WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume holographic storage

  1. The Volume Holographic Optical Storage Potential in Azobenzene Containing Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Sanchez, Carlos; Alcalá, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    to be suitable for holographic storage applications. However, they still present several problems, mainly those related with light sensitivity, response time and stability of the stored information. In this article we review the work performed on volume holographic storage using azobenzene containing polymers......Volume holographic data storage is one of the most promising techniques to improve both the storage capacity of devices and the transfer data rate. Among the materials proposed as storage data media, azobenzene containing polymers have received much attention. Some of their properties seem...

  2. Volume holographic storage in photorefractives: material peculiarities and memory performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we review the currently achievable performances of holographic memories stored in photorefractive crystals. We discuss the dependence of the memory performances on the material peculiarities in three major aspects: storage capacity, data transfer rate,and image fidelity. In the recent years the research at Beijing Polytechnic University on the photorefractive holographic storage has been focused to the optimization of the storage capacity and diffraction efficiency, as well as the influence of noises on the fidelity of reconstructed images. Our research shows again that the realization of volume holographic storage technology requests materials with perfect properties.

  3. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  4. Experimental teaching and training system based on volume holographic storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuqing; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Chan; Cui, Yutong; Wan, Yuhong; Zou, Rufei

    2017-08-01

    The experiment of volume holographic storage for teaching and training the practical ability of senior students in Applied Physics is introduced. The students can learn to use advanced optoelectronic devices and the automatic control means via this experiment, and further understand the theoretical knowledge of optical information processing and photonics disciplines that have been studied in some courses. In the experiment, multiplexing holographic recording and readout is based on Bragg selectivity of volume holographic grating, in which Bragg diffraction angle is dependent on grating-recording angel. By using different interference angle between reference and object beams, the holograms can be recorded into photorefractive crystal, and then the object images can be read out from these holograms via angular addressing by using the original reference beam. In this system, the experimental data acquisition and the control of the optoelectronic devices, such as the shutter on-off, image loaded in SLM and image acquisition of a CCD sensor, are automatically realized by using LabVIEW programming.

  5. Eigenmode multiplexing with SLM for volume holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghao; Miller, Bo E.; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2017-08-01

    The cavity supports the orthogonal reference beam families as its eigenmodes while enhancing the reference beam power. Such orthogonal eigenmodes are used as additional degree of freedom to multiplex data pages, consequently increase storage densities for volume Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS) when the maximum number of multiplexed data page is limited by geometrical factor. Image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at multiple Bragg angles by using Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulators (SLMs) in reference arms. Total of nine holograms are recorded with three angular and three eigenmode.

  6. Cavity enhanced eigenmode multiplexing for volume holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E.; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated enhanced recording speeds by using a resonant optical cavity to semi-passively increase the reference beam power while recording image bearing holograms. In addition to enhancing the reference beam power the cavity supports the orthogonal reference beam families of its eigenmodes, which can be used as a degree of freedom to multiplex data pages and increase storage densities for volume Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). While keeping the increased recording speed of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles for expedited recording of four multiplexed holograms. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modifications to current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  7. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  8. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  9. From the surface to volume: concepts for the next generation of optical-holographic data-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Hagen, Rainer; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Fäcke, Thomas

    2011-05-09

    Optical data storage has had a major impact on daily life since its introduction to the market in 1982. Compact discs (CDs), digital versatile discs (DVDs), and Blu-ray discs (BDs) are universal data-storage formats with the advantage that the reading and writing of the digital data does not require contact and is therefore wear-free. These formats allow convenient and fast data access, high transfer rates, and electricity-free data storage with low overall archiving costs. The driving force for development in this area is the constant need for increased data-storage capacity and transfer rate. The use of holographic principles for optical data storage is an elegant way to increase the storage capacity and the transfer rate, because by this technique the data can be stored in the volume of the storage material and, moreover, it can be optically processed in parallel. This Review describes the fundamental requirements for holographic data-storage materials and compares the general concepts for the materials used. An overview of the performance of current read-write devices shows how far holographic data storage has already been developed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Volume holographic data storage at an areal density of 250 gigapixels/in.(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, G W; Jefferson, C M; Coufal, H; Jurich, M; Hoffnagle, J A; Macfarlane, R M; Shelby, R M

    2001-04-01

    One thousand volume holographic data pages, each containing 1x10(6)pixels , are stored in a common volume of LiNbO(3) :Fe by use of the 90 degrees geometry. An effective transverse aperture of 1.6 mm x 1.6mm , realized by repetition of this experiment at each of the eight surrounding locations, results in a demonstrated areal density of 394pixels/mum (2) (254 Gpixels/in. (2)) . Short-focal-length Fourier optics provide a tightly confined object beam at the crystal; the reference beam is angle multiplexed. Data pages retrieved with a 1024 x 1024 CCD camera are processed to remap bad spatial light modulator pixels and to compensate for global and local pixel misregistration and are then decoded with a strong 8-bits-from-12-pixels modulation code. The worst-case raw bit-error rate (BER) before error correction was 1.1x10(-3) , sufficient to deliver a user BER of 10(-12) at an overall code rate of 0.61 user bits per detector pixel. This result corresponds to 1.08% of the well-known theoretical volumetric density limit of 1/lambda(3) .

