically effective in dysmenorrhea.

  18. Long-term replacement of a mutated nonfunctional CNS gene: reversal of hypothalamic diabetes insipidus using an EIAV-based lentiviral vector expressing arginine vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienemann, Alison S; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Cosgrave, Anna S; Glover, Colin P J; Wong, Liang-Fong; Kingsman, Susan M; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Uney, James B

    2003-05-01

    Due to the complexity of brain function and the difficulty in monitoring alterations in neuronal gene expression, the potential of lentiviral gene therapy vectors to treat disorders of the CNS has been difficult to fully assess. In this study, we have assessed the utility of a third-generation equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) in the Brattleboro rat model of diabetes insipidus, in which a mutation in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene results in the production of nonfunctional mutant AVP precursor protein. Importantly, by using this model it is possible to monitor the success of the gene therapy treatment by noninvasive assays. Injection of an EIAV-CMV-AVP vector into the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus resulted in expression of functional AVP peptide in magnocellular neurons. This was accompanied by a 100% recovery in water homeostasis as assessed by daily water intake, urine production, and urine osmolality lasting for a 1-year measurement period. These data show that a single gene defect leading to a neurological disorder can be corrected with a lentiviral-based strategy. This study highlights the potential of using viral gene therapy for the long-term treatment of disorders of the CNS.

  19. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  20. Radioimmunoassay measurement of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in cows during machine milking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R.; Wehowsky, G.; Schulz, J.; Schulze, H.; Bothur, D. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Koerperkultur und Sport, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic); Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin)

    1982-07-01

    The response of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin to machine milking in cows was studied by radioimmunoassay. Depending on the method of machine milking used, plasma oxytocin increased to a greater or lesser degree after teat cup application. Plasma vasopressin was not affected by the milking procedures.

  1. The effects of vasopressin deficiency on aggression and impulsiveness in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Anna; Barsvari, Beata; Aliczki, Mano; Balogh, Zoltan; Zelena, Dora; Goldberg, Steven R; Haller, Jozsef

    2014-09-01

    The role of vasopressin in aggression received much attention in recent years. However, vasopressin has complex roles on social behavior, which are affected by social experience, motivation and hormonal background, suggesting that its effects depend on the condition of subjects. This hypothesis was tested here by studying the impact of vasopressin deficiency on aggressiveness in reproductively naive and reproductively experienced males, as well as in lactating females, with special reference to the patterns and contexts of attack behavior. We also studied effects on impulsiveness, a behavioral feature strongly related to aggression. Vasopressin deficiency did not affect aggressiveness in reproductively experienced males, decreased the share of violent attacks in reproductively inexperienced males without affecting total attack counts, and suppressed maternal aggression in both early and late phases of lactation; violent forms of attack were decreased in the latter but not the former phase. Changes in aggression appeared unrelated to general changes in maternal behaviors. Impulsivity in the delay discounting task was markedly decreased by vasopressin deficiency in lactating females but not males. Taken together, our findings confirm that vasopressin has an impact on aggressiveness, but show that this impact depends on the condition of subjects, and suggest that the effects of vasopressin on maternal aggression develop in conjunction with impulsivity. Interestingly, overall effects on aggression and specific effects on violent attacks dissociated in both males and females, which hints to the possibility that vasopressin has distinct roles in the development of escalated forms of aggression.

  2. Reduced cooperativeness and reward-dependence in depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, J. G.; de Winter, R. F. P.; Wolterbeek, R.; Spinhoven, P.; Zitman, F. G.; Wiegant, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is centrally involved in the regulation of social behaviour and response to stress. We previously found support for a subcategory of depression defined by above-normal plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration. This subcategory is validated by a positive family history of d

  3. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  4. Characterization of hybridoma cell responses to elevated pCO(2) and osmolality: intracellular pH, cell size, apoptosis, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deZengotita, Vivian M; Schmelzer, Albert E; Miller, William M

    2002-02-15

    CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) in industrial cell culture reactors may reach 150-200 mm Hg, which can significantly inhibit cell growth and recombinant protein production. The inhibitory effects of elevated pCO(2) at constant pH are due to a combination of the increases in pCO(2) and [HCO(-) (3)], per se, and the associated increase in osmolality. To decouple the effects of pCO(2) and osmolality, low-salt basal media have been used to compensate for this associated increase in osmolality. Under control conditions (40 mm Hg-320 mOsm/kg), hybridoma cell growth and metabolism was similar in DMEM:F12 with 2% fetal bovine serum and serum-free HB GRO. In both media, pCO(2) and osmolality made dose-dependent contributions to the inhibition of hybridoma cell growth and synergized to more extensively inhibit growth when combined. Elevated osmolality was associated with increased apoptosis. In contrast, elevated pCO(2) did not increase apoptotic cell death. Specific antibody production also increased with osmolality although not with pCO(2). In an effort to understand the mechanisms through which elevated pCO(2) and osmolality affect hybridoma cells, glucose metabolism, glutamine metabolism, intracellular pH (pHi), and cell size were monitored in batch cultures. Elevated pCO(2) (with or without osmolality compensation) inhibited glycolysis in a dose-dependent fashion in both media. Osmolality had little effect on glycolysis. On the other hand, elevated pCO(2) alone had no effect on glutamine metabolism, whereas elevated osmolality increased glutamine uptake. Hybridoma mean pHi was approximately 0.2 pH units lower than control at 140 mm Hg pCO(2) (with or without osmolality compensation) but further increases in pCO(2) did not further decrease pHi. Osmolality had little effect on pHi. Cell size was smaller than control at elevated pCO(2) at 320 mOsm/kg, and greater than control in hyperosmotic conditions at 40 mm Hg.

  5. Effect of hemorrhage on cardiac output, vasopressin, aldosterone, and diuresis during immersion in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Simanonok, K.; Bernauer, E. M.; Wade, C. E.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypotesis that a reduction in blood volume would attenuate or eliminate immersion-induced increases in cardiac output (Q(sub co)) and urine excretion, and to investigate accompanying vasoactive and fluid-electrolyte hormonal responses. Eight men (19-23 yr) were supine during a 2-hr control period in air, and then sat for 5-hr test periods in air at 20 C (dry control, DC); water at 34.5 C (wet control, WC); and water (34.5 C) after hemorrhage (WH) of 14.8 plus or minus 0.3 percent of their blood volume. Blood volume was -11.6 plus or minus 0.6 percent at immersion (time 0). Mean (bar-X hrs 1-5) Q(sub co) was unchanged in WC (5.3 plus or minus 0.01 l/min) and in WH (4.5 plus or minus 0.1 l/min), but decreased (P less than 0.05) in DC to 3.6 plus or minus 0.1 l/min. Mean urine excretion rates were 1.0 plus or minus 0.2 ml/min for DC and 1.1 plus or minus 0.2 ml/min for WH; both were lower (P less than 0.05) than that for WC of 2.0 plus or minus 0.4 ml/min. Plasma (Na+) and (Osm) were unchanged in all experiments. Mean plasma vasopressin (PVP) (bar-X hrs 1-5) was 1.1 plus or minus 0.1 pg/ml in WC, and higher (P less than 0.05) in DC (2.1 plus or minus 0.2 pg/ml)and WH (2.1 plus or minus 0.1 pg/ml); it was unchanged during air and water test periods. Thus, hemorrhage attenuated the immersion-induced increase in Q(sub co), eliminated the WC diuresis, maintained plasma renin activity and PVP at DC levels and did not change immersion-induced aldosterone suppression; the osmotic diuresis during control immersion is apparently not due to either aldosterone suppression or vasopressin suppression.

  6. [Agonist of V2 vasopressin receptor reduces depressive disorders in post-stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokoskova, S G; Stepanov, I I; Tsikunov, S G

    2012-01-01

    Poststroke depression is one of the common psychiatric complications after stroke. Thus, the research of new ways for treatment depressed mood after stroke is actual. The previous researches revealed vasopressin to be effective in patients with memory, speech and motor function disorders after stroke. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of vasopressin on depression after stroke. Fourteen patients with affective disorders have been treated with subendocrine doses of 1-desamino-8-D-arginin-vasopressin (DDAVP) daily by intranasal application during 1,5-2 months. Vasopressin was effective in correcting both apatoadinamic and anxious depression. Treatment effect was durable, lasts for 0,5-1 year after the first course of therapy. The results of this pilot study demonstrate perspective of using selective agonist of vasopressin V2 receptors, DDAVP, in therapy of post-stroke depression.

  7. Iodination of vasopressin analogues with agonistic and antagonistic properties: effects on biological properties and affinity for vascular and renal vasopressin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jard, S; Lombard, C; Seyer, R; Aumelas, A; Manning, M; Sawyer, W H

    1987-09-01

    Twelve L- and D-tyrosine-containing vasopressin analogues were prepared in their mono- and diiodinated forms. These include six arginine vasopressin (AVP) vascular (V1) type antagonists/antidiuretic (V2) agonists, four V1/V2 antagonists, and two V1/V2 agonists, one of which is AVP itself. Ten peptides were iodinated on the tyrosyl residue in position 2; two were iodinated on a tyrosyl amide residue replacing the glycyl amide residue at position 9. All peptides were tested both for their biological activities in vivo (rat vasopressor and antidiuretic tests) and for their ability to bind to vasopressin receptors of the V1 (vascular) and V2 (renal) types from rat liver and rat kidney membranes, respectively. It is shown that monoiodination of the tyrosyl residue in the vasopressin analogues that were tested either preserves or reduces to a highly variable extent the in vivo and in vitro biological activities of these analogues. In most cases diiodonitation resulted in a marked decrease in biological activity. The effects of iodination on the affinity of vasopressin analogues for hepatic V1 receptors and renal V2 receptors were more related to the affinity of the noniodinated peptide for these receptors than to the biological properties (antagonist versus agonist) of the tested analogues, the nature (L versus D) of the iodinated tyrosyl residue, or the position (2 versus 9) at which this residue was introduced. The loss of affinity due to iodination was usually more pronounced for peptides exhibiting high affinity for vasopressin receptors. However, we show that among the monoiodinated peptides some (especially monoiodinated [2-D-Tyrosine]-AVP) retained enough affinity for vasopressin binding sites to suggest that their radioiodinated conterparts would be promising labeled ligands for use in studies in vasopressin receptors.

  8. ECG changes during cerebral angiography; A comparison of low osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hayakawa, Katsumi (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Department of Radiology)

    334 electrocardiographic recordings obtained from 109 patients who underwent cerebral angiography with low osmolality contrast media (CM) were analysed. CM used in this study included meglumine sodium ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. A tachycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 8.3 percent of the recordings, while a bradycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 11.1 percent. Assessment was based on the type of CM used, age of the patients, usage of atropine sulfate as premedication, and the vessel injected. Patients who were under 19 years of age, and unpremedicated had a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, there was no significant difference of the incidence of electrocardiographic abnormality between the 3 CM, and between the 2 injected vessel groups. The authors have also analysed the incidence of generalized adverse effect. There was no serious complication, however, 11.9 percent of the patients who under-went cerebral angiography with ioxaglate developed urticaria and this was significantly higher than in the other 2 CM groups. (author). 17 refs.; 9 tabs.

  9. Targeted tyrosine iodination in a multi-tyrosine vasopressin analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Jacques A; Blankenship, Mary; Chauhan, Satendra S; Pennington, Michael W

    2007-11-01

    Iodination of the conserved 2-tyrosine (Tyr(2)) residue in the pressin and tocin rings of arginine- or lysine-vasopressin (AVP or LVP), and oxytocin, respectively, impairs binding to their respective receptors. Synthetic antagonists that have their Tyr(2) either replaced by another amino acid or irreversibly blocked by an O-methyl or O-ethyl ether, but have, instead, an iodinatable phenol moiety outside the pressin/tocin ring, are used for radiolabeling. We explored another approach to avoid iodinating Tyr(2) by capping this residue with a reversible O-acetyl group, incorporated during peptide synthesis. The O-acetyl-Tyr(2) LVP peptide, with a free iodinatable tyrosine attached to the epsilon-amine of 8-lysine, is iodinated at a neutral pH and purified by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) at an acidic pH, conditions under which the O-acetyl groups are stable. Deacetylation with hydroxylamine is selective, and leaves intact the disulfide bridge. The marked shortening of the HPLC retention time after deblocking produces a chemically homogeneous label, iodinated exclusively on the free tyrosine residue attached to the epsilon-amine of LVP. Hitherto, this (125)I labeled vasopressin agonist could be obtained only in low yield, via conjugation labeling with iodinated N-t-Boc-tyrosine succinimidyl ester. This fully reversible tyrosine protection strategy does not require special equipment, and retains the conserved Tyr(2), typical of vasopressin and oxytocin agonists. (c) 2007 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Vasopressin and angiotensin II in reflex regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoids, and renin: effect of water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, V. L.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin participate in baroreflex regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoid, and renin secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this participation is enhanced in water-deprived dogs, with chronically elevated plasma ANG II and vasopressin levels, compared with water-replete dogs. The baroreflex was assessed by infusing increasing doses of nitroprusside (0.3, 0.6, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) in both groups of animals. To quantitate the participation of ANG II and vasopressin, the dogs were untreated or pretreated with the competitive ANG II antagonist saralasin, a V1-vasopressin antagonist, or combined V1/V2-vasopressin antagonist, either alone or in combination. The findings were as follows. 1) Larger reflex increases in ANG II, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, but not ACTH, were produced in water-deprived dogs compared with water-replete dogs. 2) ANG II blockade blunted the glucocorticoid and ACTH responses to hypotension in water-deprived dogs, but not water-replete dogs. In contrast, vasopressin blockade reduced the ACTH response only in water-replete dogs. 3) Vasopressin or combined vasopressin and ANG II blockade reduced the plasma level of glucocorticoids related either to the fall in arterial pressure or to the increase in plasma ACTH concentration in water-replete dogs, and this effect was enhanced in water-deprived dogs. 4) In both water-deprived and water-replete animals, saralasin and/or a V1-antagonist increased the renin response to hypotension, but a combined V1/V2-antagonist did not. These results reemphasize the importance of endogenous ANG II and vasopressin in the regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoid, and renin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in "beer potomania" and "starvation potomania".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T H

    2014-07-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia.

  12. Near-fatal persistent anion- and osmolal-gap acidosis due to massive gamma-butyrolactone/ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heytens, Luc; Neels, Hugo; Van Regenmortel, Niels; van den Brink, Wim; Henckes, Manu; Schouwers, Sofie; Dockx, Greet; Crunelle, Cleo L

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of an ethanol and massive gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) intoxication, the precursor of the recreational drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), resulting in life-threatening metabolic acidosis (pH 6.5) with a highly increased anion- and osmolal gap. Rapid analysis using gas chromatography revealed a GHB plasma concentration of 4400 mg/L, far above the upper limit concentration of 1000 mg/L found in adult fatalities attributed to GBL. Full recovery was established following supportive treatment including haemodialysis. This is the first report of a combined ethanol/GBL intoxication as a cause of high serum anion- and osmolal-gap metabolic acidosis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Ethanol increases plasma vasopressin shortly after intraperitoneal injection in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbern, D.L.; ten Haaf, J.; Tabakoff, B.; van Wimersma Greidanus, T.B.

    1985-09-16

    In rats, ethanol has generally been thought to inhibit vasopressin (VP) release into the peripheral circulation; however, the primary evidence for this conclusion has been indirect. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure VP in the plasma of rats decapitated 5 or 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (2.0 g/kg). Confirming the popular notion that ethanol inhibits VP release, VP levels were decreased 60 min after treatment. But radioimmunoassay techniques also revealed that VP release is markedly stimulated shortly after an injection of ethanol. 14 references, 1 figure.

  14. Critical role of quorum sensing-dependent glutamate metabolism in homeostatic osmolality and outer membrane vesiculation in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongsung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in cooperative bacteria is achieved by modulating primary metabolism in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. A perturbed metabolism in QS mutants causes physiological stress in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Here, we show that increased bacterial osmolality in B. glumae is caused by unusually high cellular concentrations of glutamate and betaine generated by QS deficiencies. QS negatively controls glutamate uptake and the expression of genes involved in the glutamine synthetase and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycles. Thus, cellular glutamate levels were significantly higher in the QS mutants than in the wild type, and they caused hyperosmotic cellular conditions. Under the hypotonic conditions of the periplasm in the QS mutants, outer membrane bulging and vesiculation were observed, although these changes were rescued by knocking out the gltI gene, which encodes a glutamate transporter. Outer membrane modifications were not detected in the wild type. These results suggest that QS-dependent glutamate metabolism is critical for homeostatic osmolality. We suggest that outer membrane bulging and vesiculation might be the outcome of a physiological adaptation to relieve hypotonic osmotic stress in QS mutants. Our findings reveal how QS functions to maintain bacterial osmolality in a cooperative population. PMID:28272446

  15. Regulation of renal Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters by vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sebastian; Mutig, Kerim

    2017-08-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) induces antidiuresis, thus playing an essential role in body water and electrolyte homeostasis. Its antidiuretic effects are mediated chiefly by V2 vasopressin receptors (V2R) expressed along the distal nephron and collecting duct epithelia. NaCl reabsorption in the distal nephron, which includes the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT), largely depends on the activity of two structurally related Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters, NKCC2 in TAL and NCC in DCT. AVP-induced activation of these transporters contributes to urine concentration and renal electrolyte reabsorption. Previous work has specified molecular pathways mediating the effects of V2R activation in TAL and DCT, and protein networks involved in intracellular trafficking and phosphoregulation of the two transporters have been identified. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding AVP signalling mechanisms that are responsible for the activation of NKCC2 and NCC. Implications in the pathophysiology of diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus and salt-sensitive hypertension are discussed in this context.

  16. Effects of arginine vasopressin on musical working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Uzefovsky, Florina; Bogopolsky, Helena; Ebstein, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) and musical working memory (WM). The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA) of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP-placebo) design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo) in a second session, 1 week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's "Musical Aptitude Profile," the interval subtest from the "Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA)," and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV) were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP) (p affect scale, (PANAS). Only in this group and only in the music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  17. A new series of photoactivatable and iodinatable linear vasopressin antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnazzi, E; Aumelas, A; Barberis, C; Guillon, G; Seyer, R

    1994-06-10

    A series of new linear photoactivatable and iodinatable antagonists of the neuropeptidic hormone vasopressin was designed and synthesized by a combination of PyBOP-mediated Boc/solid-phase peptide synthesis and solution synthesis approaches. These were based on modifications of a previously reported potent and selective antagonist of the vasopressor response (V1a receptor) to [arginine]vasopressin, phenylacetyl-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2. (Azidophenyl)alkyl substitutions, of the general structure N3-C6H4(CH2)nCO (n = 0, 1, 2, or 3), were employed in position 1. The seven new analogues are 4-N3-C6H4CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (3), 3-N3-C6H4CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (12), 4-N3-C6H4CH2-CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (13), 3-N3-C6H4CH2CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (14), 4-N3-C6H4(CH2)2CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (15), 3-N3-C6H4(CH2)2CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (16), 4-N3-C6H4-(CH2)3CO-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 (17). All analogues were tested for their affinity of the rat hepatic V1a receptor. Analogues 3 and 12 have a low affinity (Ki approximately 20 nM) and analogues 13-17 show a high affinity (Ki between 0.04 and 0.3 nM). The affinity values appear to be mainly a function of the alkyl chain length and to a lesser extent of the meta or para position of the azido group on the aromatic ring. Analogues 13-17 were iodinated on the Tyr-9 residue, giving compounds 18-22. All these five iodinated derivatives exhibited Ki values of 0.2-1 nM for rat liver membranes. Their affinities for oxytocin and renal V2 vasopressin receptors were much lower. Moreover, all analogues completely antagonized the vasopressin-stimulated inositol phosphates production in WRK1 cells and were devoided of any agonistic potency. Preliminary covalent binding studies showed improved covalent yields as compared to any previously reported results. They are very promising

  18. Comparison of low osmolality ionic (ioxaglate) versus nonionic (iopamidol) contrast media in cardiac angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisneski, J A; Gertz, E W; Dahlgren, M; Muslin, A

    1989-02-15

    A double-blind randomized study was performed in 60 patients to compare the electrocardiographic and hemodynamic changes induced during cardiac angiography by 2 contrast media with relatively low osmolality. Ioxaglate meglumine sodium, an ionic dimer contrast medium, was compared with iopamidol, a nonionic compound. Of the 30 patients who received ioxaglate, 13 (43%) experienced a mild to moderate adverse reaction to the contrast media, while only 2 of the 30 patients (7%) in the iopamidol group had similar side effects (p less than 0.005). Significant prolongations of the QT intervals occurred with the ioxaglate injections. The QT intervals increased from 402 +/- 46 to 442 +/- 59 ms (p less than 0.001) with the right coronary artery injection and similar changes were observed after the left coronary artery injection and left ventriculography. Significant ST-segment and T-wave amplitude changes also occurred in the ioxaglate group. With iopamidol injections, there were no significant changes in any of these parameters. After the left ventriculogram, there were similar decreases in the systolic arterial pressures in both groups (-14 +/- 10 mm Hg with ioxaglate and -21 +/- 9 mm Hg with iopamidol). The left ventricular end-diastolic pressures increased after the ventriculogram in both groups (5 +/- 5 vs 2 +/- 3 mm Hg with ioxaglate and iopamidol, respectively, 60 seconds after the injection). This report demonstrates that mild to moderate adverse reactions, QT-interval prolongations, ST and T-wave changes were significantly greater during coronary angiography with ioxaglate when compared with iopamidol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Extreme Variation of Nutritional Composition and Osmolality of Commercially Available Carbohydrate Energy Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Morton, James P

    2015-10-01

    The provision of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of energy gels is regularly practiced among endurance and team sport athletes. However, in those instances where athletes ingest suboptimal fluid intake, consuming gels during exercise may lead to gastrointestinal (GI) problems when the nutritional composition of the gel is not aligned with promoting gastric emptying. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to quantify the degree of diversity in nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels intended for use in the global sports nutrition market. We surveyed 31 product ranges (incorporating 51 flavor variants) from 23 brands (Accelerade, CNP, High5, GU, Hammer, Maxim, Clif, USN, Mule, Multipower, Nectar, Carb- Boom, Power Bar, Lucozade, Shotz, TORQ, Dextro, Kinetica, SiS, Zipvit, Maxifuel, Gatorade and Squeezy). Gels differed markedly in serving size (50 ± 22 g: 29-120), energy density (2.34 ± 0.7 kcal/g: 0.83-3.40), energy content (105 ± 24 kcal: 78-204), CHO content (26 ± 6 g: 18-51) and free sugar content (9.3 ± 7.0 g: 0.6-26.8). Most notably, gels displayed extreme variation in osmolality (4424 ± 2883 mmol/kg: 303-10,135) thereby having obvious implications for both GI discomfort and the total fluid intake likely required to optimize CHO delivery and oxidation. The large diversity of nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels illustrate that not all gels should be considered the same. Sports nutrition practitioners should therefore consider the aforementioned variables to make better-informed decisions regarding which gel product best suits the athlete's specific fueling and hydration requirements.

  20. Arterial enhancement at abdominal CT angiography: Low- versus high-osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, O.; Berger, P.; Pangaud, C.; Lyonnet, D. [Hopital E. Herriot, Lyon (France). Dept. of Vascular and Genitourinary Radiology; Ecochard, R. [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France). Dept of Biostatistics; Fontaine, B. [Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy (France)

    2000-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of contrast media pharmokinetic differences on aortic enhancement at abdominal CT angiography and to determine whether these effects are of clinical relevance. Material and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients referred for abdominal CT angiography were included in the study. All abdominal CT angiograms were performed with the same parameters (collimation 3 mm, pitch ratio 1.7, scan delay 30 s) after i.v. injection of 120 ml of contrast medium at 3 ml/s. After randomization, patients received either iobitridol 300 (low-osmolar, 300 mg I/ml), iobitridol 350 (low-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml) or ioxithalamate 350 (high-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml). The time attenuation curves obtained with the three contrast media were compared. Results: The time attenuation curve obtained with ioxithalamate 350 was not parallel to those obtained with iobitridol 300 and iobitridol 350. Mean peak enhancements obtained with iobitridol 350 and ioxithalamate 350 were not significantly different but iobitridol 350 provided higher mean peak enhancement than iobitridol 300. Mean delays of the peak enhancements were the same with the three contrast media. After peak enhancement, the decrease of aortic opacification under a selected threshold of 200 HU was significantly slower with iobitridol 350 than with iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350, whereas iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350 showed no significant differences. Conclusion: For a given iodine concentration, low-osmolality contrast media provide longer aortic opacification and may be recommended for CT angiography when long acquisition times are needed.

  1. In vivo somatostatin, vasopressin, and oxytocin synthesis in diabetic rat hypothalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernstrom, J.D.; Fernstrom, M.H.; Kwok, R.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The in vivo labeling of somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin was studied in rat hypothalamus after third ventricular administration of (35S)cysteine to streptozotocin-diabetic and normal rats. Immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamus were unaffected by diabetes, as was the incorporation of (35S)cysteine into hypothalamic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In contrast, immunoreactive vasopressin levels in hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (and oxytocin levels in posterior pituitary) were below normal in diabetic rats. Moreover, (35S)cysteine incorporation into hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin (probably mainly in the paraventricular nucleus because of its proximity to the third ventricular site of label injection) was significantly above normal. The increments in vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were reversed by insulin administration. In vivo cysteine specific activity and the labeling of acid-precipitable protein did not differ between normal and diabetic animals; effects of diabetes on vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were therefore not caused by simple differences in cysteine specific activity. These results suggest that diabetes (1) does not influence the production of somatostatin peptides in hypothalamus but (2) stimulates the synthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin. For vasopressin at least, the increase in synthesis may be a compensatory response to the known increase in its secretion that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes.

  2. Decrease of extracellular taurine in the rat dorsal hippocampus after central nervous administration of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular amino acid concentrations in the left and right dorsal hippocampus of male rats were studied before and during application of vasopressin into the right hippocampus. The method of intracerebral microdialysis was used for both arginine vasopressin administration and monitoring...... of the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the right 24...

  3. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  4. Urinary excretion of arginine-vasopressin and prostaglandin E in essential fatty acid-deficient rats after oral supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1986-01-01

    supplementation period, were analyzed for volume, and by radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and prostaglandin E (PGE). Linoleate and arachidonate supplements both decreased the initial high urinary AVP excretion, whereas it was further increased by the oleate supplement. There was no effect...... excretion and the percentage of arachidonate or the ratio of 20:3 (n=9)/20:4(n-6) in total kidney lipids. It is suggested that increased urinary AVP excretion in EFA-deficient rats is mainly caused by a change in the renal excretatory mechanism of AVP rather than reflecting an increased plasma AVP...

  5. [Radioimmunoassay for human plasma 8-arginine-vasopressin (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte-Devolx, B; Rougon-Rapuzzi, G; Millet, Y

    1977-01-01

    The authors have developed a radioimmunoassay for human plasma vasopressin (AVP) which permits the estimation of antidiuretic hormon (ADH) levels as low as 0,8 pg/ml. The average plasma level of AVP after overnight water restriction was found to be 14,3 pg/ml (sd = 4,4 pg/ml) in normal subjects. They provoked a hypersecretion of ADH by the intravenous injection of 1-2 mg of nicotine. In 11 volunteer normal subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH hypersecretion which reached a maximum between 2nd and 15th minutes after injection. In 3 cases of diabetes insipidus, nicotine injection did not induce ADH hypersecretion; in 1 case of potomania this response was weak; in 2 cases of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, AVP plasma levels were elevated and the response after nicotine stimulation was exaggerated.

  6. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    ) antagonist WAY-100635 (WAY) had no effect. The OT response to restraint stress was inhibited by WAY, KET and LY but not by ICS. KET and LY inhibited OT response to dehydration, and LY inhibited OT response to hemorrhage. Neither of the antagonists affected AVP responses to dehydration or hemorrhage, nor......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were...... applied after pretreatment with intracerebroventricular infusion of saline or different 5-HT antagonists. RESULTS: Restraint stress (5 min), hypotensive hemorrhage or dehydration for 24 h increased AVP secretion fivefold and OT secretion threefold. Swim stress for 3 min had no effect on AVP secretion...

  7. Effects of vasopressin administration on diuresis of water immersion in normal humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Denunzio, A. G.; Loutzenhiser, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of vasopressin suppression on the diuresis encountered during water immersion is investigated in studies on normal humans immersed to the neck. Six hydrated male subjects were studied on two occasions while undergoing 6 h of immersion without or during the administration of aqueous vasopressin for the initial 4 h. Neck immersion is found to result in a significant increase in urinary flow rate beginning in the first hour and persisting throughout the immersion. The administration of vasopressin markedly attenuated the diuretic response throughout the period of infusion, while cessation of vasopressin administration during the final 2 h of immersion resulted in a marked offset of the antidiuresis. Results thus support the view that the suppression of antidiuretic hormone contributes to the immersion diuresis of hydrated subjects.

  8. Effects of Arginine Vasopressin on musical short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Y. Granot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP and musical working memory (WM. The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP – placebo design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo in a second session, one week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile, the interval subtest from the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA, and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP (p < .05 with no main Session effect nor Group * Session interaction. In the Gordon test there was a main Session effect (p < .05 with scores higher in the second as compared to the first session, a marginal main Group effect (p = .093 and a marginal Group X Session interaction (p = 0.88. In addition we found that the group that received AVP in the first session scored higher on scales indicative of happiness, and alertness on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, (PANAS. Only in this group and only in the music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  9. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Vasopressin-Responsive Nuclear Proteins in Collecting Duct Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Laura K.; Bolger, Steven J.; Luginbuhl, Kelli; Gonzales, Patricia A.; Rinschen, Markus M.; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Hoffert, Jason D.; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin controls transport in the renal collecting duct, in part, by regulating transcription. This complex process, which can involve translocation and/or modification of transcriptional regulators, is not completely understood. Here, we applied a method for large-scale profiling of nuclear proteins to quantify vasopressin-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells. Using stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 3987 nucl...

  10. Histamine and prostaglandin interaction in regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, U; Kjaer, A; Kristoffersen, U; Madsen, K; Toftegaard, C; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    2003-10-01

    Prostaglandins and histamine in the hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion, and appear to be involved in the mediation of pituitary hormone responses to immunochallenges. Therefore, we investigated in conscious male rats: (i) whether blockade of H1 or H2 receptors affected the oxytocin and vasopressin responses to prostaglandins and (ii) whether blockade of prostaglandin synthesis affected the oxytocin and vasopressin responses to histamine or to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in order to determine any interaction between prostaglandins and histamine in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin secretion was dose-dependently stimulated by intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 or 5 microg of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2alpha, with PGE2 being the most potent of the compounds used. Prior central infusion of the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine significantly inhibited the oxytocin response to all three prostaglandins by approximately 50%. Vasopressin secretion was increased by PGE1 but not by PGE2 or PGF2alpha. The stimulatory effect of PGE1 was almost annihilated by prior administration of mepyramine or cimetidine. Central infusion of histamine or immunochallenge with LPS administered intraperitoneally increased oxytocin and vasopressin secretion four- and two-fold, respectively. Pretreatment with systemic injection of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin dose-dependently reduced the oxytocin response and prevented the vasopressin response to histamine or LPS. We conclude that histamine and PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2alpha interact in the regulation of oxytocin secretion, whereas histamine and only PGE1 interact in the regulation of vasopressin secretion. Furthermore, histamine as well as LPS may affect oxytocin and vasopressin neurones via activation of prostaglandins, probably in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus.

  11. Metabolic effects of vasopressin infusion in the starved rat. Reversal of ketonaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofe, A M; Williamson, D H

    1983-01-01

    The effects of vasopressin on the metabolism of starved rats were investigated by using a constant-infusion regimen (50 pmol/kg body wt. per min, after an initial loading dose of 150 pmol/kg body wt.). 2. Blood ketone bodies decreased by 50% in 10 min, and this was accompanied by a 60% decrease in the plasma non-esterified fatty acids. 3. Blood glucose increased by 0.9 mM within 5 min and decreased to control values over the 40 min infusion. Small increases in lactate and pyruvate also occurred. 4. Plasma insulin was not increased by vasopressin infusion. 5. The net decrease in blood ketone bodies caused by vasopressin was similar when somatostatin was infused simultaneously (1 nmol/kg body wt. per min). 6. Hepatic ketone bodies were significantly decreased by vasopressin, as was the 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio. A small increase in the hepatic concentration of several glycolytic intermediates also occurred. 7. Vasopressin did not decrease the ketonaemia produced by infusions of octanoate or long-chain triacylglycerol in rats that had been pre-treated with the anti-lipolytic agent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole. 8. In comparison with vasopressin, the infusion of adrenaline or glucose had much smaller effects in decreasing the ketonaemia of starvation, despite the 4-fold increase in plasma insulin, at 10 min, with the glucose infusion. 9. The primary metabolic effect of vasopressin in the starved rat appears to be that of decreased supply of non-esterified fatty acid to the liver. It is suggested that vasopressin has a direct anti-lipolytic effect in adipose tissue. PMID:6135420

  12. Measurement of osmolality and sodium concentration in heated-cup sweat collections for the investigation of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J M; Adams, A; Westwood, A; McCrae, W M

    1983-11-01

    A new system (Wescor) for sweat collection and analysis was examined with respect to its suitability for the investigation of children suspected to have cystic fibrosis. The effects of iontophoresis current, sweat collection time, sweat storage and analysis were examined, and as a result the technique was modified to allow collection and storage of sufficient sweat for sodium and potassium as well as osmolality assays in 10-20 minutes. The small electrodes and speed of the procedure make it practical for use with small children, with a reproducibility of 13-24% (coefficient of variation for whole procedure).

  13. Vasopressin regulation of the renal UT-A3 urea transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G S; Thistlethwaite, A; Lees, H; Cooper, G J; Smith, Craig

    2009-03-01

    Facilitative urea transporters in the mammalian kidney play a vital role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. The urea transporters located in the renal inner medullary collecting duct, namely UT-A1 and UT-A3, are acutely regulated by the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. In this study, we investigated the vasopressin regulation of the basolateral urea transporter UT-A3 using an MDCK-mUT-A3 cell line. Within 10 min, vasopressin stimulates urea flux through UT-A3 transporters already present at the plasma membrane, via a PKA-dependent process. Within 1 h, vasopressin significantly increases UT-A3 localization at the basolateral membrane, causing a further increase in urea transport. While the basic trafficking of UT-A3 to basolateral membranes involves both protein kinase C and calmodulin, its regulation by vasopressin specifically occurs through a casein kinase II-dependent pathway. In conclusion, this study details the effects of vasopressin on UT-A3 urea transporter function and hence its role in regulating urea permeability within the renal inner medullary collecting duct.

  14. Vasopressin regulation of multisite phosphorylation of UT-A1 in the inner medullary collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Carol A; Black, Lauren N; Ordas, Ronald J; Gumina, Diane L; Pulous, Fadi E; Sim, Jae H; Sands, Jeff M; Blount, Mitsi A

    2015-01-01

    Vasopressin signaling is critical for the regulation of urea transport in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Increased urea permeability is driven by a vasopressin-mediated elevation of cAMP that results in the direct phosphorylation of urea transporter (UT)-A1. The identification of cAMP-sensitive phosphorylation sites, Ser(486) and Ser(499), in the rat UT-A1 sequence was the first step in understanding the mechanism of vasopressin action on the phosphorylation-dependent modulation of urea transport. To investigate the significance of multisite phosphorylation of UT-A1 in response to elevated cAMP, we used highly specific and sensitive phosphosite antibodies to Ser(486) and Ser(499) to determine cAMP action at each phosphorylation site. We found that phosphorylation at both sites was rapid and sustained. Furthermore, the rate of phosphorylation of the two sites was similar in both mIMCD3 cells and rat inner medullary tissue. UT-A1 localized to the apical membrane in response to vasopressin was phosphorylated at Ser(486) and Ser(499). We confirmed that elevated cAMP resulted in increased phosphorylation of both sites by PKA but not through the vasopressin-sensitive exchange protein activated by cAMP pathway. These results elucidate the multisite phosphorylation of UT-A1 in response to cAMP, thus providing the beginning of understanding the intracellular factors underlying vasopressin stimulation of urea transport in the IMCD.

  15. Increased renal alpha-ENaC and NCC abundance and elevated blood pressure are independent of hyperaldosteronism in vasopressin escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Swasti; Packer, Randall K; Hu, Xinqun; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Verbalis, Joseph G; Ecelbarger, Carolyn A

    2006-07-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that rats undergoing vasopressin escape had increased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), plasma and urine aldosterone, and increased renal protein abundance of the alpha-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and the 70-kDa band of gamma-ENaC (Song J, Hu X, Khan O, Tian Y, Verbalis JG, and Ecelbarger CA. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287: F1076-F1083, 2004; Ecelbarger CA, Knepper MA, and Verbalis JG. J Am Soc Nephrol 12: 207-217, 2001). Here, we determine whether changes in these renal proteins and MAP require elevated aldosterone levels. We performed adrenalectomies (ADX) or sham surgeries on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Corticosterone and aldosterone were replaced to clamp these hormone levels. MAP was monitored by radiotelemetry. Rats were infused with 1-deamino-[8-D-arginine]-vasopressin (dDAVP) via osmotic minipumps (5 ng/h). At day 3 of dDAVP infusion, seven rats in each group were offered a liquid diet [water load (WL)] or continued on a solid diet (SD). Plasma aldosterone and corticosterone and urine aldosterone were increased by WL in sham rats. ADX-WL rats escaped, as assessed by early natriuresis followed by diuresis; however, urine volume and natriuresis were somewhat blunted. WL did not reduce the abundance or activity of 11-beta-hydroxsteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, the previously observed increase in renal aldosterone-sensitive proteins and escape-associated increased MAP persisted in clamped rats. The densitometry of immunoblots for NCC, alpha- and gamma-70 kDa ENaC, respectively, were (% sham-SD): sham-WL, 159, 278, 233; ADX-SD, 69, 212, 171; ADX-WL, 116, 302, 161. However, clamping corticosteroids blunted the rise at least for NCC and gamma-ENaC (70 kDa). Overall, the increase in aldosterone observed in vasopressin escape is not necessary for the increased expression of NCC, alpha- or gamma-ENaC or increased MAP associated with "escape."

  16. A novel osmolality-shift fermentation strategy for improving acarbose production and concurrently reducing byproduct component C formation by Actinoplanes sp. A56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Peng, Wei-Fu; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Bao; Li, Kun-Tai

    2014-12-01

    Component C (Acarviosy-1,4-Glc-1,1-Glc) was a highly structural acarbose analog, which could be largely formed during acarbose fermentation process, resulting in acarbose purification being highly difficult. By choosing osmolality level as the key fermentation parameter of acarbose-producing Actinoplanes sp. A56, this paper successfully established an effective and simplified osmolality-shift strategy to improve acarbose production and concurrently reduce component C formation. Firstly, the effects of various osmolality levels on acarbose fermentation were firstly investigated in a 50-l fermenter. It was found that 400-500 mOsm/kg of osmolality was favorable for acarbose biosynthesis, but would exert a negative influence on the metabolic activity of Actinoplanes sp. A56, resulting in an obviously negative increase of acarbose and a sharp formation of component C during the later stages of fermentation (144-168 h). Based on this fact, an osmolality-shift fermentation strategy (0-48 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg; 49-120 h: 450-500 mOsm/kg; 121-168 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg) was further carried out. Compared with the osmolality-stat (450-500 mOsm/kg) fermentation process, the final accumulation amount of component C was decreased from 498.2 ± 27.1 to 307.2 ± 9.5 mg/l, and the maximum acarbose yield was increased from 3,431.9 ± 107.7 to 4,132.8 ± 111.4 mg/l.

  17. Validity of protein-osmolality versus protein-creatinine ratios in the estimation of quantitative proteinuria from random samples of urine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Bruce Z; Butani, Lavjay; Wollan, Peter; Wilson, David M; Larson, Timothy S

    2003-04-01

    Proteinuria is an important marker of kidney disease. Simple methods to determine the presence of proteinuria in a semiquantitative fashion require measurement of either a protein-creatinine or protein-osmolality ratio. Urine samples from 134 healthy infants and children and 150 children from the pediatric nephrology practice were analyzed to develop normative data for protein-osmolality ratios on random urine samples and compare protein-osmolality with protein-creatinine ratio as a predictor of 24-hour urine protein excretion. Children were grouped according to age. Three groups were established: infants (<2 years), younger children (2 to 8 years), and older children (9 to 18 years). An adult cohort was similarly analyzed. For healthy children older than 2 years, the optimal value discriminating normal from abnormal protein excretion was determined to be a protein-osmolality ratio of 0.15 mg x kg H2O/mOsm. L; for children between 2 and 8 years old, 0.14; and for children older than 8 years, 0.17 (P = not significant between age groups). The corresponding optimal cutoff value for protein-creatinine ratio for the entire group of children older than 2 years is 0.20. Area under the curve analysis of receiver operator characteristic curves showed protein-creatinine ratio was superior to protein-osmolality ratio for predicting abnormal amounts of proteinuria in children and adolescents (P < 0.0001). In adults, both ratios are equally accurate. Given the superiority of protein-creatinine ratio in children, it would be appropriate to screen urine samples for proteinuria using protein-creatinine ratio rather than protein-osmolality ratio.

  18. Small doses of arginine vasopressin in combination with norepinephrine "buy" time for definitive treatment for uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangming; Tian, Kunlun; Xue, Mingying; Zhu, Yu; Lan, Dan; Peng, Xiaoyong; Wu, Yue; Li, Tao

    2013-11-01

    Implementation of fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion are greatly limited in prehospital or evacuation settings after severe trauma or war wounds. With uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock rats, we investigated if arginine vasopressin (AVP) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) is independent (or slightly dependent) of fluid resuscitation and can "buy" time for the subsequently definitive treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock in the present study. The results showed that AVP (0.4 U/kg) alone or with NE (3 μg/kg) with one-eighth and one-fourth volumes of total blood volume of lactated Ringer's infusion significantly increased and maintained the mean arterial pressure. Among all groups, 0.4 U/kg of AVP + NE (3 μg/kg) with one-eighth volume of lactated Ringer's infusion had the best effect: it significantly increased and maintained hemodynamics and prolonged the survival time. This early treatment strategy significantly improved the effects of subsequently definitive treatments (after bleeding controlled): it increased the subsequent survival, improved the hemodynamic parameters, improved the cardiac function, and increased the tissue blood flow and oxygen delivery. These results suggested that early application of small doses of AVP (0.4 U/kg) + NE before bleeding control can "buy" time for the definitive treatment of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, which may be an effective measure for the early treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock.

  19. Functions of vasopressin and oxytocin in bone mass regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Tamma, Roberto; Yuen, Tony; Colaianni, Graziana; Ji, Yaoting; Cuscito, Concetta; Bailey, Jack; Dhawan, Samarth; Lu, Ping; Calvano, Cosima D.; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zambonin, Carlo G.; Di Benedetto, Adriana; Stachnik, Agnes; Liu, Peng; Grano, Maria; Colucci, Silvia; Davies, Terry F.; New, Maria I.; Zallone, Alberta; Zaidi, Mone

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies show that oxytocin (Oxt) and vasopressin (Avp) have opposing actions on the skeleton exerted through high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors. We explored whether Avp and Oxtr can share their receptors in the regulation of bone formation by osteoblasts. We show that the Avp receptor 1α (Avpr1α) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) have opposing effects on bone mass: Oxtr−/− mice have osteopenia, and Avpr1α−/− mice display a high bone mass phenotype. More notably, this high bone mass phenotype is reversed by the deletion of Oxtr in Oxtr−/−:Avpr1α−/− double-mutant mice. However, although Oxtr is not indispensable for Avp action in inhibiting osteoblastogenesis and gene expression, Avp-stimulated gene expression is inhibited when the Oxtr is deleted in Avpr1α−/− cells. In contrast, Oxt does not interact with Avprs in vivo in a model of lactation-induced bone loss in which Oxt levels are high. Immunofluorescence microscopy of isolated nucleoplasts and Western blotting and MALDI-TOF of nuclear extracts show that Avp triggers Avpr1α localization to the nucleus. Finally, a specific Avpr2 inhibitor, tolvaptan, does not affect bone formation or bone mass, suggesting that Avpr2, which primarily functions in the kidney, does not have a significant role in bone remodeling. PMID:26699482

  20. Vasopressin inhibits LTP in the CA2 mouse hippocampal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Chafai

    Full Text Available Growing evidence points to vasopressin (AVP as a social behavior regulator modulating various memory processes and involved in pathologies such as mood disorders, anxiety and depression. Accordingly, AVP antagonists are actually envisaged as putative treatments. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized, in particular the influence of AVP on cellular or synaptic activities in limbic brain areas involved in social behavior. In the present study, we investigated AVP action on the synapse between the entorhinal cortex and CA2 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, by using both field potential and whole-cell recordings in mice brain acute slices. Short application (1 min of AVP transiently reduced the synaptic response, only following induction of long-term potentiation (LTP by high frequency stimulation (HFS of afferent fibers. The basal synaptic response, measured in the absence of HFS, was not affected. The Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse was not affected by AVP, even after LTP, while the Schaffer collateral-CA2 synapse was inhibited. Although investigated only recently, this CA2 hippocampal area appears to have a distinctive circuitry and a peculiar role in controlling episodic memory. Accordingly, AVP action on LTP-increased synaptic responses in this limbic structure may contribute to the role of this neuropeptide in controlling memory and social behavior.

  1. Oxytocin, Vasopressin and Williams syndrome: Epigenetic effects on Abnormal Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Haas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome is a condition caused by a deletion of ~26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23 often characterized by abnormal social behavior and disrupted oxytocin and vasopressin functioning. The observation that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit oxytocin and vasopressin dysregulation is compelling. There is currently a lack of evidence that any of the genes typically deleted in Williams syndrome have any direct effect on either oxytocin or vasopressin. In this perspective article, we present a novel epigenetic model describing how DNA methylation may impact the expression of key genes within the oxytocin and vasopressin systems, which may ultimately influence the social behavior observed in Williams syndrome. We draw support from data pooled from a prior empirical research study (Henrichsen, et al., 2011, demonstrating that OXTR is overexpressed in Williams syndrome. These preliminary findings may create new opportunities to target the oxytocin and vasopressin systems with the specific goal of improving outcomes in Williams syndrome and other psychiatric conditions.

  2. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    total vascular capacitance,4 so central venous pres- sure (CVP) becomes elevated. Although elevated CVP usually stimulates diuresis and prevents volume...stimulating a feedback diuresis . Thus, the mechanisms underlying the increased blood volume that accompanies physical activity in- clude increased thirst...vasopressin are acutely decreased.23 These endocrine responses are accom- panied by an acute increase in total urine and so- dium excretion ( diuresis and

  3. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  4. Oral fluid therapy: sodium and potassium content and osmolality of some commercial "clear" soups, juices and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, B E; Arbus, G S

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 90 commercial "clear" fluids, including soups, juices, fruit-flavoured drinks and ices, carbonated beverages and gelatins, showed a range of 0.1 to 251 mmol of sodium and 0.0 to 65 mmol of potassium per litre; the osmolality ranged from 246 to more than 2000 mOsm/kg of water. Knowledge of these values is useful in the home or hospital management of patients for whom control of fluid and electrolyte intake is indicated. The results of the analyses are presented in tabular form for use by physicians and nutritionists when counselling patients to ingest clear-type fluids for various illnesses. Examples are given using these data to show how clear-fluid therapy can be tailored in one such illness--gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea). PMID:497946

  5. Cell biological aspects of the vasopressin type-2 receptor and aquaporin 2 water channel in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, J.H.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the renal collecting duct, water reabsorption is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP). Binding of this hormone to the vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R) leads to insertion of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in the apical membrane, thereby allowing water reabsorption from the

  6. The Vasopressin 1b Receptor Antagonist A-988315 Blocks Stress Effects on the Retrieval of Object-Recognition Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsegyan, A.; Atsak, P.; Hornberger, W.B.; Jacobson, P.B.; Gaalen, M.M. van; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and high circulating glucocorticoid levels are well known to impair the retrieval of memory. Vasopressin can activate the HPA axis by stimulating vasopressin 1b (V1b) receptors located on the pituitary. In the present s

  7. Vasopressin contributes to hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and renal hypertrophy in diabetes mellitus: study in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoux, P; Martin, H; Ahloulay, M; Schmitt, F; Bouby, N; Trinh-Trang-Tan, M M; Bankir, L

    1999-08-31

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and the origin of this complication is poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP), which is elevated in type I and type II DM, has been shown to increase glomerular filtration rate in normal rats and to contribute to progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. The present study was thus designed to evaluate whether VP contributes to the renal disorders of DM. Renal function was compared in Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus (DI) lacking VP and in normal Long-Evans (LE) rats, with or without streptozotocin-induced DM. Blood and urine were collected after 2 and 4 weeks of DM, and creatinine clearance, urinary glucose and albumin excretion, and kidney weight were measured. Plasma glucose increased 3-fold in DM rats of both strains, but glucose excretion was approximately 40% lower in DI-DM than in LE-DM, suggesting less intense metabolic disorders. Creatinine clearance increased significantly in LE-DM (P diabetic hyperfiltration and albuminuria induced by DM. This hormone thus seems to be an additional risk factor for diabetic nephropathy and, thus, a potential target for prevention and/or therapeutic intervention.

  8. Prolactin 177, prolactin 188, and extracellular osmolality independently regulate the gene expression of ion transport effectors in gill of Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Mayu; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-11-15

    This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality. We then incubated gill filaments in media containing ovine PRL (oPRL) and native tilapia PRLs (tPRL177 and tPRL188). oPRL and the two native tPRLs showed concentration-dependent effects on NCC, NKAα1a, and PRLR1 expression; Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression was increased by 24 h of incubation with tPRLs. Immunohistochemical observation showed that oPRL and both tPRLs maintained a high density of NCC- and NKA-immunoreactive ionocytes in cultured filaments. Furthermore, we found that tPRL177 and tPRL188 differentially induce expression of these ion transporters, according to incubation time. Together, these results provide evidence that ionocytes of Mozambique tilapia may function as osmoreceptors, as well as directly respond to PRL to modulate branchial ionoregulatory functions.

  9. Supraoptic oxytocin and vasopressin neurons function as glucose and metabolic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhilin; Levin, Barry E.; Stevens, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the supraoptic nuclei (SON) produce oxytocin and vasopressin and express insulin receptors (InsR) and glucokinase. Since oxytocin is an anorexigenic agent and glucokinase and InsR are hallmarks of cells that function as glucose and/or metabolic sensors, we evaluated the effect of glucose, insulin, and their downstream effector ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels on calcium signaling in SON neurons and on oxytocin and vasopressin release from explants of the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. We also evaluated the effect of blocking glucokinase and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K; mediates insulin-induced mobilization of glucose transporter, GLUT4) on responses to glucose and insulin. Glucose and insulin increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The responses were glucokinase and PI3K dependent, respectively. Insulin and glucose alone increased vasopressin release (P sensors to participate in appetite regulation. PMID:24477542

  10. Quantitative proteomics identifies vasopressin-responsive nuclear proteins in collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Laura K; Bolger, Steven J; Luginbuhl, Kelli; Gonzales, Patricia A; Rinschen, Markus M; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Hoffert, Jason D; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Vasopressin controls transport in the renal collecting duct, in part, by regulating transcription. This complex process, which can involve translocation and/or modification of transcriptional regulators, is not completely understood. Here, we applied a method for large-scale profiling of nuclear proteins to quantify vasopressin-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells. Using stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 3987 nuclear proteins and identified significant changes in the abundance of 65, including previously established targets of vasopressin signaling in the collecting duct. Vasopressin-induced changes in the abundance of the transcription factors JunB, Elf3, Gatad2b, and Hmbox1; transcriptional co-regulators Ctnnb1 (β-catenin) and Crebbp; subunits of the Mediator complex; E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4; nuclear transport regulator RanGap1; and several proteins associated with tight junctions and adherens junctions. Bioinformatic analysis showed that many of the quantified transcription factors have putative binding sites in the 5'-flanking regions of genes coding for the channel proteins Aqp2, Aqp3, Scnn1b (ENaCβ), and Scnn1g (ENaCγ), which are known targets of vasopressin. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the increase in β-catenin in nuclear fractions was accompanied by an even larger increase in its phosphorylated form (pSer552). The findings provide a new online database resource for nuclear proteomics (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/mNPD/) and generate new hypotheses regarding vasopressin-mediated transcriptional regulation in the collecting duct.

  11. Neuroendocrine actions of organohalogens: thyroid hormones, arginine vasopressin, and neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S; Curras-Collazo, Margarita C

    2010-10-01

    Organohalogen compounds are global environmental pollutants. They are highly persistent, bioaccumulative, and cause adverse effects in humans and wildlife. Because of the widespread use of these organohalogens in household items and consumer products, indoor contamination may be a significant source of human exposure, especially for children. One significant concern with regard to health effects associated with exposure to organohalogens is endocrine disruption. This review focuses on PCBs and PBDEs as old and new organohalogens, respectively, and their effects on two neuroendocrine systems; thyroid hormones and the arginine vasopressin system (AVP). Regarding neuroendocrine effects of organohalogens, there is considerable information on the thyroid system as a target and evidence is now accumulating that the AVP system and associated functions are also susceptible to disruption. AVP-mediated functions such as osmoregulation, cardiovascular function as well as social behavior, sexual function and learning/memory are discussed. For both thyroid and AVP systems, the timing of exposure seems to play a major role in the outcome of adverse effects. The mechanism of organohalogen action is well understood for the thyroid system. In comparison, this aspect is understudied in the AVP system but some similarities in neural processes, shown to be targeted by these pollutants, serve as promising possibilities for study. One challenge in understanding modes of action within neuroendocrine systems is their complexity stemming, in part, from interdependent levels of organization. Further, because of the interplay between neuroendocrine and neural functions and behavior, further investigation into organohalogen-mediated effects is warranted and may yield insights with wider scope. Indeed, the current literature provides scattered evidence regarding the role of organohalogen-induced neuroendocrine disruption in the neuroplasticity related to both learning functions and brain

  12. Chimpanzee Personality and the Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1A Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V A D; Weiss, A; Humle, T; Morimura, N; Udono, T; Idani, G; Matsuzawa, T; Hirata, S; Inoue-Murayama, M

    2017-03-01

    Polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene have been linked to various measures related to human social behavior, including sibling conflict and agreeableness. In chimpanzees, AVPR1a polymorphisms have been associated with traits important for social interactions, including sociability, joint attention, dominance, conscientiousness, and hierarchical personality dimensions named low alpha/stability, disinhibition, and negative emotionality/low dominance. We examined associations between AVPR1a and six personality domains and hierarchical personality dimensions in 129 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in Japan or in a sanctuary in Guinea. We fit three linear and three animal models. The first model included genotype, the second included sex and genotype, and the third included genotype, sex, and sex × genotype. All personality phenotypes were heritable. Chimpanzees possessing the long form of the allele were higher in conscientiousness, but only in models that did not include the other predictors; however, additional analyses suggested that this may have been a consequence of study design. In animal models that included sex and sex × genotype, chimpanzees homozygous for the short form of the allele were higher in extraversion. Taken with the findings of previous studies of chimpanzees and humans, the findings related to conscientiousness suggest that AVPR1a may be related to lower levels of impulsive aggression. The direction of the association between AVPR1a genotype and extraversion ran counter to what one would expect if AVPR1a was related to social behaviors. These results help us further understand the genetic basis of personality in chimpanzees.

  13. Vasopressin modulates the activity of catecholamine containing neurons in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, D H; De Kloet, E R; Greidanus, T V; De Wied, D

    1979-01-01

    Following the i.c.v. administration of antivasopressin serum the alpha-MPT-induced disappearance of noradrenaline was decreased in the dorsal septal nucleus, parafascicular nucleus and the rostral part of the nucleus tractus solitarii, whereas that of dopamine was lowered in the caudate nucleus and in the A2 region of the medulla oblongata. In general the effects are opposite to those previously found following the i.c.v. administration of vasopressin. The results support the hypothesis that vasopressin modulates catecholamine neurotransmission in specific brain regions of the rat.

  14. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  15. Oxytocin/vasopressin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone from cephalopods to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in peptide search methods have revealed two peptide systems that have been conserved through metazoan evolution. Members of the oxytocin/vasopressin-superfamily have been identified from protostomian and deuterostomian animals, indicating that the oxytocin/vasopressin hormonal system represents one of the most ancient systems. In most protostomian animals, a single member of the superfamily shares oxytocin-like and vasopressin-like actions. Co-occurrence of two members has been discovered in modern cephalopods, octopus, and cuttlefish. We propose that cephalopods have developed two peptides in the molluscan evolutionary lineage like vertebrates have established two lineages in the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily. The existence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in protostomian animals was initially suggested by immunohistochemical analysis using chordate GnRH antibodies. A peptide with structural features similar to those of chordate GnRHs was originally isolated from octopus, and an identical peptide has been characterized from squid and cuttlefish. Novel forms of GnRH-like molecules from other molluscs, an annelid, arthropods, and nematodes demonstrate somewhat conserved structures at the N-terminal regions; but structures of the C-terminal regions critical to gonadotropin-releasing activity are diverse. These findings may be important for the study of the molecular evolution of GnRH in protostomian animals.

  16. Difference in susceptibility of arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin to aminopeptidase activity in brain synaptic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Wang, Xinchang; Ittersum, M. van

    1982-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin, peptides which serve as putative precursors for neurotrophic fragments, were digested in the presence of the respective 14C-Tyr2- and 14C-GlyNH29-labeled nonapeptides with a purified synaptic membrane preparation of rat brain. In this preparation aminopeptidase

  17. Cloning of Octopus cephalotocin receptor, a member of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Furukawa, Yasuo; Matsushima, Osamu; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2003-11-01

    We reported that the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, in common with vertebrates, possesses two members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily: octopressin (OP) and cephalotocin (CT). This was the first observation of its kind in invertebrates. As OP and CT have different biological activities, the presence of specific receptors has been proposed. We cloned the cDNA of an orphan receptor from Octopus brain and found it to encode a polypeptide of 397 amino acids that displays sequences characteristic of G-protein coupled receptors. The orphan receptor showed high homology to receptors of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily and seemed to conserve the agonist-binding pocket common to the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Xenopus oocytes that express the orphan receptor responded to the application of CT by an induction of membrane Cl(-) currents coupled to the inositol phosphate/Ca(2+) pathway. OP and the other members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily did not activate this receptor. HPLC fractionation of the Octopus brain extract combined with an oocyte assay yielded a single substance that was identical to CT. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the cloned receptor is the CT receptor (CTR). Expression of CTR mRNA in Octopus was detected in the central and the peripheral nervous systems, the pancreas, the oviduct and the ovary. This receptor may mediate physiological functions of CT in Octopus such as neurotransmission, reproduction and metabolism.

  18. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  19. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...

  20. Intracellular activation of vasopressin V2 receptor mutants in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by nonpeptide agonists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, J.H.; Kortenoeven, M.L.A.; Sze, M.; Yae, C.; Milligan, G.; Oorschot, V.M.; Klumperman, J.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Binding of the peptide hormone vasopressin to its type-2 receptor (V2R) in kidney triggers a cAMP-mediated translocation of Aquaporin-2 water channels to the apical membrane, resulting in water reabsorption and thereby preventing dehydration. Mutations in the V2R gene lead to Nephrogenic Diabetes

  1. Elevated plasma arginine vasopressin levels in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, C. S.; Vermetten, E.; Geuze, E.; Wiegant, V. M.; Westenberg, H. G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), in conjunction with corticotrophin releasing hormone, has shown to be an important modulator of the HPA axis. In order to evaluate the effect

  2. The contributions of oxytocin and vasopressin pathway genes to human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San

    2012-03-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are social hormones and mediate affiliative behaviors in mammals and as recently demonstrated, also in humans. There is intense interest in how these simple nonapeptides mediate normal and abnormal behavior, especially regarding disorders of the social brain such as autism that are characterized by deficits in social communication and social skills. The current review examines in detail the behavioral genetics of the first level of human AVP-OXT pathway genes including arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), AVP (AVP-neurophysin II [NPII]) and OXT (OXT neurophysin I [NPI]), oxytocinase/vasopressinase (LNPEP), ADP-ribosyl cyclase (CD38) and arginine vasopressin 1b receptor (AVPR1b). Wherever possible we discuss evidence from a variety of research tracks including molecular genetics, imaging genomics, pharmacology and endocrinology that support the conclusions drawn from association studies of social phenotypes and detail how common polymorphisms in AVP-OXT pathway genes contribute to the behavioral hard wiring that enables individual Homo sapiens to interact successfully with conspecifics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  3. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten Morill; Hansen, Pernille Bl

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP...

  4. Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in the

  5. Vasopressin receptors V1a and V2 are not osmosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Assentoft, Mette; Fenton, Robert A;

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we investigated whether G protein-coupled signaling via the vasopressin receptors of the V1a and V2 subtypes (V1aR and V2R) could be obtained as a direct response to hyperosmolar challenges and/or whether hyperosmolar challenges could augment classical vasopressin-dependent V1aR signaling....... The V1aR-dependent response was monitored indirectly via its effects on aquaporin 4 (AQP4) when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and V1aR and V2R function was directly monitored following heterologous expression in COS-7 cells. A tendency toward an osmotically induced, V1aR-mediated reduction...... in AQP4-dependent water permeability was observed, although osmotic challenges failed to mimic vasopressin-dependent V1aR-mediated internalization of AQP4. Direct monitoring of inositol phosphate (IP) production of V1aR-expressing COS-7 cells demonstrated an efficient vasopressin-dependent response...

  6. Reduced preabsorptive insulin response in aged rats : differential effects of amphetamine and arginine-vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Bohus, B.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments presented here have been designed to investigate whether the age-related attenuation of the vagal reactivity to emotional stressors and its modulation by amphetamine (Amph) or arginine-vasopressin (AVP) can be generalized for other physiological response patterns. We therefore studie

  7. Lateral septal vasopressin in rats : Role in social and object recognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of male rats to remember familiar conspecifics is called social recognition. It is a form of short-term memory modulated by lateral septal (LS) vasopressin (VP). The specificity of this phenomenon was studied by examining whether recognition of previously investigated objects is also un

  8. Effect of methadone on plasma arginine vasopressin level and urine production in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, L.J.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of i.v. methadone on the plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels and urine production in 9 conscious dogs. A highly significant increase from the baseline plasma AVP values of below 3 pg/ml occurred within 5 min following methadone administration. Max

  9. Physiology and pathophysiology of the vasopressin-regulated renal water reabsorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2008-01-01

    To prevent dehydration, terrestrial animals and humans have developed a sensitive and versatile system to maintain their water homeostasis. In states of hypernatremia or hypovolemia, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is released from the pituitary and binds its type-2 receptor in renal

  10. Circadian dynamics of vasopressin in mouse selection lines : Translation and release in the SCN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.R.; van der Zee, E.A; Jansen, K.; Gerkema, M.P.; Bult-Ito, A.

    2005-01-01

    Arg(8)-vasopressin (AVP), a circadian clock-controlled gene product, is released from the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in mice in a circadian fashion. Previously reported differences in two mouse lines, initially selected for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior (building small nests

  11. Osmolality-dependent relocation of penicillin-binding protein PBP2 to the division site in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Jason; Priyadarshini, Richa; Takacs, Constantin N; Costa, Teresa; Dye, Natalie A; Shapiro, Lucy; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2012-06-01

    The synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall is carefully regulated in time and space. In nature, this essential process occurs in cells that live in fluctuating environments. Here we show that the spatial distributions of specific cell wall proteins in Caulobacter crescentus are sensitive to small external osmotic upshifts. The penicillin-binding protein PBP2, which is commonly branded as an essential cell elongation-specific transpeptidase, switches its localization from a dispersed, patchy pattern to an accumulation at the FtsZ ring location in response to osmotic upshifts as low as 40 mosmol/kg. This osmolality-dependent relocation to the division apparatus is initiated within less than a minute, while restoration to the patchy localization pattern is dependent on cell growth and takes 1 to 2 generations. Cell wall morphogenetic protein RodA and penicillin-binding protein PBP1a also change their spatial distribution by accumulating at the division site in response to external osmotic upshifts. Consistent with its ecological distribution, C. crescentus displays a narrow range of osmotolerance, with an upper limit of 225 mosmol/kg in minimal medium. Collectively, our findings reveal an unsuspected level of environmental regulation of cell wall protein behavior that is likely linked to an ecological adaptation.

  12. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulatory mechanisms in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Hilde Kanli; Sørlundsengen, Vibeke; Sakariassen, Kjell S; Benestad, Haakon B

    2002-08-01

    The authors performed this study to evaluate cell volume regulation in human red blood cells (RBCs) after incubation in solutions of three contrast media: iohexol (830 mOsm), ioxaglate (520 mOsm), and iodixanol (300 mOsm). Whole blood sampled from six healthy subjects was exposed to Ringer solutions containing 25% or 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 440 or 340 mOsm, respectively), ioxaglate (final osmolality, 395 or 335 mOsm, respectively), iodixanol (final osmolality, 330 or 315 mOsm, respectively), or NaCl (control solutions with the same osmolality as that of the contrast media). In some experiments, control RBCs were subjected to a hyposmotic solution (100 mOsm). RBC volumes were obtained with a Coulter counter. The RBCs showed normal regulatory cell shrinkage after hyposmotically induced swelling. All 25% vol/vol contrast material solutions and their control solutions induced RBC shrinkage (range, 6% +/- 1 [standard error] to 22% +/- 3). The same was true for cells exposed to 5% vol/vol contrast material (range, 4% +/- 1 to 7% +/- 1). The shrinkage phase was followed by cell swelling (10% +/- 2 to 20% +/- 2 for 25% contrast material and their control solutions and 8% +/- 1 to 15% +/- 2 for 5% contrast material and their control solutions). No contrast material-exposed RBCs increased their volumes to the level reached with their control solutions. RBCs exposed to hyperosmotic iohexol, ioxaglate, or iodixanol solutions shrank and then swelled. The degree of shrinkage and subsequent swelling could not be explained simply with the osmolality of the test solutions. Physicochemical properties of the contrast media must be involved, putatively affecting electrolyte fluxes over the RBC membrane. Possible targets of these effects are the K+/Cl- symporter, K+ channels, and the Na+/K+/Cl- symporter.

  13. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in “beer potomania” and “starvation potomania”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia. PMID:25097331

  14. Activation of vasopressin neurons leads to phenotype progression in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Maiko; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Shiota, Akira; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare disease that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In a previous study, we made a mouse model for FNDI, which showed progressive polyuria accompanied by inclusion bodies in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons formed by aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. The present study was conducted to determine whether the activities of AVP neurons are related to the phenotype progression in the FNDI model. In the first experiment, female heterozygous mice were administered either desmopressin (dDAVP) or a vehicle (control) subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps for 30 days. The dDAVP treatment significantly decreased the urine volume, AVP mRNA expression, and inclusion bodies in the AVP neurons. Urine volume in the dDAVP group remained significantly less than the control for 14 days even after the minipumps were removed. In the second experiment, the males were fed either a 0.2% Na or 2.0% Na diet for 6 mo. Urine AVP excretion was significantly increased in the 2.0% Na group compared with the 0.2% Na group for the first 2 mo but gradually decreased thereafter. Throughout the experiments, urine volume increased progressively in the 2.0% Na group but not in the 0.2% Na group. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that inclusion bodies in the AVP cells had significantly increased in the 2.0% Na compared with the 0.2% Na group. These data demonstrated that activation of AVP neurons could accelerate the aggregate formation as well as the progression of the polyuria in the FNDI model mice.

  15. Bicarbonate concentration and osmolality are key determinants in the inhibition of CHO cell polysialylation under elevated pCO(2) or pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, J A; Schmelzer, A E; Mendoza, T P; Knop, R H; Miller, W M

    1999-10-20

    Accumulation of CO(2) in animal cell cultures can be a significant problem during scale-up and production of recombinant glycoprotein biopharmaceuticals. By examining the cell-surface polysialic acid (PSA) content, we show that elevated CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) can alter protein glycosylation. PSA is a high-molecular-weight polymer attached to several complex N-linked oligosaccharides on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), so that small changes in either core glycosylation or in polysialylation are amplified and easily measured. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that PSA levels on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decrease with increasing pCO(2) in a dose-dependent manner, independent of any change in NCAM content. The results are highly pH-dependent, with a greater decrease in PSA at higher pH. By manipulating medium pH and pCO(2), we showed that decreases in PSA correlate well with bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)]). In fact, it was possible to offset a 60% decrease in PSA content at 120 mm Hg pCO(2) by decreasing the pH from 7.3 to 6.9, such that [HCO(3)(-)] was lowered to that of control (38 mm Hg pCO(2)). When the increase in osmolality associated with elevated [HCO(3)(-)] was offset by decreasing the basal medium [NaCl], elevated [HCO(3)(-)] still caused a decrease in PSA, although less extensive than without osmolality control. By increasing [NaCl], we show that hyperosmolality alone decreases PSA content, but to a lesser extent than for the same osmolality increase due to elevated [NaHCO(3)]. In conclusion, we demonstrate the importance of pH and pCO(2) interactions, and show that [HCO(3)(-)] and osmolality can account for the observed changes in PSA content over a wide range of pH and pCO(2) values.

  16. Upregulation of the expression of vasopressin gene in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the lithium-induced diabetes insipidus rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, H; Ueta, Y; Serino, R; Nomura, M; Kabashima, N; Shibuya, I; Takasugi, M; Nakashima, Y; Yamashita, H

    1997-10-24

    The expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) was investigated in rats with lithium (Li)-induced polyuria, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and radioimmunoassay. The male Wistar rats consuming a diet that contained LiCl (60 mmol/kg) for 4 weeks developed marked polyuria. The Li-treated rats produced a large volume of hypotonic urine with low ionic concentrations. Plasma sodium concentrations were found to be slightly increased in the Li-treated rats compared with those in controls. Plasma concentration of AVP and transcripts of AVP gene in the PVN and SON were significantly increased in the Li-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that dehydration and/or the activation of visceral afferent inputs may contribute to the elevation of plasma AVP and the upregulation of AVP gene expression in the PVN and the SON of the Li-induced diabetes insipidus rat.

  17. Development of a human vasopressin V1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Giglio, Maria Giulia; Muttenthaler, Markus; Harpsøe, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) relies on the availability of a toolbox of ligands that selectively modulate different functional states of the receptors. To uncover such molecules, we explored a unique strategy for ligand discovery that takes advantage of the evolutionary...... conservation of the 600-million-year-old oxytocin/vasopressin signalling system. We isolated the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue inotocin from the black garden ant (Lasius niger), identified and cloned its cognate receptor and determined its pharmacological properties on the insect and human oxytocin....../vasopressin receptors. Subsequently, we identified a functional dichotomy: inotocin activated the insect inotocin and the human vasopressin V1b receptors, but inhibited the human V1aR. Replacement of Arg8 of inotocin by D-Arg8 led to a potent, stable and competitive V1aR-antagonist ([D-Arg8]-inotocin) with a 3,000-fold...

  18. [Influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Wanggou, Siyi; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Xingjun; Peng, Zefeng; Yuan, Xianrui

    2016-10-28

    To explore the influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma.
 Methods: The data of 83 patients, who underwent unilateral sub-frontal approach resection of craniopharyngioma between 2010 and 2014 by the same senior neurosurgeon, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into a vasopressin tannate group (used group) and a control group. The diabetes insipidus and serum sodium changes were compared between the two groups.
 Results: Compared with the control group, the incidence of diabetes insipidus decreased at the early postoperation in the vasopressin tannate group (Pdiabetes insipidus in patients with pituitary stalk excision and tumor close adhesion to the third ventricle floor at the early postoperation (Pdiabetes insipidus in the vasopressin tannate group was decreased compared with the control group (Pdiabetes insipidus and hypernatremia incidence at the early postoperative stage after microsurgery for craniopharyngioma.

  19. Transcription factor CREB3L1 mediates cAMP and glucocorticoid regulation of arginine vasopressin gene transcription in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Loh, Su Yi; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2015-10-26

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide hormone that functions in the regulation of water homeostasis by controlling water re-absorption at kidneys, is synthesised in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. An increase in plasma osmolality stimulates secretion of AVP to blood circulation and induces AVP synthesis in these nuclei. Although studies on mechanism of AVP transcriptional regulation in hypothalamus proposed that cAMP and glucocorticoids positively and negatively regulate Avp expression, respectively, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Recently, we identified CREB3L1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 3 like 1) as a putative transcription factor of Avp transcription in the rat hypothalamus. However the mechanism of how CREB3L1 is regulated in response of hyperosmotic stress in the neurons of hypothalamus has never been reported. This study aims to investigate effect of previously reported regulators (cAMP and glucocorticoid) of Avp transcription on transcription factor CREB3L1 in order to establish a molecular explanation for cAMP and glucocorticoids effect on AVP expression. The effect of cAMP and glucocorticoid treatment on Creb3l1 was investigated in both AtT20 cells and hypothalamic organotypic cultures. The expression of Creb3l1 was increased in both mRNA and protein level by treatment with forskolin, which raises intracellular cAMP levels. Activation of cAMP by forskolin also increased Avp promoter activity in AtT20 cells and this effect was blunted by shRNA mediated silencing of Creb3l1. The forskolin induced increase in Creb3l1 expression was diminished by combined treatment with dexamethasone, and, in vivo, intraperitoneal dexamethasone injection blunted the increase in Creb3l1 and Avp expression induced by hyperosmotic stress. Here we shows that cAMP and glucocorticoid positively and negatively regulate Creb3l1 expression in the rat hypothalamus, respectively, and regulation of cAMP on AVP

  20. The use of high-performance liquid chromatography in the quality control of oxytocin, vasopressin and synthetic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxl, F; Siehr, W

    1989-01-01

    Optimized C18 reversed-phase systems for oxytocin, desamino-oxytocin, lysine-vasopressin, ornithine-vasopressin and felypressin with gradient elution are discussed, focussing on precision, selectivity and ruggedness of the methods. Data from collaborative studies are presented, demonstrating the equivalence of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays to bioassays. The findings suggest that HPLC is an excellent alternative to the time-consuming and less reliable animal testing.

  1. Electrophysiological and autoradiographical evidence of V1 vasopressin receptors in the lateral septum of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1987-11-01

    Extracellular recordings were obtained from single neurons located in the lateral septum, an area known to receive a vasopressinergic innervation in the rat brain. Approximately half of the neurons tested responded to 8-L-arginine vasopressin (AVP) by a marked increase in firing rate at concentrations greater than 1 nM. The effect of vasopressin was blocked by synthetic structural analogues possessing antagonistic properties on peripheral vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin was much less potent than vasopressin in firing septal neurons, and a selective oxytocic agonist was totally ineffective. The action of vasopressin on neuronal firing was mimicked by the vasopressor agonist (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin but not by the selective antidiuretic agonist 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin. In a parallel study, sites that bind (/sup 3/H)AVP at low concentration (1.5 nM) were found by in vitro autoradiography in the lateral septum. Adjacent sections were also incubated with 1.5 mM (/sup 3/H)AVP and, in addition, with 100 nM (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin or 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin--i.e., the same compounds as those used for the electrophysiological study. Results showed that the vasopressor agonist, but not the antidiuretic agonist, displaced (/sup 3/H)AVP, thus indicating that the vasopressin binding sites detected by autoradiography in the septum were V1 (vasopressor type) rather than V2 (antidiuretic type) receptors. Based on the electrophysiological evidence, we conclude that these receptors, when occupied, lead to increased firing of lateral septal neurons.

  2. Hemodynamic Effects of Phenylephrine, Vasopressin, and Epinephrine in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Yang, Weiguang; Peng, Lynn F; Ogawa, Michelle T; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    During a pulmonary hypertensive crisis, the marked increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can result in acute right ventricular failure and death. Currently, there are no therapeutic guidelines for managing an acute crisis. This pilot study examined the hemodynamic effects of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study, we enrolled pediatric patients previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertensive who were scheduled electively for cardiac catheterization. Primary outcome was a change in the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance. Baseline hemodynamic data were collected before and after the study drug was administered. Eleven of 15 participants were women, median age was 9.2 years (range, 1.7-14.9 yr), and median weight was 26.8 kg (range, 8.5-55.2 kg). Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure was 49 ± 19 mm Hg, and mean indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 10 ± 5.4 Wood units. Etiology of pulmonary hypertensive varied, and all were on systemic pulmonary hypertensive medications. Patients 1-5 received phenylephrine 1 μg/kg; patients 6-10 received arginine vasopressin 0.03 U/kg; and patients 11-15 received epinephrine 1 μg/kg. Hemodynamics was measured continuously for up to 10 minutes following study drug administration. After study drug administration, the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance decreased in three of five patients receiving phenylephrine, five of five patients receiving arginine vasopressin, and three of five patients receiving epinephrine. Although all three medications resulted in an increase in aortic pressure, only arginine vasopressin consistently resulted in a decrease in the ratio of systolic pulmonary artery-to-aortic pressure. This prospective pilot study of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertensive showed an increase in aortic

  3. Biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaky, T.; Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-lives of (/sup 3/H)LVP and (/sup 3/H)dDAVP in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the control R-Amsterdam rats. The half-life of (/sup 3/H)dDAVP proved longer than that of (/sup 3/H)LVP in all three groups of animals. In the case of (/sup 3/H)LVP the highest radioactivities were observed in the neurohypophyses, adenohypophyses, and kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated material was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. In all three groups of rats, (/sup 3/H)dDAVP was accumulated to the greatest extent in the kidney and the small intestine. The kidney and small intestine contained less radioactivity in homozygous Brattleboro rats than in the controls. There was only a slight radioactivity accumulation in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. From the results it was concluded that the decrease in the rate of enzymatic decomposition may play a role in the increased duration of antidiuretic action of dDAVP. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus.

  4. High osmolality vitrification: a new method for the simple and temperature-permissive cryopreservation of mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Mochida

    Full Text Available Procedures for cryopreserving embryos vary considerably, each having its specific advantages and disadvantages in terms of technical feasibility, embryo survival yield, temperature permissibility and species- or strain-dependent applicability. Here we report a high osmolality vitrification (HOV method that is advantageous in these respects. Cryopreservation by vitrification is generally very simple, but, unlike slow freezing, embryos should be kept at a supercooling temperature (below -130°C to avoid cryodamage. We overcame this problem by using an HOV solution containing 42.5% (v/v ethylene glycol, 17.3% (w/v Ficoll and 1.0 M sucrose. This solution is more viscous than other cryopreservation solutions, but easy handling of embryos was assured by employing a less viscous equilibration solution before vitrification. Most (>80% embryos cryopreserved in this solution survived at -80°C for at least 30 days. Normal mice were recovered even after intercontinental transportation in a conventional dry-ice package for 2-3 days, indicating that special containers such as dry shippers with liquid nitrogen vapor are unnecessary. The HOV solution could also be employed for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen, as with other conventional cryoprotectants. Finally, we confirmed that this new vitrification method could be applied successfully to embryos of all six strains of mice we have tested so far. Thus, our HOV method provides an efficient and reliable strategy for the routine cryopreservation of mouse embryos in animal facilities and biomedical laboratories, and for easy and cheap transportation.

  5. Gadolinium contrast media are more nephrotoxic than iodine media. The importance of osmolality in direct renal artery injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmstaahl, Barbara; Leander, Peter; Almen, Torsten [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [Lasarettet Trelleborg, Department of Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Chai, Chun-Ming [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Experimental Research, Malmoe (Sweden); Golman, Klaes [Biosciences, GE Health, Malmoe (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [University Hospital, Lund University, Competence Center for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    A study was undertaken of the role of osmotoxicity in gadolinium (Gd) and iodine contrast media (CM) nephrotoxicity in ischemic porcine kidneys. Test solutions: mannitol iso-osmotic to 0.5 M gadopentetate (1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O), 0.5 M gadodiamide (0.78 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O) and 0.5 M iohexol (190 mg I/ml, 0.42 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O). Each solution was injected [3 ml/kg body weight (BW)] into the balloon-occluded (10 min) renal artery of eight left-sided nephrectomized pigs. The plasma half-life of a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) marker was used to compare their effects on GFR 1-3 h post-injection. The median half-lives of the GFR marker after injection of gadopentetate (1,730 min) and mannitol 1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (2,782 min) did not differ statistically (P=0.28), but were significantly longer than after all other solutions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P=0.06) between gadodiamide (218 min) and mannitol 0.82 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (169 min), while there was (P=0.03) between iohexol (181 min) and mannitol 0.43 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (148 min). The difference between gadodiamide and iohexol was significant (P=0.01). Reduction in GFR, as a marker of nephrotoxicity, induced by gadopentetate correlated with its high osmolality, while the effect of gadodiamide and iohexol may include chemotoxicity. Iohexol molecules were less nephrotoxic than the Gd-CM molecules and contain three-times the number of attenuating atoms per molecule. (orig.)

  6. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  7. Specificity of a cytochemical bioassay for arginine-vasopressin and its validation for plasma measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; McIntosh, N

    1984-02-01

    The total Na+/K+ ATP-ase activity of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle may be stimulated by arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Lysine-vasopressin (LVP), oxytocin (OT), and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) produce less than 5% of the enzyme activity induced by the same concentration of AVP. Physiological concentrations of a mixture of other hormones with known activity on the kidney (T3, T4, aldosterone, angiotensin II, and OT) did not significantly increase total Na+/K+ ATP-ase activity. Specific AVP antiserum consistently removed greater than 90% of the stimulatory effect of plasma. The concentration of AVP in plasmas from dehydrated subjects was greater than 10 times that of the same subjects hydrated. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was 35% and 52% from 200 microliters and 20 microliters of plasma respectively. The interassay coefficient of variation was 53% and 55% from plasma pools with high and low AVP content.

  8. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  9. Study of V2 vasopressin receptor hormone binding site using in silico methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebti, Yeganeh; Sardari, Soroush; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Innamorati, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The antidiuretic effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) is mediated by the vasopressin V2 receptor. The docking study of AVP as a ligand to V2 receptor helps in identifying important amino acid residues that might be involved in AVP binding for predicting the lowest free energy state of the protein complex. Whereas previous researchers were not able to detect the exact site of the ligand-receptor binding, we designed the current study to identify the vasopressin V2 receptor hormone binding site using bioinformatic methods. The 3D structure of nonapeptide hormone vasopressin was extracted from Protein Data Bank. Since no suitable template resembling V2 receptor was found, an ab initio approach was chosen to model the protein receptor. Using protein docking methods such as Hex protein-protein docking, the model of V2 receptor was docked to the peptide ligand AVP to identify possible binding sites. The residues that involved in binding site are W293, W296, D297, A300, and P301. The lowest free energy state of the protein complex was predicted after mutation in the above residues. The amount of gained energies permits us to compare the mutant forms with native forms and help to asses critical changes such as positive and negative mutations followed by ranking the best mutations. Based on the mutation/docking predictions, we found some mutants such as W293D and A300E possess positively inducing effect in ligand binding and some of them such as A300R present negatively inducing effect in ligand binding.