  11. Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar; Jeeva, S.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial review is presented to inform and inspire the reader to develop and integrate strong scientific links between liquid crystals and holographic data storage, from a materials scientist's viewpoint. The principle of holographic data storage as a means of providing a solution...... to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity...

  12. Volume polarization holographic recording in thick photopolymer for optical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan Huei; Cho, Sheng-Lung; Chou, Shin-Fu; Lin, June Hua; Lin, Chih Min; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Ken Yuh

    2014-06-16

    Based on a vector wave theory of volume holograms, dependence of holographic reconstruction on the polarization states of the writing and reading beams is discussed. It is found that under paraxial approximation the circular polarization holograms provide a better distinction of the reading beams. Characteristics of recording polarization holograms in thick phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer are experimentally investigated. It is found that the circular polarization holographic recording possesses better dynamic range and material sensitivity, and a uniform spatial frequency response over a wide range. The performance is comparable to that of the intensity holographic recording in PQ/PMMA. Based on theoretical analyses and the material properties, a polarization multiplexing holographic memory using circularly polarization recording configuration for increasing storage capacity has been designed and experimentally demonstrated.

  13. Peptide oligomers for holographic data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    chromophores-which appear particularly promising for erasable holographic data storage applications. The rationale for our approach is to use the structural properties of peptide-like molecules to impose orientational order on the chromophores, and thereby optimize the optical properties of the resulting...... materials. Here we show that holographic gratings with large first-order diffraction efficiencies (up to 80%) can be written and erased optically in oligomer films only a few micrometres thick. The holograms also exhibit good thermal stability, and are not erased after heating to 180 degrees C for one month...

  14. Rewritable azobenzene polyester for polarization holographic data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, A; Sajti, Sz.; Loerincz, Emoeke

    2000-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester films were examined by polarization holographic measurements. The new amorphous polyester film is the candidate material for the purpose of rewritable holographic memory system. Temporal formation of anisotropic and topographic...

  15. Volume holographic storage and multiplexing in blends of PMMA and a block methacrylic azopolymer, using 488 nm light pulses in the range of 100 ms to 1 s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcen, Patricia; Oriol, Luis; Sanchez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Blends of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and diblock methacrylic azopolymers have been investigated for holographic storage with short light pulses. Transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the dilution of the block copolymer in PMMA changes the microstructure from a lamellar to a s...

  16. Holographic Grating Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    EFFICIENCY GRATING ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT 167 4. 1 High-Efficiency Holographic Grating Desl ^ri Isaues .... 167 4.2 Computer Modeling of High...one or more higher orders is maximized . This distinguishes them from low-efficiency gratings which utilize the zero order at hi^h efficiency

  17. Biophotopol: A Sustainable Photopolymer for Holographic Data Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi; Márquez, Andrés; Neipp, Cristian; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Photopolymers have proved to be useful for different holographic applications such as holographic data storage or holographic optical elements. However, most photopolymers have certain undesirable features, such as the toxicity of some of their components or their low environmental compatibility. For this reason, the Holography and Optical Processing Group at the University of Alicante developed a new dry photopolymer with low toxicity and high thickness called biophotopol, which is very adequate for holographic data storage applications. In this paper we describe our recent studies on biophotopol and the main characteristics of this material. PMID:28817008

  18. Holographic memory for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Claire

    2002-09-01

    As computers and the internet become faster and faster, more and more information is transmitted, received, and stored everyday. The demand for high density and fast access time data storage is pushing scientists and engineers to explore all possible approaches including magnetic, mechanical, optical, etc. Optical data storage has already demonstrated its potential in the competition against other storage technologies. CD and DVD are showing their advantages in the computer and entertainment market. What motivated the use of optical waves to store and access information is the same as the motivation for optical communication. Light or an optical wave has an enormous capacity (or bandwidth) to carry information because of its short wavelength and parallel nature. In optical storage, there are two types of mechanism, namely localized and holographic memories. What gives the holographic data storage an advantage over localized bit storage is the natural ability to read the stored information in parallel, therefore, meeting the demand for fast access. Another unique feature that makes the holographic data storage attractive is that it is capable of performing associative recall at an incomparable speed. Therefore, volume holographic memory is particularly suitable for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition. In this paper, we review previous works on volume holographic memories and discuss the challenges for this technology to become a reality.

  19. A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Li, Jun

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system is presented. Simulated/experimental results are given. Combined with sub-page based data format, the system is simple and robust.

  20. Methacryluic Azopolymers for Holographic Storage: A Comparison among Different Polymer Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcén, Patricia; Oriol, Luis; Sánchez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The photoinduced anisotropy and volume holographic storage in a series of polymers with different architectures and azo contents of 7% and 20% in weight have been investigated. Measurements of the birefringence (An) induced with im- early polarised 488 nm light show that for polymers with an azo ...