  10. Local injection of diluted vasopressin followed by suction curettage for cervical ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Unno, Youichi; Omoto, Akiko; Shozu, Makio

    2016-12-01

    To report the results of local injection of diluted vasopressin followed by suction curettage as a conservative treatment for women with cervical ectopic pregnancy, who wish to preserve their future fertility. This was a retrospective chart review in a university hospital and a municipal hospital. We injected diluted vasopressin (Pitressin R, total amount of 4-10 units) transvaginally into the cervix surrounding the gestational sac, but not directly into the gestational sac, and/or the lower segment of the uterine body under transvaginal ultrasonographic guidance. After cessation of fetal heartbeats, we aspirated the conceptus by performing suction curettage. We injected additional vasopressin into the gestational sac in cases with a viable fetus after the initial injection. Forced contraction of the cervical smooth muscle facilitated removal of the conceptus with minimal blood loss during curettage. We measured operative time, total blood loss, complications, and the need for additional treatment. We included 11 women. Mean patient age, gestational age, and serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at the intervention were 31.2±6.4years, 6.0±0.6 weeks, and 18,370±21,570 IU/L, respectively. Mean size of the gestational sac was 19.6±9.5mm. The uterus was successfully preserved without any complications in all patients. All procedures were completed within 15min except for the first case (range: 5-33min). In 4 cases, the conceptus containing a gestational sac was spontaneously extruded en bloc from the external os after the injection. Additional systematic methotrexate administration was required in one case because of remaining villi at the implantation site with persistence of serum hCG levels after the procedure. Local injection of diluted vasopressin and subsequent suction curettage is a feasible conservative treatment for cervical ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  12. Negative feedback from CaSR signaling to aquaporin-2 sensitizes vasopressin to extracellular Ca2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Marianna; Tamma, Grazia; Di Mise, Annarita; Russo, Annamaria; Centrone, Mariangela; Svelto, Maria; Calamita, Giuseppe; Valenti, Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    We previously described that high luminal Ca(2+) in the renal collecting duct attenuates short-term vasopressin-induced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) trafficking through activation of the Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR). Here, we evaluated AQP2 phosphorylation and permeability, in both renal HEK-293 cells and in the dissected inner medullary collecting duct, in response to specific activation of CaSR with NPS-R568. In CaSR-transfected cells, CaSR activation drastically reduced the basal levels of AQP2 phosphorylation at S256 (AQP2-pS256), thus having an opposite effect to vasopressin action. When forskolin stimulation was performed in the presence of NPS-R568, the increase in AQP2-pS256 and in the osmotic water permeability were prevented. In the freshly isolated inner mouse medullar collecting duct, stimulation with forskolin in the presence of NPS-R568 prevented the increase in AQP2-pS256 and osmotic water permeability. Our data demonstrate that the activation of CaSR in the collecting duct prevents the cAMP-dependent increase in AQP2-pS256 and water permeability, counteracting the short-term vasopressin response. By extension, our results suggest the attractive concept that CaSR expressed in distinct nephron segments exerts a negative feedback on hormones acting through cAMP, conferring high sensitivity of hormone to extracellular Ca(2+). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Effect of stimulation of afferent renal nerves on plasma levels of vasopressin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caverson, M.M.; Ciriello, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experiments were done in ..cap alpha..-chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats with vagus, cervical sympathetic, aortic depressor, and carotid sinus nerves cut bilaterally to investigate the effect of afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation on circulating levels of vasopressin (AVP). Electrical stimulation of ARN elicited a pressor response that had two components, a primary (1/sup 0/) component locked in time with the stimulus and a secondary (2/sup 0/) component that had a long onset latency and that outlasted the stimulation period. The 1/sup 0/ and 2/sup 0/ components of the pressor response were largest at stimulation frequencies of 30 and 40 Hz, respectively. Autonomic blockage with hexamethonium bromide and atropine methylbromide abolished the 1/sup 0/ component. Administration of the vasopressin V/sub 1/-vascular receptor antagonist d(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/ VAVP during autonomic blockade abolished the 2/sup 0/C component. Plasma concentrations of AVP measured by radioimmunoassay increased from control levels of 5.2 +/- 0.9 to 53.6 +/- 18.6 pg/ml during a 5-min period of stimulation of ARN. Plasma AVP levels measured 20-40 min after simulation were not significantly different from control values. These data demonstrate that sensory information originating in the kidney alters the release of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis and suggest that ARN are an important component of the neural circuitry involved in homeostatic mechanisms controlling arterial pressure.

  14. A perifusion method for examining arginine vasopressin (AVP release from hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno,Norihito

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available A perifusion method has been developed using rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS or neural lobe to investigate the control mechanism of arginine vasopressin (AVP release. A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA for AVP was developed to measure AVP in perifusion medium employing anti-AVP serum which was obtained by immunizing rabbits. At a final dilution of 1/12,000, the antiserum showed less than 0.66 and 0.01% cross reactivity with lysine-vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. But it did not cross reacted with other peptide hormones. The lowest detectable level of vasopressin was 0.5 pg/tube. The intra-assay coefficient of variation averaged 10.4%. The dilution curve of perifused medium was well paralled to the standard curve of AVP assay. AVP release from HNS or neural lobe gradually declined to the stable level in 90-120 min after the initiation of perifusion. Good repeatability of the AVP release from neural lobe was recognized by repeated stimulation with 10 min perifusion of 60 mM KCl at every 60 min. HNS released AVP in dose related manner to the osmotic challenge of sodium or glucose, and AVP release was stimulated from HNS by prostaglandin E2, but not by dopamine. These results show that the perifusion methods using AVP-RIA is a useful method to examine the AVP release from HNS or neural lobe.

  15. Neurohormonal effects of oxytocin and vasopressin receptor agonists on spinal pain processing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juif, Pierre-Eric; Poisbeau, Pierrick

    2013-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are 2 neuropeptides that display well-known effects on the reproductive system. Although still controversial, oxytocin and vasopressin were demonstrated to exert potent effects on the nociceptive system when administered directly in various central nervous structures. On the other hand, little is known about their peripheral (hormonal) actions on nociception and pain responses. The aim of the present work was to characterize the effects of physiological blood concentrations of OT and AVP on spinal nociception and on pain responses. To do so, growing doses of OT or AVP were administered intravenously and the nociceptive processing by spinal cord neurons was analyzed in anesthetized male rats in vivo. We observed that the action potentials mediated by C-type nociceptive fibers was strongly reduced (antinociception) after intravenous injections of low doses of OT (effects were fully abolished in the presence of the OT receptor antagonist and the AVP receptor antagonist type 1A (V1A), respectively. We confirmed this result with a behavioral model of forced swim stress-induced analgesia associated with plasmatic release of OT (and not vasopressin). Stress-induced analgesia was transiently lost after i.v. administration of OTR antagonist. Together, the present work provides straightforward evidence that blood levels of OT and AVP modulate nociception, windup plasticity and pain responses. The final target structures explaining these effects remains to be identified but are likely to be C-type nociceptors.

  16. Comparison of the role of endothelin, vasopressin and angiotensin in arterial pressure regulation during sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, O; Schwarte, L A; Roth, H J; Greve, J; Scheeren, T W L

    2004-01-01

    In this study we aimed to clarify the role of endothelin in arterial pressure regulation during anaesthesia with increasing concentrations of sevoflurane (1-3 MAC) and compare it with those of vasopressin and angiotensin. After an awake control period, on different days, six dogs underwent each of the following four interventions: sevoflurane anaesthesia alone (1-3 MAC), sevoflurane after block of either endothelin receptors using tezosentan (3 mg kg(-1) followed by 3 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), vasopressin V(1a) receptors using [d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me(2))]AVP (40 micro g kg(--1)) or angiotensin receptors using losartan (6 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). Plasma concentrations of endothelin, big endothelin, vasopressin and renin were measured. Effects of sevoflurane in the presence and absence of the respective receptor block were analysed and compared using analysis of variance for repeated measures (ANOVA followed by Fisher's PLSD (protected least significant difference) (PMAC, this decrease was greatest during angiotensin receptor block (mean (SEM), -41 (3) mm Hg), intermediate during vasopressin and endothelin receptor block (-31 (4) and -30 (2) mm Hg respectively), and least during sevoflurane alone (-24 (3) mm Hg). The course of systemic vascular resistance mirrored the course of arterial pressure, while cardiac output did not differ between groups. Plasma concentrations of endothelin, big endothelin and renin did not change during any intervention, whereas vasopressin concentration increased from approximately 0.5 to 40 ng litre(-1) at 3 MAC as arterial pressure decreased in all groups. At 1 MAC, angiotensin attenuated the decrease in arterial pressure during sevoflurane anaesthesia more than endothelin and vasopressin. However, at higher MAC only vasopressin was specifically activated to partly compensate for the arterial pressure decrease.

  17. Characteristics of spermatozoa of whole ejaculate and sperm-rich fraction of dog semen following exposure to media varying in osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzezek, Rafał; Fraser, Leyland

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of different osmolalities on the characteristics of spermatozoa originating from whole ejaculates (WE; including the prostatic fluid) and the sperm-rich fractions (SRF). Ejaculates, collected from four mixed-breed dogs, were exposed for 10 min at room temperature to Tris-fructose-citrate (TFC) solution with osmolality ranging from 150 to 1100 mOsm. After treatment spermatozoa were evaluated by microscopic analysis of motility and fluorescent assessments of plasma membrane integrity (carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide, CFDA/PI) and mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123, R123). Irrespective of the sperm source, there was a complete loss of motility when spermatozoa were exposed to TFC solution with 1100 mOsm. There were no marked differences in the sperm characteristics between media with 300 and 350 mOsm, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure. However, a marked reduction in motility of spermatozoa retrieved either from the WE or SRF was observed after exposure to different anisosmotic conditions (150, 550 and 800 mOsm). In all dogs, spermatozoa from the WE exhibited greater osmotolerance in terms of plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function when exposed to anisosmotic conditions (150, 550, 800 and 1100 mOsm). There were inter-dog variations in response to various osmotic conditions. The findings of this study indicated that spermatozoa from the WE tolerated exposure to a wider range of osmolality than those from the SRF. It seemed that the presence of prostatic fluid of dog semen rendered the sperm membrane structures less susceptible to osmotic stress.

  18. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma. Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance.

  19. The Level of Vasopressin is not solely resulted from the Concentration of Endotoxin but Proportional to Creatinine in Dogs with Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Shia1, K. C. Tung1, 2, S. C. Chang1, 2, C. H. Yang1, 2, C. H. Lee2, C. C. Chou1 and W. M. Lee1, 2*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is one of the most common reproductive disorder characterized as fluid accumulation mainly pus and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from uterus in bitches. Impaired function of vasopressin is found in the disease. The impact of the circulating endotoxin concentration on vasopressin involved water regulation is still unclear. To document the effect of endotoxin on vasopressin-involved water regulation in dogs with pyometra, blood samples were collected for examination of circulating endotoxin concentration, osmolarity values, vasopressin concentrations, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine. The results indicated that the concentration change of endotoxin was contrary to BUN and creatinine in dogs with pyometra. The trends of concentrations change of BUN and creatinine were similar with osmolarity and vasopressin. Pyometric dogs with high level of circulating endotoxin had significantly lower (P 20 mg/dL and creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dL also had plasma vasopressin significantly higher (P<0.05 than those with low levels of BUN and creatinine and control dogs. The overall results suggested that elevated vasopressin was not mainly associated with the circulating endotoxin concentration and some other factors may collaborate with endotoxin causing impaired function of vasopressin.

  20. Early, but not late therapy with a vasopressin V-1a-antagonist ameliorates the development of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Willemijn A. K. M.; Tahara, Atsua; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Henning, Robert H.; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Vasopressin, mainly through the VIA-receptor, is thought to be a major player in the maintenance of hyperfiltration. Its inhibition could therefore lead to a decrease in progression of chronic renal failure. To this end, the effect of the vasopressin V-1a-receptor-selective antagonist,

  1. Early, but not late therapy with a vasopressin V1a-antagonist ameliorates the development of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Willemijn A K M; Tahara, Atsua; Kluppel, Alex C A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Henning, Robert H; van Dokkum, Richard P E

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vasopressin, mainly through the V1a-receptor, is thought to be a major player in the maintenance of hyperfiltration. Its inhibition could therefore lead to a decrease in progression of chronic renal failure. To this end, the effect of the vasopressin V1a-receptor-selective antagonist,

  2. Diabetes diminishes the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to vasopressin via vasopressin receptor and Gα proteins regulations in cirrhotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal-systemic collateral formation and bleeding. The hemostatic effect is influenced by the response of collateral vessels to vasoconstrictors. Diabetes and glucose also influence vasoresponsiveness, but their net effect on collaterals remains unexplored. This study investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose application on portal-systemic collateral vasoresponsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP in cirrhosis. Spraque-Dawley rats with bile duct ligation (BDL-induced cirrhosis received vehicle (citrate buffer or streptozotocin (diabetic, BDL/STZ. The in situ collateral perfusion was done after hemodynamic measurements: Both were perfused with Krebs solution, D-glucose, or D-glucose and NaF, with additional OPC-31260 for the BDL/STZ group. Splenorenal shunt vasopressin receptors and Gα proteins mRNA expressions were evaluated. The survival rate of cirrhotic rats was decreased by STZ injection. The collateral perfusion pressure changes to AVP were lower in STZ-injected groups, which were reversed by OPC-31260 (a V2R antagonist and overcome by NaF (a G protein activator. The splenorenal shunt V2R mRNA expression was increased while Gα proteins mRNA expressions were decreased in BDL/STZ rats compared to BDL rats. The Gαq and Gα11 mRNA expressions also correlated with the maximal perfusion pressure changes to AVP. Diabetes diminished the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to AVP in rats with BDL-induced cirrhosis, probably via V2 receptor up-regulation and Gα proteins down-regulation.

  3. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulation of the neural correlates of motivation and emotion: results from functional MRI studies in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Ferris, Craig F

    2014-09-11

    Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate a range of species typical behavioral functions that include social recognition, maternal-infant attachment, and modulation of memory, offensive aggression, defensive fear reactions, and reward seeking. We have employed novel functional magnetic resonance mapping techniques in awake rats to explore the roles of these neuropeptides in the maternal and non-maternal brain. Results from the functional neuroimaging studies that are summarized here have directly and indirectly confirmed and supported previous findings. Oxytocin is released within the lactating rat brain during suckling stimulation and activates specific subcortical networks in the maternal brain. Both vasopressin and oxytocin modulate brain regions involved unconditioned fear, processing of social stimuli and the expression of agonistic behaviors. Across studies there are relatively consistent brain networks associated with internal motivational drives and emotional states that are modulated by oxytocin and vasopressin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  4. Effect of Early Vasopressin vs Norepinephrine on Kidney Failure in Patients With Septic Shock: The VANISH Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anthony C; Mason, Alexina J; Thirunavukkarasu, Neeraja; Perkins, Gavin D; Cecconi, Maurizio; Cepkova, Magda; Pogson, David G; Aya, Hollmann D; Anjum, Aisha; Frazier, Gregory J; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Ashby, Deborah; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-08-02

    Norepinephrine is currently recommended as the first-line vasopressor in septic shock; however, early vasopressin use has been proposed as an alternative. To compare the effect of early vasopressin vs norepinephrine on kidney failure in patients with septic shock. A factorial (2×2), double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 general adult intensive care units in the United Kingdom between February 2013 and May 2015, enrolling adult patients who had septic shock requiring vasopressors despite fluid resuscitation within a maximum of 6 hours after the onset of shock. Patients were randomly allocated to vasopressin (titrated up to 0.06 U/min) and hydrocortisone (n = 101), vasopressin and placebo (n = 104), norepinephrine and hydrocortisone (n = 101), or norepinephrine and placebo (n = 103). The primary outcome was kidney failure-free days during the 28-day period after randomization, measured as (1) the proportion of patients who never developed kidney failure and (2) median number of days alive and free of kidney failure for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both. Rates of renal replacement therapy, mortality, and serious adverse events were secondary outcomes. A total of 409 patients (median age, 66 years; men, 58.2%) were included in the study, with a median time to study drug administration of 3.5 hours after diagnosis of shock. The number of survivors who never developed kidney failure was 94 of 165 patients (57.0%) in the vasopressin group and 93 of 157 patients (59.2%) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -2.3% [95% CI, -13.0% to 8.5%]). The median number of kidney failure-free days for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both was 9 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to -24) in the vasopressin group and 13 days (IQR, 1 to -25) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -4 days [95% CI, -11 to 5]). There was less use of renal replacement therapy in the vasopressin group

  5. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J MacGregor

    Full Text Available Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response

  6. Intramyometrial Injection of Vasopressin: A Novel Method for Hemostasis at Laparoscopic Management of Cornual Ectopic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaiah, Ramesh; Kamath, Shwetha Sudhakar

    2017-04-18

    Although all ectopic pregnancies are associated with risk of hemorrhage, cornual pregnancies are feared for catastrophic hemorrhage and uncontrollable bleeding. The maternal mortality rate can be as high as 2.5%, which is 7 times higher than the mortality rate for ectopic pregnancies in general. Different techniques have been used to control hemostasis, including purse string suture, square suture, endo-loop, electrocoagulation, and devascularization. Injection of vasopressin into the uterus is a simple method that greatly reduces the blood loss at cornuostomy. A step by step demonstration of the surgical procedure (Canadian Task Force classification III). Hospital. A 32-year-old woman, G7P3L3A3 (Gravida 7, Para 3, Living 3, Abortion 3), with 4 months of amenorrhea, was diagnosed with a cornual ectopic pregnancy. She was treated with 200 mg mifepristone and 800 μg misoprostol. She had undergone dilatation and curettage twice and was referred for persisting cornual ectopic pregnancy. At laparoscopy, 20 U injection vasopressin in 100 mL .9% normal saline was injected into the myometrium of the uterus. Incision was made over the ectopic pregnancy with ultrasonic energy and the ectopic pregnancy enucleated using suction apparatus and ultrasonic energy. Hemostasis was ensured and the bed sutured with barbed suture. Surgery duration was 1 hour, and blood loss was 200 mL. Institutional review board and ethics committee approval was obtained. Injection of vasopressin into the uterus significantly reduces blood loss, operative time, and patient morbidity and mortality at laparoscopic cornuostomy. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a human vasopressin V1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giglio, Maria Giulia; Muttenthaler, Markus; Harpsøe, Kasper; Liutkeviciute, Zita; Keov, Peter; Eder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan; Marek, Ales; Elbert, Tomas; Alewood, Paul F.; Gloriam, David E.; Gruber, Christian W.

    2017-02-01

    Characterisation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) relies on the availability of a toolbox of ligands that selectively modulate different functional states of the receptors. To uncover such molecules, we explored a unique strategy for ligand discovery that takes advantage of the evolutionary conservation of the 600-million-year-old oxytocin/vasopressin signalling system. We isolated the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue inotocin from the black garden ant (Lasius niger), identified and cloned its cognate receptor and determined its pharmacological properties on the insect and human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors. Subsequently, we identified a functional dichotomy: inotocin activated the insect inotocin and the human vasopressin V1b receptors, but inhibited the human V1aR. Replacement of Arg8 of inotocin by D-Arg8 led to a potent, stable and competitive V1aR-antagonist ([D-Arg8]-inotocin) with a 3,000-fold binding selectivity for the human V1aR over the other three subtypes, OTR, V1bR and V2R. The Arg8/D-Arg8 ligand-pair was further investigated to gain novel insights into the oxytocin/vasopressin peptide-receptor interaction, which led to the identification of key residues of the receptors that are important for ligand functionality and selectivity. These observations could play an important role for development of oxytocin/vasopressin receptor modulators that would enable clear distinction of the physiological and pathological responses of the individual receptor subtypes.

  8. ORAL VERSUS NASAL VASOPRESSIN IN THE TREATMENT OF NOCTURNAL ENURESIS IN 5- TO 12-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas TAGHAVI ARDAKANI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNocturnal enuresis is a common childhood problem and has various  treatments.This study was carried out to compare oral and nasal vasopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in 5- to 12-year-old children who were referred to the Shahid Beheshti Clinic in 2008.Materials & MethodsThis study included 100 children (62 males and 38 females with nocturnal enuresis. One group (50 patients received 20 mcg nasal vasopressin which increased up to 40 mcg, depending on the patients' response. The other group (50 patients received 0.2 mg oral vasopressin which increased up to 0.4 mg.The patients were followed up for one month after response to the last dose of drug. Data were recorded in prepared forms and analyzed using Chi-Square and Fisher Test.ResultsThe success rate with oral and nasal method was 80% and 92%, respectively (P=0.08. Only 2% of the children had complications during the treatment; one child treated orally developed gastroenteritis and another child treated with the nasal method developed convulsions (P=1. Sixteen percent of the children treated with the oral method and 28% of the children treated with the nasal method had recurrence (P=0.148.ConclusionOral and nasal forms of vasopressin have equal therapeutic effects. However, oral form of the treatment has fewer serious side effects and is easier to use. Therefore, the use of oral medicine is recommended.Keywords:Nasal vasopressin, Nocturnal enuresis, Oral vasopressin

  9. Effect of vasopressin on Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and the signaling mechanisms on the murine late distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong; Tang, Xudong

    2016-01-15

    It has been demonstrated that the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is able to regulate the expression of Na-K-Cl cotransporters (NKCC1 and NKCC2) in the kidney. The present study investigated the effects of long- and short-term administration of vasopressin on NKCC and the possible signaling mechanism of vasopressin in the mouse distal colon using the siRNA, real-time PCR, western blotting and Ussing chambers method. The results showed the presence of NKCC2 expression in the colon, which was verified with a siRNA technique. The mRNA and protein expression level of NKCC2 significantly increased by about 40% and 90% respectively in response to restricting water intake to 1ml/day/20g for 7 days. In contrast, the NKCC1 expression level was unchanged in the colon. To determine the short-term activation of NKCC2 by vasopressin in vitro, we found that the administration of vasopressin caused a 3-fold increase in mouse colon NKCC2 phosphorylation, which was detected with phosphospecific antibody R5. In addition, the Ussing chamber results showed that NKCC2, cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling pathway may be involved in the vasopressin-induced response. Further, adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL-12330A and PKA inhibitor H89 and Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM reversed the vasopressin induced NKCC2 phosphorylation level increase by about 35%, 28% and 42% respectively suggesting vasopressin stimulate NKCC2 phosphorylation increase mediated by cAMP-PKA and Ca(2+) signaling in the colon. Collectively, these data suggest that the expression and phosphorylation of NKCC2 are increased in the colon by vasopressin stimulation, in association with enhanced activity of the vasopressin/cAMP and Ca(2+) pathways.

  10. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    in eight healthy males, we tested the hypothesis that with similar increases in LA diameter, suppression of AVP release is dependent on the degree of increase in PP. LA diameter increased similarly during the posture change and negative pressure breathing (-9 to -24 mmHg) from between 30 and 31 +/- 1 to 34......During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing...... +/- 1 mm (P breathing from 36 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 3 mmHg (P

  11. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A;

    2001-01-01

    During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing...... in eight healthy males, we tested the hypothesis that with similar increases in LA diameter, suppression of AVP release is dependent on the degree of increase in PP. LA diameter increased similarly during the posture change and negative pressure breathing (-9 to -24 mmHg) from between 30 and 31 +/- 1 to 34...... +/- 1 mm (P breathing from 36 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 3 mmHg (P

  12. [Case of cerebral salt wasting syndrome with difficulty in controling excessive urine volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Sakiko; Kooguch, Kunihiko; Fukui, Michihiko; Osawa, Takeshi; Beppu, Satoru; Inoue, Shizuka; Yamada, Tomoki

    2007-03-01

    Symptoms of hyponatremia and diuresis due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) are often observed after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Inadequately treated CSWS is known to work as a trigger of symptomatic vasospasm in SAH patients. Therefore, it is indispensable to detect and treat CSWS as early as possible in ICU. A 36-year-old man with SAH was admitted to our ICU. His urine volume increased excessively 3 days after ICU admission, and it reached a peak (39,250 ml x day(-1)) on the 6th day in ICU. Since infusion volume was controlled with regard to daily urinary output, hyponatremia was not noticeable and excessive urine volume stood out conspicuously. Though vasopressin and desmopressin were administered, the symptoms of natriuresis and hyponatremia were aggravated, associated with hyper secretion of natriuretic peptides (ANP 160 pg x dl(-1), BNP 172 pg x dl(-1)). Recent studies revealed that hyponatremia and hypovolemia following SAH might be caused by exaggerated secretion of natriuretic peptides. Experimental studies showed that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin cause excessive secretion of natriuretic peptides under the circumstance of volume expansion in rats. We infer that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin to our patient deterionated natriuresis in CSWS as in the previous experimental findings.

  13. 病毒性疫苗渗透压摩尔浓度的质量控制%Quality control of osmolality of viral vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏飞; 马雷钧; 陈英娇; 马相虎

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过检测6种病毒性疫苗成品的渗透压摩尔浓度,比较不同疫苗检测均值的差异,并观察同种疫苗检测值的批间稳定性,为增加病毒性疫苗质量控制手段提供依据.方法 采用冰点下降法检测麻疹减毒活疫苗、风疹减毒活疫苗、麻疹腮腺炎联合减毒活疫苗、麻疹腮腺炎风疹联合减毒活疫苗、水痘减毒活疫苗、流感病毒裂解疫苗的渗透压摩尔浓度,对检测值进行统计学处理,计算变异系数.以麻疹腮腺炎风疹联合减毒活疫苗的渗透压摩尔浓度检测均值作为对照,进行方差齐性检验及假设检验,比较各疫苗检测均值的差异.结果 麻疹腮腺炎联合减毒活疫苗与对照相比,均值差异无统计学意义(t =1.66,P>0.05);麻疹减毒活疫苗、风疹减毒活疫苗、水痘减毒活疫苗及流感病毒裂解疫苗与对照相比,均值差异均有统计学意义(Z>1.96,P<0.001).同种疫苗批间渗透压摩尔浓度较为稳定,变异系数均<3%,变化幅度能控制在90%~110%均值范围内.结论 6种病毒性疫苗渗透压摩尔浓度存在一定差异,但同种疫苗检测值批间稳定性较好,因此,应根据不同疫苗的渗透压摩尔浓度,分别制定质量控制标准.%Objective To compare the difference of mean osmolalities among 6 viral vaccines and observe lot-to-lot stability of a single vaccine,and provide a basis for increasing an approach of quality control of viral vaccines.Methods The osmolalities of 5 live attenuated viral vaccines (measles,mumps and rubella combined vaccine,measles and mumps combined vaccine,measles vaccine,rubella vaccine,varicella vaccine) and influenza vaccine (split virion) were determined by a method of freezing point depression.Coefficient of variation was calculated.The mean osmolality of measles,mumps and rubella combined vaccine was used as a control and mean osmolalities of the remaining 5 vaccines were compared with the control by

  14. Further neuroendocrine evidence of enhanced vasopressin V3 receptor responses in melancholic depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, T G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In situations of chronic stress vasopressin plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of anterior pituitary vasopressin V3 receptors in maintaining the hypercortisolism seen in melancholic depression. METHOD: Fourteen patients with major depression and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects were recruited. Desmopressin (ddAVP) 10 microg was given intravenously and ACTH and cortisol release was monitored for 120 min. RESULTS: The mean +\\/- S.E.M. ACTH response in the depressives was 28.4 +\\/- 4.3 ng\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 18.8 +\\/- 4.9 ng\\/l (P = 0.04). The mean +\\/- S.E.M. cortisol response in the depressives was 261.8 +\\/- 46.5 nmol\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 107.3 +\\/- 26.1 nmol\\/l (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major depression have augmented ACTH and cortisol responses to desmopressin indicating enhanced V3 responsivity.

  15. Personality is Tightly Coupled to Vasopressin-Oxytocin Neuron Activity in a Gregarious Finch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonapeptides of the vasopressin-oxytocin family modulate social processes differentially in relation to sex, species, behavioral phenotype, and human personality. However, the mechanistic bases for these differences are not well understood, in part because multidimensional personality structures remain to be described for common laboratory animals. Based upon principal components (PC analysis of extensive behavioral measures in social and nonsocial contexts, we now describe three complex dimensions of phenotype (personality for the zebra finch, a species that exhibits a human-like social organization that is based upon biparental nuclear families embedded within larger social groups. These dimensions can be characterized as Social competence/dominance, Gregariousness, and Anxiety. We further demonstrate that the phasic Fos response of nonapeptide neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are significantly predicted by personality, sex, social context, and their interactions. Furthermore the behavioral PCs are each associated with a distinct suite of neural PCs that incorporate both peptide cell numbers and their phasic Fos responses, indicating that personality is reflected in complex patterns of neuromodulation arising from multiple peptide cell groups. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying sex- and phenotype-specific modulation of behavior, and should be broadly relevant, given that vasopressin-oxytocin systems are strongly conserved across vertebrates.

  16. A novel polymorphism in the coding region of the vasopressin type 2 receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Rocha

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI is a rare disease characterized by renal inability to respond properly to arginine vasopressin due to mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2(R gene in affected kindreds. In most kindreds thus far reported, the mode of inheritance follows an X chromosome-linked recessive pattern although autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive modes of inheritance have also been described. Studies demonstrating mutations in the V2(R gene in affected kindreds that modify the receptor structure, resulting in a dys- or nonfunctional receptor have been described, but phenotypically indistinguishable NDI patients with a structurally normal V2(R gene have also been reported. In the present study, we analyzed exon 3 of the V2(R gene in 20 unrelated individuals by direct sequencing. A C®T alteration in the third position of codon 331 (AGC®AGT, which did not alter the encoded amino acid, was found in nine individuals, including two unrelated patients with NDI. Taken together, these observations emphasize the molecular heterogeneity of a phenotypically homogeneous syndrome

  17. Endogenous vasopressin and the central control of heart rate during dynamic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Michelini

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains a brief review on the role of vasopressinergic projections to the nucleus tractus solitarii in the genesis of reflex bradycardia and in the modulation of heart rate control during exercise. The effects of vasopressin on exercise tachycardia are discussed on the basis of both the endogenous peptide content changes and the heart rate response changes observed during running in sedentary and trained rats. Dynamic exercise caused a specific vasopressin content increase in dorsal and ventral brainstem areas. In accordance, rats pretreated with the peptide or the V1 blocker into the nucleus tractus solitarii showed a significant potentiation or a marked blunting of the exercise tachycardia, respectively, without any change in the pressure response to exercise. It is proposed that the long-descending vasopressinergic pathway to the nucleus tractus solitarii serves as one link between the two main neural controllers of circulation, i.e., the central command and feedback control mechanisms driven by the peripheral receptors. Therefore, vasopressinergic input could contribute to the adjustment of heart rate response (and cardiac output to the circulatory demand during exercise.

  18. Oxytocin receptor and vasopressin receptor 1a genes are respectively associated with emotional and cognitive empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzefovsky, F; Shalev, I; Israel, S; Edelman, S; Raz, Y; Mankuta, D; Knafo-Noam, A; Ebstein, R P

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to recognize and share in the emotions of others. It can be considered a multifaceted concept with cognitive and emotional aspects. Little is known regarding the underlying neurochemistry of empathy and in the current study we used a neurogenetic approach to explore possible brain neurotransmitter pathways contributing to cognitive and emotional empathy. Both the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) genes contribute to social cognition in both animals and humans and hence are prominent candidates for contributing to empathy. The following research examined the associations between polymorphisms in these two genes and individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy in a sample of 367 young adults. Intriguingly, we found that emotional empathy was associated solely with OXTR, whereas cognitive empathy was associated solely with AVPR1a. Moreover, no interaction was observed between the two genes and measures of empathy. The current findings contribute to our understanding of the distinct neurogenetic pathways involved in cognitive and emotional empathy and underscore the pervasive role of both oxytocin and vasopressin in modulating human emotions.

  19. Modulation of mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis through a specific arginine-vasopressin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri-Joutei, A.; Pointis, G.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of specific vasopressin binding sites was investigated in purified mouse Leydig cells using tritiated arginine-vasopressin. Binding of radioligand was saturable, time- and temperature-dependent and reversible. (/sup 3/H)-AVP was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity and low capacity. Binding displacements with specific selection analogs of AVP indicated the presence of V/sub 1/ subtype receptors on Leydig cells. The ability of AVP to displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding was greater than LVP and oxytocin. The unrelated peptides, somatostatin and substance P, were less potent, while neurotensin and LHRH did not displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding. The time-course effects of AVP-pretreatment on basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone and cAMP accumulations were studied in primary culture of Leydig cells. Basal testosterone accumulation was significantly increased by a 24 h AVP-pretreatment of Leydig cells. This effect was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor (MIX) and was concomitantly accompanied by a slight but significant increase in cAMP accumulation. AVP-pretreatment of the cells for 72 h had no effect on basal testosterone accumulation, but exerted a marked inhibitory effect on the hCG-stimulated testosterone accumulation. This reduction of testosterone accumulation occurred even in the presence of MIX and was not accompanied by any significant change of cAMP levels.

  20. Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Linking Pituitary Neuropeptides and their Receptors to Social Neurocircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Vasopressin in Hemorrhagic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Animal Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pasquale Cossu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The latest European guidelines for the management of hemorrhagic shock suggest the use of vasopressors (norepinephrine in order to restore an adequate mean arterial pressure when fluid resuscitation therapy fails to restore blood pressure. The administration of arginine vasopressin (AVP, or its analogue terlipressin, has been proposed as an alternative treatment in the early stages of hypovolemic shock. Design. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled animal trials. Participants. A total of 433 animals from 15 studies were included. Interventions. The ability of AVP and terlipressin to reduce mortality when compared with fluid resuscitation therapy, other vasopressors (norepinephrine or epinephrine, or placebo was investigated. Measurements and Main Results. Pooled estimates showed that AVP and terlipressin consistently and significantly improve survival in hemorrhagic shock (mortality: 26/174 (15% in the AVP group versus 164/259 (63% in the control arms; OR=0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.15; P for effect < 0.001; P for heterogeneity = 0.30; I2=14%. Conclusions. Results suggest that AVP and terlipressin improve survival in the early phases of animal models of hemorrhagic shock. Vasopressin seems to be more effective than all other treatments, including other vasopressor drugs. These results need to be confirmed by human clinical trials.

  2. Stimulation tests of human growth hormone secretion by insulin, lysine vasopressin, pyrogen and glucagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa,Norio

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, comparisons have been made of the secretion of human growth hormone (HGH that was induced by insulin, lysine vasopressin and pyrogen injections in order to study whether these substances can be utilized as a rapid test of HGH secretion. In insulin test, a fall of the fasting blood glucose level by 28.6% or more seemed to be sufficient to provoke adequate HGH elevation, and 9.4 ng/ml or higher HGH increment was recognized as being normal, because lysine vasopressin and pyrogen produce varying degrees of side-effects and are less specific and unpredictable in the release of HGH. Secondly, the pharmacologic effects and mechanism of action of exogenous glucagon upon the HGH secretion were studied. In normal subjects after one mg sc glucagon, there was a mean peak blood glucose level of 142. 4±3.l mg/lOO ml at 30 min, HGH levels reached a mean peak level of 22. 6±4. 8 ng/ml at 150 min, and no false negative response was noted. In patients with hypopituitarism, there was no positive response in plasma HGH levels after the sc glucagon. The present study revealed that the rise and subsequent fall of blood glucose are not the sole mechanism responsible for the effct of glucagon on HGH secretion, and that the HGH secretion in response to the sc glucagon was not triggered by cathecholamine via the stimulation of the adrenal medulla.

  3. The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers’ stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing.

  4. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  5. Arginine vasopressin as a target in the treatment of acute heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha; A; Gilotra; Stuart; D; Russell

    2014-01-01

    Congestive heart failure(CHF) is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization in the United States. Despite multiple different beneficial medications for the treatment of chronic CHF, there are no therapies with a demonstrated mortality benefit in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure. In fact, studies of inotropes used in this setting have demonstrated more harm than good. Arginine vasopressin has been shown to be up regulated in CHF. When bound to the V1 a and/or V2 receptors, vasopressin causes vasoconstriction, left ventricular remodeling and free water reabsorption. Recently, two drugs have been approved for use that antagonize these receptors. Studies thus far have indicated that these medications, while effective at aquaresis(free water removal), are safe and not associated with increased morbidity such as renal failure and arrhythmias. Both conivaptan and tolvaptan have been approved for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia. We review the results of these studies in patients with heart failure.

  6. The Modulatory Effect of Ischemia and Reperfusion on Arginine Vasopressin-Induced Arterial Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadujkis-Szadurska, Katarzyna; Malinowski, Bartosz; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Grześk, Grzegorz; Wiciński, Michał; Gajdus, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the Study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ischemia and reperfusion on the resistance of arteries to AVP (arginine vasopressin), with a particular emphasis on the role of smooth muscle cells in the action of vasopressin receptors and the role of the cGMP-associated signalling pathway. Materials and Methods. Experiment was performed on the perfunded tail arteries from male Wistar rats. The constriction triggered by AVP after 30 minutes of ischemia and 30 and 90 minutes of reperfusion was analysed. Analogous experiments were also carried out in the presence of 8Br-cGMP. Results. Ischemia reduces and reperfusion increases in a time-dependent manner the arterial reaction to AVP. The presence of 8Br-cGMP causes a significant decrease of arterial reactivity under study conditions. Conclusions. Ischemia and reperfusion modulate arterial contraction triggered by AVP. The effect of 8Br-cGMP on reactions, induced by AVP after ischemia and reperfusion, indicates that signalling pathway associated with nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP regulates the tension of the vascular smooth muscle cells.

  7. The regulation of social recognition, social communication and aggression: vasopressin in the social behavior neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, H Elliott

    2012-03-01

    Neuropeptides in the arginine vasotocin/arginine vasopressin (AVT/AVP) family play a major role in the regulation of social behavior by their actions in the brain. In mammals, AVP is found within a circuit of recriprocally connected limbic structures that form the social behavior neural network. This review examines the role played by AVP within this network in controlling social processes that are critical for the formation and maintenance of social relationships: social recognition, social communication and aggression. Studies in a number of mammalian species indicate that AVP and AVP V1a receptors are ideally suited to regulate the expression of social processes because of their plasticity in response to factors that influence social behavior. The pattern of AVP innervation and V1a receptors across the social behavior neural network may determine the potential range and intensity of social responses that individuals display in different social situations. Although fundamental information on how social behavior is wired in the brain is still lacking, it is clear that different social behaviors can be influenced by the actions of AVP in the same region of the network and that AVP can act within multiple regions of this network to regulate the expression of individual social behaviors. The existing data suggest that AVP can influence social behavior by modulating the interpretation of sensory information, by influencing decision making and by triggering complex motor outputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous and selective measurement of oxytocin and vasopressin using boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kai; Ivandini, Tribidasari A.; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical detection of oxytocin using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was studied. Cyclic voltammetry of oxytocin in a phosphate buffer solution exhibits an oxidation peak at +0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is attributable to oxidation of the phenolic group in the tyrosyl moiety. Furthermore, the linearity of the current peaks obtained in flow injection analysis (FIA) using BDD microelectrodes over the oxytocin concentration range from 0.1 to 10.0 μM with a detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3) was high (R2 = 0.995). Although the voltammograms of oxytocin and vasopressin observed with an as-deposited BDD electrode, as well as with a cathodically-reduced BDD electrode, were similar, a clear distinction was observed with anodically-oxidized BDD electrodes due to the attractive interaction between vasopressin and the oxidized BDD surface. By means of this distinction, selective measurements using chronoamperometry combined with flow injection analysis at an optimized potential were demonstrated, indicating the possibility of making selective in situ or in vivo measurements of oxytocin.

  9. Vasopressin V1b receptor knockout reduces aggressive behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersinger, S R; Ginns, E I; O'Carroll, A-M; Lolait, S J; Young, W S

    2002-01-01

    Increased aggression is commonly associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Current treatments are largely empirical and are often accompanied by severe side effects, underscoring the need for a better understanding of the neural bases of aggression. Vasopressin, acting through its 1a receptor subtype, is known to affect aggressive behaviors. The vasopressin 1b receptor (V1bR) is also expressed in the brain, but has received much less attention due to a lack of specific drugs. Here we report that mice without the V1bR exhibit markedly reduced aggression and modestly impaired social recognition. By contrast, they perform normally in all the other behaviors that we have examined, such as sexual behavior, suggesting that reduced aggression and social memory are not simply the result of a global deficit in sensorimotor function or motivation. Fos-mapping within chemosensory responsive regions suggests that the behavioral deficits in V1bR knockout mice are not due to defects in detection and transmission of chemosensory signals to the brain. We suggest that V1bR antagonists could prove useful for treating aggressive behavior seen, for example, in dementias and traumatic brain injuries.

  10. Vasopressin contributes to maintenance of arterial blood pressure in dehydrated baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K L; Thornton, R M; Proppe, D W

    1989-02-01

    This study primarily sought to determine whether the role of vasopressin (VP) in maintenance of arterial blood pressure is enhanced in awake, chronically instrumented baboons after 68-72 h of dehydration. This question was approached by pharmacologically blocking vasopressin V1-receptors in euhydrated and dehydrated baboons with or without a normally functioning renin-angiotensin system (RAS). VP blockade during dehydration produced a rapidly occurring (within 5 min), statistically significant (P less than 0.05) decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 5 +/- 1 mmHg in the RAS-intact condition and an identical decline in MAP (5 +/- 1 mmHg) during blockade of the RAS by captopril, an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor. At 15 min after induction of VP blockade, heart rate was elevated by 9 +/- 2 beats/min in the RAS-intact condition and by 20 +/- 5 beats/min in the RAS-blocked condition. In addition, VP blockade in the dehydrated state produced small and equal increases in hindlimb vascular conductance in RAS-intact and RAS-blocked conditions. None of these cardiovascular changes were produced by VP blockade in the euhydrated state. RAS blockade produced modest declines in MAP in both hydration states, but the fall was larger by 7 +/- 4 mmHg in the dehydrated state. Thus both VP and the RAS contribute to the maintenance of arterial blood pressure during dehydration in the conscious baboon.

  11. Stress, sex, and addiction: potential roles of corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagno, Verónica; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2014-09-01

    Stress sensitivity and sex are predictive factors for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Life stresses are not only risk factors for the development of addiction but also are triggers for relapse to drug use. Therefore, it is imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between stress and drug abuse, as an understanding of this may help in the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches to block the clinical manifestations of drug addiction. The development and clinical course of addiction-related disorders do appear to involve neuroadaptations within neurocircuitries that modulate stress responses and are influenced by several neuropeptides. These include corticotropin-releasing factor, the prototypic member of this class, as well as oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin that play important roles in affiliative behaviors. Interestingly, these peptides function to balance emotional behavior, with sexual dimorphism in the oxytocin/arginine-vasopressin systems, a fact that might play an important role in the differential responses of women and men to stressful stimuli and the specific sex-based prevalence of certain addictive disorders. Thus, this review aims to summarize (i) the contribution of sex differences to the function of dopamine systems, and (ii) the behavioral, neurochemical, and anatomical changes in brain stress systems.

  12. Continuous and selective measurement of oxytocin and vasopressin using boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kai; Ivandini, Tribidasari A.; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of oxytocin using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was studied. Cyclic voltammetry of oxytocin in a phosphate buffer solution exhibits an oxidation peak at +0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is attributable to oxidation of the phenolic group in the tyrosyl moiety. Furthermore, the linearity of the current peaks obtained in flow injection analysis (FIA) using BDD microelectrodes over the oxytocin concentration range from 0.1 to 10.0 μM with a detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3) was high (R2 = 0.995). Although the voltammograms of oxytocin and vasopressin observed with an as-deposited BDD electrode, as well as with a cathodically-reduced BDD electrode, were similar, a clear distinction was observed with anodically-oxidized BDD electrodes due to the attractive interaction between vasopressin and the oxidized BDD surface. By means of this distinction, selective measurements using chronoamperometry combined with flow injection analysis at an optimized potential were demonstrated, indicating the possibility of making selective in situ or in vivo measurements of oxytocin. PMID:27599852

  13. Number of X-chromosome genes influences social behavior and vasopressin gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kimberly H; Quinnies, Kayla M; Eschendroeder, Alex; Didrick, Paula M; Eugster, Erica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior are widespread and often caused by hormonal differences between the sexes. In addition to hormones, the composition and numbers of the sex chromosomes also affect a variety of sex differences. In humans, X-chromosome genes are implicated in neurobehavioral disorders (i.e. fragile-X, autism). To investigate the role of X-chromosome genes in social behavior, we used a mouse model that has atypical sex chromosome configurations resembling Turner (45, XO) and Klinefelter syndromes (47, XXY). We examined a number of behaviors in juvenile mice. Mice with only one copy of most X-chromosome genes, regardless of gonadal sex, were less social in dyadic interaction and social preference tasks. In the elevated plus maze, mice with one X-chromosome spent less time in the distal ends of the open arms as compared to mice with two copies of X-chromosome genes. Using qRTPCR, we noted that amygdala from female mice with one X-chromosome had higher expression levels of vasopressin (Avp) as compared to mice in the other groups. Finally, in plasma from girls with Turner syndrome we detected reduced vasopressin (AVP) concentrations as compared to control patients. These novel findings link sex chromosome genes with social behavior via concentrations of AVP in brain, adding to our understanding of sex differences in neurobehavioral disorders.

  14. Postoperative vasopressin and copeptin levels in noncardiac surgery patients: a prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochberger, Stefan; Zitt, Matthias; Luckner, Günter; Mayr, Viktoria D; Wenzel, Volker; Ulmer, Hanno; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Hasibeder, Walter R; Dünser, Martin W

    2009-02-01

    Further information on the endogenous arginine vasopressin (AVP) response in patients with postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and vasodilatory shock would provide more insight into the pathophysiology of SIRS-associated cardiovascular failure and help indicate AVP therapy. Patients after uncomplicated abdominal surgery without SIRS (n = 10), critically ill patients after noncardiac surgery with SIRS (n = 9), and patients with SIRS plus vasodilatory shock (n = 22) were included in this prospective trial. Plasma AVP (radioimmunoassay) and copeptin (immunoluminometric assay) concentrations together with clinical parameters were documented daily during the first 7 days postoperative. The AVP response significantly differed between the three groups. Patients without SIRS had lower AVP concentrations than SIRS patients with (P = 0.001) or without shock (P = 0.003). Patients with SIRS and shock had higher AVP levels than patients with SIRS alone (P SIRS patients without shock, serum osmolarity was indirectly associated with AVP levels, whereas mean arterial blood pressure and serum osmolarity were associated with AVP in SIRS patients with shock. Arginine vasopressin and copeptin correlated significantly with each other (P surgery patients seems well maintained. The possibility that AVP plays a contributory role in the failure to restore vascular tone in patients with vasodilatory shock cannot be excluded but seems less important than in septic or postcardiotomy shock.

  15. Hemograma, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade durante angiocardiografia pediátrica com ioxaglato Blood cell count, sodium, potassium, calcium, osmolality and viscosity, during pediatric angiocardiography with ioxaglate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Regis Silva Moura

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os meios de contraste (MC introduzem alterações em alguns parâmetros sangüíneos, adquirindo, assim, mais importância na angiocardiografia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudamos a presença e a severidade das mudanças no hematócrito, hemoglobina, leucócitos, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade, em 35 crianças submetidas a angiocardiografia com ioxaglato, identificando, também, as variáveis independentes responsáveis por essas alterações. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas no início do procedimento (S1, no fim (S2 e 2h após (S3. RESULTADOS: Hematócrito: S1= 47,3±6,9%; S2= 40,7±7,4% (pPURPOSE: Children's blood changes during angiocardiography may not be only due to the contrast media (CM. METHODS: We studied the presence and severity of changes in those parameters in 35 pediatric patients undergoing angiocardiography with ioxaglate aiming to identify independent variables responsible for those changes. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure (S1, at the end (S2 and two hours later (S3. RESULTS: Hematocrit: S1= 47.3±6.9%; S2= 40.7± 7.4% (p<0.001, (related to the CM volume r=0.37, p<0.05. Hemoglobin: S1= 15±2.1g%; S2= 13.2±2.4g% (p<0.001, and S3= 12.7±2.5g% (NS. White blood cell count: S1= 7940±3040 leukocytes/mm³; S2= 6950± 2700/mm³ (NS; S3= 10830±4690 leukocytes/mm³, (p<0.001. Procedure duration (r=0.38, p<0.05 and 5% glucose fluid given between S2 and S3 (r=0.49, p<0.05 were isolated. Sodium: S1= 134.5±0.4mEq/L; S2= 130.7±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001 (due to 5% glucose fluid injected, r=0.61, p<0.01. Potassium: S1= 4.22±0.45mEq/L, S2= 3.83±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001. Calcium: S1= 9.13± 1.03mg%; S2= 8.4±0.91mg/dL. (related to the CM, r=0.43, p<0.01. Osmolality: S1= 293.3±12.5mOsm/kg; S2= 300.6±13.3mOsm/kg (p<0.001. Viscosity: S1= 3.36±0.81; S2= 3.09±0.74 (p<0.01; S3= 3.87±0.89, p<0.001. There was an indirect linear regression with the CM. CONCLUSION: There were profound

  16. Prolactin and 16K prolactin stimulate release of vasopressin by a direct effect on hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Salvador; Torner, Luz M; Jeziorski, Michael C; Gonzalez, Carmen; Morales, Miguel A; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martín; Clapp, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Activity of the magnocellular neurons that synthesize vasopressin and oxytocin in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus can be modulated by local release of neuromediators within the nuclei. Among the bioactive peptides that may play autocrine or paracrine roles in this system is prolactin (PRL). Paraventricular and supraoptic neurons express PRL mRNA and contain and secrete PRL-like proteins of 23 and 14 kDa. We investigated the localization of PRL receptors in vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic magnocellular neurons using dual-label immunofluorescence. The results demonstrate that both vasopressin- and oxytocin-immunoreactive cells of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei contain the PRL receptor. In addition, we investigated the possible regulation of vasopressin secretion by PRL using hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal explants in culture. The results show that PRL and a 16 kDa N-terminal fragment of the hormone that is analogous to the neurohypophyseal 14-kDa PRL fragment stimulate the release of vasopressin. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons of the magnocellular secretory system are regulated directly by various isoforms of PRL via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

  17. Development of a human vasopressin V1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Giglio, Maria Giulia; Muttenthaler, Markus; Harpsøe, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    binding selectivity for the human V1aR over the other three subtypes, OTR, V1bR and V2R. The Arg8/D-Arg8 ligand-pair was further investigated to gain novel insights into the oxytocin/vasopressin peptide-receptor interaction, which led to the identification of key residues of the receptors...

  18. Rescue of a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus-causing vasopressin V-2 receptor mutant by cell-penetrating peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oueslati, Morad; Hermosilla, Ricardo; Schoenenberger, Eva; Oorschot, Viola; Beyermann, Michael; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schmidt, Antje; Klumperman, Judith; Rosenthal, Walter; Schuelein, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Mutant membrane proteins are frequently retained in the early secretory pathway by a quality control system, thereby causing disease. An example are mutants of the vasopressin V-2 receptor (V2R) leading to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Transport-defective V(2)Rs fall into two classes: those

  19. Angiotensin II in the paraventricular nucleus stimulates sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system and make vasopressin release in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nasimi, Ali

    2016-10-06

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays essential roles in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including cardiovascular regulation. It was shown that microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) into the PVN produced a pressor response. In this study, we explored the probable mechanisms of this pressor response. AngII was microinjected into the PVN and cardiovascular responses were recorded. Then, the responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a ganglionic blocker, Hexamethonium, or a vasopressin V1 receptor blocker. Hexamethonium pretreatment (i.v.) greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that the sympathetic system is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Systemic pretreatment (i.v.) with V1 antagonist greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that vasopressin release is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Overall, we found that AngII microinjected into the PVN produced a pressor response mediated by the sympathetic system and vasopressin release, indicating that other than circulating AngII, endogenous AngII of the PVN increases the vasopressin release from the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of vasopressin and oxytocin of the rat during various light-dark regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, W.B.J.; Andringa-Bakker, E.A.D.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1982-01-01

    Levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats were determined at various times of the day and the night under normal and changed light-dark conditions. During a regular daily 14 h and 10 h dark cycle (lights on 06.00 h, off 20.00 h), AVP in CSF reached

  1. ORAL VERSUS NASAL VASOPRESSIN IN THE TREATMENT OF NOCTURNAL ENURESIS IN 5- TO 12-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas TAGHAVI ARDAKANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNocturnal enuresis is a common childhood problem and has various treatments.This study was carried out to compare oral and nasal vasopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in 5- to 12-year-old children who were referred to the Shahid Beheshti Clinic in 2008.Materials & MethodsThis study included 100 children (62 males and 38 females with nocturnal enuresis. One group (50 patients received 20 mcg nasal vasopressin which increased up to 40 mcg, depending on the patients' response. The other group (50 patients received 0.2 mg oral vasopressin which increased up to 0.4 mg.The patients were followed up for one month after response to the last dose of drug. Data were recorded in prepared forms and analyzed using Chi-Square and Fisher Test.ResultsThe success rate with oral and nasal method was 80% and 92%, respectively (P=0.08. Only 2% of the children had complications during the treatment; one child treated orally developed gastroenteritis and another child treated with the nasal method developed convulsions (P=1. Sixteen percent of the children treated with the oral method and 28% of the children treated with the nasal method had recurrence (P=0.148.ConclusionOral and nasal forms of vasopressin have equal therapeutic effects. However, oral form of the treatment has fewer serious side effects and is easier to use. Therefore, the use of oral medicine is recommended.

  2. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  3. Vasopressin immunoreactivity and release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, EA; Oklejewicz, M; Jansen, K; Daan, S; Gerkema, MP

    2002-01-01

    Despite the prominent role of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in studies of circadian rhythms, there are no data available on the temporal dynamics of the neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP), a major output system of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We studied the hamster SCN-AVP system in vi

  4. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists for Euvolemic or Hypervolemic Hyponatremia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyun; Zhao, Mingyi; Du, Wei; Zu, Dongni; Sun, Yingwei; Xiang, Rongwu; Yang, Jingyu

    2016-04-01

    Hyponatremia, defined as a nonartifactual serum sodium level Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Springer, etc. (latest search on June 4, 2015) for English publications with randomized controlled trials. Two authors independently screened the citations and extracted data. We calculated pooled relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), weighted mean difference (WMD) or standard mean difference (SMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using random and fixed effect models. We collected data from 18 trials involving 1806 patients. Both random and fixed effect meta-analyses showed that VRAs significantly increased the net change of serum sodium concentration (WMD(random) = 4.89 mEq/L, 95%CIs = 4.35-5.43 and WMD(fixed) = 4.70 mEq/L, 95%CIs = 4.45-4.95), response rate (RR(random )= 2.77, 95%CIs = 2.29-3.36 and RR(fixed) = 2.95, 95%CIs = 2.56-3.41), and 24-hour urine output (SMD(random) = 0.82, 95%CIs = 0.65-1.00 and SMD(fixed) = 0.79, 95%CIs = 0.66-0.93) compared to placebo. Furthermore, VRAs significantly decreased body weight (WMD(random) = -0.87 kg, 95%CIs = -1.24 to -0.49 and WMD(fixed) = -0.91 kg, 95%CIs = -1.22 to -0.59). In terms of safety, rates of drug-related adverse events (AEs), rapid sodium level correction, constipation, dry mouth, thirst, and phlebitis in the VRA-treated group were greater than those in control group. However, there was no difference in the total number of AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, serious AEs, death, headache, hypotension, nausea, anemia, hypernatremia, urinary tract infection, renal failure, pyrexia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea, vomiting, peripheral edema, and dizziness between the 2 groups. Random effect meta-analyses showed that post treatment urine osmolality, supine systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were lowered (WMD(random) = -233.07 mOsmol/kg, 95%CIs = -298.20-147.94; WMD(random) = -6.11

  6. Effects of Intraosseous Tibial vs. Intravenous Vasopressin in a Hypovolemic Cardiac Arrest Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fulkerson, MSN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study compared the effects of vasopressin via tibial intraosseous (IO and intravenous (IV routes on maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, the time to maximum concentration (Tmax, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, and time to ROSC in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model. Methods: This study was a randomized prospective, between-subjects experimental design. A computer program randomly assigned 28 Yorkshire swine to one of four groups: IV (n=7, IO tibia (n=7, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR + defibrillation (n=7, and a control group that received just CPR (n=7. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and subjects remained in arrest for two minutes. CPR was initiated and 40 units of vasopressin were administered via IO or IV routes. Blood samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 minutes. CPR and defibrillation were initiated for 20 minutes or until ROSC was achieved. We measured vasopressin concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography. Results: There was no significant difference between the IO and IV groups relative to achieving ROSC (p=1.0 but a significant difference between the IV compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IV compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was a significant difference between the IO group compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IO compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was no significant difference between the CPR + defibrillation group and the CPR group (p=0.127. There was no significant difference in Cmax between the IO and IV groups (p=0.079. The mean ± standard deviation of Cmax of the IO group was 58,709±25,463pg/mL compared to the IV group, which was 106,198±62,135pg/mL. There was no significant difference in mean Tmax between the groups (p=0.084. There were no significant differences in odds of ROSC between the tibial IO and IV groups. Conclusion: Prompt access to the vascular system using the IO route can circumvent

  7. Species, sex and individual differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin system: relationship to neurochemical signaling in the social behavior neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, H Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Arginine-vasotocin (AVT)/arginine vasopressin (AVP) are members of the AVP/oxytocin (OT) superfamily of peptides that are involved in the regulation of social behavior, social cognition and emotion. Comparative studies have revealed that AVT/AVP and their receptors are found throughout the "social behavior neural network (SBNN)" and display the properties expected from a signaling system that controls social behavior (i.e., species, sex and individual differences and modulation by gonadal hormones and social factors). Neurochemical signaling within the SBNN likely involves a complex combination of synaptic mechanisms that co-release multiple chemical signals (e.g., classical neurotransmitters and AVT/AVP as well as other peptides) and non-synaptic mechanisms (i.e., volume transmission). Crosstalk between AVP/OT peptides and receptors within the SBNN is likely. A better understanding of the functional properties of neurochemical signaling in the SBNN will allow for a more refined examination of the relationships between this peptide system and species, sex and individual differences in sociality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of lithium on water intake and renal concentrating ability in rats with vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, S

    1983-02-01

    Male and female Long Evan rats and Brattleboro rats with ADH-deficient diabetes insipidus were treated with lithium administered in the diet for 12 weeks. The plasma lithium level was about 1 mmol/l in all groups. Lithium caused polydipsia and polyuria and lowering of renal concentrating ability in normal rats. In rats with ADH deficiency lithium tended to increase water intake, but did not influence spontaneous urine osmolality or maximal urine osmolality during water deprivation. The results indicate that the renal concentrating defect caused by lithium in rats can be explained by ADH-blockade as the only mechanism. However, there is circumstantial evidence that lithium in addition may stimulate thirst mechanisms by an ADH-independent action.

  9. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  10. Vasopressin-dependent short-term regulation of aquaporin 4 expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, H B; Fenton, R A; Zeuthen, T;

    2009-01-01

    following pathologies such as brain injuries, brain tumours, and cerebral ischemia. As vasopressin and its G-protein-coupled receptor (V1(a)R) have been shown to affect the outcome of brain edema, we have investigated the regulatory interaction between AQP4 and V1(a)R by heterologous expression in Xenopus......Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is abundantly expressed in the perivascular glial endfeet in the central nervous system (CNS), where it is involved in the exchange of fluids between blood and brain. At this location, AQP4 contributes to the formation and/or the absorption of the brain edema that may arise......)R may prove to be a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of brain edema....

  11. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    and the (n-3) rats, even though large differences were found in the percentage of arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]), icosapentaenoic acid (20:5[n-3]), and icosatrienoic acid (20:3[n-9]) of total kidney fatty acids as well as of kidney phosphatidylinositol fatty acids. Fractionation of urine extracts on high...... excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased...... an arachidonic acid pool, which is rather resistant to restriction in dietary linoleate. © 1983 American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS)....

  12. Effects of angiotensin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, D. E.; Shue, S. G.; Keil, L. C.; Balaban, C. D.; Severs, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin (ANG) on blood and intraocular pressures of pentobarbital anesthetized rats were evaluated following intravenous, intracerebroventricular or anterior chamber routes of administration. Central injections did not affect intraocular pressure. Equipressor intravenous infusions of ANG raised, whereas AVP decreased, intraocular pressure. Direct infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter/min) raised intraocular pressure between 30 and 60 min. Adding ANG or ANP slightly reduced this solvent effect but AVP was markedly inhibitory. An AVP-V1 receptor antagonist reversed the blunting of the solvent-induced rise by the peptide, indicating receptor specificity. Acetazolamide pretreatment lowered intraocular pressure, but the solvent-induced rise in intraocular pressure and inhibition by AVP still occurred without altering the temporal pattern. Thus, these effects appear unrelated to aqueous humor synthesis rate. The data support the possibility of intraocular pressure regulation by peptides acting from the blood and aqueous humor.

  13. Enkephalin inhibition of angiotensin-stimulated release of oxytocin and vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Chee, O.; Rosella-Dampman, L. M.; Emmert, S.; Summy-Long, J. Y.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) pretreatment with 100 ng/5 microliter leucine(5)-enkephalin (LE) on the increase in plasma oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) caused by ICV injection of 10, 50, or 100 ng/5 microliter of angiotensin II (AII) is investigated experimentally in conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats; the effects of water-deprivation dehydration and lactation/suckling (in female rats) are also studied. An OT radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a sensitivity of 800 fg/ml (described in detail) and the VP RIA technique of Keil and Severs (1977) are employed. Administration of AII or dehydration for 48 or 72 h cause a significant increase in OT and VP without affecting the ratio, while lactation and suckling increase OT only. LE pretreatment inhibits significantly but does not suppress the AII-stimulated OT-VP response.

  14. Effect of arginine vasopressin in the nucleus raphe magnus on antinociception in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Jian-Min; Liu, Wen-Yan; Song, Cao-You; Wang, Cheng-Hai; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2006-09-01

    Previous work has shown that arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates antinociception through brain nuclei rather than the spinal cord and peripheral organs. The present study investigated the nociceptive effect of AVP in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of the rat. Microinjection of AVP into the NRM increased pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner, while local administration of AVP-receptor antagonist-d(CH2)5Tyr(Et)DAVP decreased the pain threshold. Pain stimulation elevated AVP concentration in the NRM perfuse liquid. NRM pretreatment with AVP-receptor antagonist completely reversed AVP's effect on pain threshold in the NRM. The data suggest that AVP in the NRM is involved in antinociception.

  15. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Substituted Desloratadines as Potent Arginine Vasopressin V2 Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Mu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one non-peptide substituted desloratadine class compounds were synthesized as novel arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists from desloratadine via successive acylation, reduction and acylation reactions. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR and HRMS, their biological activity was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro binding assay and cAMP accumulation assay indicated that these compounds are potent selective V2 receptor antagonists. Among them compounds 1n, 1t and 1v exhibited both high affinity and promising selectivity for V2 receptors. The in vivo diuretic assay demonstrated that 1t presented remarkable diuretic activity. In conclusion, 1t is a potent novel AVP V2 receptor antagonist candidate.

  16. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A): implications for autism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tansey, Katherine E

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5\\'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815) and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR) at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5\\'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively). Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  17. Mutations of Vasopressin Receptor 2 Including Novel L312S Have Differential Effects on Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiulpakov, Anatoly; White, Carl W; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S; See, Heng B; Chan, Audrey S; Seeber, Ruth M; Heng, Julian I; Dedov, Ivan; Pavlos, Nathan J; Pfleger, Kevin D G

    2016-08-01

    Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a genetic disease first described in 2 unrelated male infants with severe symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite undetectable arginine vasopressin levels, patients have inappropriately concentrated urine resulting in hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. Here, we describe and functionally characterize a novel vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) gain-of-function mutation. An L312S substitution in the seventh transmembrane domain was identified in a boy presenting with water-induced hyponatremic seizures at the age of 5.8 years. We show that, compared with wild-type V2R, the L312S mutation results in the constitutive production of cAMP, indicative of the gain-of-function NSIAD profile. Interestingly, like the previously described F229V and I130N NSIAD-causing mutants, this appears to both occur in the absence of notable constitutive β-arrestin2 recruitment and can be reduced by the inverse agonist Tolvaptan. In addition, to understand the effect of various V2R substitutions on the full receptor "life-cycle," we have used and further developed a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer intracellular localization assay using multiple localization markers validated with confocal microscopy. This allowed us to characterize differences in the constitutive and ligand-induced localization and trafficking profiles of the novel L312S mutation as well as for previously described V2R gain-of-function mutants (NSIAD; R137C and R137L), loss-of-function mutants (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; R137H, R181C, and M311V), and a putative silent V266A V2R polymorphism. In doing so, we describe differences in trafficking between unique V2R substitutions, even at the same amino acid position, therefore highlighting the value of full and thorough characterization of receptor function beyond simple signaling pathway analysis.

  18. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A: implications for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansey Katherine E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815 and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively. Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  19. Efficient photoaffinity labeling of the rat V1a vasopressin receptor using a linear azidopeptidic antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnazzi, E; Aumelas, A; Phalipou, S; Mouillac, B; Guillon, G; Barberis, C; Seyer, R

    1997-08-01

    We have synthesized and fully characterized by fast-atom-bombardment-mass, NMR and ultraviolet spectroscopies the vasopressin antagonist 3-azidophenylpropionyl-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr(3I )-NH2. Easily radioiodinatable just before use, it has a high affinity for the natural rat liver V1a receptor [dissociation constant (Kd) = 54 +/- 20 pM; Carnazzi, E., Aumelas, A., Barberis, C., Guillon, G. & Seyer, R. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 37, 1841-1849] and for both the rat vasopressin V1a receptor expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells (Sf9 cells, Kd = 688 +/- 35 pM) and in COS-7 cells (Kd = 320 +/- 20 pM). This probe labels specifically the V1a receptors in an ultraviolet-dependent manner, and binds covalently to about 12% of the receptors with high stability over several days, even in dissociation or solubilization conditions. SDS/PAGE studies and autoradiographic analyses of the photolabeled receptors reveal a single band (49.5 kDa) and two bands (63 kDa and 93.6 kDa) for receptor-probe associations obtained in Sf9 and COS-7 cells respectively. These molecular masses are consistent with non-glycosylated and highly glycosylated forms of the receptor, according to each expression system. In rat liver membranes, we have identified apparent molecular masses of about 32, 45 and more than 67 kDa. We finally demonstrated a proteolysis of the receptor that appeared to be Zn2+ and leupeptin sensitive. The high potency of this ligand is promising for the monitoring of the purification of the V1a receptor and for mapping its antagonist-binding site.

  20. Fast, multiphase volume adaptation to hyperosmotic shock by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Pilizota

    Full Text Available All living cells employ an array of different mechanisms to help them survive changes in extra cellular osmotic pressure. The difference in the concentration of chemicals in a bacterium's cytoplasm and the external environment generates an osmotic pressure that inflates the cell. It is thought that the bacterium Escherichia coli use a number of interconnected systems to adapt to changes in external pressure, allowing them to maintain turgor and live in surroundings that range more than two-hundred-fold in external osmolality. Here, we use fluorescence imaging to make the first measurements of cell volume changes over time during hyperosmotic shock and subsequent adaptation on a single cell level in vivo with a time resolution on the order of seconds. We directly observe two previously unseen phases of the cytoplasmic water efflux upon hyperosmotic shock. Furthermore, we monitor cell volume changes during the post-shock recovery and observe a two-phase response that depends on the shock magnitude. The initial phase of recovery is fast, on the order of 15-20 min and shows little cell-to-cell variation. For large sucrose shocks, a secondary phase that lasts several hours adds to the recovery. We find that cells are able to recover fully from shocks as high as 1 Osmol/kg using existing systems, but that for larger shocks, protein synthesis is required for full recovery.

  1. Vasopressin-dependent flank marking in golden hamsters is suppressed by drugs used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Tara

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

  2. Effects of Na+/K+ Ratio of Groundwaters on the Gill Ion-Transport Enzyme Activity, Plasma Osmolality and Growth of Cynoglossus semilaevis Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Huizan; PAN Luqing; HU Fawen; LIU Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of environmental Na+/K+ ratio on the gill ion-transport enzyme activity,plasma osmolality and growth ofCynoglossus semi/aevis juveniles were investigated.The results showed that,plasma osmolality was similar among flounder adaptedto different Na+/K+ ratios of saline groundwaters (P>0.05),while the growth,gill Na+,K+-ATPase and HCO,3'--ATPase activities wereaffected by Na+/K+ ratio significantly (P<0.05).The gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity reached its maximum on day 3,then decreasedgradually from day 3 to day 9 and remained constant from day 9 to day 15.The peak values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity weredetected on day 3 for all Na+/K+ ratios of saline groundwaters,then the enzyme activities descended,and on day 9 the enzyme activi-ties achieved steady state,and the gill HCO,3--ATPase activity increased rapidly and achieved steady state after one day.Duringsteady state,the gill Na+,K+-ATPase and HCO,3--ATPase activity of Na+/K+ ratios 20 and 40 treatments were significantly higherthan those in the control group (Na+/K+ ratio 27.5),while there were no significant differences between the Na+/K+ ratio 30 treatmentand the control group; the gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of Na+/K+ ratio 20 and 40 treatments were significantly higher than that forratio 30 treatment,but there were no significant differences of gill HCO3-ATPase activity among these treatments.At the end of the15-day experiment,the weight gain (%) and specific growth rate (SGR) of flounders maintained in seawater were significantly higherthan those in groundwaters; significant differences also occurred among the treatments; Na+/K+ ratio 30 treatment had the highestvalues (33.7% and 1.94 respectively),which were significantly higher than those under Na+/K+ ratios 20 and 40 treatments.There-fore,for the saline groundwater used in this experiment,it is suggested that the Na+/K+ ratio be adjusted to approximately 30,I.e.,asclose to that of natural seawater as possible in the culture of flounder.

  3. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of VWF....... The functionality of the G12E variant was studied in stably transfected MDCKII cells, expressing constructs of either 12G-V2R or 12E-V2R. Both V2R variants were fully glycosylated and expressed on the basolateral membrane. The binding affinity of V2R for AVP was increased three-fold in 12E-V2R-green fluorescent...

  4. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of VAsopressin versus Noradrenaline as Initial therapy in Septic sHock (VANISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anthony C; Mason, Alexina J; Perkins, Gavin D; Ashby, Deborah; Brett, Stephen J

    2014-07-03

    Vasopressin is an alternative vasopressor in the management of septic shock. It spares catecholamine use but whether it improves outcome remains uncertain. Current evidence suggests that it may be most effective if used early and possibly in conjunction with corticosteroids. This trial will compare vasopressin to noradrenaline as initial vasopressor in the management of adult septic shock and investigate whether there is an interaction of vasopressin with corticosteroids. This is a multicentre, factorial (2×2), randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 412 patients will be recruited from multiple UK intensive care units and randomised to receive vasopressin (0-0.06 U/min) or noradrenaline (0-12 µg/min) as a continuous intravenous infusion as initial vasopressor therapy. If maximum infusion rates of this first study drug are reached, the patient will be treated with either hydrocortisone (initially 50 mg intravenous bolus six-hourly) or placebo, before additional open-label catecholamine vasopressors are prescribed. The primary outcome of the trial will be the difference in renal failure-free days between treatment groups. Secondary outcomes include need for renal replacement therapy, survival rates, other organ failures and resource utilisation. The trial protocol and information sheets have received a favourable opinion from the Oxford A Research Ethics Committee (12/SC/0014). There is an independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee and independent membership of the Trial Steering Committee including patient and public involvement. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. ISRCTN 20769191 and EudraCT 2011-005363-24. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. [Vasopressin V2 receptor-related pathologies: congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic syndrome of inappropiate antidiuresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disease with mainly an X-linked inheritance (90% of the cases) but there are also autosomal recessive and dominant forms. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a resistance of the renal collecting duct to the action of the arginine vasopressin hormone responsible for the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. The X-linked form is due to inactivating mutations of the vasopressin 2 receptor gene leading to a loss of function of the mutated receptors. Affected males are often symptomatic in the neonatal period with a lack of weight gain, dehydration and hypernatremia but mild phenotypes may also occur. Females carrying the mutation may be asymptomatic but, sometimes, severe polyuria is found due to the random X chromosome inactivation. The autosomal recessive and dominant forms, occurring in both genders, are linked to mutations in the aquaporin-2 gene. The treatment remains difficult, especially in infants, and is based on a low osmotic diet with increased water intake and the use of thiazides and indomethacin. The main goal is to avoid hypernatremic episodes and maintain a good hydration state. Potentially, specific treatment, in some cases of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, with pharmacological chaperones such as non-peptide vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists will be available in the future. Conversely, the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is linked to a constitutive activation of the V(2)-receptor due to activating mutations with clinical and biological features of inappropriate antidiuresis but with low or undetectable plasma arginine vasopressin hormone levels.

  6. Adenylyl cyclase 6 enhances NKCC2 expression and mediates vasopressin-induced phosphorylation of NKCC2 and NCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Timo; Tang, Tong; Uchida, Shinichi; Hammond, H Kirk; Fenton, Robert A; Vallon, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) affects kidney function via vasopressin V2 receptors that are linked to activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. AVP/cyclic adenosine monophosphate enhance the phosphorylation of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) at serine residue 126 (pS126 NKCC2) and of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) at threonine 58 (pT58 NCC). The isoform(s) of AC involved in these responses, however, were unknown. Phosphorylation of S126 NKCC2 and T58 NCC, induced by the V2 receptor agonist (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) in wild-type mice, is lacking in knockout mice for AC isoform 6 (AC6). With regard to NKCC2 phosphorylation, the stimulatory effect of 1-desamino-8-D-AVP and the defect in AC6(-/-) mice seem to be restricted to the medullary portion of the thick ascending limb. AC6 is also a stimulator of total renal NKCC2 protein abundance in medullary and cortical thick ascending limb. Consequently, mice lacking AC6 have lower NKCC2 expression and a mild Bartter syndrome-like phenotype, including lower plasma concentrations of K+ and H+ and compensatory upregulation of NCC. Increased AC6-independent phosphorylation of NKCC2 at S126 might help to stabilize NKCC2 activity in the absence of AC6. Renal AC6 determines total NKCC2 expression and mediates vasopressin-induced NKCC2/NCC phosphorylation. These regulatory mechanisms, which are defective in AC knockout mice, are likely responsible for the observed mild Bartter syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Water to Solute Permeability Ratio Governs the Osmotic Volume Dynamics in Beetroot Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Victoria; Sutka, Moira; Amodeo, Gabriela; Chara, Osvaldo; Ozu, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf) is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous) osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modeling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps), which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons, or stems that perform extensive rhythmic growth movements

  8. The water to solute permeability ratio governs the osmotic volume dynamics in beetroot vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vitali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modelling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps, which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons or stems that perform extensive rhythmic

  9. Central administration of kisspeptin-10 inhibits natriuresis and diuresis induced by blood volume expansion in anesthetized male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Yan, Ming; An, Xiao-fei; HE Ming; Yu, Jiang-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible role of hypothalamic kisspeptin in the regulation of body fluid metabolism and maintenance of internal homeostasis. Methods: Natriuresis and diuresis were induced by blood volume expansion (VE) in anesthetized male rats and kisspeptin-10 was intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure the plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations during the VE. The mediation of the renal s...

  10. The influence of vasopressin deficiency and acute desmopressin administration on melatonin secretion in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrina, S B; Rotarus, R; Wivall, I-L; Coculescu, M; Brismar, K

    2004-01-01

    Melatonin secretion is modulated by the light-dark schedule, mainly through a sympathetic input to the pineal gland. Besides this, arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been found in the pineal glands of several animal species and there is experimental evidence that AVP modulates melatonin secretion in animals. However, the interaction between vasopressin and melatonin secretion in humans has not been systematically investigated. We proposed to study the nocturnal melatonin pattern in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) who lack endogenous secretion of AVP, and the effect on their melatonin secretion of the agonist for V2 type receptors: desmopressin (1-Desamino [8-D Arginine] vasopressin). Plasma melatonin levels were measured in 14 patients with CDI, every 2 h starting from 22:00 h until 06:00 h, following iv injection of saline (day 1) and 3 microg desmopressin (day 2) at 20:00 h. The lights were turned off at 22:30 h and the samples were taken in a dim light. The plasma melatonin secretion pattern was normal in patients with CDI. Desmopressin at a dose 3 times higher than the antidiuretic one did not modify the melatonin levels or the time of the peak secretion. In conclusion melatonin secretion is not modulated by AVP in humans.

  11. Angiotensin II, Vasopressin, and Collagen-IV Expression in the Subfornical Organ in a Case of Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia M. Carmona-Calero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is a disease characterized by hyponatremia and hyperosmolarity of urine where vasopressin and angiotensin II are implicated in the alteration of salt water balance and cardiovascular and blood pressure regulation. The aim of this study is to analyse the expression of substances related with cardiovascular and salt water regulation in the subfornical organ in a case of SIADH. Two brains, one taken from a 66-year-old man with SIADH and the other from a 63-year-old man without SIADH, were used. Immunohistochemical study was performed using anti-angiotensin II, anti-vasopressin, and anti-collagen-VI as primary antibodies. Angiotensin and vasopressin immunoreaction were found in neurons, in perivascular spaces, and in the ependymal layer in the subfornical organ in both cases. However, in the SIADH case, the angiotensin II and collagen-IV expression in the SFO were different suggesting this organ’s possible participation in the physiopathology of SIADH.

  12. Intracisternally Injected L-Proline Activates Hypothalamic Supraoptic, but Not Paraventricular, Vasopressin-Expressing Neurons in Conscious Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Takemoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When injected into specific rat brain regions, the neurotransmitter candidate L-proline produces various cardiovascular changes through ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors. The present study used an immunohistochemical double-labeling approach to determine whether intracisternally injected L-proline in freely moving rats, which increases blood pressure, activates hypothalamic vasopressin-expressing neurons and ventral medullary tyrosine-hydroxylase- (TH- containing neurons. Following injection of L-proline, the number of activated hypothalamic neurons that coexpressed vasopressin and c-Fos was much greater in the supraoptic nucleus (SON than in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of rats with increased blood pressure. The number of activated TH-containing neurons was significantly greater following L-proline treatment than following control injections of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF. These results clearly demonstrate that intracisternally injected L-proline activates hypothalamic supraoptic, but not paraventricular, vasopressin-expressing neurons and medullary TH-containing (A1/C1 neurons in freely moving rats.

  13. Chromosomal localization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR3) to 1q32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Derre, J.; Berger, R. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Vasopressin exerts its physiological effects on liver metabolism, fluid osmolarity, and corticotrophic response to stress through a set of at least three receptors, V1a, V2, and V3 (also called V1b), respectively. These receptors constitute a distinct group of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. When bound to vasopressin, they couple to G proteins activating phospholipase C for the V1a and V3 types and adenylate cyclase for the V2. The vasopressin receptor subfamily also includes the receptor for oxytocin, a structurally related hormone that signals through the activation of phospholipase C. The chromosomal position of the V2 receptor gene has been assigned to Xq28-qter by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrids, whereas the oxytocin receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 3q26.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The chromosomal location of the V1a gene is currently unknown. We recently cloned the cDNA and the gene coding for the human pituitary-specific V3 receptor (HGMW-approved symbol AVPR3). We report here the chromosomal localization of this gene by two distinct in situ hybridization techniques using radioactive and fluorescent probes. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration.

  15. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3–C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols, including the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. The high solubility of these compounds has brought the question of their potentially high CCN efficiency. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3–C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what expected, none of these compounds displayed a critical supersaturation lower than those of inorganic salts or organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as sugars and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation in the atmosphere than any other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, contrary to what has been suggested.

  16. Arginine-vasopressin marker copeptin is a sensitive plasma surrogate of hypoxic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostergaard L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Louise Ostergaard,1,2,* Alain Rudiger,3,* Sven Wellmann,2,4,5 Elena Gammella,6 Beatrice Beck-Schimmer,2,3 Joachim Struck,7 Marco Maggiorini,2,8 Max Gassmann,1,2,9 1Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, 2Zürich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, 3Institute of Anesthesiology, 4Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, 5Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 7Research Department, B•R•A•H•M•S Biomarkers, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf, Germany; 8Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 9Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru *These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: A reduced oxygen supply puts patients at risk of tissue hypoxia, organ damage, and even death. In response, several changes are activated that allow for at least partial adaptation, thereby increasing the chances of survival. We aimed to investigate whether the arginine vasopressin marker, copeptin, can be used as a marker of the degree of acclimatization/adaptation in rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for up to 48 hours. Arterial and right ventricular pressures were measured, and blood gas analysis was performed at set time points. Pulmonary changes were investigated by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet and dry weight measurements, and lung histology. Using a newly developed specific rat copeptin luminescence immunoassay, the regulation of vasopressin in response to hypoxia was studied, as was atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP by detecting mid-regional proANP. Results: With a decreasing oxygen supply, the rats rapidly became cyanotic and inactive. Despite continued exposure to 10% oxygen, all animals recuperated within 16 hours and

  17. [A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for arginine vasopressin and its validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Y; Ohgo, S; Yoshimi, T

    1984-03-20

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been developed and validated. Synthetic AVP was coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glutaraldehyde. Antisera against AVP were raised in three rabbits immunized with AVP-BSA complex. After 6 months, at the 16th injection, one of the antisera had a titer high enough to be utilizable for RIA at a final dilution of 1:400,000. The labeling of AVP with 125I Na was performed with the modified chloramine T method, and the purification of iodinated AVP was done with gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 fine column (1 X 20 cm) with an elution buffer of 0.01 M acetic acid containing 0.1% BSA. Radioactivities from the Sephadex G-25 were eluted in three peaks. 125I-AVP, which was reactive to the antiserum, was contained in the third peak, and 125I-AVP in the fractions on the down slope of the peak was used for the radioligand in the amount of 1000 cpm. The specific activity of purified 125I-AVP was about 400 muCi/microgram. Diluted antiserum and samples, unlabeled AVP or related peptides were preincubated at 4 degrees C for 24 hr, and then 125I-AVP was added to the mixture and incubated for a further 72 hr. Separation of B and F was done with polyethyleneglycol. The minimal detection limit of AVP, which was 95% of the confidence limit of the mean value of B0, was 0.4 pg/tube. The cross-reactivities with lysine vasopressin, arginine vasotocin, DDAVP and oxytocin were 0.1%, 30%, 1% and 0%, respectively. AVP in plasma was extracted with cold acetone and petroleum ether. The recoveries of synthetic AVP from plasma which was added (2-16 pg) were more than 94%. The intra and inter-assay coefficients of variation determined by plasma of AVP concentration of about 4.8 pg/ml were 8.7% and 11.3%, respectively. The RIA detected AVP of concentration as low as 1 pg/ml following the extraction procedure. AVP immunoreactivity was detected without extraction in urine, and the lyophilized

  18. Effect of hydration on plasma volume and endocrine responses to water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Silver, J. E.; Geelen, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of hydration status on early endocrine responses and on osmotic and intravascular volume changes during immersion was determined in humans undergoing successive periods of dehydration, immersion, rehydration, and immersion. Immersion caused an isotonic expansion of plasma volume, as well as suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone, which all occurred independently of hydration status. On the other hand, the concentration of plasma vasopressin (PVP) was found to decrease during dehydrated immersion, but not during rehydrated immersion. It is concluded that plasma tonicity is not a factor influencing PVP suppression during water immersion.

  19. Vasopressin as a target for antidepressant development: an assessment of the available evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scott, Lucinda V

    2012-02-03

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the key biological abnormalities described in major depressive disorder, occurring in 30-50% of depressed subjects. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are the main regulators of this stress system, with the two neuropeptides acting synergistically in bringing about adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary and cortisol from the adrenal gland. Based on the demonstration of elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of CRH in depressives, and other evidence, it has been postulated that excess CRH and the resultant increased HPA forward drive form the basis of neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression. However, there is an accumulating body of evidence to support a significant role for AVP in the regulation of pituitary-adrenal activity in health and also in depressive disorder. This review, based on a Medline search from 1980 to 2001, focuses on the functional neuroanatomy, receptor pharmacology, VP synergism with CRH, and the data from clinical and pre-clinical studies that support an important role for AVP in the pathophysiology of major depression. We suggest that future antidepressants may target the vasopressinergic system.