  1. Holographically Encoded Volume Phase Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    optics ,” Nat. Photonics 4, 188–193 (2010). 26. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick volume holograms ,” Bell System Tech. J. 45(9), 2909–2944...phase masks Marc SeGall, Ivan Divliansky,* Clémence Jollivet, Axel Schülzgen, and Leonid B. Glebov University of Central Florida, College of Optics and...satisfying the Bragg condition of the hologram . Moreover, this approach enables the capability to encode and multiplex several phase masks into a single

  2. Digital wavelength-multiplexed holographic data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, David; Heanue, John F.; Bashaw, Matthew C.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1996-11-01

    We present a novel digital holographic data storage system based on wavelength multiplexing in 90 degrees geometry, using an automated tunable diode laser and a lithium niobate crystal. The automatic storage and retrieval of a 60-kbyte data file, as well as the limitations and future implementations of the system, are discussed.

  3. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mazhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  4. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, N.S., E-mail: najmemazhari86@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-10

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  5. Low-density parity-check codes for volume holographic memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Rahnavard, Nazanin; Ha, Jeongseok; Fekri, Faramarz; Adibi, Ali

    2003-02-10

    We investigate the application of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We show that a carefully designed irregular LDPC code has a very good performance in VHM systems. We optimize high-rate LDPC codes for the nonuniform error pattern in holographic memories to reduce the bit error rate extensively. The prior knowledge of noise distribution is used for designing as well as decoding the LDPC codes. We show that these codes have a superior performance to that of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and regular LDPC counterparts. Our simulation shows that we can increase the maximum storage capacity of holographic memories by more than 50 percent if we use irregular LDPC codes with soft-decision decoding instead of conventionally employed RS codes with hard-decision decoding. The performance of these LDPC codes is close to the information theoretic capacity.

  6. Holographic Data Storage with a Digital Micromirror Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Daniel; Sauncy, Toni; Allen, Charles; Dallas, Tim

    2007-10-01

    A holographic data system writes bits by recording the interference between a reference beam and an object beam containing data as a diffraction grating onto a photosensitive disc. The purpose of this research is to evaluate current designs and consider improvements such as the use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator. Other factors addressed are multiple incident angles for volume layering and improving bit contrast.

  7. Analysis of tolerances in polytopic-multiplexing holographic data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Tatsuro

    2016-04-10

    A fast Fourier transformation (FFT)-based simulator was developed to analyze a recovered image of a hologram formed by polytopic multiplexing holographic data storage and to determine the positional tolerances of optical devices. By focusing the positional shift of 4f configuration devices (phase mask, SLM, polytopic filter, and camera), the number of FFT iterations was reduced, and the calculation speed was improved. Using the simulator, the positional tolerances of these devices were determined. Also, to validate the simulator, simulated readout images under defocuses of the phase mask and camera were compared with experimentally obtained images and found to agree well.

  8. High density collinear holographic data storage system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Arai, Ryo; Ikeda, Junichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Ke; Liu, Jinpeng; Huang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Collinear holography has been good candidate for a volumetric recording technology of holographic data storage system (HDSS), because of there are not only large storage capacities, high transfer rates, but also the unique configuration, in which the information and reference beams are modulated co-axially by the same spatial light modulator, as a new read/write method for HDSS are very promising. The optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media (disc). In the disc structure, the preformatted reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and a dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density. As servo technologies are being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. In this paper, we introduced the principle of the collinear holography and its media structure of disc. Some results of experimental and theoretical studies suggest that it is a very effective method. We also discussed some methods to increase the recording density and data transfer rates of collinear holography using phase modulated page data format.

  9. Shift-Peristrophic Multiplexing for High Density Holographic Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenta Ushiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Holographic data storage is a promising technology that provides very large data storage capacity, and the multiplexing method plays a significant role in increasing this capacity. Various multiplexing methods have been previously researched. In the present study, we propose a shift-peristrophic multiplexing technique that uses spherical reference waves, and experimentally verify that this method efficiently increases the data capacity. In the proposed method, a series of holograms is recorded with shift multiplexing, in which the recording material is rotated with its axis perpendicular to the material’s surface. By iterating this procedure, multiplicity is shown to improve. This method achieves more than 1 Tbits/inch2 data density recording. Furthermore, a capacity increase of several TB per disk is expected by maximizing the recording medium performance.