  20. Oroxylin A, but Not Vasopressin, Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction of Endotoxemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in septic patients with myocardial dysfunction is higher than those without it. Beneficial effects of flavonoid oroxylin A (Oro-A on endotoxemic hearts were evaluated and compared with that of arginine vasopressin (AVP which is used to reverse hypotension in septic patients. Endotoxemia in rats was induced by one-injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 10 mg/kg, i.p., and hearts were isolated 5-hrs or 16-hrs later. Isolated hearts with constant-pressure or constant-flow mode were examined by Langendorff technique. Rate and force of contractions of isolated atrial and ventricular strips were examined by tissue myography. Isolated endotoxemic hearts were characterized by decreased or increased coronary flow (CF in LPS-treated-for-5hr and LPS-treated-for-16-hr groups, respectively, with decreased inotropy in both groups. Oro-A-perfusion ameliorated while AVP-perfusion worsened the decreased CF and inotropy in both preparations. Oro-A and AVP, however, did not affect diminished force or rate of contraction of atrial and ventricular strips of endotoxemic hearts. Oro-A-induced CF increase was not affected following coronary endothelium-denudation with saponin. These results suggest that Oro-A ameliorates LPS-depressed cardiac functions by increasing CF, leading to positive inotropy. In contrast, AVP aggravates cardiac dysfunction by decreasing CF. Oro-A is a potentially useful candidate for treating endotoxemia complicated with myocardial dysfunction.

  1. Extra-neurohypophyseal axonal projections from individual vasopressin-containing magnocellular neurons in rat hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Salvador Hernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional neuroanatomical, immunohistochemical techniques and electrophysiological recording, as well as in vitro labeling methods may fail to detect long range extra-neurohypophyseal-projecting axons from vasopressin (AVP-containing magnocellular neurons (magnocells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Here, we used in vivo extracellular recording, juxtacellular labeling, post hoc anatomo-immunohistochemical analysis and camera lucida reconstruction to address this question. We demonstrate that all well-labeled AVP immunopositive neurons inside the PVN possess main axons joining the tract of Greving and multi-axon-like processes, as well as axonal collaterals branching very near to the somata, which project to extra-neurohypophyseal regions. The detected regions in this study include the medial and lateral preoptical area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral habenula, medial and central amygdala and the conducting systems, such as stria medullaris, the fornix and the internal capsule. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 was observed in axon-collaterals. These results, in congruency with several previous reports in the literature, provided unequivocal evidence that AVP magnocells have an uncommon feature of possessing multiple axon-like processes emanating from somata or proximal dendrites. Furthermore, the long-range non-neurohypophyseal projections are more common than an occasional phenomenon as previously thought.

  2. Sexually dimorphic role for vasopressin in the development of social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Paul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of vasopressin (AVP in adult social behavior, its role in social development is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent social behavior of juvenile rats, social play. Previous pharmacological experiments in our laboratory suggested that AVP regulates play in a sex- and brain region-specific manner in juvenile rats. Here we investigate the role of specific AVP systems in the emergence of social play. We first characterize the development of play in male and female Wistar rats and then ask whether the development of AVP mRNA expression correlates with the emergence of play. Unexpectedly, play emerged more rapidly in weanling-aged females than in males, resulting in a sex difference opposite of that typically reported for older, juvenile rats. AVP mRNA and play were correlated in males only, with a negative correlation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and a positive correlation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that AVP acts differentially on multiple systems in a sex-specific manner to regulate social play and suggest a role for PVN and BNST AVP systems in the development of play. Differential neuropeptide regulation of male and female social development may underlie well-documented sex differences in incidence, progression, and symptom severity of behavioral disorders during development.

  3. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L; Evans, J; Grindeland, R; Krasnov, I

    1992-08-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, we obtained pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on COSMOS 2044. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to stimulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27% (P less than 0.05) in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (micrograms hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33% (P less than 0.05) compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the COSMOS 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  4. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  5. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns.

  6. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-05-03

    Reducing Na(+) in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na(+)-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na(+) sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na(+) increased cell surface [(3)H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na(+) by Cs(+) or NH4(+) inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na(+) over Cs(+). Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations.

  7. Validation of Salivary Oxytocin and Vasopressin as Biomarkers in Domestic Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Gee, Nancy; Levy, Kerinne; Martin, W Lance; Carter, C Sue

    2017-08-30

    Oxytocin (OT) and Vasopressin (AVP) are phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides with effects on social behavior, cognition and stress responses. Although OT and AVP are most commonly measured in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), these approaches present an array of challenges including concerns related to the invasiveness of sample collection, the potential for matrix interference in immunoassays, and whether samples can be collected at precise time points to assess event-linked endocrine responses. We validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the measurement of salivary OT and AVP in domestic dogs. Both OT and AVP were present in dog saliva and detectable by ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). OT concentrations in dog saliva were much higher than those typically detected in humans. OT concentrations in the same samples analyzed with and without sample extraction were highly correlated, but this was not true for AVP. ELISA validation studies revealed good accuracy and parallelism, both with and without solid phase extraction. Collection of salivary samples with different synthetic swabs, or following salivary stimulation or the consumption of food led to variance in results. However, samples collected from the same dogs using different techniques tended to be positively correlated. We detected concurrent elevations in salivary and plasma OT during nursing. There are currently no other validated methods for measuring OT/AVP in dog saliva. OT and AVP are present in dog saliva, and ELISAs for their detection are methodologically valid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vasopressin V1a and V1b receptors: from molecules to physiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Egashira, Nobuaki; Hiroyama, Masami; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi; Tanoue, Akito

    2012-10-01

    The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is essential for a wide range of physiological functions, including water reabsorption, cardiovascular homeostasis, hormone secretion, and social behavior. These and other actions of AVP are mediated by at least three distinct receptor subtypes: V1a, V1b, and V2. Although the antidiuretic action of AVP and V2 receptor in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts is relatively well understood, recent years have seen an increasing understanding of the physiological roles of V1a and V1b receptors. The V1a receptor is originally found in the vascular smooth muscle and the V1b receptor in the anterior pituitary. Deletion of V1a or V1b receptor genes in mice revealed that the contributions of these receptors extend far beyond cardiovascular or hormone-secreting functions. Together with extensively developed pharmacological tools, genetically altered rodent models have advanced the understanding of a variety of AVP systems. Our report reviews the findings in this important field by covering a wide range of research, from the molecular physiology of V1a and V1b receptors to studies on whole animals, including gene knockout/knockdown studies.

  9. Examining the role of vasopressin in the modulation of parental and sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josi Maria eZimmermann-Peruzatto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin (VP and VP-like neuropeptides are evolutionarily stable peptides found in all vertebrate species. In non-mammalian vertebrates, vasotocin (VT plays a role similar to mammalian VP, whereas mesotocin and isotocin are functionally similar to mammalian oxytocin (OT. Here, we review the involvement of VP in brain circuits, synaptic plasticity, evolution, and function, highlighting the role of VP in social behavior. In all studied species, VP is encoded on chromosome 20p13, and in mammals, VP is produced in specific hypothalamic nuclei and released by the posterior pituitary. The role of VP is mediated by the stimulation of the V1a, V2, and V1b receptors, as well as the oxytocinergic and purinergic receptors. VT and VP functions are usually related to osmotic and cardiovascular homeostasis when acting peripherally. However, these neuropeptides are also critically involved in the central modulation of social behavior displays, such as pairing recognition, pair-bonding, social memory, sexual behavior, parental care, maternal and aggressive behavior. Evidence suggests that these effects are primarily mediated by V1a receptor in specific brain circuits that provide important information for the onset and control of social behaviors in normal and pathological conditions.

  10. Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin receptor evolution: implications for adaptive novelties in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Paré

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxytocin receptor (OXTR and arginine vasopressin receptors (AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 are paralogous genes that emerged through duplication events; along the evolutionary timeline, owing to speciation, numerous orthologues emerged as well. In order to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shaped these four genes in placental mammals and to reveal specific aspects of their protein structures, 35 species were selected. Specifically, we investigated their molecular evolutionary history and intrinsic protein disorder content, and identified the presence of short linear interaction motifs. OXTR seems to be under evolutionary constraint in placental mammals, whereas AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 exhibit higher evolutionary rates, suggesting that they have been under relaxed or experienced positive selection. In addition, we describe here, for the first time, that the OXTR, AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 mammalian orthologues preserve their disorder content, while this condition varies among the paralogues. Finally, our results reveal the presence of short linear interaction motifs, indicating possible functional adaptations related to physiological and/or behavioral taxa-specific traits.

  11. Androgen manipulation and vasopressin binding in the rat brain and peripheral organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xin; Phillips, P.; Oldfield, B.; Trinder, D.; Risvanis, J.; Stephenson, J.; Johnston, C. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia))

    1994-03-01

    It is now widely recognized that there is a sexual dimorphism in the development of arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity in certain parts of the brain, and that changes in brain AVP immunoreactivity change with manipulation of androgen status. The aim of the present experiment was to determine specifically any AVP receptor changes in response to manipulation of androgen levels using a selective V[sub 1] antagonist radioligand. Following castration, plasma testosterone levels fell and AVP immunoreactivity was reduced in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. With testosterone supplementation in castrated animals, the immunoreactivity in these regions was restored to a higher degree than in sham-operated animals. Central and peripheral V[sub 1] AVP receptor binding (as determined using the selective AVP V)[sub 1] antagonist radioligand [[sup 125]I](d(CH[sub 2])[sub 5],sarcosine[sup 7]) AVP was not changed in any of the brain regions studied or in liver or kidney membranes from the three groups. The study demonstrates that there is no change in brain AVP receptor binding despite changes in regional AVP immunoreactivity in the brain, and excludes any confounding interaction with changes in oxytocin receptors. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Differential changes in atrial natriuretic peptide and vasopressin receptor bindings in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, T.; Mitsui, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Katayama, E.; Ota, Z.; Ogawa, N.

    1987-01-19

    To elucidate the role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and vasopressin (VP) in a hypertensive state, ANP and VP receptor bindings in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) kidney were analyzed using the radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA) technique. Systolic blood pressure of SHR aged 12 weeks was statistically higher than that of age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of (/sup 125/I)-ANP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically lower than that of WKY rats, but dissociation constant (Kd) was not significantly different. On the other hand, Bmax of (/sup 3/H)-VP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically higher than that of WKY rats, but Kd were similar. Since the physiological action of ANP is natriuresis and VP is the most important antidiuretic hormone in mammalia, these opposite changes of ANP and VP receptor bindings in SHR kidney suggested that these peptides may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the hypertensive state, although it has not been confirmed as yet.

  13. The Effects of Acute Arginine Vasopressin Administration on Social Cognition in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally similar neuropeptides and hormones oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP play significant and complex roles in modulating a range of social behaviours, including social recognition and bond formation. Although OT has well-known roles in facilitating prosocial behaviors and enhancing emotion recognition, AVP has received increasing interest for diverging effects on social cognition behaviour most notably in males. The current study aimed to determine whether AVP also modulates the ability to understand emotion. Using a randomised double blind procedure, 45 healthy young males received either an AVP or placebo nasal spray and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. In contrast to previous findings, there were no significant differences observed in performance on the RMET between AVP and placebo groups, even after examining items separated by task difficulty, emotional valence, and gender. This study provides diverging evidence from previous findings and adds to the growing body of research exploring the influence of neuropeptide hormones in social behaviour. It demonstrates that in this sample of participants, AVP does not enhance the ability to understand higher order emotion from others. Implications and suggestions for future AVP administration studies are discussed.

  14. The arginine vasopressin V1b receptor gene and prosociality: Mediation role of emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-09-01

    The vasopressin V1b receptor (AVPR1B) gene has been shown to be closely associated with bipolar disorder and depression. However, whether it relates to positive social outcomes, such as empathy and prosocial behavior, remains unknown. This study explored the possible role of the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 in empathy and prosociality. A total of 256 men, who were genetically unrelated, non-clinical ethnic Han Chinese college students, participated in the study. Prosociality was tested by measuring the prosocial tendencies of cognitive and emotional empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs28373064, was genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results suggest that the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 is linked to emotional empathy and prosociality. The mediation analysis indicated that the effect of the AVPR1B gene on prosociality might be mediated by emotional empathy. This study demonstrated the link between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality and provided evidence that emotional empathy might mediate the relation between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Experimental approaches for the study of oxytocin and vasopressin gene expression in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordalakes, Elka M.; Yue, Chunmei; Gainer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Intron-specific probes measure heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) levels and thus approximate the transcription rates of genes, in part because of the rapid turnover of this intermediate form of RNA in the cell nucleus. Previously, we used oxytocin (Oxt)- and vasopressin (Avp)- intron-specific riboprobes to measure changes in Oxt and Avp hnRNA levels in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) by quantitative in situ hybridization (ISH) after various classical physiological perturbations, including acute and chronic salt loading, and lactation. In the present experiments, we used a novel experimental model to study the neurotransmitter regulation of Oxt and Avp gene expression in the rat SON in vivo. Bilateral cannulae connected via tubing to Alzet osmotic mini-pumps were positioned over the SON. In every experiment, one SON was infused with PBS and served as the control SON in each animal, and the contralateral SON received infusions of various neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists. Using this approach, we found that Avp but not Oxt gene expression increased after acute (2–5 h) combined excitatory amino acid agonist and GABA antagonist treatment, similar to what we found after an acute hyperosmotic stimulus. Since both OXT and AVP are known to be comparably and robustly secreted in response to acute osmotic stimuli in vivo and glutamate agonists in vitro, our results indicate a dissociation between OXT secretion and Oxt gene transcription in vivo. PMID:18655870

  16. Reproductive and metabolic responses of desert adapted common spiny male mice (Acomys cahirinus) to vasopressin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovetzky, Elena; Fares, Fuad; Schwimmer, Hagit; Haim, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Sufficient amounts of water and food are important cues for reproduction in an unpredictable environment. We previously demonstrated that increased osmolarity levels, or exogenous vasopressin (VP) treatment halt reproduction of desert adapted golden spiny mice Acomys russatus. In this research we studied gonad regulation by VP and food restriction (FR) in desert adapted common spiny mouse (A. cahirinus) males, kept under two different photoperiod regimes-short (SD-8L:16D) and long (LD-16L:8D) days. Mice were treated with VP, FR, and VP+FR for three weeks. Response was assessed from changes in relative testis mass, serum testosterone levels and mRNA receptor gene expression of VP, aldosterone and leptin in treated groups, compared with their controls. SD-acclimation increased testosterone levels, VP treatment decreased expression of aldosterone mRNA receptor in the testes of SD-acclimated males. FR under SD-conditions resulted in testosterone decrease and elevation of VP- receptor gene expression in testes. Aldosterone receptor mRNA expression was also detected in WAT. These results support the idea that water and food availability in the habitat may be used as signals for activating the reproductive system through direct effects of VP, aldosterone and leptin on the testes or through WAT by indirect effects.

  17. Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin receptor evolution: implications for adaptive novelties in placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Pamela; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa R.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Viscardi, Lucas Henriques; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Henkes, Luiz E.; Bortolini, Maria Catira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and arginine vasopressin receptors (AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2) are paralogous genes that emerged through duplication events; along the evolutionary timeline, owing to speciation, numerous orthologues emerged as well. In order to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shaped these four genes in placental mammals and to reveal specific aspects of their protein structures, 35 species were selected. Specifically, we investigated their molecular evolutionary history and intrinsic protein disorder content, and identified the presence of short linear interaction motifs. OXTR seems to be under evolutionary constraint in placental mammals, whereas AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 exhibit higher evolutionary rates, suggesting that they have been under relaxed or experienced positive selection. In addition, we describe here, for the first time, that the OXTR, AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 mammalian orthologues preserve their disorder content, while this condition varies among the paralogues. Finally, our results reveal the presence of short linear interaction motifs, indicating possible functional adaptations related to physiological and/or behavioral taxa-specific traits. PMID:27505307

  18. Chimpanzee sociability is associated with vasopressin (Avpr1a) but not oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staes, Nicky; Koski, Sonja E; Helsen, Philippe; Fransen, Erik; Eens, Marcel; Stevens, Jeroen M G

    2015-09-01

    The importance of genes in regulating phenotypic variation of personality traits in humans and animals is becoming increasingly apparent in recent studies. Here we focus on variation in the vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and their effects on social personality traits in chimpanzees. We combine newly available genetic data on Avpr1a and OXTR allelic variation of 62 captive chimpanzees with individual variation in personality, based on behavioral assessments. Our study provides support for the positive association of the Avpr1a promoter region, in particular the presence of DupB, and sociability in chimpanzees. This complements findings of previous studies on adolescent chimpanzees and studies that assessed personality using questionnaire data. In contrast, no significant associations were found for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ss1388116472 of the OXTR and any of the personality components. Most importantly, our study provides additional evidence for the regulatory function of the 5' promoter region of Avpr1a on social behavior and its evolutionary stable effect across species, including rodents, chimpanzees and humans. Although it is generally accepted that complex social behavior is regulated by a combination of genes, the environment and their interaction, our findings highlight the importance of candidate genes with large effects on behavioral variation.

  19. Vasopressin Impairment During Sepsis Is Associated with Hypothalamic Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway and Microglial Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Luis Henrique Angenendt; Júnior, Nilton Nascimento Dos Santos; Catalão, Carlos Henrique Rocha; Sharshar, Tarek; Chrétien, Fabrice; da Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that in the early phase of sepsis, the plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) is increased, but in the late phase, its levels remain inadequately low, despite of persistent hypotension. One hypothesis suggested for this relative deficiency is apoptosis of vasopressinergic neurons. Here, we investigated apoptosis pathways in the hypothalamus during sepsis, as well as mechanisms underlying this process. Male Wistar rats were submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or nonmanipulated (naive) as control. After 6 and 24 h, the animals were decapitated and brain and blood were collected to assess hypothalamic apoptotic markers, IFN-γ plasma levels, and evidence for breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Sepsis caused a decrease in mitochondrial antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) in the hypothalamus, but had no effect on markers of cell death mediated by death receptors or immune cells. In the supraoptic nuclei of these animals, microglia morphology was consistent with activation, associated with an increase in plasma IFN-γ. A transitory breakdown of BBB in the hypothalamus was seen at 6 h following CLP. The results indicate that the intrinsic but not extrinsic apoptosis pathway is involved in the cell death observed in vasopressinergic neurons, and that this condition is temporally associated with microglial activation and BBB leaking.

  20. Carbon dioxide-induced anesthesia results in a rapid increase in plasma levels of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20-25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood collected; findings were compared with rats killed via decapitation with no exposure to carbon dioxide. RIAs were used to measure arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ACTH immunoreactivity (ir) in plasma. Whereas ACTH-ir levels remained steady after brief exposure to carbon dioxide (in accordance with results of other investigators), AVP-ir levels were increased by more than an order of magnitude. These results were confirmed by quantitative capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating this observation of rapid increase in plasma AVP-ir levels is not due to nonspecific recognition by the antibody used in the RIA. Likewise, using capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed a rapid increase in plasma oxytocin levels after carbon dioxide exposure. These surprising findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies involving brief carbon dioxide exposure prior to decapitation as well as those with euthanasia resulting from carbon dioxide-induced asphyxiation.

  1. EFFECT OF VASOPRESSIN ON DELAYED NEURONAL DAMAGE IN HIPPOCAMPUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION IN GERBILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新峰; 金泳清; 陈光辉

    1996-01-01

    Mongolian gerbils were used as delayed neuronal damage (DND) animal models.At the end of 15 minute cerebral ischermia and at various reperfusion time ranging from 1 to 96 hours,the content of water and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the CA1 sector of hippocampus were measured by the specific gravity method and radioimmunoassy.Furthermore,we also examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of AVP,AVP antiserum on calcium,Na+,K+-ATP ase activity in the CA1 sector after ischemia and 96 hour reperfusion.The results showed that AVP Contents of CA1 sector of hippocampus during 6 to 96 hour recirculation,and the water content of CA1 sector during 24 to 96 hour were significantly and continuously increased.After ICV injection of AVP,the water content and calcium in CA1 sector of hippocampus at cerebral ischemia and 96 hour recirculation further increased,and the Na+,K+-AT-tion of AVP antiserum,the water contenr and calcium in CA1 sector were significantly decreased as compared with that of control.These suggested that AVP was involved in the pathopysiologic process of DND in hippocampus following cerbral ischemia and reprfusion.Its mechanism might be through the change of intracellular action mediated by specific AVP receptor to lead to Ca inos over-load of neuron and inhibit the Na+,K+-ATPase activity,thereby to exacerbate the DND in hippocampus.

  2. Sex differences in oxytocin and vasopressin: implications for autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-10

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are male-biased and characterized by deficits in social behavior and social communication, excessive anxiety or hyperreactivity to stressful experiences, and a tendency toward repetitiveness. The purpose of this review is to consider evidence for a role for two sexually dimorphic neuropeptides, oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (VP), in these features of ASD. Both VP and OT play a role in normal development. VP is androgen-dependent and of particular importance to male behavior. Excess VP or disruptions in the VP system could contribute to the male vulnerability to ASD. Alternatively, protective processes mediated via OT or the OT receptor might help to explain the relatively rare occurrence of ASD in females. Disruptions in either OT or VP or their receptors could result from genetic variation or epigenetic modifications of gene expression, especially during early development. Deficits in other developmental growth factors, such as reelin, which may in turn regulate or be regulated by OT or VP, are additional candidates for a role in ASD.

  3. Conformational preferences of proline derivatives incorporated into vasopressin analogues: NMR and molecular modelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Emilia; Sobolewski, Dariusz; Kwiatkowska, Anna

    2012-04-01

    In this study, arginine vasopressin analogues modified with proline derivatives - indoline-2-carboxylic acid (Ica), (2S,4R)-4-(naphthalene-2-ylmethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (Nmp), (2S,4S)-4-aminopyroglutamic acid (APy) and (2R,4S)-4-aminopyroglutamic acid, (Apy) - were examined using NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling methods. The results have shown that Ica is involved in the formation of the cis peptide bond. Moreover, it reduces to a great extent the conformational flexibility of the peptide. In turn, incorporation of (2S,4R)-Nmp stabilizes the backbone conformation, which is heavily influenced by the pyrrolidine ring. However, the aromatic part of the Nmp side chain exhibits a high degree of conformational freedom. With analogues IV and V, introduction of the 4-aminopyroglumatic acid reduces locally conformational space of the peptides, but it also results in weaker interactions with the dodecylphosphocholine/sodium dodecyl sulphate micelle. Admittedly, both analogues are adsorbed on the micelle's surface but they do not penetrate into its core. With analogue V, the interactions between the peptide and the micelle seem to be so weak that conformational equilibrium is established between different bound states.

  4. A review of the nonpressor and nonantidiuretic actions of the hormone vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang P Mavani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pressor and antidiuretic actions of arginine vasopressin (AVP have been well documented. This review focuses on the less widely appreciated actions of AVP which also have important physiologic functions and when better understood may provide important insights into common disease states. These actions include effects on pain perception and bone structure as well as important relationships to the varied components of metabolic syndrome. These include effects on blood glucose, lipid levels, and blood pressure. AVP may also play a role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and effect physiologic changes relating to aging, abnormal social behavior and cognitive function. Important cellular responses including cell proliferation, inflammation and control of infection and their relationship to AVP are described. Finally, the effects of AVP on hemostasis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal access are noted. The goal of this summary of the various actions of AVP is to direct attention to the potential benefits of research in these underemphasized areas of importance.

  5. A Review of the Nonpressor and Nonantidiuretic Actions of the Hormone Vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavani, Gaurang P.; DeVita, Maria V.; Michelis, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The pressor and antidiuretic actions of arginine vasopressin (AVP) have been well documented. This review focuses on the less widely appreciated actions of AVP which also have important physiologic functions and when better understood may provide important insights into common disease states. These actions include effects on pain perception and bone structure as well as important relationships to the varied components of metabolic syndrome. These include effects on blood glucose, lipid levels, and blood pressure. AVP may also play a role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and effect physiologic changes relating to aging, abnormal social behavior, and cognitive function. Important cellular responses including cell proliferation, inflammation, and control of infection and their relationship to AVP are described. Finally, the effects of AVP on hemostasis and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are noted. The goal of this summary of the various actions of AVP is to direct attention to the potential benefits of research in these underemphasized areas of importance. PMID:25853137

  6. Vasopressin needs an audience: neuropeptide elicited stress responses are contingent upon perceived social evaluative threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Idan; Israel, Salomon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Gritsenko, Inga; Kaitz, Marsha; Ebstein, Richard P

    2011-06-01

    The nonapeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and also functions as a social hormone in a wide variety of species, from voles to humans. In the current report we use a variety of stress inducing tasks, including the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and intranasal administration of AVP to show that intranasal administration of this neuropeptide leads to a significant increase in salivary cortisol and pulse rate, specifically in conditions where subjects perform tasks in the presence of a social evaluative threat (task performance could be negatively judged by others). In contrast, in conditions without a social evaluative threat (no task condition, modified TSST without audience and bike ergometry), subjects receiving AVP did not differ from subjects receiving placebo. Thus exogenous AVP's influence is contingent upon a circumscribed set of initial conditions that constitute a direct threat to the maintenance of our social selves. Stress evoked by social threat is an integral part of social life and is related to self-esteem and in extreme forms, to poor mental health (e.g., social phobia). Our findings suggest that AVP is a key component in the circuit that interlaces stress and social threat and findings offer inroads to our understanding of individual differences in sociability and in stress response elicited in threatening social situations.

  7. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  8. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  9. Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malardo Thiago

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3 at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 μg of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP, a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

  10. Experiment K-7-20: Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R. (Editor); Krasnov, I.

    1994-01-01

    Pituitary levels of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in rats exposed to 14 days of spaceflight (FLT) as well as in ground-based controls; one group synchronously maintained in flight-type cages with similar feeding schedules (SYN), one group in vivarium cages (VIV), and a group of tail suspended (SUS) animals. Flight rats had significantly less (p less than 0.05) pituitary OT and VP (4.48 +/- 0.31 and 7.48 +/- 0.53 mg hormone / mg protein, n = 5) than either the SYN (6.66 +/- 0..59 and 10.98 + 1.00, n = 5), VIV (6.14 +/- 0.40 and 10.98 +/- 0..81, n = 5) or SUS (5.73 +/- 0.24, n = 4) control groups, respectively. The reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP are similar to measurements made on rats from the previous 12.5 day Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to be a direct result of exposure to spaceflight.

  11. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  12. Regulation of corticosterone production by vasopressin during water restriction and after drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotus, Cheryl; Osborn, John W; Nieto, Pilar Ariza; Engeland, William C

    2003-12-01

    Plasma vasopressin (VP) and corticosterone have each been shown to be rapidly suppressed after drinking in different models of osmotic stimulation in rats; however, no causal relationship between these responses has been investigated. Studies were performed to determine if plasma VP and corticosterone are reduced in parallel after drinking and if manipulation of plasma VP affects plasma, ACTH corticotropins and corticosterone in a model of water restriction. A strong correlation between changes in plasma VP and corticosterone, but not between plasma ACTH and corticosterone, was observed after drinking induced by 6 days of water restriction. Similarly, ingestion of isotonic saline resulted in a biphasic VP response that was paralleled by adrenal and plasma corticosterone, but not by plasma ACTH. Administration of an immunoneutralizing antibody directed against VP resulted in a rapid decrease in plasma corticosterone, but not ACTH, in water-restricted rats, but not in rats receiving water ad libitum. These data suggest that during dehydration, elevated plasma VP can stimulate the production of corticosterone by the adrenal, independently of ACTH. Moreover, they support the hypothesis that the decline in corticosterone after restriction-induced drinking is due, in part, to a decline in plasma VP.

  13. Guipi decoction effects on arginine vasopressin protein and gene expression in the hippocampus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and prefrontal lobe in rats with spleen deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huinan Qian; Xueqin Hu; Libo Shen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin has been shown to enhance learning in experimental animal models.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Guipi decoction enhances memory and learning by increasing arginine vasopressin levels, and to verify the influence of Guipi decoction on arginine vasopressin protein and gene expression in the hippocampal CAI region, prefrontal lobe cortex, and ventral nucleus of hypothalamus in rats with spleen deficiency.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, neuropharmacological, control study was performed in the College of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine between March 2002 and March 2005.MATERIALS: Sixty, healthy, male, Wistar rats were used to establish spleen deficiency models according to the traditional Chinese medicine principle of bitter drugs for purgation, improper diet, and overstrain. Arginine vasopressin-I polyclonal anti-rabbit antibody immunohistocbemistry kit and arginine vasopressin in situ hybridization kit were provided by Department of Neuroanatomy in Shanghai Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into five groups at random: normal control (n = 11), model (n = 13), Guipi decoction (n = 12), recipe control A (n = 12), and recipe control B groups (n = 12). Rats in the latter four groups received 7.5 g/kg of the drugs by intragastric administration each morning, which comprised Dahuang, Houpu, and Zhishi, prepared at a ratio of 2:1 : 1. The rats were lasted every other day, but were allowed free access to water at all times. The rats were forced to swim in 25℃ water until fatigued. Rats in the Guipi decoction and two recipe control groups were intragastrically administered 7.5 g/kg Guipi decoction, Chaihu Shugan powder, and Tianwang Buxin pellets, respectively, each afternoon. Rats in the normal group were intragastrically administered the same amount of normal saline. All rats were treated for 6 weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 6 weeks after drug

  14. Computer-Aided Mapping of Vasopressin Neurons in the Hypothalamus of the Male Golden Hamster: Evidence of Magnocellular Neurons that do not Project to the Neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, P D; Koh, E T; Irvin, R W; Ferris, C F

    1990-04-01

    Abstract Vasopressin-sensitive neurons in the region of the anterior hypothalamus are necessary for the mediation of flank marking behavior in the Golden hamster. The precise nature of the vasopressinergic innervation to the anterior hypothalamus is unknown. In this study we seek to examine the potential sources of this innervation by mapping and counting the vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons that contribute to the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, and those that do not. Vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus were visualized by immunocytochemistry. Sections were mapped with a computer-aided microscope system, and labeled neurons counted. Two-dimensional maps were stacked into a three-dimensional wireframe model which could be manipulated for further examination. The average number of vasopressin neurons was 3,135, with over 60% of all perikarya localized to the lateral supraoptic nucleus. In a double-labeling study, neurons contributing to the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system were retrogradely labeled by the injection of horseradish peroxidase into the neurohypophysis. The enzyme reaction product was visualized by treatment with tetramethylbenzidine followed by nickel-conjugated diaminobenzidine. Sections were subsequently stained for vasopressin by immunocytochemistry. Single- and double-stained neurons from serial sections were mapped and counted. Wireframe and contoured three-dimensional representations were generated. The average number of neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis was 5,619. However, an average of 981 neurons was immunoreactive to vasopressin but devoid of horseradish peroxidase. The greatest number of these non-projecting perikarya were found in and around the anterior hypothalamus, localized primarily in the lateral and medial aspect of the supraoptic nuclei, the ventral area of the paraventricular nucleus, and the nucleus circularis. By comparing the number of non-projecting neurons found by double-staining to the

  15. Vasopressin and sympathetic system mediate the cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin II in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Ali; Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is involved in cardiovascular regulation. The angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor (AT1), and angiotensinogen were found in the BST. In our previous study we found that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response. This study was performed to find the mechanisms mediating this response in anesthetized rats. Ang II was microinjected into the BST and the cardiovascular responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a blocker of autonomic or vasopressin V1 receptor. The ganglionic nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium dichloride, attenuated the pressor response to Ang II, indicating that the cardiovascular sympathetic system is involved in the pressor effect of Ang II. A selective vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist greatly attenuated the pressor effect of Ang II, indicating that the Ang II increases the arterial pressure via stimulation of vasopressin release as well. In conclusion, in the BST, Ang II as a neurotransmitter increases blood pressure by exciting cardiovascular sympathetic system and directly or indirectly causing vasopressin to release into bloodstream by VPN. This is an interesting new finding that not only circulating Ang II but also brain Ang II makes vasopressin release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. The pituitary mediates the anxiolytic-like effects of the vasopressin V1B receptor antagonist, SSR149415, in a social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Iijima, Michihiko; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2006-08-14

    A vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist has been shown to exhibit anxiolytic effects in a variety of animal models of anxiety. In the present study, we examined the involvement of the pituitary in the anxiolytic effects of a vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist by conducting a social interaction test in rats. In the sham-operated rats, both the vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist SSR149415 and the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide significantly increased the social behavior of a pair of unfamiliar rats, and the blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were markedly increased during the social interaction test. Hypophysectomy also increased the length of time that the animals engaged in social behavior to the same extent as that observed after treatment of the sham-operated rats with anxiolytics. However, while chlordiazepoxide further increased the duration of social interaction in the hypophysectomized rats, the anxiolytic effects of SSR149415 was no longer observed in these animals. These results suggest that the anxiolytic effects of the vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist in the social interaction test are mediated through blockade of the vasopressin V(1B) receptor in the pituitary.

  17. Genomic effects of cold and isolation stress on magnocellular vasopressin mRNA-containing cells in the hypothalamus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J A; Ledoux, M; McEwen, B S

    1991-06-01

    We assessed the effects of cold and isolation stress on arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. Vasopressin mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization histochemistry at the cellular level. In posterior magnocellular neurons of the PVN isolation stress for 7 or 14 days increased vasopressin mRNA levels 28 and 29%, respectively, compared to group-housed controls. No significant alterations in vasopressin gene expression were observed in the SON after 7 or 14 days of isolation stress. Scattered magnocellular AVP mRNA-expressing cells of the medial parvocellular PVN showed increases of 19 and 34% after 7 and 14 days of isolation, respectively. We also studied the effect of cold or combined cold and isolation stress on vasopressin gene expression in the PVN and SON. Cold stress for 3 h daily for 4 consecutive days increased AVP mRNA levels in the posterior magnocellular PVN by 15%. Cold-isolated animals showed an increase of 21%. No significant effect on AVP mRNA levels in the SON was observed. In contrast to the posterior magnocellular PVN, cold or cold-isolation stress increased AVP mRNA in magnocellular neurons of the medial parvocellular region of the PVN by 25 and 43%, respectively, relative to control rats. These results suggest that psychological and metabolic stress may be added to the list of stressors that activate the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

  18. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  19. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  20. Severe hyperosmolarity and hypernatremia in an adipsic young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latcha, S; Lubetzky, M; Weinstein, A M

    2011-11-01

    Combined deficits in arginine vasopressin secretion (AVP) and thirst sensation can result in life threatening hyperosmolality and hypernatremia. Complications include seizures, profound volume contraction and renal failure. Fortunately, this is an uncommon clinical condition, with approximately 70 cases reported in the literature over the past 47 years [1]. Defects in AVP secretion and/or synthesis produce central diabetes insipidus (DI), polyuria with polydipsia, hypernatremia and hyperosmolality. Most awake and alert patients with an intact thirst stimulus will "drink" themselves back to a normal serum sodium and osmolality. However, if there is concomitant destruction of the osmoreceptors that regulate thirst, osmolal and volume homeostasis cannot be maintained. The relationships between urine osmolarity and serum osmolarity and plasma vasopressin levels are vital for distinguishing a reset osmostat from central DI. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed the medical record of a 37-year-old patient who presented to our institution with a serum sodium of 176 mEq/l. Admission laboratory examination revealed: hemoglobin 12.8 g/dl; white blood cell count 4.7 × 103/µl, with a normal differential; random serum glucose 91 mg/dl ; sodium 176 mEq/l; plasma osmolality 366 mOsm/kg; BUN 33 mg/dl; serum creatinine 1 mg/dl; calcium 9.5 mg/dl; urine specific gravity 1.032; and urine osmolality 1,172 mOsm/kg. An MRI with contrast of the sella/ pituitary revealed an enhancing mass centered within the suprasellar cistern and anterior third ventricle, measuring 3.0 × 3.9 × 3.4 cm. The lesion appeared to involve the hypothalamus and displaced the optic chiasm inferiorly. Evaluation of pituitary function revealed normal serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, AM cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin. Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between measured serum AVP levels and serum

  1. Effects of a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine on the vasopressin and oxytocin responses to novelty stress in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, K

    1994-06-01

    Effects of an intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, on plasma levels of vasopressin and oxytocin were studied in male rats under unstressed or stressed conditions. In the rats injected i.p. with the vehicle (saline) solution, plasma vasopressin level was significantly lower and plasma oxytocin level was significantly higher after weak electric foot shocks (10 ms pulses of 0.8 mA, 50 Hz and 1 s duration, repeated at 30 s intervals for a period of 5 min) than those levels in the unshocked control rats. Ranitidine injected i.p. at a dose of 100 mg per kg body weight blocked the suppressive vasopressin but not the facilitatory oxytocin response to the shocks. Novel environmental stimuli were applied to rats in such a way that the animals were transferred to an experimental room, placed in a white-painted plastic pail and administered an intermittent 2 kHz and 70 dB pure tone of 2 s duration that was repeated at 10 s intervals for 2 min. In the rats injected i.p. with the vehicle solution, plasma vasopressin level was lower and oxytocin level was higher after the novel stimuli than in the unstimulated control rats. Ranitidine injected i.p. at a dose of 100 mg per kg body weight blocked the suppressive vasopressin but not the facilitatory oxytocin response to the novel stimuli. Ranitidine administered i.p. at doses of 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg per kg body weight was tested for the suppressive vasopressin response to the novel stimuli given for periods of 2 or 5 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Vasopressin-induced taurine efflux from rat pituicytes: a potential negative feedback for hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Lia; Peteri-Brunbäck, Brigitta; Poujeol, Philippe; Hussy, Nicolas; Mienville, Jean-Marc

    2004-02-01

    Previous work on the whole neurohypophysis has shown that hypotonic conditions increase release of taurine from neurohypophysial astrocytes (pituicytes). The present work confirms that taurine is present in cultured pituicytes, and that its specific release increases in response to a hypotonic shock. We next show that vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) also specifically release taurine from pituicytes. With an EC(50) of approximately 2 nm, VP is much more potent than OT, and the effects of both hormones are blocked by SR 49059, a V(1a) receptor antagonist. This pharmacological profile matches the one for VP- and OT-evoked calcium signals in pituicytes, consistent with the fact that VP-induced taurine efflux is blocked by BAPTA-AM. However, BAPTA-AM also blocks the taurine efflux induced by a 270 mosmol l(-1) challenge, which per se does not evoke any calcium signal, suggesting a permissive role for calcium in this case. Nevertheless, the fact that structurally unrelated calcium-mobilizing agents and ionomycin are able to induce taurine efflux suggests that calcium may also play a signalling role in this event. It is widely accepted that in hypotonic conditions taurine exits cells through anionic channels. Antagonism by the chloride channel inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) suggests the same pathway for VP-induced taurine efflux, which is also blocked in hypertonic conditions (330 mosmol l(-1)). Moreover, it is likely that the osmosensitivity of the taurine channel is up-regulated by calcium. These results, together with our in situ experiments showing stimulation of taurine release by endogenous VP, strengthen the concept of a glial control of neurohormone output.

  3. Vasopressin in preeclampsia: a novel very early human pregnancy biomarker and clinically relevant mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Mark K; Santillan, Donna A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Min, James Y; Sandgren, Jeremy A; Pearson, Nicole A; Leslie, Kimberly K; Hunter, Stephen K; Zamba, Gideon K D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Grobe, Justin L

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. Because other nonpregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent on elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert prosegment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life compared with AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, body mass index, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes mellitus, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the sixth week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng per hour) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin genes are significantly associated with schizophrenia in a large Arab-Israeli pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teltsh, Omri; Kanyas-Sarner, Kyra; Rigbi, Amihai; Greenbaum, Lior; Lerer, Bernard; Kohn, Yoav

    2012-04-01

    We have previously studied the genetics of schizophrenia in a large inbred Arab-Israeli pedigree and found evidence for linkage on chromosome 20p13. This locus harbours four strong candidate genes for schizophrenia: atractin (ATRN), pantonate-kinase2 (PANK2), oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In this study we further explored the association of these genes with schizophrenia in the pedigree and searched for the disease-causing variants. A mutation screening of affected individuals from the pedigree was performed by using intensive sequencing in these four genes of interest. Then, we studied the prevalence of the identified variants in all family members (n=56) as well as in Arab-Israeli nuclear families (n=276) and a Jewish case-control sample (n=545). We also studied the possible functional role of these variants by examining their association with gene expression in the brain (n=104). We identified seven genetic variants in the OXT-AVP cluster in affected individuals from the pedigree. Three of these variants were significantly associated with schizophrenia in this pedigree. A 7-SNP haplotype was also significantly associated with disease. We found significant association of some of these variants in the two samples from the general population. Expression data analysis showed a possible functional role of two of these variants in regulation of gene expression. Involvement of OXT and AVP in the aetiology of schizophrenia has been suggested in the past. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a significant genetic association of these neuropeptides with schizophrenia and strongly supports this hypothesis.

  5. Novel Vasoregulatory Aspects of Hereditary Angioedema: the Role of Arginine Vasopressin, Adrenomedullin and Endothelin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdácsi, Erika; Jani, Péter K; Csuka, Dorottya; Varga, Lilian; Prohászka, Zoltán; Farkas, Henriette; Cervenak, László

    2016-02-01

    The elevation of bradykinin (BK) level during attacks of hereditary angioedema due to C1-Inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is well known. We previously demonstrated that endothelin-1 (ET-1) level also increases during C1-INH-HAE attacks. Although BK and ET-1 are both potent vasoactive peptides, the vasoregulatory aspect of the pathomechanism of C1-INH-HAE has not yet been investigated. Hence we studied the levels of vasoactive peptides in controls and in C1-INH-HAE patients, as well as evaluated their changes during C1-INH-HAE attacks. The levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), adrenomedullin (ADM) and ET-1 were measured in the plasma of 100 C1-INH-HAE patients in inter-attack periods and of 111 control subjects, using BRAHMS Kryptor technologies. In 18 of the 100 C1-INH-HAE patients, the levels of vasoactive peptides were compared in blood samples obtained during attacks, or in inter-attack periods. AVP, ADM and ET-1 levels were similar in inter-attack samples from C1-INH-HAE patients and in the samples of controls, although cardiovascular risk has an effect on the levels of vasoactive peptides in both groups. The levels of all three vasoactive peptides increased during C1-INH-HAE attacks. Moreover, the levels of ET-1 and ADM as well as their changes during attacks were significantly correlated. This study demonstrated that vascular regulation by vasoactive peptides is affected during C1-INH-HAE attacks. Our results suggest that the cooperation of several vasoactive peptides may be necessary to counterbalance the actions of excess BK, and to terminate the attacks. This may reveal a novel pathophysiological aspect of C1-INH-HAE.

  6. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C.G. [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E.; Curras-Collazo, M. [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  7. Oxytocin and vasopressin are dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

  8. The effects of lactation on impulsive behavior in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliczki, Mano; Fodor, Anna; Balogh, Zoltan; Haller, Jozsef; Zelena, Dora

    2014-08-01

    Vasopressin (AVP)-deficient Brattleboro rats develop a specific behavioral profile, which-among other things-include altered cognitive performance. This profile is markedly affected by alterations in neuroendocrine state of the animal such as during lactation. Given the links between AVP and cognition we hypothesized that AVP deficiency may lead to changes in impulsivity that is under cognitive control and the changes might be altered by lactation. Comparing virgin and lactating AVP-deficient female Brattleboro rats to their respective controls, we assessed the putative lactation-dependent effects of AVP deficiency on impulsivity in the delay discounting paradigm. Furthermore, to investigate the basis of such effects, we assessed possible interactions of AVP deficiency with GABAergic and serotonergic signaling and stress axis activity, systems playing important roles in impulse control. Our results showed that impulsivity was unaltered by AVP deficiency in virgin rats. In contrast a lactation-induced increase in impulsivity was abolished by AVP deficiency in lactating females. We also found that chlordiazepoxide-induced facilitation of GABAergic and imipramine-induced enhancement of serotonergic activity in virgins led to increased and decreased impulsivity, respectively. In contrast, during lactation these effects were visible only in AVP-deficient rats. These rats also exhibited increased stress axis activity compared to virgin animals, an effect that was abolished by AVP deficiency. Taken together, AVP appears to play a role in the regulation of impulsivity exclusively during lactation: it has an impulsivity increasing effect which is potentially mediated via stress axis-dependent mechanisms and fine-tuning of GABAergic and serotonergic function.

  9. Vasopressin use in critically ill cirrhosis patients with catecholamine-resistant septic shock: The CVICU cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myc, Lukasz A; Stine, Jonathan G; Chakrapani, Rinita; Kadl, Alexandra; Argo, Curtis K

    2017-01-01

    AIM To examine patient-centered outcomes with vasopressin (AVP) use in patients with cirrhosis with catecholamine-refractory septic shock. METHODS We conducted a single center, retrospective cohort study enrolling adult patients with cirrhosis treated for catecholamine-resistant septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2011 through December 2013. Other etiologies of shock were excluded. Multivariable regression models were constructed for seven and 28-d mortality comparing AVP as a second-line therapy to a group of all other vasoactive agents. RESULTS Forty-five consecutive patients with cirrhosis were treated for catecholamine-resistant septic shock; 21 received AVP while the remaining 24 received another agent [phenylephrine (10), dopamine (6), norepinephrine (4), dobutamine (2), milrinone (2)]. In general, no significant differences in baseline demographics, etiology of cirrhosis, laboratory values, vital signs or ICU mortality/severity of illness scores were observed with the exception of higher MELD scores in the AVP group (32.4, 95%CI: 28.6-36.2 vs 27.1, 95%CI: 23.6-30.6, P = 0.041). No statistically significant difference was observed in unadjusted 7-d (52.4% AVP vs 58.3% and P = 0.408) or 28-d mortality (81.0% AVP vs 87.5% non-AVP, P = 0.371). Corticosteroid administration was associated with lower 28-d mortality (HR = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.16-0.86, P = 0.021) independent of AVP use. CONCLUSION AVP is similar in terms of patient centered outcomes of seven and 28-d mortality, in comparison to all other vasopressors when used as a second line vasoactive agent in catecholamine resistant septic shock. Large-scale prospective study would help to refine current consensus standards and provide further support to our findings. PMID:28144392

  10. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Vasopressin Gene Expression in the Rat Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Bordieri, Loredana; Greenwood, Michael P.; Rosso Melo, Mariana; Colombari, Debora S. A.; Colombari, Eduardo; Paton, Julian F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neurohypophysial hormone regulating hydromineral homeostasis. Here we show that the mRNA encoding cAMP responsive element-binding protein-3 like-1 (CREB3L1), a transcription factor of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family, increases in expression in parallel with AVP expression in supraoptic nuclei (SONs) and paraventicular nuclei (PVNs) of dehydrated (DH) and salt-loaded (SL) rats, compared with euhydrated (EH) controls. In EH animals, CREB3L1 protein is expressed in glial cells, but only at a low level in SON and PVN neurons, whereas robust upregulation in AVP neurons accompanied DH and SL rats. Concomitantly, CREB3L1 is activated by cleavage, with the N-terminal domain translocating from the Golgi, via the cytosol, to the nucleus. We also show that CREB3L1 mRNA levels correlate with AVP transcription level in SONs and PVNs following sodium depletion, and as a consequence of diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We tested the hypothesis that CREB3L1 activates AVP gene transcription. Both full-length and constitutively active forms of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1CA) induce the expression of rat AVP promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, whereas a dominant-negative mutant reduces expression. Rat AVP promoter deletion constructs revealed that CRE-like and G-box sequences in the region between −170 and −120 bp are important for CREB3L1 actions. Direct binding of CREB3L1 to the AVP promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation both in vitro and in the SON itself. Injection of a lentiviral vector expressing CREB3L1CA into rat SONs and PVNs resulted in increased AVP biosynthesis. We thus identify CREB3L1 as a regulator of AVP transcription in the rat hypothalamus. PMID:24623760

  11. Vasopressin-stimulated Ca2+ spiking in vascular smooth muscle cells involves phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Shiels, A J; Maszak, G; Byron, K L

    2001-06-01

    Physiological concentrations of [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP; 10-500 pM) stimulate oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spikes) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We previously reported that this effect of AVP was blocked by a putative phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). In the present study, the products of PLA2, arachidonic acid (AA), and lysophospholipids were found to be ineffective in stimulating Ca2+ spiking, and inhibitors of AA metabolism did not prevent AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the release of AA and phosphatidic acid (PA), which are the products of PLA2 and phospholipase D (PLD), respectively. AVP (100 pM) stimulated both AA and PA formation, but only PA formation was inhibited by ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). Exogenous PLD (type VII; 2.5 U/ml) stimulated Ca2+ spiking equivalent to the effect of 100 pM AVP. AVP stimulated transphosphatidylation of 1-butanol (a PLD-catalyzed reaction) but not 2-butanol, and 1-butanol (but not 2-butanol) completely prevented AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition, which completely prevents AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking, did not inhibit AVP-stimulated phosphatidylbutanol formation. These results suggest that AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking depends on activation of PLD rather than PLA2 and that PKC activation may be downstream of PLD in the signaling cascade.

  12. Vasopressin in health and disease with a focus on affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelena, Dóra

    2012-12-01

    The therapies of mood and anxiety disorders are not solved, because current antidepressants have delayed onset of therapeutic action and a significant number of patients are non-responsive. Research on the field was leaning towards neuropeptides as therapeutic targets. Vasopressin (VP) is a hot candidate, as beyond its peripheral actions VP is implicated in interneuronal communication and modulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), the key stress axis, as well as behavioural functions. Affective disorders are stress related disorders and the most frequently occurring abnormality in depressed subjects is hyperactivity of the HPA. VP with nucleus paraventricularis hypothalami origin is a direct adrenocorticotrophin secretagogue through its V1b receptor. VP seems to have special importance under prolonged stress conditions, which are known to be strong predictive factor of depressive disorder and can induce depressive-like symptoms. Preclinical and clinical data summarized in this review underline the importance of VP in the development of anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms. Orally active nonpeptiderg V1b antagonists were developed and seemed to have effective anxiolytic and antidepressant profile in preclinical studies, which was not fully confirmed by clinical observations. It seems that V1a receptors on special brain areas could have same importance. Taken together current knowledge strongly implies an importance of vasopressinergic regulation in affective disorders and consider VP as endogenous anxiogenic/depressogenic substance. However, wide range of side effects could develop as a result of an intervention on the VP system; therefore there is a need for area-specific targeting of VP receptors (e.g. with modified nanoparticles).

  13. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  14. Sex differences in associations of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin with resting-state functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Yao, Li; Keedy, Sarah K; Reilly, James L; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Carter, C Sue; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Drogos, Lauren L; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Clementz, Brett A; Hill, Scot K; Liao, Wei; Ji, Gong-Jun; Lui, Su; Sweeney, John A

    2017-01-02

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust and sexually dimorphic influences on cognition and emotion. How these hormones regulate relevant functional brain systems is not well understood. OT and AVP serum concentrations were assayed in 60 healthy individuals (36 women). Brain functional networks assessed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were constructed with graph theory-based approaches that characterize brain networks as connected nodes. Sex differences were demonstrated in rs-fMRI. Men showed higher nodal degree (connectedness) and efficiency (information propagation capacity) in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and higher nodal degree in left rolandic operculum. Women showed higher nodal betweenness (being part of paths between nodes) in right putamen and left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG). Higher hormone levels were associated with less intrinsic connectivity. In men, higher AVP was associated with lower nodal degree and efficiency in left IFG (pars orbitalis) and left STG and less efficiency in left IFG (pars triangularis). In women, higher AVP was associated with lower betweenness in left IPG, and higher OT was associated with lower nodal degree in left IFG (pars orbitalis). Hormones differentially correlate with brain networks that are important for emotion processing and cognition in men and women. AVP in men and OT in women may regulate orbital frontal cortex connectivity, which is important in emotion processing. Hormone associations with STG and pars triangularis in men and parietal cortex in women may account for well-established sex differences in verbal and visuospatial abilities, respectively. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intergenerational transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin and vasopressin receptor distribution in the prairie vole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Perkeybile

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the early environment has the potential to permanently alter offspring behavior and development. We have previously shown that naturally occurring variation in biparental care of offspring in the prairie vole is related to differences in social behavior of the offspring. It was not, however, clear whether the behavioral differences seen between offspring receiving high compared to low amounts of parental care were the result of different care experiences or were due to shared genetics with their high-contact or low-contact parents. Here we use cross-fostering methods to determine the mode of transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin receptor (OTR and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR binding from parent to offspring. Offspring were cross-fostered or in-fostered on postnatal day 1 and parental care received was quantified in the first week postpartum. At weaning, offspring underwent an alloparental care test and brains were then collected from all parents and offspring to examine OTR and V1aR binding. Results indicate that alloparental behavior of offspring was predicted by the parental behavior of their rearing parents. Receptor binding for both OTR and V1aR tended to be predicted by the genetic mothers for female offspring and by the genetic fathers for male offspring. These findings suggest a different role of early experience and genetics in shaping behavior compared to receptor distribution and support the notion of sex-dependent outcomes, particularly in the transmission of receptor binding patterns.

  16. Bradykinin and vasopressin activate phospholipase D in rat Leydig cells by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1993-01-01

    of PMA and vasopressin (AVP), PMA and bradykinin, or AVP and bradykinin produced no additive phosphatidylethanol or choline response, suggesting that AVP, bradykinin and PMA stimulated phospholipase D catalysed phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by a similar protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Furthermore...... resulting in the formation of phosphatidylethanol. This stimulation was abolished after down-regulation of protein kinase C by long-term pretreatment for 22 h with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The stimulation of phospholipase D by the simultaneous addition for 8 min of maximum concentrations...

  17. [Influence, in normal subjects, of an isocaloric hyperprotein diet on cortisol, ACTH, GH and PRL response to lysine-8-vasopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, C; Sellini, M; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Scavo, D

    1981-12-30

    The Lysin-8-Vasopressin test has been experimented in ten healthy subjects during normocaloric balanced diet and after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet. The levels of ACTH, Cortisol and GH are significantly more elevated after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet than in basal conditions. The levels of Prolactin do not show any remarkable change. These results can indicate the increased reactivity of the diencephalon-hypophysis-adrenal axis and of the hormones connected with the mechanisms of homeostasis and stress, probably correlated to more disposable proteic material and to the metabolic effects which follow.

  18. Conformational studies of vasopressin and mesotocin using NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling methods. Part I: Studies in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Emilia; Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia

    2008-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and mesotocin (MT) belong to the neurohypophyseal hormone family. The former plays a very important role in the control of urine concentration and the blood pressure in mammals, whereas the latter stimulates uterine concentration and initiates birth in amphibians, marsupials, wallabies, birds, and fishes. Analysis of their 3D structure could be helpful for understanding the evolutionary relationship between all vasopressin- and oxytocin-like hormones. In addition, it allows design of new analogs with appropriate biological activity for humans and animals. In this paper, we present the conformational studies of AVP and MT, under the aqueous conditions. In our investigations, we used 2D NMR spectroscopy and time-averaged molecular dynamics calculations in explicit water. Our studies have shown that both peptides, despite displaying a high sequence homology, differ from each other with regard to the three-dimensional structure. They are in conformational equilibrium as a result of the cis/trans isomerization across the Cys(6)-Pro(7) peptide bond. Both peptides form beta-turns in their cyclic part, wherein the C-terminal fragment of MT is bent, whereas that of AVP is extended.

  19. Paradoxical effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on basal prolactin secretion and the estrogen-induced prolactin surge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Leemin (National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei (Taiwan)); Pan, Jenntser (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The roles of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on both basal and estrogen-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion were examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were ovariectomized for 3 weeks and received estrogen treatment for 1 week were used. Intravenous administration of hormones and serial blood sampling were accomplished through indwelling intraatrial catheters which were implanted two days before. Plasma PRL levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Oxytocin at a dose of 20 {mu}g/rat stimulated a moderate PRL release in the morning and lower doses were without effect. Vasopressin was most effective at a dose of 5 {mu}g/rat in stimulating PRL release, while consecutive injections of higher doses were less effective. In contrast, TRH, ranging from 1 to 8 {mu}g/rat, induced a dose-dependent increases in PRL secretion. Using the effective dosages determined from the morning studies, repeated injections of either OT, AVP or their specific antagonists MPOMeOVT were given hourly between 1300 to 1800h and blood samples were obtained hourly from 1100 to 1900h. It was found that either OT or AVP significantly reduced the afternoon PRL surge, while their antagonists were not as effective.

  20. A differential response in the reproductive system and energy balance of spiny mice Acomys populations to vasopressin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wube, Tilaye; Fares, Fuad; Haim, Abraham

    2008-12-01

    Increased dietary salinity suppressed reproduction of the xeric adapted golden spiny mouse, Acomys russatus. Testicular and uterine mass were reduced, suppressed spermatogenesis and vaginal closure were observed. The anti-diuretic hormone, vasopressin (VP), was suggested to mediate such effects. However, increased dietary salinity did not affect reproductive status of a mesic adapted population of the common spiny mouse, A. cahirinus. In the present study, the effect of exogenous VP on the reproductive status and energy balance of both males and females of A. russatus and of a mesic population of A. cahirinus was tested. Vasopressin (Sigma, 50 microg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in three-day intervals for four weeks. In VP-treated A. russatus, spermatogenesis was significantly suppressed while the change in testis mass did not show significant difference. Both control and VP-treated females lost body mass (W(b)) significantly and the latter also exhibited a higher energy expenditure compared to their male counterparts. VP did not affect reproductive status in both sexes of A. cahirinus. Also it did not have a significant effect on W(b), energy intake, and energy expenditure in this species. Our results support the idea that VP mediates the effects of increased diet salinity on reproduction in A. russatus. The results also reinforce previous knowledge that different physiological systems could be integrated by a single biochemical signal.

  1. Danhong injection attenuates cardiac injury induced by ischemic and reperfused neuronal cells through regulating arginine vasopressin expression and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingzhu; Orgah, John; Zhu, Jie; Fan, Guanwei; Han, Jihong; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Boli; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with cardiac myocyte vulnerability through some unknown mechanisms. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) may exert considerable function in the relationship of brain damage and heart failure. Danhong injection (DHI) can protect both stroke and heart failure patients with good efficacy in clinics. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of DHI in heart and brain co-protection effects to determine whether AVP plays key role in this course. In the present study, we found that both the supernatant from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reperfused primary rat neuronal cells (PRNCs) and AVP treatment caused significant reduction in cell viability and mitochondrial activity in primary rat cardiac myocytes (RCMs). Besides, DHI had the same protective effects with conivaptan, a dual vasopressin V1A and V2 receptor antagonist, in reducing the RCM damage induced by overdose AVP. DHI significantly decreased the injury of both PRNCs and RCMs. Meanwhile, the AVP level was elevated dramatically in OGD and reperfusion PRNCs, and DHI was able to decrease the AVP expression in the injured PRNCs. Therefore, our present results suggested that OGD and reperfusion PRNCs might induce myocyte injury by elevating the AVP expression in PRNCs. The ability of DHI to reinstate AVP level may be one of the mechanisms of its brain and heart co-protection effects.

  2. Role of central arginine vasopressin receptors in the analgesic effect of CDP-choline on acute and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdas, Deniz; Yucel-Ozboluk, Hasret; Orhan, Fulya; Kanat, Ozkan; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, Naciye; Gurun, Mine S

    2013-12-04

    Recent studies have demonstrated that arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a crucial role in pain modulation. In addition, our previous studies have proven that centrally administered cytidine-5'-diphosphate-choline (CDP-choline; citicoline) elicits an analgesic effect in different pain models in rats. Given that CDP-choline enhances central and peripheral vasopressin levels, the present study was designed to investigate the role of central AVP receptors in the analgesic effect of CDP-choline in acute and chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain models. For this purpose, rats were pretreated intracerebroventricularly with the AVP V1 or AVP V2 receptor antagonist 15 min before intracerebroventricular injection of CDP-choline or saline, and pain threshold was determined using the Randall-Selitto test. AVP V1 and AVP V2 receptor antagonist blocked the CDP-choline-induced analgesic effect either in acute or neuropathic models of pain in rats. These results suggest, for the first time, that central AVP receptors are involved in the CDP-choline-elicited analgesic effect.

  3. Enhanced Neurohypophyseal Vasopressin Release is Associated with Increased Opioid Inhibition of Oxytocin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijning, B J; Herik, I K; Rots, N Y; Greidanus, T B

    1991-02-01

    Abstract We tested the hypothesis of a cross-inhibition of oxytocin (OT) release by endogenous opioid peptides co-released with vasopressin (VP). This opioid cross-inhibition resulted in a selective block of OT release and hence in preferential release of VP. The effects of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone were tested on neurohypophyseal VP release during dehydration, ethanol administration and sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S) application, assuming that the inhibition of pituitary OT release by endogenous opioids increases as neurohypophyseal VP output increases. A high VP output was found to coincide with increased inhibition of OT release: Subcutaneous injection of graded doses of naloxone (30 min prior to decapitation), augmented OT plasma levels significantly more in 24 h water-deprived male rats than in normally hydrated rats. Naloxone had no effect on VP release. Ethanol (10% in saline) administered intragastrically 50 min prior to decapitation and 20 min before subcutaneous naloxone (5 mg/kg) resulted in the inhibition of VP output. The ethanol treatment resulted in a rise in plasma OT levels that was additional to the effect of naloxone. These features were present in normally hydrated as well as in 24 h water-deprived animals, but were more pronounced in the latter group. Peripheral CCK-8S administration induces an abrupt and selective secretion of OT. Blocking the opioid inhibition of OT release with naloxone resulted in a significant rise of OT compared to that with CCK-8S alone. The magnitude of the opioid inhibition coincided with the activity of the VP system, and a higher dose of naloxone was needed to potentiate the CCK-8S effect on OT release in the water-deprived group than in euhydrated rats. No effect of CCK-8S and/or naloxone was found on VP plasma levels. The data indicate that opioid peptides co-released with VP (like dynorphin) may be responsible for cross-inhibition of OT release during dehydration. This suggests that

  4. Clinical and molecular evidence of abnormal processing and trafficking of the vasopressin preprohormone in a large kindred with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus due to a signal peptide mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggaard, C; Rittig, S; Corydon, T J

    1999-01-01

    The autosomal dominant form of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is a rare disease characterized by postnatal onset of polyuria and a deficient neurosecretion of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Since 1991, adFNDI has been linked to 31 different mutations ...

  5. Potential of nonpeptide (ant)agonists to rescue vasopressin V2 receptor mutants for the treatment of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, E.L.; Deen, P.M.T.; Robben, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    According to the body's need, water is reabsorbed from the pro-urine that is formed by ultrafiltration in the kidney. This process is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP), which binds to its type 2 receptor (V2R) in the kidney. Mutations in the gene encoding the V2R often

  6. p.R254Q mutation in the aquaporin-2 water channel causing dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is due to a lack of arginine vasopressin-induced phosphorylation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, P.J.M.; Mattia, F.P. de; Li, Yuedan; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Konings, I.B.M.; Sluijs, P. van der; Deen, P.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Vasopressin regulates human water homeostasis by re-distributing homotetrameric aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane of renal principal cells, a process in which phosphorylation of AQP2 at S256 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is thought to be

  7. Vasopressin and oxytocin gene expression in the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) during development of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.H.M. van; Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    To study the regulation of hypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) gene expression in relation to the development of hypertension, levels of VP mRNA and OT mRNA were determined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Differences in VP and OT mRNA content of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and

  8. Clinical and molecular analysis of a Chinese family with autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus associated with a novel missense mutation in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongfeng; Wang, Binbin; Qiu, Yu; Zhang, Chuan; Jin, Chengluo; Zhao, Yakun; Zhu, Qingguo; Ma, Xu

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the genetic defects in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Complete physical examination, fluid deprivation, and DDAVP tests were performed in three affected and three healthy members of the family. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of venous blood of these individuals for polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all three coding exons of arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. Seven members of this family were suspected to have symptomatic vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus. The water deprivation test in all the patients confirmed the diagnosis of vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus, with the pedigree demonstrating an autosomal dominant inheritance. Direct sequence analysis revealed a novel mutation (c.193T>A) and a synonymous mutation (c.192C>A) in the AVP-NPII gene. The missense mutation resulted in the substitution of cysteine by serine at a highly conserved codon 65 of exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene in all affected individuals, but not in unaffected members. We concluded that a novel missense mutation in the AVP-NPII gene caused neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in this family, due to impaired neurophysin function as a carrier protein for AVP. The Cys65 is essential for NPII in the formation of a salt bridge with AVP. Presence of this mutation suggests that the portion of the neurophysin peptide encoded by this sequence is important for the normal expression of vasopressin.

  9. Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation in Children with Autism and Its Impact on Plasma Levels of Arginine-Vasopressin and Oxytocin: A Prospective Single-Blinded Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Sui; Xu, Xin-Jie; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Ting; Li, Li; Li, Ning; Han, Song-Ping; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture increases brain levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), which are known to be involved in the modulation of mammalian social behavior. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is often used clinically to produce a similar stimulation to that of acupuncture on the acupoints. In the present study, TEAS was…

  10. The Vasopressin Type-2 Receptor and Prostaglandin Receptors EP2 and EP4 can Increase Aquaporin-2 Plasma Membrane Targeting Through a cAMP Independent Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma Tina Bisgaard; Moeller, Hanne Bjerregaard; Assentoft, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Apical membrane targeting of the collecting duct water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for body water balance. As this event is regulated by Gs coupled 7-transmembrane receptors such as the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) and the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4, it is believed to be cA...

  11. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): absence of vasopressin expression in standard and wild-derived hamsters and galanin regulation by seasonal changes in circulating sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolborea, M; Ansel, L; Weinert, D; Steinlechner, S; Pévet, P; Klosen, P

    2010-02-03

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a nucleus of the forebrain highly sensitive to sex steroids and containing vasopressin neurons implicated in several social- and reproduction-related behaviours such as scent-marking, aggression, pair bonding and parental behaviour. Sexually dimorphic vasopressin expression in BNST neurons has been reported in almost all rodents, with the notable exception of the Syrian hamster. In this species, vasopressin expression is completely absent in the BNST. Because almost all Syrian hamsters used in research are derived from a very small breeding stock captured in 1930, we compared commercially available Syrian hamsters with a recently captured, wild-derived breeding stock. We checked for vasopressin expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Vasopressin expression in BNST neurons was completely absent in both breeding stocks, confirming the absence of BNST vasopressin expression in Mesocricetus auratus and ruling out a breeding artefact. Because vasopressin expression in BNST neurons appears to be strictly dependent on circulating sex steroids, the absence of vasopressin expression in Syrian hamster BNST neurons might be due to an insensitivity of these neurons to sex steroids. BNST vasopressin neurons also express galanin. Although galanin expression in the BNST is not sexually dimorphic in the Syrian hamster, it appears to be regulated by sex steroids. In the Djungarian hamster, photoperiodically driven seasonal variations of circulating sex steroids result in a seasonal rhythm of galanin expression in BNST neurons. We analysed the sex steroid dependence of galanin expression in the Syrian hamster. Castration and short photoperiod-induced sexual quiescence both resulted in downregulation of galanin mRNA in cell bodies (BNST) and immunoreactivity in the fibres (lateral septum). Testosterone supplementation of short photoperiod-adapted animals was able to restore galanin expression. Thus Syrian

  12. The incidence of vasoplegia in adult patients with right-sided congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac surgery and the correlation with serum vasopressin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Erica D; Lynch, James J; Oliver, William C; Dearani, Joseph A; Burkhart, Harold M; Mauermann, William J

    2014-08-01

    In adults with right-sided congenital heart disease, vasoplegia during and after cardiopulmonary bypass appears to be a frequent complication. The incidence of vasoplegia in the general adult and pediatric cardiac surgical population has been investigated, but the incidence in adult patients with right-sided congenital heart disease is unknown. Perioperative vasopressin levels during cardiac surgery have been studied in other cardiac surgical patients, but are not known in adults with right-sided congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of vasoplegia in adult patients undergoing right-sided cardiac surgical procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and to determine the vasopressin response to cardiac surgery in this population. Twenty patients were enrolled and demographic, hemodynamic, cardiopulmonary bypass, and use of vasoactive medication data were collected. In addition, perioperative serum vasopressin levels were measured. Sixty adult patients undergoing left-sided cardiac surgery served as controls. The incidence of vasoplegia in the control patients was 10% and the incidence in the adult patients with right-sided congenital heart disease was 20%. Vasopressin levels were low at baseline (0.5 ± 0.5 pg/mL), increased slightly after induction of anesthesia (0.6 ± 0.6 pg/mL), increased after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (99.7 ± 168.2 pg/mL), and decreased after surgery (31.3 ± 43.6 pg/mL). This study showed that the incidence of vasoplegia (20%) in patients with right-sided congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery was double that of a population of patients undergoing aortic valve surgery (10%). Serum vasopressin concentration was not associated with vasoplegia in this population of congenital cardiac surgical patients. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  14. ASD and genetic associations with receptors for oxytocin and vasopressin – AVPR1A, AVPR1B, and OXTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday M Francis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are limited treatments available for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Studies have reported significant associations between the receptor genes of oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP and ASD diagnosis, as well as, ASD-related phenotypes. Researchers have also found the manipulation of these systems affect social and repetitive behaviors, core characteristics of ASD. Consequently, research involving the oxytocin/vasopressin pathways as intervention targets has increased. Therefore, further examination into the relationship between these neuropeptides and ASD was undertaken. In this study, we examined associations between variants in the receptor genes of vasopressin (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, oxytocin (OXTR and ASD diagnosis along with related subphenotypes.Methods: Probands were assessed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and clinical DSM-IV-TR criteria. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AVPR1B and OXTR, and microsatellites in AVPR1A were genotyped in ~200 families with a proband with ASD. Family-based association testing (FBAT was utilized to determine associations between variants and ASD. Haplotypes composed of OXTR SNPs (i.e. rs53576-rs2254298-rs2268493 were also analyzed due to previously published associations.Results: Using the additive inheritance model in FBAT we found associations between AVPR1B SNPs (rs28632197, p=0.005, rs35369693, p=0.025 and diagnosis. As in other studies, OXTR rs2268493 (p=0.050 was associated with diagnosis. rs2268493 was also associated with ASD subphenotypes of social withdrawal (p=0.013 and insistence on sameness (p=0.039. Further analyses demonstrated that the haplotype, rs2254298-rs2268493 was found to be significantly associated with diagnosis (A-T; p=0.026. FBAT was also used to analyze AVPR1A microsatellites (RS1 and RS3. Both length variants were found to be associated with restrictive, repetitive behaviors, but not overall diagnosis. Correction

  15. Vasopressin and sympathetic systems mediate the cardiovascular effects of the GABAergic system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Masoumeh; Kharazmi, Fatemeh; Nasimi, Ali

    2009-12-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is an important part of the limbic system. It has been shown that chemical stimulation of the BST elicited cardiovascular depressive and bradycardic responses. It was also demonstrated that GABA is present in the BST, though its role in cardiovascular control is not yet understood. This study was performed to find the effects of GABA receptor subtypes in the BST on cardiovascular responses and to find the possible mechanisms that mediate these responses in urethane-anesthetized rats. Microinjection of muscimol (500 pmol/100 nl), a GABA(A) agonist, into the BST produced a weak unsignificant decrease in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 100 pmol/100 nl), a GABA(A) antagonist, caused a significant increase in the MAP (41.3+/-5.1 mmHg) as well as in the HR (33.2+/-5.6 beats/min). Injection of two doses (500 and 1000 pmol/100 nl) of phaclofen, a GABA(B) antagonist, produced no significant change in either MAP or HR. Administration (i.v.) of the muscarinic receptor blocker, homatropine methyl bromide had no effect on the magnitude of mean arterial pressure or heart rate responses to BMI. This suggests that the parasympathetic system is not involved in these responses. However, administration (i.v.) of the nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium bromide had no effect on the magnitude of mean arterial pressure response but abolished heart rate response to BMI. This suggests that the sympathetic system is involved in the bradycardic effect of GABA. On the other hand, administration (i.v.) of a selective vasopressin V(1) receptor antagonist abolished the pressor effect of BMI, which indicates that the GABAergic system of the BST decreases the arterial pressure via tonic inhibition of vasopressin release. In summary, we demonstrated, for the first time, that GABA exerts its influence in the BST through the activation of GABA(A), but not GABA(B), receptors that, in

  16. ASD and Genetic Associations with Receptors for Oxytocin and Vasopressin-AVPR1A, AVPR1B, and OXTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sunday M; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Guter, Stephen; Cook, Edwin H; Jacob, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited treatments available for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have reported significant associations between the receptor genes of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) and ASD diagnosis, as well as ASD-related phenotypes. Researchers have also found the manipulation of these systems affects social and repetitive behaviors, core characteristics of ASD. Consequently, research involving the oxytocin/vasopressin pathways as intervention targets has increased. Therefore, further examination into the relationship between these neuropeptides and ASD was undertaken. In this study, we examined associations between variants in the receptor genes of vasopressin (AVPR1A, AVPR1B), oxytocin (OXTR), and ASD diagnosis along with related subphenotypes. Methods: Probands were assessed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and clinical DSM-IV-TR criteria. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AVPR1B and OXTR, and microsatellites in AVPR1A were genotyped in ~200 families with a proband with ASD. Family-based association testing (FBAT) was utilized to determine associations between variants and ASD. Haplotypes composed of OXTR SNPs (i.e., rs53576-rs2254298-rs2268493) were also analyzed due to previously published associations. Results: Using the additive inheritance model in FBAT we found associations between AVPR1B SNPs (rs28632197, p = 0.005, rs35369693, p = 0.025) and diagnosis. As in other studies, OXTR rs2268493 (p = 0.050) was associated with diagnosis. rs2268493 was also associated with ASD subphenotypes of social withdrawal (p = 0.013) and Insistence on Sameness (p = 0.039). Further analyses demonstrated that the haplotype, rs2254298-rs2268493 was found to be significantly associated with diagnosis (A-T; p = 0.026). FBAT was also used to analyze AVPR1A microsatellites (RS1 and RS3). Both length variants were found to be associated with restrictive, repetitive behaviors, but not overall diagnosis

  17. Metabolism of vasopressin, oxytocin and their analogues [Mpa1, D-Arg8]-vasopressin (dDAVP) and [Mpa1, D-Tyr(Et)2, Thr4, Orn8]-oxytocin (antocin) in human kidney and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjellestad-Paulsen, A; Lundin, S

    1996-11-14

    Information regarding the metabolic fate of the neurohypophyseal hormones arginine-vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT) and their analogues in man is practically non-existent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of oxytocin, vasopressin and their analogues dDAVP and [Mpa1-D-Tyr2(Et), Thr4, Orn8]-oxytocin (antocin) in human renal microvilli brush border membranes and in human liver membranes. After incubation the extent of degradation of the peptides was determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The degradation of both AVP and OT was rapid in the presence of glutathione and human renal microvilli membranes. AVP, as well as dDAVP, was stable when incubated with microvilli membranes without glutathione, while OT was metabolized. The metabolization of the oxytocin analogue, antocin, also varied with the presence of glutathione. While in the absence of glutathione a more lipophilic peak eluted, a more hydrophilic peak was observed with glutathione on HPLC. The lipophilic peak was found to coelute with the truncated analogue [Mpa1, D-Tyr2 (Et), Thr4, desOrn8, Gly9]-oxytocin. No degradation occurred when the peptides were incubated with liver membranes. However, when using crude, unpurified liver homogenate degradation occurred for all peptides except antocin. The degradation of AVP in the human unpurified liver homogenate was as rapid as in the renal microvilli membranes. Similarly, OT was more rapidly degraded in human kidney microvilli membranes in the presence of glutathione than in the human crude liver homogenate, when using equal amounts of protein in the incubations. Thus, the present investigation indicates the existence of two possible metabolic pathways, in kidney microvilli, one for OT, which did not require the presence of reduced glutathione, and one for AVP, which required the presence of reduced glutathione. Liver degradation, on the other hand, requires the hepatocytes.

  18. Effect of radiologic contrast material on cell volume regulation in proximal renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, H K; Løken, M; Sakariassen, K S

    2000-11-01

    Most radiographic contrast media (CM) are hyperosmotic and pose an osmotic threat to cells they are in contact with. To study these effects at the cellular level, cell volume regulatory mechanisms were observed in proximal renal tubules following exposure to the CM iohexol, ioxaglate, and iodixanol. Isolated renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to 5% vol/vol iohexol (326 mOsm), ioxaglate (314 mOsm), or iodixanol (300 mOsm) or mannitol (to achieve the same osmolalities), and cell volume changes were observed videometrically. Iohexol and ioxaglate solutions induced a rapid shrinkage (12%-13%) not followed by cell volume regulation. Without CM (same osmolality), the cells shrank 11% but then showed a 77%-88% volume recovery. This reswelling was inhibited by 55% with the Na+, K+, Cl- symporter inhibitor bumetanide (50 micromol/L). Iodixanol did not significantly affect cell volume. Tubules preincubated with CM or mannitol were then stimulated with a hypoosmotic Ringer solution (160 mOsm) resulting in a 26%-36% cellular volume increase. Compared with results of experiments without mannitol and CM, preexposure to iohexol or ioxaglate almost completely inhibited the expected regulatory shrinkage phase, while previous exposure to hyperosmotic solutions with mannitol reduced the shrinkage response by 40%-53%. In this system, the hyperosmotic iohexol and ioxaglate cause cell shrinkage followed by an impaired cell volume regulatory response. Exposure to these two CM also inhibits cell volume regulation on hypoosmotic stimulation. The isosmotic iodixanol has no such effects. These changes appear to some extent to be a result of the CM's degree of hyperosmolality, but this property alone does not explain these findings.

  19. Early changes of endothelin, nitric oxide and arginine-vasopressin in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 吕雪英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early changes and clinical significance of plasma endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in patients with acute moderate or severe cerebral injury. Methods: The early (at 24 hours after injury) plasma concentrations of ET, NO and AVP were measured with radioimmunoassay and Green technique in 48 cases of acute moderate (GCS≤8 in 27cases ) or severe (GCS>8 in 21 cases) cerebral injury (Group A), in 42 cases of non-cerebral injury (Group B) and in 38 normal individuals (Group C), respectively. Results: The early plasma concentrations of ET (109.73 ng/L±12.61 ng/L), NO (92.82 μmol/L±18.21 μmol/L) and AVP (49.78 ng/L±14.29 ng/L) in Group A were higher than those in Group B (67.90 ng/L±11.33 ng/L, 52.66 μmol/L±12.82 μmol/L and 29.93 ng/L±12.11 ng/L, respectively, P<0.01) and Group C (50.65 ng/L±17.12 ng/L, 36.12 μmol/L±12.16 μmol/L and 5.18 ng/L±4.18 ng/L, respectively, P<0.001). The amounts of ET, NO and AVP in patients with severe cerebral injury were 116.18 ng/L±18.12 ng/L, 108.19 μmol/L±13.28 μmol/L and 58.13 ng/L±16.78 ng/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the patients with moderate cerebral injury (92.33 ng/L±16.32 ng/L, 76.38 μmol/L±12.71 μmol/L and 36.18 ng/L±12.13 ng/L respectively, P<0.01). The early levels of ET, NO and AVP in Group A were negatively related to the GCS scales. The amounts of ET, NO and AVP were 126.23 ng/L±15.23 ng/L, 118.18 μmol/L±10.12 μmol/L and 63.49 ng/L±14.36 ng/L respectively in patients with subdural hematoma, which were significantly higher than those in patients with epidural hematoma (81.13 ng/L±12.37 ng/L, 68.02 μmol/L±13.18 μmol/L and 45.63 ng/L±12.41 ng/L respectively, P<0.01). The plasma concentrations of ET, NO and AVP in stable duration (at 336 hours after injury) in Group A and Group B were similar to those in Group C.Conclusions: ET, NO and AVP were related to the pathophysiological process that occurs in

  20. Variation in mothers' arginine vasopressin receptor 1a and dopamine receptor D4 genes predicts maternal sensitivity via social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, E M; Su, J; Calkins, S; Henrich, V C; Smolen, A

    2017-02-01

    We examined the extent to which the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were related to sensitive maternal behavior directly or indirectly via maternal social cognition. Participants were 207 (105 European-American and 102 African-American) mothers and their children (52% females). Sensitive maternal behavior was rated and aggregated across a series of tasks when infants were 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old. At 6 months, mothers were interviewed about their empathy, attributions about infant behavior and beliefs about crying to assess their parenting-related social cognition. Mothers with long alleles for AVPR1a and DRD4 engaged in more mother-oriented social cognition (i.e. negative attributions and beliefs about their infants' crying, β = 0.13, P cognition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht`s solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  2. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  3. Synaptic innervation to rat hippocampus by vasopressin-immuno-positive fibres from the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Hernández, V S

    2013-01-03

    The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) exerts a modulatory role on hippocampal excitability through vasopressin V(1A) and V(1B) receptors. However, the origin and mode of termination of the AVP innervation of the hippocampus remain unknown. We have used light and electron microscopy to trace the origin, distribution and synaptic relationships of AVP-immuno-positive fibres and nerve terminals in the rat hippocampus. Immuno-positive fibres were present in all areas (CA1-3, dentate gyrus) of the whole septo-temporal extent of the hippocampus; they had the highest density in the CA2 region, strongly increasing in density towards the ventral hippocampus. Two types of fibres were identified, both establishing synaptic junctions. Type A had large varicosities packed with immuno-positive large-granulated peptidergic vesicles and few small clear vesicles forming type I synaptic junctions with pyramidal neuron dendrites, dendritic spines and with axonal spines. Type B had smaller varicosities containing mostly small clear vesicles and only a few large-granulated vesicles and established type II synaptic junctions mainly with interneuron dendrites. The AVP-positive axons in stratum oriens appeared to follow and contact metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α)-immuno-positive interneuron dendrites. Fluoro-Gold injection into the hippocampus revealed retrogradely labelled AVP-positive somata in hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Hypothalamo-hippocampal AVP-positive axons entered the hippocampus mostly through a ventral route, also innervating the amygdala and to a lesser extent through the dorsal fimbria fornix, in continuation of the septal AVP innervation. Thus, it appears the AVP-containing neurons of the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei serve as important sources for hippocampal AVP innervation, although the AVP-expressing neurons located in amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis reported previously may also contribute.

  4. The Vasopressin 1b Receptor Antagonist A-988315 Blocks Stress Effects on the Retrieval of Object-Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsegyan, Areg; Atsak, Piray; Hornberger, Wilfried B; Jacobson, Peer B; van Gaalen, Marcel M; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-07-01

    Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and high circulating glucocorticoid levels are well known to impair the retrieval of memory. Vasopressin can activate the HPA axis by stimulating vasopressin 1b (V1b) receptors located on the pituitary. In the present study, we investigated the effect of A-988315, a selective and highly potent non-peptidergic V1b-receptor antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties, in blocking stress effects on HPA-axis activity and memory retrieval. To study cognitive performance, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an object-discrimination task during which they could freely explore two identical objects. Memory for the objects and their location was tested 24 h later. A-988315 (20 or 60 mg/kg) or water was administered orally 90 min before retention testing, followed 60 min later by stress of footshock exposure. A-988315 dose-dependently dampened stress-induced increases in corticosterone plasma levels, but did not significantly alter HPA-axis activity of non-stressed control rats. Most importantly, A-988315 administration prevented stress-induced impairment of memory retrieval on both the object-recognition and the object-location tasks. A-988315 did not alter the retention of non-stressed rats and did not influence the total time spent exploring the objects or experimental context in either stressed or non-stressed rats. Thus, these findings indicate that direct antagonism of V1b receptors is an effective treatment to block stress-induced activation of the HPA axis and the consequent impairment of retrieval of different aspects of recognition memory.