  10. Wavelength-coded volume holographic imaging endoscope for multidepth imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Isela D; Han, Wanglei; Rice, Photini; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2017-10-01

    A wavelength-coded volume holographic imaging (WC-VHI) endoscope system capable of simultaneous multifocal imaging is presented. The system images light from two depths separated by 100  μm in a tissue sample by using axial chromatic dispersion of a gradient index probe in combination with two light-emitting diode sources and a multiplexed volume hologram to separate the images. This system is different from previous VHI systems in that it uses planar multiplexed gratings and does not require curved holographic gratings. This results in improved lateral imaging resolution from 228.1 to 322.5  lp/mm. This letter describes the design and fabrication of the WC-VHI endoscope and experimental images of hard and soft resolution targets and biological tissue samples to illustrate the performance properties. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  11. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  12. Modulation coding for pixel-matched holographic data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, G W; Ashley, J; Coufal, H; Grygier, R K; Hoffnagle, J A; Jefferson, C M; Marcus, B

    1997-05-01

    We describe a digital holographic storage system for the study of noise sources and the evaluation of modulation and error-correction codes. A precision zoom lens and Fourier transform optics provide pixel-to-pixel matching between any input spatial light modulator and output CCD array over magnifications from 0.8 to 3. Holograms are angle multiplexed in LiNbO(3):Fe by use of the 90 degrees geometry, and reconstructions are detected with a 60-frame/s CCD camera. Modulation codes developed on this platform permit image transmission down to signal levels of ~2000 photons per ON camera pixel, at raw bit-error rates (BER's) of better than 10(-5). Using an 8-12-pixel modulation code, we have stored and retrieved 1200 holograms (each with 45,600 user bits) without error, for a raw BER of <2x10(-8).

  13. A remarkably efficient azobenzene peptide for holographic information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.H.; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, S.

    1999-01-01

    of effective azobenzene peptides for optical recording. Gratings recorded in 10 can be erased-by circularly polarized light in a few-seconds. It is also noted that, unlike DNOs previously reported, 10 is soluble in common organic solvents and can be assembled by solution phase synthesis, which is mandatory......A new family of proline-based azobenzene peptides (DNO) for holographic information storage is reported.:By use of polarization holography, it was found that gratings with extraordinarily high diffraction efficiency (up to 80%) can be recorded in hundreds of milliseconds in a similar to 13-mu m......-thick film of dimer 10. This represents a decrease of the response time by more than 2 orders of magnitude when compared to that of the ornithine-based DNO dimer previously reported. Furthermore, it supports the expectation that increasing the rigidity of the peptide backbone is: crucial in the design...

  14. Coding Techniques to Reduce Material Saturation in Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Seth William

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is an emerging data storage technology that has received attention due to a high theoretical data capacity, fast readout times, and a potentially long lifetime of the recording materials. The work presented in this thesis was undertaken to solve one of the technical impediments preventing the widespread use of HDS, the occurrence of large concentrations of power in recorded holograms. Such peak values of optical power cause the medium to saturate during the recording process. As a result, the most significant portions of the hologram are not recorded accurately, and on readout, saturated recordings are not reconstructed correctly. In the implementation of HDS considered in this thesis, data is organized into an array of pixels using hybrid ternary modulation that contains an OFF-pixel and two different ON-pixels that are differentiated by their phase terms. The Fourier transform of this data array is created optically and the image of the Fourier transform is recorded holographically. This thesis presents a two-step coding technique that decreases the likelihood and severity of peaks in encoded holograms. In the first step, sparsity, the proportion of OFF-pixels in the array, is increased, which decreases the total power in the encoded array. In the second step, phase masks are used to alter the phase of ON-pixels to decrease periodic content in the data array. This reduces the likelihood of an encoded array containing large peak values at any point in the Fourier domain. Analysis is presented for the sparsity encoding which demonstrates the worst-case sparsity for certain system parameters. The performance of both the sparsity encoding and phase masking procedure are tested with numerical simulations. The results of these simulations indicate that these encoding techniques effectively inhibit the occurrence of large intensity peaks the holograms of encoded arrays.

  15. Rewritable three-dimensional holographic data storage via optical forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetisen, Ali K., E-mail: ayetisen@mgh.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Montelongo, Yunuen [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Butt, Haider [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    The development of nanostructures that can be reversibly arranged and assembled into 3D patterns may enable optical tunability. However, current dynamic recording materials such as photorefractive polymers cannot be used to store information permanently while also retaining configurability. Here, we describe the synthesis and optimization of a silver nanoparticle doped poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) recording medium for reversibly recording 3D holograms. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate organizing nanoparticles into 3D assemblies in the recording medium using optical forces produced by the gradients of standing waves. The nanoparticles in the recording medium are organized by multiple nanosecond laser pulses to produce reconfigurable slanted multilayer structures. We demonstrate the capability of producing rewritable optical elements such as multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, 1D photonic crystals, and 3D multiplexed optical gratings. We also show that 3D virtual holograms can be reversibly recorded. This recording strategy may have applications in reconfigurable optical elements, data storage devices, and dynamic holographic displays.

  16. Novel biphotonic holographic storage in a side-chain liquid crystalline polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, S.; Andruzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    We report novel biphotonic holographic storage of text and gratings on unoriented films of a side-chain liquid crystalline polyester capable of high density storage and complete erasure. The holograms have a typical size of 1 mm. The recording utilizes unusual photochemistry involving azo dye...

  17. Spectral multiplexing using stacked volume-phase holographic gratings - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Landoni, M.; Riva, M.; Bianco, A.

    2017-08-01

    Many focal-reducer spectrographs, currently available at state-of-the-art telescopes facilities, would benefit from a simple refurbishing that could increase both the resolution and spectral range in order to cope with the progressively challenging scientific requirements, but, in order to make this update appealing, it should minimize the changes in the existing structure of the instrument. In the past, many authors proposed solutions based on stacking subsequently layers of dispersive elements and recording multiple spectra in one shot (multiplexing). Although this idea is promising, it brings several drawbacks and complexities that prevent the straightforward integration of such a device in a spectrograph. Fortunately, nowadays, the situation has changed dramatically, thanks to the successful experience achieved through photopolymeric holographic films, used to fabricate common volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs). Thanks to the various advantages made available by these materials in this context, we propose an innovative solution to design a stacked multiplexed VPHG that is able to secure efficiently different spectra in a single shot. This allows us to increase resolution and spectral range enabling astronomers to greatly economize their awarded time at the telescope. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of our solution, both in terms of expected performance and feasibility, supposing the upgrade of the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS).

  18. Holographic storage of three-dimensional image and data using photopolymer and polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Liu, Pan; Zeng, Chao; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Zheng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jicheng; Zheng, Huadong; Yu, Ying-Jie; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang; Sun, Tao

    2016-09-01

    We present holographic storage of three-dimensional (3D) images and data in a photopolymer film without any applied electric field. Its absorption and diffraction efficiency are measured, and reflective analog hologram of real object and image of digital information are recorded in the films. The photopolymer is compared with polymer dispersed liquid crystals as holographic materials. Besides holographic diffraction efficiency of the former is little lower than that of the latter, this work demonstrates that the photopolymer is more suitable for analog hologram and big data permanent storage because of its high definition and no need of high voltage electric field. Therefore, our study proposes a potential holographic storage material to apply in large size static 3D holographic displays, including analog hologram displays, digital hologram prints, and holographic disks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474194, 11004037, and 61101176) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZR1415500).

  19. Volume phase holographic gratings for astronomy based on solid photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Insausti, Maider; Garzón, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHG) are gaining more and more interest as optical dispersing elements in new astronomical spectrographs at low and medium resolution. A key point is the development of new photosensitive materials suitable to produce VPHGs that match the stringent requirements of the astronomical environment. Here we report on the performances of VPHG based on Bayfol®HX solid photopolymer films developed by Bayer MaterialScience AG. Parameters affecting the grating efficiency (e. g. photopolymer film thickness and refractive index modulation) are measured and linked to the performances of VPHG working in the VIS-NIR region. Moreover, the behavior at low temperature and the aging properties of such materials/gratings are reported. Substantial efficiency gains on a new VPHG installed at the Asiago's spectrograph are shown and proven on the observation of a standard star (hr5501).

  20. Volume holographic imaging endoscopic design and construction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Isela D.; Han, Wanglei; Gordon, Michael; Rice, Photini; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2017-05-01

    A reflectance volume holographic imaging (VHI) endoscope has been designed for simultaneous in vivo imaging of surface and subsurface tissue structures. Prior utilization of VHI systems has been limited to ex vivo tissue imaging. The VHI system presented in this work is designed for laparoscopic use. It consists of a probe section that relays light from the tissue sample to a handheld unit that contains the VHI microscope. The probe section is constructed from gradient index (GRIN) lenses that form a 1:1 relay for image collection. The probe has an outer diameter of 3.8 mm and is capable of achieving 228.1 lp/mm resolution with 660-nm Kohler illumination. The handheld optical section operates with a magnification of 13.9 and a field of view of 390 μm×244 μm. System performance is assessed through imaging of 1951 USAF resolution targets and soft tissue samples. The system has also passed sterilization procedures required for surgical use and has been used in two laparoscopic surgical procedures.

  1. Volume holographic imaging endoscopic design and construction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Isela D; Han, Wanglei; Gordon, Michael; Rice, Photini; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2017-05-01

    A reflectance volume holographic imaging (VHI) endoscope has been designed for simultaneous in vivo imaging of surface and subsurface tissue structures. Prior utilization of VHI systems has been limited to ex vivo tissue imaging. The VHI system presented in this work is designed for laparoscopic use. It consists of a probe section that relays light from the tissue sample to a handheld unit that contains the VHI microscope. The probe section is constructed from gradient index (GRIN) lenses that form a 1:1 relay for image collection. The probe has an outer diameter of 3.8 mm and is capable of achieving 228.1 ?? lp / mm resolution with 660-nm Kohler illumination. The handheld optical section operates with a magnification of 13.9 and a field of view of 390 ?? ? m × 244 ?? ? m . System performance is assessed through imaging of 1951 USAF resolution targets and soft tissue samples. The system has also passed sterilization procedures required for surgical use and has been used in two laparoscopic surgical procedures.