  5. /sup 125/I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP: a selective radioligand for V1 vasopressin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.M.; Abrahams, J.M.; Phillips, P.A.; Mendelsohn, F.A.; Grzonka, Z.; Johnston, C.I.

    1989-01-01

    Arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) acts on vascular and hepatic V1 receptors to influence blood pressure and glycogenolysis respectively. We have radioiodinated the AVP V1 receptor antagonist, (1-(beta-mercapto-beta, beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionic-acid), 7-sarcosine, 8-arginine) vasopressin ((d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP) and determined its receptor-binding properties in rat liver and kidney plasma membranes. The binding was of high affinity to single classes of receptors (liver: Kd = 3.0 nM and Bmax = 530 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein, kidney: Kd = 0.5 +/- 0.9 nM and Bmax = 11 +/- 8 fmol/mg protein). Competition of (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP binding by unlabelled AVP analogues gave the following order of potency in both tissues, consistent with that expected for binding to a V1 receptor: (d(CH2)5, Tyr(Me)2)AVP greater than AVP greater than (d(CH2)5, D-Ile2, Ile4) AVP greater than DDAVP. No degradation of (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP during incubation or storage was detected by HPLC analysis. We have used (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP and in vitro autoradiography to demonstrate its use in localizing brain AVP receptors. These studies suggest that (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP is a suitable selective radioligand for labelling V1 receptors and will provide a valuable tool for the study of the localization and regulation of AVP V1 receptors in tissues and in receptor isolation.

  6. Demonstration of the functional impact of vasopressin signaling in the thick ascending limb by a targeted transgenic rat approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutig, Kerim; Borowski, Tordis; Boldt, Christin; Borschewski, Aljona; Paliege, Alexander; Popova, Elena; Bader, Michael; Bachmann, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) regulates renal salt and water reabsorption along the distal nephron and collecting duct system. These effects are mediated by vasopressin 2 receptors (V2R) and release of intracellular Gs-mediated cAMP to activate epithelial transport proteins. Inactivating mutations in the V2R gene lead to the X-linked form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which has chiefly been related with impaired aquaporin 2-mediated water reabsorption in the collecting ducts. Previous work also suggested the AVP-V2R-mediated activation of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)-cotransporters (NKCC2) along the thick ascending limb (TAL) in the context of urine concentration, but its individual contribution to NDI or, more generally, to overall renal function was unclear. We hypothesized that V2R-mediated effects in TAL essentially determine its reabsorptive function. To test this, we reevaluated V2R expression. Basolateral membranes of medullary and cortical TAL were clearly stained, whereas cells of the macula densa were unreactive. A dominant-negative, NDI-causing truncated V2R mutant (Ni3-Glu242stop) was then introduced into the rat genome under control of the Tamm-Horsfall protein promoter to cause a tissue-specific AVP-signaling defect exclusively in TAL. Resulting Ni3-V2R transgenic rats revealed decreased basolateral but increased intracellular V2R signal in TAL epithelia, suggesting impaired trafficking of the receptor. Rats displayed significant baseline polyuria, failure to concentrate the urine in response to water deprivation, and hypercalciuria. NKCC2 abundance, phosphorylation, and surface expression were markedly decreased. In summary, these data indicate that suppression of AVP-V2R signaling in TAL causes major impairment in renal fluid and electrolyte handling. Our results may have clinical implications.

  7. Neuroendocrine and renal effects of intravascular volume expansion in compensated heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, A; Bie, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2001-01-01

    To examine if the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal function is preserved in compensated chronic heart failure [HF, ejection fraction 0.29 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SE)] we tested the hypothesis that intravascular and central blood volume expansion by 3 h of water immersion (WI) elicits...... sustained angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, n = 9) absolute and fractional sodium excretion increased (P Renal free water clearance increased during WI in control subjects but not in HF......, albeit plasma vasopressin concentrations were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal sodium excretion is preserved in compensated HF. The natriuresis of WI is, however, modulated by the prevailing ANG II and Aldo concentrations. In contrast...

  8. Formulação de dietas enterais artesanais e determinação da osmolalidade pelo método crioscópico Formulation of handmade enteral diets and determination of osmolality by cryoscopic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone Henriques

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de elaborar formulações dietéticas nutricionalmente equilibradas, com controle da osmolalidade, de fácil preparo e de baixo custo financeiro. As dietas foram preparadas predominantemente com alimentos convencionais, acrescidos de maltodextrina, caseínato de cálcio e suplementos minerais, da seguinte forma: 1 leite mais frutas; 2 caldos de vegetais mais suplemento protéico; 3 mingaus de leite mais suplemento protéico; 4 fórmulas infantis adaptadas; 5 extratos de frutas concentrados. A fluidez foi observada passando-se as formulações por sondas com diâmetro interno de 2,1 mm e a estabilidade checada por um período mínimo de 3 horas. A osmolalidade foi determinada por crioscopia, medindo-se o descenso relativo da pressão de vapor das soluções. Formulações com osmolalidade entre 250 e 400 mOsm/kg e densidade calórica entre 0,60 e 1,08 Kcal/ml foram obtidas. Dietas de baixo custo, fácil preparo, nutricionalmente equilibradas e com definição da proporção de seus componentes foram viabilizadas.This study was conducted with the objective of elaborating dietetic formulations, nutritionally balanced, with osmolality control, easy preparation and low financial cost. The diets were prepared mainly with common foods, added by maltodextrin, calcium caseinate and mineral supplements, as follows: 1 milk plus fruits; 2 vegetable juices plus protein supplement; 3 milk porridge plus protein supplement; 4 infant adapted formula; 5 concentrated fruit extract. The flow was observed by getting the formulations through tubes with internal diameter of 2.1 mm and the stability was checked by stocking the solutions in a minimum period of 3 hours. The osmolality was determined by cryoscopy, measuring the relative depression of steam pressure of the solutions. Formulations with osmolality between 250 and 400 mOsm/kg and caloric density between 0.60 and 1.08 Kcal/ml were obtained. Low cost diets, easy

  9. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulation in rabbit proximal renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, H K; Løken, M; Sakariassen, K S

    2001-05-01

    Most radiographic contrast media are hyperosmotic and able to shrink cells with which they are in contact. The authors studied cell volume control in rabbit proximal renal tubules after incubation with three contrast media: iohexol, ioxaglate, and iodixanol. Proximal renal tubules were isolated from rabbit kidneys. The tubules were exposed to Ringer solutions containing 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 330 mOsm), ioxaglate (323 mOsm), iodixanol (305 mOsm), or mannitol (control solutions with identical osmolalities), and tubule volumes were monitored. After 2 hours of incubation, the tubules were stimulated with a hyposmotic Ringer solution (165 mOsm). Three groups of 10 experiments were performed. All solutions induced cell shrinkage (8.3%+/-3.8 [standard error] to 15.4%+/-0.5), which was completely or partly reversible in most experiments (volume increase, 44.8%+/-14.7 to 149.9%+/-107.3) but not those with iohexol and iodixanol. With exposure to the hyposmotic solution, the cells swelled by 11.0%+/-1.8 to 39.7%+/-4.8. In general, the tubules that had been exposed to the most hyperosmotic solution swelled the most. Those exposed to contrast media showed less swelling than the mannitol-exposed controls. In all control experiments, the cells exhibited a gradual shrinkage (43.6%+/-28.5 to 87.0%+/-13). This regulatory response was partly inhibited in tubules exposed to iohexol (39.9%+/-15.8 shrinkage) or iodixanol (8.9%+/-15.8) and completely inhibited in those exposed to ioxaglate. Iohexol and ioxaglate exposure also led to a decrease in water permeability. Exposure to hyperosmotic contrast medium tends to induce prolonged cell shrinkage, decrease the water permeability of the cellular plasma membranes, and compromise the ability to regulate cellular volume. These changes seem to reflect both the hyperosmolality of the solutions and their inherent chemical properties.

  10. CT-pro-AVP as a tool for assessment of intravascular volume depletion in severe hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Guilaine; Alméras, Marion; Buthiau, Delphine; Jugant, Sébastien; Daubin, Delphine; Kuster, Nils; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Ribstein, Jean; Klouche, Kada; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of volume status is essential to best manage hyponatremic patients but is not always accurate in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of C-terminal portion of pro-arginine-vasopressin (CT-pro-AVP), a surrogate biomarker of vasopressin release, in assessing intravascular volume (IVV) depletion in hypoosmolar hyponatremic patients. Plasma CT-pro-AVP and urea-to-creatinine ratio (Ur/Cr) were performed in 131 hospitalized patients presenting chronic severe hypoosmolar hyponatremia. At hospital discharge, their IVV was evaluated regardless of CT-pro-AVP concentrations. All patients were then classified as decreased or as normal/expanded IVV group. Plasma CT-pro-AVP levels were higher in patients with decreased IVV (34.6 vs. 11.3 pmol/L, ppro-AVP and Ur/Cr resulted in an improved ROC AUC up to 0.787 (95% CI 0.709-0.866). Our findings support the hypothesis that CT-pro-AVP plasma level may reflect IVV and would be a tool for its assessment. This performance has been magnified by its combination with Ur/Cr. A dual-marker strategy may help clinicians to optimize the management of severe hyponatremia especially in case of confusing clinical presentations. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hormonal status modifies renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidases and vasopressin-degrading activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Jesús; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; Mayas, María Dolores; Carrera, María Pilar; De la Chica, Susana; Cortés, Pedro; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2008-07-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) participates in the maintenance of cardiovascular functions and in the control of blood pressure. By other hand, it is known that blood pressure regulation and HPA activity are affected by sex hormones. The aim of the present work is to analyze the influence of estradiol and progesterone on renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-regulating aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B and aminopeptidase N activities and vasopressin-degrading activity in the HPA axis of ovariectomized mice and ovariectomized mice treated subscutaneously with different doses of estradiol and progesterone. Our data suggest that in female mice, estradiol and progesterone influence RAS-regulating and vasopressin-degrading activities at different levels of the HPA axis.

  12. The pituitary hormones arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II and oxytocin-neurophysin I show close linkage with interleukin-1 on mouse chromosome 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, J.C.; Nelson, K.K.; Siracusa, L.D. (Jefferson Cancer Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Battey, J. (National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are posterior pituitary hormones. AVP is involved in fluid homeostasis, while OXT is involved in lactation and parturition. AVP is derived from a larger precursor, prepro-arginine-vasopressin-neurophysin II (prepro-AVP-NP II; AVP), and is physically linked to prepro-oxytocin-neurophysin I (prepro-OXT-NPI1; OXT). The genes for AVP and OXT are separated by only 12 kb of DNA in humans, whereas in the mouse 3.5 kb of intergenic sequence lies between Avp and Oxt. Interspecific backcross analysis has now been used to map the Avp/Oxt complex to chromosome 2 in the mouse. This map position confirms and extends the known region of linkage conservation between mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 20. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effects of the vasopressin agonist terlipressin on plasma cAMP and ENaC excretion in the urine in patients with cirrhosis and water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Pedersen, Erling B; Møller, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its potent V1a effects in cirrhotic patients. Recent data suggest that terlipressin has affinity to renal V2 receptors and modulates Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression and free water clearance. Stimulation of renal V2 receptors may also affect sodium tra...... transport via the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). Furthermore, endothelial V2 receptors may indirectly affect proximal sodium handling by increasing plasma cAMP....

  14. Glucose-induced downregulation of angiotensin II and arginine vasopressin receptors in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Role of protein kinase C.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, B.; Tsai, P.; Schrier, R W

    1992-01-01

    Early diabetes mellitus is characterized by impaired responses to pressor hormones and pressor receptor downregulation. The present study examined the effect of elevated extracellular glucose concentrations on angiotensin II (AII) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor kinetics in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Scatchard analysis of [3H]AVP and 125I-AII binding to confluent VSMC showed that high glucose concentrations (20 mM) similarly depressed AVP and AII surface recepto...

  15. Binding of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin to neurophysin studied by /sup 15/N NMR using magnetization transfer and indirect detection via protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Live, D.H.; Cowburn, D.

    1987-10-06

    NMR was used to monitor the binding to neurophysin of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin, /sup 15/N labeling being used to identify specific backbone /sup 15/N and /sup 1/H signals. The most significant effects of binding were large downfield shifts in the amino nitrogen resonance of Phe-3 of vasopressin and in its associated proton, providing evidence that the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of the hormones is hydrogen-bonded to the protein within hormone-neurophysin complexes. Suggestive evidence for hydrogen bonding of the amino nitrogen of Tyr-2 was also obtained in the form of decreased proton exchange rates on binding; however, the chemical shift changes of this nitrogen and its associated proton indicated that such hydrogen bonding, if present, is probably weak. Shifts in the amino nitrogen of Asn-5 and in the -NH protons of both Asn-5 and Cys-6 demonstrated that these residues are significantly perturbed by binding, suggesting conformational changes of the ring on binding and/or the presence of binding sites on the hormone outside the 1-3 region. No support was obtained for the thesis that there is a significant second binding site for vasopressin on each neutrophysin chain. The behavior of both oxytocin and vasopressin on binding was consistent with formation of 1:1 complexes in slow exchange with the free state under most pH conditions. At low pH there was evidence of an increased exchange rate. Additionally, broadening of /sup 15/N resonances in the bound state at low pH occurred without a corresponding change in the resonances of equilibrating free hormone. The results suggest significant conformational alteration in neurophysin-hormone complexes at low pH possibly associated with protonation of the carboxyl group of the hormone-protein salt bridge.

  16. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  17. Long-term effects of early adolescent methamphetamine exposure on depression-like behavior and the hypothalamic vasopressin system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joca, Lauren; Zuloaga, Damian G; Raber, Jacob; Siegel, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has neurotoxic effects on the adult human brain that can lead to deficits in behavior and cognition. However, relatively little research has examined the behavioral or neurotoxic effects of MA in adolescents. The rising rates of adolescent MA use make it imperative that we understand the long-term effects of MA exposure on the adolescent brain and how these effects may differ from those seen in adults. In this study, the long-term effects of MA exposure during early adolescence on behavior and the vasopressin system in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in late adolescent and adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were examined. MA exposure increased depression-like behavior in the Porsolt forced swim test in both late adolescent and adult male and female mice. Late adolescent male mice exposed to MA also showed a decrease in the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus compared to sex-matched saline-treated controls. Thus, similar to humans exposed to MA during adolescence, mice exposed to MA during adolescence show increased depression-like behavior later in life. These changes in behavior may be related to MA-induced alterations in vasopressin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially in males.

  18. An in vitro model of skeletal muscle volume regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wibberley

    Full Text Available Hypertonic media causes cells to shrink due to water loss through aquaporin channels. After acute shrinkage, cells either regulate their volume or, alternatively, undergo a number of metabolic changes which ultimately lead to cell death. In many cell types, hypertonic shrinkage is followed by apoptosis. Due to the complex 3D morphology of skeletal muscle and the difficulty in obtaining isolated human tissue, we have begun skeletal muscle volume regulation studies using the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD. In this study we investigated whether hypertonic challenge of the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD triggered cell death or evoked a cell volume recovery response.The cellular volume of TE671RD cells was calculated from the 2D surface area. Cell death was assessed by both the trypan blue live/dead assay and the TUNEL assay.Medium osmolality was increased by addition of up to 200 mM sucrose. Addition of 200 mM sucrose resulted in mean cell shrinkage of 44±1% after 30 mins. At later time points (2 and 4 hrs two separate cell subpopulations with differing mean cell volume became apparent. The first subpopulation (15±2% of the total cell number continued to shrink whereas the second subpopulation had an increased cell volume. Cell death was observed in a small proportion of cells (approximately 6-8%.We have established that a substantial proportion of TE671RD cells respond to hypertonic challenge with RVI, but that these cells are resistant to hypertonicity triggered cell death.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  20. Vasopressin-regulated miRNAs and AQP2-targeting miRNAs in kidney collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Eun; Jung, Hyun Jun; Lee, Yu-Jung; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Mature microRNA (miRNA) acts as an important posttranscriptional regulator. We aimed to profile vasopressin-responsive miRNAs in kidney inner medullary collecting duct cells and to identify aquaporin-2 (AQP2)-targeting miRNAs. Microarray chip assay was carried out in inner medullary collecting duct tubule suspensions from rat kidneys in the absence or presence of desmopressin (dDAVP) stimulation (10(-9) M, 2 h). The results demonstrated 19 miRNAs, including both precursor and mature miRNAs, as potential candidates that showed significant changes in expression after dDAVP stimulation (P 1.3-fold changes in expression on the microarray (miR-127, miR-1, miR-873, miR-16, miR-206, miR-678, miR-496, miR-298, and miR-463) were further examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and target genes of the selected miRNAs were predicted. Next, to identify AQP2-targeting miRNAs, in silico analysis was performed. Four miRNAs (miR-32, miR-137, miR-216a, and miR-216b) target the 3'-untranslated region of rat AQP2 mRNA. Target seed regions of miR-32 and miR-137 were also conserved in the 3'-untranslated region of mouse AQP2 mRNA. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that dDAVP-induced AQP2 expression was significantly attenuated in mpkCCDc14 cells when cells were transfected with miRNA mimics of miR-32 or miR-137. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay demonstrated a significant decrease of AQP2 translation in mpkCCDc14 cells transfected with miRNA mimics of miR-32 or miR-137. The present study provides novel insights into the regulation of AQP2 by RNA interference; however, vasopressin-regulated miRNAs did not include miR-32 or miR-137, indicating that the interaction of miRNAs with the AQP2 regulatory pathway requires further analysis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Vasopressin V1 receptors contribute to hemodynamic and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by stimulation of adenosine A2a receptors in NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2006-05-01

    Activation of adenosine A2a receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), whereas increases in preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA) occur, a pattern similar to that observed during hypotensive hemorrhage. Central vasopressin V1 receptors may contribute to posthemorrhagic hypotension and bradycardia. Both V1 and A2a receptors are densely expressed in the NTS, and both of these receptors are involved in cardiovascular control; thus they may interact. The responses elicited by NTS A2a receptors are mediated mostly via nonglutamatergic mechanisms, possibly via release of vasopressin. Therefore, we investigated whether blockade of NTS V1 receptors alters the autonomic response patterns evoked by stimulation of NTS A2a receptors (CGS-21680, 20 pmol/50 nl) in alpha-chloralose-urethane anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we compared the regional sympathetic responses to microinjections of vasopressin (0.1-100 ng/50 nl) into the NTS. Blockade of V1 receptors reversed the normal decreases in MAP into increases (-95.6 +/- 28.3 vs. 51.4 +/- 15.7 integralDelta%), virtually abolished the decreases in HR (-258.3 +/- 54.0 vs. 18.9 +/- 57.8 integralDeltabeats/min) and RSNA (-239.3 +/- 47.4 vs. 15.9 +/- 36.1 integralDelta%), and did not affect the increases in pre-ASNA (279.7 +/- 48.3 vs. 233.1 +/- 54.1 integralDelta%) evoked by A2a receptor stimulation. The responses partially returned toward normal values approximately 90 min after the blockade. Microinjections of vasopressin into the NTS evoked dose-dependent decreases in HR and RSNA and variable MAP and pre-ASNA responses with a tendency toward increases. We conclude that the decreases in MAP, HR, and RSNA in response to NTS A2a receptor stimulation may be mediated via release of vasopressin from neural terminals in the NTS. The differential effects of NTS V1 and A2a receptors on

  2. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim

    2012-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, fluid and salt losses through sweating reduce plasma volume which leads to heart rate drift in association with hyperthermia and reductions in performance. Oral rehydration with water reduces the loss of plasma volume and lessens heart rate drift and hyperthermia. Moreover, the inclusion of sodium in the rehydration solution to levels that double those in sweat (i.e., around 90 mmol/l Na(+)) restores plasma volume when ingested during exercise, and expands plasma volume if ingested pre-exercise. Pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion with the intention of expanding plasma volume has received an increasing amount of attention in the literature in recent years. In four studies, pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion improved performance, measured as time to exhaustion, either during exercise in a thermoneutral or in a hot environment. While in a hot environment, the performance improvements were linked to lowering of core temperatures and heart rate, the reasons for the improved performance in a thermoneutral environment remain unclear. However, when ingesting pre-exercise saline solutions above 0.9% (i.e., > 164 mmol/l Na(+)), osmolality and plasma sodium increase and core temperature remain at dehydration levels. Thus, too much salt counteracts the beneficial effects of plasma volume expansion on heat dissipation and hence in performance. In summary, the available literature suggests that pre-exercise saline ingestion with concentrations not over 164 mmol/l Na(+) is an ergogenic aid for subsequent prolonged exercise in a warm or thermoneutral environment.

  3. Interactions of galanin with endomorphin-2, vasopressin and oxytocin in nociceptive modulation of the trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, M; Janecka, A

    2008-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is suggested to be a neuropeptide involved in pain transmission. In this study we tried to determine, whether the increase of GAL concentration in brain cells affects impulse transmission between the motor centers localized in the vicinity of the third and fourth cerebral ventricles. The experiments were carried out on rats under chloralose anesthesia. The study objectives were realized using the method allowing to record the amplitude of evoked tongue jerks (ETJ) in response to noxious tooth pulp stimulation during the perfusion of the cerebral ventricles with solutions containing tested compounds. Perfusion of the cerebral ventricles with GAL concentration-dependently inhibited the ETJ amplitude. The antinociceptive effect of GAL was blocked by a galanin receptor antagonist, galantide (GLT) and by opioid antagonists: non-selective naloxone (Nal) and micro-selective beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA). In contrast, a delta-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (NTI) or the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine (nor-BNI) did not inhibit the effect of GAL. The antinociceptive effect of GAL was more pronounced when GAL was perfused in combination with other neuropeptides/neurohormones, such as endomorphin-2 (EM-2), vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT). The present results demonstrate that in the orofacial area analgesic activity is modulated by GAL, OT and AVP and that EM-2-induced antinociception involves GAL.

  4. Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists for the Correction of Hyponatremia in Chronic Heart Failure: An Underutilized Therapeutic Option in Current Clinical Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato De Vecchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the congestive heart failure (CHF setting, chronic hyponatremia is very common. The present review aims at addressing topics relevant to the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in the course of CHF as well as its optimal treatment, including the main advantages and the limitations resulting from the use of the available dietary and pharmacological measures approved for the treatment of this electrolytic trouble. A narrative review is carried out in order to represent the main modalities of therapy for chronic hyponatremia that frequently complicates CHF. The limits of usual therapies implemented for CHF-related chronic hyponatremia are outlined, while an original analysis of the main advancements achieved with the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRAs is also executed. The European regulatory restrictions that currently limit the use of VRAs in the management of CHF are substantially caused by financial concerns, i.e., the high costs of VRA therapy. A thoughtful reworking of current restrictions would be warranted in order to enable VRAs to be usefully associated to loop diuretics for decongestive treatment of CHF patients with hyponatremia.

  5. ARGININE VASOPRESSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS AND PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMOUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Background. Our previous studies indicated that the increased arginine vasopressin(AVP) in ischemic brain regions of gerbils could exacerbate the ischemic brain edema. This experiments is further clarify the relation between AVP and cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. Methods. The contents of AVP, AVP mRNA, AVP immunoreactive(ir) neurons in supraoptic nucleus(SON)and paraventricular nucleus(PVN) after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion were respectively determined by radioim-munoassay(RIA), immunocytochemistry( Ⅱ C), situ hybridization and computed image pattem analysis. Results. The contents of AVP in SON, PVN were increased, and the AVP ir positive neurons in SON and PVN were also significantly increased as compared with the controls after ischemia and reperfusion. And there were very light staining of AVP ir positive neurons in the other brain areas such as suprachiasmatic nucleus (SC) and periven-tricular hypothalamic nucleus (PE), but these have no significant changes as compared with the controls. During dif-ferent periods of cerebral ischemia (30~ 120 min) and reperfusion (30 min), AVP mRNA expression in SON and PVN were more markedly increased than the controls. Condusions. The transcription of AVP gene elevated, then promoting synthesis and release of AVP in SON,PVN. Under the specific condition of cerebral ischemia and repeffusion, the activity and contents of central AVP in-creased abnormally is one of the important factors which causes ischemia brain damage.

  6. Diet salinity and vasopressin as reproduction modulators in the desert-dwelling golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanas, Uri; Haim, Abraham

    2004-06-01

    The time for reproduction in mammals largely depends on the availability of water and food in their habitat. Therefore, in regions where rains are limited to definite seasons of the year, mammals presumably will restrict their breeding correspondingly. But while mammals living in predictable ecosystems would benefit by timing their season to an ultimate predictable cue, such as photoperiod, in unpredictable ecosystems (e.g., deserts) they will need to use a more proximate signal. We suggest a mechanism by which water shortage (low water content in plants) could act as a proximate cue for ending the reproductive season. The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a diurnal rodent living in extreme deserts, may face an increased dietary salt content as the summer progresses and the vegetation becomes dry. Under laboratory conditions, increased diet salinity lead to reproductive hiatus in females, notable in imperforated vagina, and a significant decrease in the ovaries, uteri, and body masses. In females treated with vasopressin (VP), a hormone expressed during water stress, the uteri and body masses have decreased significantly, and the ovaries exhibited an increased number of atretic follicles. VP has also led to a significant decrease in relative medullary thickness (RMT) of the kidney. It is thus suggested that VP could act as a modulator linking the reproductive system with water economy in desert rodents, possibly through its act on the energetic pathways.

  7. Local Overexpression of V1a-Vasopressin Receptor Enhances Regeneration in Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs during disuse and aging, or as a consequence of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes. It is characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue due to hypotrophic changes, degeneration, and an inability of the regeneration machinery to replace damaged myofibers. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine known to mediate muscle atrophy in many chronic diseases and to inhibit skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, we investigated the role of Arg-vasopressin-(AVP-dependent pathways in muscles in which atrophy was induced by local overexpression of TNF. AVP is a potent myogenesis-promoting factor and is able to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration by stimulating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase and calcineurin signaling. We performed morphological and molecular analyses and demonstrated that local over-expression of the AVP receptor V1a enhances regeneration of atrophic muscle. By upregulating the regeneration/differentiation markers, modulating the inflammatory response, and attenuating fibrogenesis, the stimulation of AVP-dependent pathways creates a favourable environment for efficient and sustained muscle regeneration and repair even in the presence of elevated levels of TNF. This study highlights a novel in vivo role for AVP-dependent pathways, which may represent an interesting strategy to counteract muscle decline in aging or in muscular pathologies.

  8. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  9. Periconceptional undernutrition suppresses cortisol response to arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M H; Bloomfield, F H; Jaquiery, A L; Todd, S E; Thorstensen, E B; Harding, J E

    2012-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy can result in increased disease risk in adult offspring. Many of these effects are proposed to be mediated via altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) function, and are sex and age specific. Maternal undernutrition around the time of conception alters HPAA function in foetal and early postnatal life, but there are limited conflicting data about later effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate periconceptional undernutrition on HPAA function of offspring of both sexes longitudinally, from juvenile to adult life. Ewes were undernourished from 61 days before until 30 days after conception or fed ad libitum. HPAA function in offspring was assessed by arginine vasopressin plus corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4, 10 and 18 months. Plasma cortisol response was lower in males than in females, and was not different between singles and twins. Periconceptional undernutrition suppressed offspring plasma cortisol but not adrenocorticotropic hormone responses. In males, this suppression was apparent by 4 months, and was more profound by 10 months, with no further change by 18 months. In females, suppression was first observed at 10 months and became more profound by 18 months. Maternal undernutrition limited to the periconceptional period has a prolonged, sex-dependent effect on adrenal function in the offspring.

  10. Sevoflurane-induced down-regulation of hippocampal oxytocin and arginine vasopressin impairs juvenile social behavioral abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Yuan, Bao-Long; Niu, Li-Jun; Zhou, Xue; Huang, Wen-Qi; Feng, Xia; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that early childhood anesthesia can alter a child's future behavioral performance. Animal researchers have found that sevoflurane, the most commonly used anesthetic for children, can produce damage in the neonatal brains of rodents. To further investigate this phenomenon, we focused on the influence of sevoflurane anesthesia on the development of juvenile social behavioral abilities and the pro-social proteins oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the neonatal hippocampus. A single 6-h sevoflurane exposure for postnatal day 5 mice resulted in decreased OT and AVP messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the hippocampus. OT and AVP proteins became sparsely distributed in the dorsal hippocampus after the exposure to sevoflurane. Compared with the air-treated group, mice in the sevoflurane-treated group showed signs of impairment in social recognition memory formation and social discrimination ability. Sevoflurane anesthesia reduces OT and AVP activities in the neonatal hippocampus and impairs social recognition memory formation and social discrimination ability in juvenile mice.

  11. Distribution of vasopressin, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R-J; Shu, Y-M; Wang, J; Yin, J-C; Xu, L; Zhou, J-N

    2014-04-18

    Vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OXT) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the brain modulate physiological and behavioral processes in many vertebrates. Day-active tree shrews, the closest relatives of primates, live singly or in pairs in territories that they defend vigorously against intruding conspecifics. However, anatomy concerning peptidergic neuron distribution in the tree shrew brain is less clear. Here, we examined the distribution of VP, OXT and VIP immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using the immunohistochemical techniques. Most of VP and OXT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. In addition, VP-ir or OXT-ir neurons were scattered in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamic areas, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, stria terminalis, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala. Interestingly, a high density of VP-ir fibers within the ventral lateral septum was observed in males but not in females. Both VP-ir and VIP-ir neurons were found in different subdivisions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) with partial overlap. VIP-ir cells and fibers were also scattered in the cerebral cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, amygdala and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These findings provide a comprehensive description of VIP and a detailed mapping of VP and OXT in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews, which is an anatomical basis for the participation of these neuropeptides in the regulation of circadian behavior and social behavior.

  12. [Partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone and disproportionate polydipsia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, J; Botey, A; Revert, L

    1980-01-10

    A 20-year-old patient was evaluated because of polydipsia and polyuria; by means of the dehydration test a partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was demonstrated, since the urinary osmolality after the administration of exogenous vasopressin was superior by 25 percent to the maximum spontaneous urinary osmolality reached after a period of fluid restriction. Nevertheless, there was also a component of psychogenic polydipsia because the daily basal fluid intake was superior to 15 liters, and in view of the fact that the urinary osmolality could reach 600 mOsm/kg, the endocrine defect cannot totally be responsible for the enormous volume of fluid intake. This is the first case in the world literature in which the association between potomania and deficiency in the secretion of ADH is reported. Since ADH is one of the factors which regulate the behaviour of various animal species it is possible that its deficiency may be directly responsible for the psychic disorder which led to the potomania. It is also possible that an anatomical hypothalamic lesion, too small to be demonstrated, might have a simultaneous effect on the centers regulating thirst and the neurons producing vasopressin.

  13. Radiology today. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuck, F.H.W.; Donner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the following contents: Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging: Digital Arteriography: Ongoing Developments. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cardiovascular System. Comparison of Vascular CT and MRI. Characterization of Vascular Lesions by Ultrasound - Progress in Vascular Interventions: Laser Angioplasty: A Review. Fibrinolytic Therapy Combined with Clot Extraction. Drugs Useful in Angioplasty. Developments in Cardiovascular Imaging: Blood Flow Measurements with Digital Arteriography. Selection of Imaging Techniques for Venous Thromboembolic Disease. Clinical Usefulness of High-Verus Low-Osmolality Contrast Agents. Developments in Angiographic and Interventional Instrumentation. Progress in Cardiovascular Interventions. Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Types, Placement, and Efficiency. Transluminal Vascular Stenting and Grafting. Venography and Sclerotherapy of Varioceles in Children and Adolescents. A New Catheter System - Important Hip Problems: Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation and Hip Disease. Comparison of Imaging Modalities in Femoral Head Necrosis. Osteoartrosis and Arthritis (Synovitis) of the Hip. Hip Anthrography.

  14. Hemodynamic and ADH responses to central blood volume shifts in cardiac-denervated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Thompson, C. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Savin, W. M.; Gordon, E. P.; Haskell, W. L.; Schroeder, J. S.; Sandler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes designed to induce blood volume shifts in ten cardiac transplant recipients to assess the contribution of cardiac and vascular volume receptors in the control of ADH secretion. Each subject underwent 15 min of a control period in the seated posture, then assumed a lying posture for 30 min at 6 deg head down tilt (HDT) followed by 20 min of seated recovery. Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions (echocardiography) were taken at 0 and 15 min before HDT, 5, 15, and 30 min of HDT, and 5, 15, and 30 min of seated recovery. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Resting plasma volume (PV) was measured by Evans blue dye and percent changes in PV during posture changes were calculated from changes in hematocrit. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded every 2 min. Results indicate that cardiac volume receptors are not the only mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute blood volume shifts in man.

  15. Relationship between urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha excretion and plasma arginine vasopressin during renal concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, P; Danielsen, H; Eiskjaer, H; Jespersen, B; Knudsen, F; Kornerup, H J; Leyssac, P P; Nielsen, A H; Sørensen, S S

    1987-10-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were determined during urinary concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients and control subjects. During the concentrating test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha remained unchanged in the renal transplant recipients, whereas both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were significantly reduced in the control subjects. During the diluting test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha increased in both groups but, contrary to PGF2 alpha, PGE2 was significantly higher in all periods in the transplant recipients compared to the controls. However, the prostaglandin excretion rates per kidney were significantly higher in the renal transplant recipients than control subjects, for all periods during both the concentrating and the diluting test. Arginine vasopressin was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than control subjects during basal conditions, increased to a significantly higher level in the transplant recipients after thirst, but was reduced to the same levels in the two groups during the diluting test. It is concluded that the increased excretion of prostaglandins in renal transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon representing an adaptation to a reduced renal mass in order to maintain adequate renal water excretion. Although a direct relationship between the prostaglandin excretions of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and AVP does not seem to exist, it is possible that the higher prostaglandin excretion in the renal transplant recipients may be a counterbalancing mechanism to the higher AVP level, which most likely is secondary to a decreased responsiveness to vasopressin of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidney.

  16. Characterization of a novel vasopressin V1b receptor antagonist, V1B-30N, in animal models of anxiety-like and depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Robert A; Mullins, Deborra; Lu, Sherry X; Guzzi, Mario; Zhang, Xiaoping; Bleickardt, Carina J; Scott, Jack D; Miller, Michael W; Stamford, Andrew W; Parker, Eric M; Varty, Geoffrey B

    2014-05-05

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been linked to affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. Dampening HPA activity has, therefore, been considered as a possible means of treating affective disorders. Given the important role of vasopressin in modulating the HPA axis, one strategy has focused on inhibiting activity of the vasopressin 1b (V1b) receptor. In animals, V1b receptor antagonists reduce plasma stress hormone levels and have been shown to have an anxiolytic-like effect. Recently, V1B-30N was identified as a highly potent V1b receptor antagonist with selectivity over other vasopressin receptors, which is evaluated here in rodent models of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. V1B-30N (1-30mg/kg, IP) dose-dependently reduced separation-induced vocalizations in rat pups without producing any sedative effects in the animals. Similarly, V1B-30N (3-30mg/kg, IP) dose-dependently reduced separation-induced vocalizations in guinea pig pups. In a conflict assay, conditioned lick suppression, V1B-30N (3-30mg/kg, IP) increased punished licking. To assess antidepressive-like properties, V1B-30N (1-30mg/kg) was tested in the mouse and rat forced-swim tests but was found to be inactive. These results are consistent with previous findings with other V1b antagonists, which suggest that acute pharmacological antagonism of the V1b receptor has anxiolytic-like but not antidepressant-like properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vasopressin V1A receptor mediates cell proliferation through GRK2-EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway in A7r5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Xiaojun; Cao, Hong; Chen, Yunxuan; Chen, Xianfan; Zhao, Xi; Xu, Feifei; Wang, Yifan; Woo, Anthony Yiu-Ho; Zhu, Weizhong

    2016-12-05

    Abnormal proliferation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSMC), as the main structural component of the vasculature, is an important pathological mechanism of hypertension. Recently, increased levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of provasopressin, have been shown to correlate with the development of preeclampsia. AVP targets on the Gq-coupled vasopressin V1A receptor and the Gs-coupled V2 receptor in VSMC and the kidneys to regulate vascular tone and water homeostasis. However, the role of the vasopressin receptor on VSM cell proliferation during vascular remodeling is unclear. Here, we studied the effects of AVP on the proliferation of the rat VSMC-derived A7r5 cells. AVP, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, promoted A7r5 cell proliferation as indicated by the induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium reduction and incorporation of 5'-bromodeoxyuridine into cellular DNA. These effects, coupled with the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), were blocked by a V1A receptor antagonist SR45059 but not by a V2 receptor antagonist lixivaptan. Although acute activation of V1A receptor induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway, this effect was not involved in cell proliferation. Cell proliferation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to prolonged stimulation with AVP were abolished by inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using specific inhibitors or small hairpin RNA knock-down. These results suggest that activation of V1A, but not V2 receptor, produces a cell proliferative signal in A7r5 cells via a GRK2/EGFR/ERK1/2-dependent mechanism.

  18. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  19. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  20. Oxytocin alleviates orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity associated with infraorbital nerve injury through vasopressin-1A receptors of the rat trigeminal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Asako; Shinoda, Masamichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Takeda, Mamoru; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Asaka, Junichi; Yeomans, David C; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-12-17

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by hypothalamic neurons and has been reported to play a significant role in pain modulation. However, the mechanisms underlying OXT's antinociceptive effect on neuropathic pain are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the peripheral effect of OXT on mechanical hypersensitivity induced by partial ligation of the infraorbital nerve (PNL) in rats. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin after PNL was attenuated by the direct administration of OXT into the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The proportion of vasopressin-1A receptor (V1A-R)-immunoreactive, but not OXT-receptor-immunoreactive, neurons significantly increased among TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin after PNL. In a patch-clamp recording from TG neurons isolated from PNL rats, the resting membrane potential of OXT-treated neurons was significantly decreased, and the current thresholds of OXT-treated neurons for spike generation (rheobases) were significantly greater than those of vehicle-treated neurons. In addition, OXT increased voltage-gated K channel currents in PNL animals. Furthermore, intra-TG administration of a selective V1A-R antagonist reversed the OXT-induced alleviation of mechanical hypersensitivity, and coapplication of the antagonist opposed OXT's effects on the resting membrane potential, rheobase, and K current. These findings suggest that OXT is effective at suppressing TG neuronal hyperexcitability after nerve injury, likely by modulation of voltage-gated K channels through V1A-R. This signaling mechanism represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain.

  1. Early rearing experience is related to altered aggression and vasopressin production following chronic social isolation in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkeybile, Allison M; Bales, Karen L

    2015-04-15

    Parent-offspring interactions early in life can permanently shape the developmental path of those offspring. Manipulation of maternal care has long been used to alter the early-life environment of infants and impacts their later social behavior, aggression, and physiology. More recently, naturally occurring variation in maternal licking and grooming behavior has been shown to result in differences in social behavior and stress physiology in adult offspring. We have developed a model of natural variation in biparental care in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) and have demonstrated an association between the amount of early care received and later social behavior. In this study, we investigate the relationship between early life care and later aggression and neuroendocrine responses following chronic social isolation. Male and female offspring were reared by their high-contact (HC) or low-contact (LC) parents, then housed for 4 weeks post-weaning in social isolation. After 4 weeks, half of these offspring underwent an intrasexual aggression test. Brains and plasma were collected to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone (CORT). Male offspring of LC parents engaged in more aggressive behavior in the intrasexual aggression test compared to HC males. Female offspring of HC parents had higher plasma CORT levels after chronic social isolation and increases in the number and density of AVP-immunopositive cells in the supraoptic nucleus following an intrasexual aggression test. These findings show that the impact of early life biparental care on behavior and HPA activity following a social stressor is both sex-dependent and early experience-specific.

  2. Transient Diabetes Insipidus After Discontinuation of Vasopressin in Neurological Intensive Care Unit Patients: Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Forseth, James; Nakaji, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. A series of 6 neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP. To our knowledge, no previous reports of this phenomenon in neurosurgical patients have been published. We reviewed the clinical histories, intensive care unit treatment, medication administration records, and laboratory values of these patients, and we found recurrent elevated serum sodium and urine output and decreased urine specific gravity after discontinuation of AVP. Resolution of tDI occurred upon resumption of AVP or administration of desmopressin. Elevated serum sodium levels were often severe, resulting in worsened clinical outcomes. When AVP was resumed, tDI typically recurred if AVP was again tapered and discontinued. Routine administration of desmopressin was useful in controlling sodium levels until the tDI resolved. Recognition of this phenomenon has caused us to change our clinical management of neurosurgical patients receiving AVP. We hypothesize that tDI is caused by downregulation of the V2 receptor mass in the renal distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct cells. When AVP is discontinued, patients develop nephrogenic tDI secondary to decreased V2 receptor binding, which explains why desmopressin is effective in correcting tDI. Future research includes a large prospective study to determine risk factors for tDI, its incidence, and its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Joseph I; Song, Zhimin; Larkin, Tony E; Hardcastle, Nathan; Norvelle, Alisa; Riaz, Ansa; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-11-15

    There are profound sex differences in the incidence of many psychiatric disorders. Although these disorders are frequently linked to social stress and to deficits in social engagement, little is known about sex differences in the neural mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Phenotypes characterized by dominance, competitive aggression, and active coping strategies appear to be more resilient to psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those characterized by subordinate status and the lack of aggressiveness. Here, we report that serotonin (5-HT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in opposite ways in the hypothalamus to regulate dominance and aggression in females and males. Hypothalamic injection of a 5-HT1a agonist stimulated aggression in female hamsters and inhibited aggression in males, whereas injection of AVP inhibited aggression in females and stimulated aggression in males. Striking sex differences were also identified in the neural mechanisms regulating dominance. Acquisition of dominance was associated with activation of 5-HT neurons within the dorsal raphe in females and activation of hypothalamic AVP neurons in males. These data strongly indicate that there are fundamental sex differences in the neural regulation of dominance and aggression. Further, because systemically administered fluoxetine increased aggression in females and substantially reduced aggression in males, there may be substantial gender differences in the clinical efficacy of commonly prescribed 5-HT-active drugs such as selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. These data suggest that the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as PTSD may be more effective with the use of 5-HT-targeted drugs in females and AVP-targeted drugs in males.