  2. Holographic storage and multiplexing in azopolyester blends using low energy pulses down to 2 ms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berges, C.; Javakhishvili, I.; Hvilsted, S.

    2013-01-01

    Three different blends containing side-chain azobenzene polyesters and poly(methyl methacrylate) homopolymers have been prepared for recording volume holographic polarization gratings using 488 nm light pulses. The final azo content in the blends has been decreased down to 0.2 wt...

  3. Synthesis and optical storage properties of a thiophene-based holographic recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar; Jeeva, S.; Huddleston, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The results of the fabrication and optical data storage characteristics of a novel azothiophene polyester 9 for potential holographic storage are reported. The polyester is derived from an azothiophene diol 1 and diphenyl phthalate 8 via in vacuo melt transesterification. Inclusion of a 5-methoxy-2......-thienyl moiety generates a trans pi-pi* transition centered close to 405 nm. An investigation of the optical data storage characteristics of a solution cast film of azopolyester with a thickness of 65 mm is summarised. The optical anisotropy induced by a 532 nm frequency doubled YAG laser and probed...

  4. Spatially coupled low-density parity-check error correction for holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Norihiko; Katano, Yutaro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Kinoshita, Nobuhiro

    2017-09-01

    The spatially coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) was considered for holographic data storage. The superiority of SC-LDPC was studied by simulation. The simulations show that the performance of SC-LDPC depends on the lifting number, and when the lifting number is over 100, SC-LDPC shows better error correctability compared with irregular LDPC. SC-LDPC is applied to the 5:9 modulation code, which is one of the differential codes. The error-free point is near 2.8 dB and over 10-1 can be corrected in simulation. From these simulation results, this error correction code can be applied to actual holographic data storage test equipment. Results showed that 8 × 10-2 can be corrected, furthermore it works effectively and shows good error correctability.

  5. Analysis of holographic data storage using a PA-LCoS device

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Guardiola, Francisco Javier; Márquez, Andrés; Gallego, Sergi; Fenoll Gambín, Sandra; Ortuño, Manuel; Francés, Jorge; Bleda, Sergio; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Holographic data storage systems (HDSS) have been a promising and very appealing technology since the first laser developments in the sixties. Impact of ongoing advances in the various components needs to be explored in its specific application to HDSS. In this sense, continuous progress is being produced in spatial light modulator (SLM) technology where parallel-addressed liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) microdisplays have replaced previous liquid-crystal displays (LCD) in most of optics ...

  6. Polarization holographic high-density optical data storage in bacteriorhodopsin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Baoli; Ren, Zhiwei; Menke, Neimule; Wang, Yingli; Zheng, Yuan; Lei, Ming; Chen, Guofu; Hampp, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    Optical films containing the genetic variant bacteriorhodopsin BR-D96N were experimentally studied in view of their properties as media for holographic storage. Different polarization recording schemes were tested and compared. The influence of the polarization states of the recording and readout waves on the retrieved diffractive image's intensity and its signal-to-noise ratio were analyzed. The experimental results showed that, compared with the other tested polarization relations during holographic recording, the discrimination between the polarization states of diffracted and scattered light is optimized with orthogonal circular polarization of the recording beams, and thus a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high diffraction efficiency are obtained. Using a He-Ne laser (633 nm, 3 mW) for recording and readout, a spatial light modulator as a data input element, and a 2D-CCD sensor for data capture in a Fourier transform holographic setup, a storage density of 2 x 10(8) bits/cm2 was obtained on a 60 x 42 microm2 area in the BR-D96N film. The readout of encoded binary data was possible with a zero-error rate at the tested storage density.

  7. Multiplexed Holographic Optical Data Storage In Thick Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Gary, Charles K.; Ozcan, Meric; Smithey, Daniel T.; Crew, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The optical data storage capacity of photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films is investigated by means of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations, and experimental measurements on sequential recording of angularly multiplexed diffraction gratings inside a thick D85N BR film.

  8. Ultrahigh-definition dynamic 3D holographic display by active control of volume speckle fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Lee, Kyeoreh; Park, Jongchan; Park, Yongkeun

    2017-01-01

    Holographic displays generate realistic 3D images that can be viewed without the need for any visual aids. They operate by generating carefully tailored light fields that replicate how humans see an actual environment. However, the realization of high-performance, dynamic 3D holographic displays has been hindered by the capabilities of present wavefront modulator technology. In particular, spatial light modulators have a small diffraction angle range and limited pixel number limiting the viewing angle and image size of a holographic 3D display. Here, we present an alternative method to generate dynamic 3D images by controlling volume speckle fields significantly enhancing image definition. We use this approach to demonstrate a dynamic display of micrometre-sized optical foci in a volume of 8 mm × 8 mm × 20 mm.

  9. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  10. Cavity-enhanced eigenmode and angular hybrid multiplexing in holographic data storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-12-26

    Resonant optical cavities have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiencies in Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). The orthogonal reference beams supported as cavity eigenmodes can provide another multiplexing degree of freedom to push storage densities toward the limit of 3D optical data storage. While keeping the increased energy efficiency of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modification of current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  11. Holographic Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, NCR; Berg, RH

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...... storage. They exhibit high resolution, high diffraction efficiency, have long storage life, are fully erasable and are mechanically stable....

  12. Optimizing holographic data storage using a fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pégard, Nicolas C; Fleischer, Jason W

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate a method to optimize the reconstruction of a hologram when the storage device has a limited dynamic range and a minimum grain size. The optimal solution at the recording plane occurs when the object wave has propagated an intermediate distance between the near and far fields. This distance corresponds to an optimal order and magnification of the fractional Fourier transform of the object.

  13. Thin combiner optics utilizing volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hansen, Sven; Manecke, Christel; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther

    2017-06-01

    The main function of any augmented reality system is to seamlessly merge the real world perception of a viewer with computer generated images and information. Besides real-time head-tracking and room-scanning capabilities the combiner optics, which optically merge the natural with the artificial visual information, represent a key component for those systems. Various types of combiner optics are known to the industry, all with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Beside the well-established solutions based on refractive optics or surface gratings, volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) are a very attractive alternative in this field. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin, flat and invisible in Off Bragg conditions - make them perfectly suitable for their use in integrated and compact combiners. For any consumer application it is paramount to build unobtrusive and lightweight augmented reality displays, for which those volume holographic combiners are ideally suited. Due to processing challenges of (historic) holographic recording materials mass production of vHOE holographic combiners was not possible. Therefore vHOE based combiners found use in military applications only by now. The new Bayfol® HX instant developing holographic photopolymer film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Bayfol® HX provides full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency as well as an unprecedented optical clarity when compared to classical holographic recording materials like silver halide emulsions (AgHX) or dichromated gelatin (DCG). Bayfol® HX film is available in industrial scale and quality. Its properties can be tailored for various diffractive performances and integration methods. Bayfol® HX film is easy to process without any need for chemical or thermal development steps, offering simplified contact-copy mass production

  14. Real-time video demonstration of holographic disk data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Euiseok; Yoon, Pilsang; Kim, Nakyoung; Kang, Byongbok; Kim, Kunyul; Park, Jooyoun; Park, Jongyong

    2006-06-01

    A holographic data storage prototype fully integrated with electronics for video demonstration has been developed. It can record data in several tracks of a photopolymer disk and access them arbitrarily during retrieving process from the continuously rotating disk. An embedded controller operates all of the optomechanical components of the prototype automatically and electronic parts conduct adaptive data readout of channel data up to 55 megabit per sec. For real-time video demonstration, video stream are recorded in four concentric circular tracks of the disk. Each recording spot contains about one hundred pages with angle multiplexing. The eleven minute length video data are successfully reconstructed from the prototype.

  15. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  16. Multi-sample parallel estimation in volume holographic correlator for remote sensing image recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunli; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2009-11-23

    Based on volume holographic correlator, a multi-sample parallel estimation method is proposed to implement remote sensing image recognition with high accuracy. The essential steps of the method including image preprocessing, estimation curves fitting, template images preparation and estimation equation establishing are discussed in detail. The experimental results show the validity of the multi-sample parallel estimation method, and the recognition accuracy is improved by increasing the sample numbers.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2008-09-15

    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously.

  18. Littrow-type external-cavity blue laser for holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomiji; Takahashi, Kazuo; Sako, Kageyasu; Kasegawa, Ryo; Toishi, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Samuels, David; Takeya, Motonobu

    2007-06-01

    An external-cavity laser with a wavelength of 405 nm and an output of 80 mW has been developed for holographic data storage. The laser has three states: the first is a perfect single mode, whose coherent length is 14 m; the second is a three-mode state with a coherent length of 3 mm; and the third is a six-mode state with a coherent length of 0.3 mm. The first and second states are available for angular-multiplexing recording; all states are available for coaxial multiplexing recording. Due to its short wavelength, the recording density is higher than that of a 532 nm laser.

  19. Systems Issues Pertaining to Holographic Optical Data Storage in Thick Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Gary, Charles K.; Oezcan, Meric; Smithey, Daniel T.; Crew, Marshall; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The optical data storage capacity and raw bit-error-rate achievable with thick photochromic bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are investigated for sequential recording and read- out of angularly- and shift-multiplexed digital holograms inside a thick blue-membrane D85N BR film. We address the determination of an exposure schedule that produces equal diffraction efficiencies among each of the multiplexed holograms. This exposure schedule is determined by numerical simulations of the holographic recording process within the BR material, and maximizes the total grating strength. We also experimentally measure the shift selectivity and compare the results to theoretical predictions. Finally, we evaluate the bit-error-rate of a single hologram, and of multiple holograms stored within the film.