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Staes

    Full Text Available Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼ 360 bp in this region (+/- DupB which includes a microsatellite (RS3. RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.

  5. Regulation of CFTR Expression and Arginine Vasopressin Activity Are Dependent on Polycystin-1 in Kidney-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Monteiro de Lemos Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by the development of multiple, progressive, fluid-filled renal cysts that distort the renal parenchyma, leading to end-stage renal failure, mainly after the fifth decade of life. ADPKD is caused by a mutation in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes that encode polycystin-1 (PC-1 and polycystin-2 (PC-2, respectively. PC-1 is an important regulator of several signaling pathways and PC-2 is a nonselective calcium channel. The CFTR chloride channel is responsible for driving net fluid secretion into the cysts, promoting cyst growth. Arginine vasopressin hormone (AVP, in turn, is capable of increasing cystic intracellular cAMP, contributing to cell proliferation, transepithelial fluid secretion, and therefore to disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess if AVP can modulate CFTR and whether PC-1 plays a role in this potential modulation. Methods: M1 cells, derived from mouse cortical collecting duct, were used in the current work. The cells were treated with 10-7 M AVP hormone and divided into two main groups: transfected cells superexpressing PC-1 (Transf and cells not transfected (Ctrl. CFTR expression was assessed by immunodetection, CFTR mRNA levels were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and CFTR net ion transport was measured using the Ussing chamber technique. Results: AVP treatment increased the levels of CFTR protein and mRNA. CFTR short-circuit currents were also increased. However, when PC-1 was overexpressed in M1 cells, no increase in any of these parameters was detected. Conclusions: CFTR chloride channel expression is increased by AVP in M1 cells and PC-1 is capable of regulating this modulation.

  6. Possible contribution of epigenetic changes in the development of schizophrenia-like behavior in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Kornél; Török, Bibiána; Fodor, Anna; Varga, János; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kovács, Krisztina J; Eszik, Ildikó; Szegedi, Viktor; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia-like symptoms were detected in vasopressin-deficient (di/di) Brattleboro rats, and it was also suggested that schizophrenia might have an epigenetic component. We aimed to clarify if epigenetic changes contribute to schizophrenia-like behavior of this strain. Behavioral (locomotion by telemetry, cognition by novel object recognition, social recognition and social avoidance test, attention by pre-pulse inhibition) and epigenetic differences were compared between wild type and di/di animals. DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), DNMT3a, as well as COMT, GAD, VGLUT1, 5HT2A, BDNF mRNA levels in prefrontal brain region and hippocampus were studied by qRT-PCR. Histone3 (H3) and H4 acetylation (Ac) were studied by western-blot followed by region specific examination of H3 lysine9 (K9) acetylation by immunohistochemistry. Impaired cognitive, social and attention behavior of di/di rats confirmed schizophrenia-like symptoms in our local colony. The pan-AcH3 immunoreactivity was lower in prefrontal region and elevated in the hippocampus of di/di animals. We found lower immunopositive cell number in the dorsal peduncular prefrontal cortex and the ventral lateral septum and increased AcH3K9 immunoreactivity in CA1 region of di/di animals. There were no major significant alterations in the studied mRNA levels. We confirmed that Brattleboro rat is a good preclinical model of schizophrenia. Its schizophrenia-like behavioral alteration was accompanied by changes in H3 acetylation in the prefrontal region and hippocampus. This may contribute to disturbances of many schizophrenia-related substances leading to development of schizophrenia-like symptoms. Our studies confirmed that not a single gene, rather fine changes in an array of molecules are responsible for the majority of schizophrenia cases.

  7. Arginine vasopressin, via activation of post-junctional V1 receptors, induces contractile effects in mouse distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariangela; Zizzo, Maria Grazia; Auteri, Michelangelo; Mulè, Flavia; Serio, Rosa

    2013-11-10

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether arginine vasopressin (AVP) may be considered a modulator of intestinal motility. In this view, we evaluated, in vitro, the effects induced by exogenous administration of AVP on the contractility of mouse distal colon, the subtype(s) of receptor(s) activated and the action mechanism. Isometric recordings were performed on longitudinal and circular muscle strips of mouse distal colon. AVP (0.001 nM-100 nM) caused concentration-dependent contractile effects only on the longitudinal muscle, antagonized by the V1 receptor antagonist, V-1880. AVP-induced effect was not modified by tetrodotoxin, atropine and indomethacin. Contractile response to AVP was reduced in Ca(2+)-free solution or in the presence of nifedipine, and it was abolished by depletion of calcium intracellular stores after repetitive addition of carbachol in calcium-free medium with addition of cyclopiazonic acid. U-73122, an inhibitor of the phospholipase C, effectively antagonized AVP effects, whilst it was not affected by an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor. Oxytocin induced an excitatory effect in the longitudinal muscle of distal colon at very high concentrations, effect antagonized by V-1880. The results of this study shown that AVP, via activation of V1 receptors, is able to modulate positively contractile activity of longitudinal muscle of mouse distal colon, independently by enteric nerve activation and prostaglandin synthesis. Contractile response is achieved by increase in cytoplasmatic Ca(2+) concentration via extracellular Ca(2+) influx from L-type Ca(2+) channels and via Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores through phospholipase C pathway. No modulation has been observed on the contractility of the circular muscle.

  8. Neuroticism modulates the effects of intranasal vasopressin treatment on the neural response to positive and negative social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; DeMarco, Ashley C; Haroon, Ebrahim; Rilling, James K

    2015-07-01

    Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait associated with proneness to feel negative affect. Here we ask how Neuroticism influences the neural response to positive and negative social interactions and how Neuroticism modulates the effect of intranasal oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on the neural response to social interactions. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 153 male participants were randomized to receive 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU AVP or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. On a different day, subjects completed the NEO personality inventory to measure Neuroticism. Neuroticism was positively correlated with the neural response to negative social interactions in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex and with the neural response to positive social interactions in the insula, indicating that Neuroticism modulates neuropsychological processing of both negative and positive social interactions. Neuroticism did not modulate the effect of intranasal OT treatment on the neural response to either positive or negative social interactions. On the other hand, AVP treatment significantly interacted with Neuroticism to modulate the BOLD response to both positive and negative social interactions. Specifically, AVP increased anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex and lateral temporal lobe responses to negative social interactions to a greater extent in participants scoring high rather than low on Neuroticism. AVP also increased the insula response to positive social interactions to a greater extent in participants scoring high rather than low on Neuroticism. These results imply that AVP may increase emotion regulation in response to negative social interactions and the salience of positive social interactions to a greater extent in individuals high compared to low in Neuroticism. The current findings urge caution against uniform clinical application of nonapeptides

  9. Inhibitory effect of high [Mg2+] on the vasopressin-stimulated hydroosmotic permeability of the isolated perfused cortical collecting duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available High magnesium concentration inhibits the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP on smooth muscle contraction and platelet aggregation and also influences hepatocyte AVP receptor binding. The aim of this study was to determine the role of magnesium concentration [Mg2+] in AVP-stimulated water transport in the kidney collecting duct. The effect of low and high peritubular [Mg2+] on the AVP-stimulated osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf was evaluated in the isolated perfused rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD. Control tubules bathed and perfused with standard Ringer bicarbonate solution containing 1 mM Mg2+ presented a Pf of 223.9 ± 27.2 µm/s. When Mg2+ was not added to the bathing solution, an increase in the AVP-stimulated Pf to 363.1 ± 57.2 µm/s (P<0.05 was observed. An elevation of Mg2+ to 5 mM resulted in a decrease in Pf to 202.9 ± 12.6 µm/s (P<0.05. This decrease in the AVP-stimulated Pf at 5 mM Mg2+ persisted when the CCDs were returned to 1 mM Mg2+, Pf = 130.2 ± 20.3 µm/s, and was not normalized by the addition of 8-[4-chlorophenylthio]-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, a cAMP analogue, to the preparation. These data indicate that magnesium may play a modulatory role in the action of AVP on CCD osmotic water permeability, as observed in other tissues.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  11. Are plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels reflective of amygdala activation during the processing of negative emotions? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eMotoki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with plasma OT (anxiolytic effects and AVP (anxiogenic effects levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  12. Structure, sequence, expression, and chromosomal localization of the human V{sub 1a} vasopressin receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibonnier, M.; Graves, M.K.; Wagner, M.S. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    We recently reported the structure and functional expression of a human V{sub 1a} vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1a}R) cDNA isolated from human liver cDNA libraries. To understand further the expression and regulation of the V{sub 1a}R, we now describe the genomic characteristics, tissue expression, chromosomal localization, and regional mapping of the human V{sub 1a}R gene, AVPR1A. Tissue distribution of the human V{sub 1a}R mRNA explored by Northern blot analysis of various human tissues or organs revealed the presence of a 5.5-kb mRNA transcript expressed in the liver and to a lesser degree in the heart, the kidney, and skeletal muscle. Screening of human genomic libraries revealed that the human AVPR1A gene is included entirely within a 6.4-kb rated by a 2.2-kb intron located before the corresponding seventh transmembrane domain of the receptor sequence. The first exon also contains 2 kb of 5{prime}-untranslated region, and the second exon includes 1 kb of 3{prime}-untranslated region. 5{prime}-RACE analysis of human liver mRNA by PCR localized the V{sub 1a}R mRNA transcription start site 1973 bp upstream of the translation the intron sequence were used as primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids. AVPR1A was localized by PCR analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel to chromosome 12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a yeast artificial chromosome physically mapped AVPR1A to region 12q14-q15. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Triarchic Psychopathy Dimensions in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Investigating Associations with Genetic Variation in the Vasopressin Receptor 1A Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Latzman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164, the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i.e., disinhibition, meanness, and boldness and (1 early social rearing experiences and (2 polymorphisms in the promoter region of the V1A receptor gene (AVPR1A. Among chimpanzees raised by their biological conspecific mothers, AVPR1A was found to uniquely explain variability in disinhibition and in sex-specific ways for boldness and a total psychopathy score; however, in contrast, no significant associations were found between AVPR1A and any of the triarchic psychopathy dimensions in chimpanzees raised the first 3 years of life in a human nursery. Thus, when considered in its entirety, results suggest an important contributory influence of V1A receptor genotype variation in the explanation of the development of psychopathy under some but not all early rearing conditions. Results of the current study provide additional support for the assertion that psychopathic tendencies are rooted in basic, evolutionarily-meaningful dispositions, and provide support for a primate-translational operationalization of key neurobehavioral constructs relevant both to psychopathy and to broader forms of psychopathology.

  14. P2X7 receptors in neurohypophysial terminals: evidence for their role in arginine-vasopressin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Adolfo E; Custer, Edward E; Bosworth, Elizabeth L; Lemos, José R

    2014-03-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in maintaining cardiovascular function and related pathologies. The mechanism involved in its release into the circulation is complex and highly regulated. Recent work has implicated the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, in a role for catecholamine-enhanced AVP release in the rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial (NH) system. However, the site of P2X7R action in this endocrine system, and whether or not it directly mediates release in secretory neurons have not been determined. We hypothesized that the P2X7R is expressed and mediates AVP release in NH terminals. P2X7R function was first examined by patch-clamp recordings in isolated NH terminals. Results revealed that subpopulations of isolated terminals displayed either high ATP-sensitivity or low ATP-sensitivity, the latter of which was characteristic of the rat P2X7R. Additional recordings showed that terminals showing sensitivity to the P2X7R-selective agonist, BzATP, were further inhibited by P2X7R selective antagonists, AZ10606120 and brilliant blue-G. In confocal micrographs from tissue sections and isolated terminals of the NH P2X7R-immunoreactivity was found to be localized in plasma membranes. Lastly, the role of P2X7R on AVP release was tested. Our results showed that BzATP evoked sustained AVP release in NH terminals, which was inhibited by AZ10606120. Taken together, our data lead us to conclude that the P2X7R is expressed in NH terminals and corroborates its role in AVP secretion.

  15. The osmotically and histamine-induced enhancement of the plasma vasopressin level is diminished by intracerebroventricularly administered orexin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Gyöngyi K; Molnár, Andor H; Daruka, Leila; Gardi, János; Rákosi, Kinga; László, Ferenc; László, Ferenc A; Varga, Csaba

    2012-04-01

    The effects of the centrally administered neuropeptides orexin-A on water intake and vasopressin (VP) secretion were studied in male Wistar rats (180-250 g). Different doses (10, 30, and 90 μg/10 μl) of the orexins and the specific orexin receptor-1 (OX(1)) antagonist SB 408124 (30 μg/10 μl) were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) under anaesthesia, and the water consumption was measured during 6 h. A plasma VP level elevation was induced by histamine (10 mg/kg) or 2.5% NaCl (10 ml/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). The plasma VP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Increased water consumption was observed after the administration of 30 μg/10 μl orexin-A. There were no changes in basal VP secretion after the administration of different doses of the orexins. A significant increase in plasma VP concentration was detected following histamine administration. After 2.5% NaCl administration, there was a moderate VP level enhancement. Intracerebroventricularly administered orexin-A (30 μg/10 μl) blocked the VP level increase induced by either histamine or 2.5% NaCl administration. The inhibitory effects were prevented by the specific OX(1) receptor antagonist. In conclusion, the orexins increased water consumption. After 30 μg/10 μl orexin-A administration, the polydipsia was more pronounced. The OX(1) receptor antagonist significantly decreased the polydipsia. Histamine or hyperosmotic VP release enhancement was blocked by previously administered orexin. This inhibition was not observed following OX(1) receptor antagonist administration. Our results suggest that the effects of the orexins on water consumption or blockade of the histamine and osmosis-induced VP level increase are mediated by the OX(1) receptor.

  16. Expression of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors, as well as corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in fornix transected rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Han; Hong Liu; Yanhui Zhang; Yuxiu Shi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hippocampus regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through negative feedback. The hypothalamic paraventdcular nucleus receives neuronal input from the hippocampus via the fornix.OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the negative feedback effect of the hippocampus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is contributed to the inhibitory effect of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus on the paraventricular nucleus via the fomix.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, animal experiment. The study was performed at the Department of Histology and Embryology, China Medical University between September 2006 and September 2008.MATERIALS: Rabbit anti-rat anti-MR and rabbit anti-rat anti-GR antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA. Rabbit anti-rat anti-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and rabbit anti-rat anti-arginine vasopressin antibodies were purchased from Wuhan Boster.METHODS: A total of 90 male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into model and sham-surgery groups (n=45). Fornix transection was performed in the model group, while the sham-surgery group underwent surgery, but no fornix transection.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, as well as CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus. Western blot was used to measure alterations in MR, GR, and CRH protein expression following fomix transection.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-surgery group, there were no obvious changes in MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, or CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus within 4 days of fornix transection. However, after 7-10 days, significantly decreased MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, and increased CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus were observed (P < 0.05-0.01).CONCLUSION: Negative feedback from the

  17. N-benzoyl-1,5-benzothiazepine and its S-oxide as vasopressin receptor ligands: insight into the active stereochemistry around the seven-membered ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Tetsuya; Tabata, Hidetsugu; Tasaka, Tomohiko; Oshitari, Tetsuta; Takahashi, Hideyo; Natsugari, Hideaki

    2015-04-09

    The stereochemistry of N-benzoyl-1,5-benzothiazepine and its S-oxide derivatives as vasopressin receptor ligands was examined in detail by freezing the conformation with a methyl group at the C6 or C9 of 1,5-benzothiazepine. It was revealed that the active forms recognized by the receptors are (cis,aS) for 1,5-benzothiazepine (5-7)-II and (cis,1S,aS) (syn) for its S-oxide (8-10)-II. The C9-methyl derivative of 1,5-benzothiazepine S-oxide (10-II) was designed and synthesized, achieving the putative active syn-isomer.

  18. The brain vasopressin system mediates maternal behaviour in lactating rats - impact of V1b receptors in hypothalamic and limbic brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bayerl, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Adequate maternal behaviour offers the best chance for the offspring to survive to maturity. This pro-social behaviour is known to be regulated by the nonapeptide arginine-vasopressin (AVP) amongst other peptidergic and non-peptidergic systems in rodents as well as in humans. Most research regarding the AVP system in maternal behaviour has focussed on the peptide itself and its V1a receptor (V1aR), and revealed a pivotal involvement in the regulation of different aspects of maternal behaviour...

  19. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  20. Influence of sedentary versus physically active conditions on regulation of plasma renin activity and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Patrick J

    2008-09-01

    Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Sedentary animals compared to physically active controls exhibit enhanced sympathoexcitatory responses, including arterial baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation. Hypotension-induced sympathoexcitation is also associated with the release of vasoactive hormones. We hypothesized that sedentary conditions may enhance release of the vasoactive hormones AVP and ANG II. To test this hypothesis, the humoral response to hypotension was examined in conscious rats after 9-12 wk of sedentary conditions or "normally active" conditions. Normally active conditions were produced by allowing rats access to running wheels in their home cages. Running distance peaked after 4 wk (4.5 +/- 0.7 km/day), and the total distance run after 9 wk was 174 +/- 23 km (n = 25). Similar levels of hypotension were induced in conscious sedentary or physically active animals with the arterial vasodilator, diazoxide (25 mg/kg iv). Control experiments used a saline injection of equivalent volume. Plasma samples were collected and assayed for plasma AVP concentration and plasma renin activity (PRA). Sedentary conditions significantly enhanced resting and hypotension-induced PRA relative to normal physical activity. In contrast, resting and hypotension-induced AVP levels were not statistically different between groups. These data suggest that baroreflex-mediated activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but not AVP secretion, is enhanced by sedentary conditions. We speculate that augmented activation of the renin-angiotensin system may be related to enhanced sympathetic outflow observed in sedentary animals and may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the sedentary population.

  1. In vivo biosynthesis of L-[35S]Cys-arginine vasopressin, -oxytocin, and -somatostatin: rapid estimation using reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Bourland, R E; Fernstrom, J D

    1981-10-01

    L[35S]Cys-arginine vasopressin, -oxytocin, and -somatostatin were purified from hypothalami and neurohypophyses 4 h after rats received L[35S]Cys via the third ventricle. After acetic acid extraction, Sephadex G-25 filtration, and chemoadsorption to C18-silica (Sep-Pak cartridges), the labeled peptides were rapidly separated by gradient elution, reversed phase, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identity and isotopic purity of the labeled peptides were determined by several reversed phase HPLC procedures in conjunction with chemical modification. The labeled peptide fractions were at least 50% radiochemically pure. Using this HPLC isolation procedure, incorporation of L-[35S]Cys into each peptide was determined n hydrated and dehydrated rats. Label incorporation into arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in the hypothalamus and the neurohypophysis of dehydrated rats was 2-3 times greater than that in hydrated rats. Incorporation of label into hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal somatostatin was unaffected by the hydration state of the animal. This procedure thus provides a very rapid, but sensitive, set of techniques for studying the control of small peptide biosynthesis in the brain.

  2. In vivo biosynthesis of L-(/sup 35/S)Cys-arginine vasopressin, -oxytocin, and -somatostatin: rapid estimation using reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Bourland, R.E.; Fernstrom, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    L(/sup 35/S)Cys-arginine vasopressin, -oxytocin, and -somatostatin were purified from hypothalami and neurohypophyses 4 h after rats received L(/sup 35/S)Cys via the third ventricle. After acetic acid extraction, Sephadex G-25 filtration, and chemoadsorption to C18-silica (Sep-Pak cartridges), the labeled peptides were rapidly separated by gradient elution, reversed phase, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identity and isotopic purity of the labeled peptides were determined by several reversed phase HPLC procedures in conjunction with chemical modification. The labeled peptide fractions were at least 50% radiochemically pure. Using this HPLC isolation procedure, incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)Cys into each peptide was determined in hydrated and dehydrated rats. Label incorporation into arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in the hypothalamus and the neurohypophysis of dehydrated rats was 2-3 times greater than that in hydrated rats. Incorporation of label into hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal somatostatin was unaffected by the hydration state of the animal. This procedure thus provides a very rapid, but sensitive, set of techniques for studying the control of small peptide biosynthesis in the brain.

  3. A novel splice site mutation of the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II gene identified in a kindred with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyun-Jung; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Shim, Sun-Mi; Yoo, Soon-Jib; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Son, Ho-Young; Kang, Sung-Koo

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is an inherited deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), and this is caused by mutations in the AVP-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene. Most of these mutations have been located in the signal peptide or in the NP II moiety. In the present study, we have analyzed the AVP-NP II gene in a Korean family. Clinical and genetic studies were performed on three members of the family, and on a normal healthy unrelated individual. The diagnosis of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus was done by performing a fluid deprivation test and a vasopressin challenge. For genetic analysis, the genomic DNA was extracted and the AVP-NP II gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical assessment of the affected individuals confirmed the diagnosis of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Genetic analysis of the AVP-NP II gene revealed a novel deletion mutation of a single nucleotide (guanine) within the splice acceptor site of intron 2 (IVS2 +1 delG). The affected individuals were heterozygous for this mutation. We also demonstrated through RT-PCR analysis of the mutant gene that this mutation resulted in the retention of intron 2 during pre-mRNA splicing. We concluded that a novel splicing mutation in the AVP-NP II gene causes neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in this family.

  4. Increase in oxytocin and vasopressin concentration in the blood outflowing from sella turcica region after superior cervical ganglion stimulation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, S.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion influences the oxytocin and vasopressin release into the blood in condition of the of the sella turcica integrity. The experiments were performed on male rats under urethane-chloralose anaesthesia. Four 0.7 ml samples of the blood from the sella turcica region flowing through a tube inserted in the maxillary interna vein were collected in the 30, 35, 60 and 90 min of the experiments. The animals were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) after the exposition of superior cervical ganglion. 3) after the collection of the 1-st sample of the blood the superior cervical ganglion was electrically stimulated for 30 min with trains of pulses. Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) were determined in the blood plasma by radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion evoked an significant increase of AVP and OXY release into the blood. The increase of AVP release occurred after 30 min longer latency than the increase of OXY release. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs.

  5. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade decreases vasopressin-induced water reabsorption and AQP2 levels in NaCl-restricted rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Nielsen, Jakob; Knepper, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin and ANG II, which are known to play a major role in renal water and sodium reabsorption, are mainly coupled to the cAMP/PKA and phosphoinositide pathways, respectively. There is evidence for cross talk between these intracellular signaling pathways. We therefore hypothesized that vaso......Vasopressin and ANG II, which are known to play a major role in renal water and sodium reabsorption, are mainly coupled to the cAMP/PKA and phosphoinositide pathways, respectively. There is evidence for cross talk between these intracellular signaling pathways. We therefore hypothesized......) vehicle infusion as the control (n = 8). All rats were maintained on a NaCl-deficient diet (0.1 meq Na+·200 g body wt−1·day−1) during the experiment. DDAVP treatment alone resulted in a significant decrease in urine output (3.1 ± 0.2 ml/day) compared with controls (11.5 ± 2.2 ml/day, P ... the urine output was significantly increased in response to DDAVP and candesartan cotreatment (9.8 ± 1.0 ml/day, P alone (3...

  6. Variants in adjacent oxytocin/vasopressin gene region and associations with ASD diagnosis and other autism related endophenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday M. Francis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing interest in oxytocin (peptide: OT, gene: OXT as a treatment pathway for neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Neurodevelopmental disorders affect functional, social, and intellectual abilities. With advances in molecular biology, research has connected multiple gene regions to the clinical presentation of ASD. Studies have also shown that the neuropeptide hormones OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP influence mammalian social and territorial behaviors and may have treatment potential for neurodevelopmental disorders. Published data examining molecular and phenotypic variation in ASD, such as cognitive abilities, are limited. Since most studies have focused on the receptors in the OT-AVP system, we investigated genetic variation within peptide genes for association with phenotypic ASD features that help identify subgroups within the spectrum.Methods: In this study, TDT analysis was carried out utilizing FBAT in 207 probands (156 trios and a European Ancestry (EA subsample (108 trios. The evolutionarily related and adjacent genes of OXT and AVP were studied for associations between the tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms and ASD diagnosis, social abilities, restrictive and repetitive behaviors, and IQ for cognitive abilities. Additionally, relationships with whole blood serotonin (WB5HT were explored because of the developmental relationships connecting plasma levels of OT and WB5HT within ASD.Results: Results indicate significant association between OXT rs6084258 (p=0.001 and ASD. Associations with several intermediate phenotypes were also noted: OXT rs6133010 was associated with IQ (full scale IQ, p=0.008; nonverbal IQ, p=0.010, verbal IQ, p=0.006; and OXT rs4813625 and OXT rs877172 were associated with WB5HT levels (EA, p=0.027 and p=0.033, respectively. Additionally, we measured plasma OT (pOT levels in a subsample (N=54. Results show the three polymorphisms, OXT rs6084258

  7. Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Sinke, Anne P.; Hadrup, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the plasma membrane and water reabsorption from the pro-urine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients...... urine volume, decreased urine osmolality and reverted hyponatremia in an SIADH rat model. AQP2 and adenylate cyclase 5/6 abundances were reduced in the inner medulla, but increased in the cortex and outer medulla, in the absence of any sign of toxicity. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data...... indicate that demeclocycline mainly attenuates hyponatremia in SIADH by reducing adenylate cyclase 5/6 expression, and consequently cAMP generation, AQP2 gene transcription and AQP2 abundance in the renal inner medulla, coinciding with a reduced vasopressin-escape response in the other collecting duct...

  8. Omnigen-AF reduces basal plasma cortisol, AWA cortisol release to adrencocorticotropic hormone or corticotrophin releasing hormone & vasopressin in lactating dairy cows under thermoneutral or acute heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in the adrenal cortisol response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 1...

  9. Serum blood metabolite response and evaluation of select organ weight, histology and cardiac morphology of beef heifers exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge following supplementation of

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to: 1) determine if supplementation of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride (ZH) altered select organ weights, histology and cardiac anatomical features at harvest and 2) determine if administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) challenge followi...

  10. An overview of SSR149415, a selective nonpeptide vasopressin V(1b) receptor antagonist for the treatment of stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradeil-Le Gal, Claudine; Wagnon, Jean; Tonnerre, Bernard; Roux, Richard; Garcia, Georges; Griebel, Guy; Aulombard, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) are key mediators in the organism's neuro-adaptive response to stress. Through pituitary and central vasopressin V(1b) receptors, AVP participates in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and is involved in various emotional processes. SSR149415 is the first selective, orally active vasopressin V(1b) receptor antagonist yet described. It is a competitive antagonist with nanomolar affinity for animal and human V(1b) receptors and displays a highly selective profile with regard to a large number of receptors or enzymes. In vitro, SSR149415 potently antagonizes functional cellular events associated with V(1b) receptor activation by AVP, such as intracellular Ca(2+) increase or proliferation in various cell systems. Pharmacological studies, performed by measuring ACTH secretion induced by various stimulants such as hormones (AVP or AVP + CRF) or physical stress (restraint or forced swimming stress and dehydration) in conscious rats or mice, confirm the antagonist profile of SSR149415 and its efficacy in normalizing ACTH secretion in vivo. SSR149415 is active by the oral route, at doses from 3 mg/kg, it potentiates CRF effect and displays a long-lasting oral effect in the different models. At 10 mg/kg p.o. its duration of action is longer than 4 h. This molecule also decreases anxiety and exerts marked antidepressant-like activity in several predictive animal models. The anxiolytic effects of SSR149415 have been demonstrated in various Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD) models (four-plate, punished drinking, elevated plus-maze, light dark, mouse defense test battery, fear-potentiated startle and social interaction tests). It is as effective as the benzodiazepine diazepam in the acute stress exposure test. SSR149415 has similar efficacy to the reference antidepressant drug, fluoxetine, in acute (forced-swimming) and chronic (chronic mild stress and subordination stress) situations in

  11. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  12. Vasopressin and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    hyperpolarizing pulses did not elicit an inward potassium rectifier current. Treatment with tetrodotoxin did not reveal the presence of an inward sodium current . The...potassium current or of a sodium current . of experimental solutions, as demonstrated by addition of a water-soluble dye. 4,4’.Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2...detected, leading us to was stepped to various hyperpolarized potentials in physio- conclude that a voltage-gated sodium current is not present. logical

  13. Early changes of endothelin,nitric oxide and arginine—vasopressin in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To ivvestigate the early changes and clinical significance of plasma endothelin(ET),nitric oxide(NO)and arginine-vasopressin(AVP)in patients wisth acute moderate or severe cerebral injury.Metods:The ealy(at24 hours after injury)plasma concentrations of ET,NOand AVP were measured with radionimmunoassay and Green technique in48cases of acute moderate(GCS≤8in27cases)or severe(GCS>8in21cases)cerebral injury(GroupA),in42cases of non-cerebral injury(GroupB)and in38normal individuals(GroupC),respectively,Results:The early plasma concentrations of ET(109.73ng/L±12.61ng/L),NO(92.82μmol/L013218.21μmol/L)andAVP(49.78ng/L±14.29ng/L)inGroup Awere higher than those in Group B(67。013211.33ng/L,52.66μmol/L±12.82μmol/Land29.93ng/L±12.11ng/L,respectiely,P<0.01)andGroupC(50.65ng/L±17.12ng/L,36.12μmol/L013212.16μmol/Land5.18ng/L±4.18ng/L,respectively,P<0.001).The amounts of ET,NOand AVPin patients with severe cerebral injury were 116.18ng/L±18.12ng/L,108.19μmol/L±13.28μmol/Land58.13ng/L±16.78ng/L,respectively,which were significantly higher than that of the patients with moderate cerebral injury(92.33ng/L±16.32ng/L,76.38μmol/L±12.71μmol/Land36.18ng/L±12.13ng/L respectively,P<0.01).The early levels of ET,NO and AVP in Group A were negatively related to the GCS scales.The amounts of ET,NO and AVP were126.23ng/L±15.23ng/L,118.18μmol/L±10.12μmol/Land63.49ng/L±14.36ng/Lrespectively in patients with subdural hematoma,which were significantly higher than those in patients with epidural hematoma(81.13ng/L±12.37ng/L,68.02μmol/L013213.18μmol/Land 45.63ng/L±12.41ng/L respectively,P<0.01).The plasma concentrations of ET,NO and AVP in stable duration(at336 hours after injury)in Group A and Group Bwere similar to those in GroupC.Conclusions:ET,NO and AVP were related to the pathophysiological process that occurs in the early stage of acute cerebral injury and the values of ET.NO and AVP correlate positively with the clinical manifestations,The changes

  14. Detection and high performance liquid chromatography identification of the summer rises of vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactivity in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Burbach, J P

    1987-11-01

    The vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) contents of the rat pineal gland during the summer period were determined by RIAs. Both the levels of VP immunoreactivity and OT immunoreactivity rose markedly in August. The highest level of VP immunoreactivity occurred on August 6 [82 +/- 19 fmol/gland (+/- SEM)], compared to basal levels of 14 +/- 2 fmol/gland. Basal levels of OT immunoreactivity of 20 +/- 8 fmol/gland increased to a peak level of 193 +/- 72 fmol/gland on August 14. Analysis of immunoreactive components by HPLC demonstrated that rises were due to the peptides coeluting with authentic VP and OT, respectively. Levels of immunoreactive VP and OT in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and hippocampus did not show variation during the summer. The results show that the VP and OT content of the pineal gland is regulated in a tissue-specific fashion by seasonal influences.

  15. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  16. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the putative associations of plasma copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin and a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, with obesity-related health problems, such as hyperlipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, high blood pressure and an android fat...... blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin......, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men....

  17. The oxytocin/vasopressin receptor family has at least five members in the gnathostome lineage, inclucing two distinct V2 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Lewicka, Michalina; Larhammar, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate oxytocin and vasopressin receptors form a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate a large variety of functions, including social behavior and the regulation of blood pressure, water balance and reproduction. In mammals four family members have been identified, three of which respond to vasopressin (VP) named V1A, V1B and V2, and one of which is activated by oxytocin (OT), called the OT receptor. Four receptors have been identified in chicken as well, but these have received different names. Until recently only V1-type receptors have been described in several species of teleost fishes. We have identified family members in several gnathostome genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to classify OT/VP-receptors across species and determine orthology relationships. Our phylogenetic tree identifies five distinct ancestral gnathostome receptor subtypes in the OT/VP receptor family: V1A, V1B, V2A, V2B and OT receptors. The existence of distinct V2A and V2B receptors has not been previously recognized. We have found these two subtypes in all examined teleost genomes as well as in available frog and lizard genomes and conclude that the V2A-type is orthologous to mammalian V2 receptors whereas the V2B-type is orthologous to avian V2 receptors. Some teleost fishes have acquired additional and more recent gene duplicates with up to eight receptor family members. Thus, this analysis reveals an unprecedented complexity in the gnathostome repertoire of OT/VP receptors, opening interesting research avenues regarding functions such as regulation of water balance, reproduction and behavior, particularly in reptiles, amphibians, teleost fishes and cartilaginous fishes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex-Dependent Effects of Prenatal Stress on Social Memory in Rats: A Role for Differential Expression of Central Vasopressin-1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundwald, N J; Benítez, D P; Brunton, P J

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) affects a number of traits in the offspring, including stress axis regulation, emotionality and cognition; however, much less is known about the effects of PNS on social memory and the underlying central mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated social preference, social memory under basal and stress conditions and olfactory memory for social and nonsocial odours in the adult offspring of dams exposed to social stress during late pregnancy. Given the key roles that the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems play in facilitating social memory, we further investigated the effects of PNS on the central expression of mRNA for oxytocin (Oxtr) and vasopressin-1a (Avpr1a) receptors. PNS did not affect social preference in either sex; however, social memory was impaired under basal conditions in PNS females but not PNS males. Accordingly, Avpr1a mRNA expression in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was unaltered in males but was significantly lower in PNS females compared to controls. No differences in Oxtr mRNA expression were detected between control and PNS offspring in either sex in any of the brain regions examined. Social memory deficits in PNS females persisted when social odours were used; however, this does not appear to be a result of impaired olfaction because memory for nonsocial odours was similar in control and PNS females. Under acute stress conditions, deficits in social memory were observed in both male and female control offspring; however, PNS males were unaffected. Moreover, acute stress facilitated social memory in PNS females and this was associated with an up-regulation of Avpr1a mRNA in the lateral septum and BNST. Our data support a role for altered signalling via central Avpr1a in PNS-induced sex-dependent changes in social memory and may have implications for understanding the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by social behaviour deficits in humans.

  19. Pregnancy may favour the development of severe autoimmune central diabetes insipidus in women with vasopressin cell antibodies: description of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellastella, Giuseppe; Bizzarro, Antonio; Aitella, Ernesto; Barrasso, Mariluce; Cozzolino, Domenico; Di Martino, Sergio; Esposito, Katherine; De Bellis, Annamaria

    2015-03-01

    Recently, an increased incidence of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in pregnancy, and less frequently in the post partum period, has been reported, most probably favoured by some conditions occurring in pregnancy. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of pregnancy on a pre-existing potential/subclinical hypothalamic autoimmunity. We studied the longitudinal behaviour of arginine-vasopressin cell antibodies (AVPcAbs) and post-pituitary function in two young women with a positive history of autoimmune disease and presence of AVPcAbs, but without clinical CDI, and who became pregnant 5 and 7 months after our first observation. The behaviour of post-pituitary function and AVPcAbs (by immunofluorescence) was evaluated at baseline, during pregnancy and for 2 years after delivery. AVPcAbs, present at low/middle titres at baseline in both patients, showed a titre increase during pregnancy in one patient and after delivery in the other patient, with development of clinically overt CDI. Therapy with 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) caused a prompt clinical remission. After a first unsuccessful attempt of withdrawal, the therapy was definitively stopped at the 6th and the 7th month of post partum period respectively, when AVPcAbs disappeared, accompanied by post-pituitary function recovery, persisting until the end of the follow-up. The determination of AVPcAbs is advisable in patients with autoimmune diseases planning their pregnancy, because they could be considered good predictive markers of gestational or post partum autoimmune CDI. The monitoring of AVPcAb titres and post-pituitary function during pregnancy in these patients may allow for an early diagnosis and an early replacement therapy, which could induce the disappearance of these antibodies with consequent complete remission of CDI.

  20. Effects of neural androgen receptor disruption on aggressive behavior, arginine vasopressin and galanin systems in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Raskin, Kalina; Bolborea, Matei; Monin, Marion; Picot, Marie; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the nervous system in the regulation of aggressive behavior and arginine vasopressin and galanin systems by testosterone. For this purpose, we used a conditional mouse line selectively lacking AR gene in the nervous system, backcrossed onto the C57BL/6J strain. Adult males were gonadectomized and supplemented with similar amounts of testosterone. When tested on two consecutive days in the resident intruder paradigm, fewer males of the mutant group exhibited aggressive behavior compared to their control littermates. In addition, a high latency to the first offensive attack was observed for the few animals that exhibited fighting behavior. This alteration was associated with a normal anogenital chemoinvestigation of intruder males. In olfactory discrimination tasks, sexual experience enhanced preference towards female-soiled bedding rather than male-soiled bedding and estrus females rather than intact males, regardless of genotype. This indicated that the behavioral alteration induced by neural AR mutation occurs in brain areas located downstream from the olfactory bulb. Quantification of the sexually dimorphic cell populations expressing preprovasopressin and galanin mRNAs in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) and vasopressin-neurophysin 2 and galanin immunoreactivity in the lateral septum showed no significant differences between the two genotypes. The present findings indicate that the neural AR is required in the expression of aggressive behavior but not in the sexual differentiation of AVP and galanin cell number in the BNST and fiber immunoreactivity in the lateral septum. They also suggest that AR in the nervous system could mediate activational effects of testosterone in the regulation of aggressive behavior during adulthood.

  1. Clinical efficacy observation of vasopressin and phentolamine in treatment for massive hemoptysis%垂体后叶素与酚妥拉明治疗大咯血疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏来

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察垂体后叶素,酚妥拉明两药单用和合用治疗大咯血的疗效。方法96例大咯血患者分3组:垂体后叶素组45例,采用注射垂体后叶素治疗;酚妥拉明组30例,注射酚妥拉明治疗;合用组21例:前二者同用,剂量稍减。比较3组患者治疗效果和不良反应情况。结果合用组总有效率为90.48%,高于垂体后叶素组和酚妥拉明组,与酚妥拉明组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);合用组不良反应率显著低于垂体后叶素组和酚妥拉明组(x2=4.7852、4.0728,P<0.05)。结论大咯血患者治疗中,后叶素与酚妥拉明合用优于单独使用治疗效果,并且具有较少的副反应。%Objective To investigate clinical effect of vasopressin and phentolamine in treatment for massive hemoptysis. Methods 96 cases of hemoptysis patients were divided into three groups: 45 cases of posterior pituitary vasopressin group, treated with injection of vasopressin; 30 cases of phentolamine group, treated with injection of phentolamine; 21 cases combined group, treated with both dose diminished. The therapeutic effect and adverse reactions of three groups were analyzed. Results After treatment, the total effective rate of combined group was 90.48%, higher than the vasopressin group and the phentolamine group, compared to phentolamine group with a significant difference (P < 0.05); The adverse reaction rate of combination group was significantly lower than that of the vasopressin group and phentolamine group (x2= 4.7852, 4.0728, P < 0.05). Conclusion The vasopressin combined with phentolamine in treatment of patients with massive hemoptysis has superior therapeutic effects and has fewer side effects.

  2. Hormonal and Thirst Modulated Maintenance of Fluid Balance in Young Women with Different Levels of Habitual Fluid Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan C. Johnson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surprisingly little is known about the physiological and perceptual differences of women who consume different volumes of water each day. The purposes of this investigation were to (a analyze blood osmolality, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and aldosterone; (b assess the responses of physiological, thirst, and hydration indices; and (c compare the responses of individuals with high and low total water intake (TWI; HIGH and LOW, respectively when consuming similar volumes of water each day and when their habitual total water intake was modified. Methods: In a single-blind controlled experiment, we measured the 24 h total water intake (TWI; water + beverages + food moisture of 120 young women. Those who consumed the highest (HIGH, 3.2 ± 0.6 L·day−1, mean ± SD and the lowest (LOW, 1.6 ± 0.5 L·day−1 mean habitual TWI were identified and compared. Outcome variables were measured during two ad libitum baseline days, a four-day intervention of either decreased TWI (HIGH or increased TWI (LOW, and one ad libitum recovery day. Results: During the four-day intervention, HIGH and LOW experienced differences in thirst (p = 0.002; also, a statistically significant change of AVP occurred (main effect of TWI and day, p < 0.001, with no effect (TWI or day on aldosterone and serum osmolality. Urine osmolality and volume distinguished HIGH from LOW (p = 0.002 when they consumed similar 24 h TWI.

  3. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  4. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  5. The Vasopressin 2 Receptor Antagonist Tolvaptan Improves Nutrition and Inflammatory States in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Takeyuki; Asai, Kazuki; Ozeki, Akiko; Saka, Marie; Hobo, Akinori; Furuta, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported that, in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, tolvaptan preserves residual renal function and ameliorates left ventricular hypertrophy. Here, we evaluated the effect of tolvaptan in terms of nutrition and inflammatory states. Of 24 incident PD patients with diabetes, 12 were assigned to a control group that did not receive tolvaptan, and 12, to a group that, 2 weeks after initiation of PD, received tolvaptan 15 mg daily for 12 months. At baseline and at 6 and 12 months after initiation of PD, we evaluated serum C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, urine volume, peritoneal ultrafiltration (UF), phosphate elimination, protein uptake, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and the diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Compared with the control group, the tolvaptan group experienced preserved urine volume and UF, lower LVMI and IVC diameter, and higher protein uptake. The average protein uptake was significantly correlated with urine volume, album