  20. Analysis of a collinear holographic storage system: introduction of pixel spread function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Ichimura, Shotaro; Fujimura, Ryushi; Kuroda, Kazuo; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2006-05-01

    Image formation in a collinear holographic storage system was analyzed. The wavefront from each pixel of a spatial light modulator was regarded as a plane wave in the recording medium, and its wave vector was determined by the position of the pixel. The hologram in the recording medium was treated as the summation of all gratings written by all combinations of two plane waves. The image of a data page was formed by diffraction of the reference waves by all gratings. The results of the simulation showed good agreement with experiment. We introduced the pixel spread function to describe the image formation characteristics. Analysis of the pixel spread function reveals that a radial-line pixel pattern for reference waves gave a sharper image than other reference pixel patterns. It is also shown that a random phase modulation applied to each reference pixel improved the image formation.

  1. PVA/AA photopolymers and PA-LCoS devices combined for holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Andrés.; Martínez, Francisco J.; Fernández, Roberto; Gallego, Sergi; Álvarez, Mariela L.; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a polyvinil alcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) photopolymer compound in a holographic memory testing platform to provide experimental results for storage and retrieval of information. We also investigate different codification schemes for the data pages addressed onto the parallel-addressed liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) device, used as the data pager, such as binary intensity modulation (BIM), and hybrid-ternary modulation (HTM), and we will see that an actual approximation for HTM can be obtained with a PA-LCoS device. We will also evaluate the effect of the time fluctuations in the PA-LCoS microdisplays onto the BIM and HTM regimes. Good results in terms of signal-tonoise ratio and bit-error ratio are provided with the experimental system and using the PVA/AA photopolymer produced in our lab, thus showing its potential and interest for future research focused on this material with highly tunable properties.

  2. Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope.

  3. Holographic recording of volume phase Fresnel lenses in ZnSe semiconductor material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshlykov, Sergei G

    2017-03-10

    Holographic recording of the relief-free volume phase Fresnel lenses in polycrystalline ZnSe semiconductor material, which is transparent from the visible to long-wave infrared wavelengths, is demonstrated. The room-temperature process of photomodification, which changes the refractive index of the semiconductor material dramatically (Δn=0.74-1.2) under illumination with low-intensity light, is used for recording the Fresnel lens employing a computer-generated photomask in the proximity configuration. The thin-plate volume phase diffractive optics offers broader functionality and at least three-fold cost reduction due to the saving of expensive material and labor. The possibility of recording of the volume phase diffraction gratings also in the active Cr-doped ZnSe material opens a door to the fabrication of mid-infrared lasers with narrowed and tunable emission spectra.

  4. Volume holographic reflection endoscope for in-vivo ovarian cancer clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, I. D.; Gordon, M.; Brownlee, J. W.; Barton, J. K.; Kostuk, R. K.

    2014-03-01

    We present the design for an endoscopic system capable of imaging tissues of the ovary at two selected imaging depths simultaneously. The method utilizes a multiplexed volume hologram to select wavefronts from different depths within the tissue. It is the first demonstration of an endoscopic volume holographic imaging system. The endoscope uses both gradient index (GRIN) optical components and off the shelf singlet lenses to relay an image from the distal tip to the proximal end. The endoscope has a minimum diameter of 3.75 mm. The system length is 30 cm which is connected to a handle that includes the holographic components and optics that relay the image to a camera. Preliminary evaluation of the endoscope was performed with tissue phantoms and calibrated targets, which shows lateral resolution ≍ 4 μm at an operating wavelength of 660 nm. The hologram is recorded in phenanthraquinone doped poly methacrylate and is designed to produce images from two tissue depths. One image is obtained at the tissue surface and the second 70 μm below the surface. This method requires no mechanical scanning and acquires an image at the camera frame rate. The preliminary ex-vivo results show good correlation with histology sections of the same tissue sections.

  5. Field lens multiplexing in holographic 3D displays by using Bragg diffraction based volume gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, G.

    2016-11-01

    Applications, which can profit from holographic 3D displays, are the visualization of 3D data, computer-integrated manufacturing, 3D teleconferencing and mobile infotainment. However, one problem of holographic 3D displays, which are e.g. based on space bandwidth limited reconstruction of wave segments, is to realize a small form factor. Another problem is to provide a reasonable large volume for the user placement, which means to provide an acceptable freedom of movement. Both problems should be solved without decreasing the image quality of virtual and real object points, which are generated within the 3D display volume. A diffractive optical design using thick hologram gratings, which can be referred to as Bragg diffraction based volume gratings, can provide a small form factor and high definition natural viewing experience of 3D objects. A large collimated wave can be provided by an anamorphic backlight unit. The complex valued spatial light modulator add local curvatures to the wave field he is illuminated with. The modulated wave field is focused onto to the user plane by using a volume grating based field lens. Active type liquid crystal gratings provide 1D fine tracking of approximately +/- 8° deg. Diffractive multiplex has to be implemented for each color and for a set of focus functions providing coarse tracking. Boundary conditions of the diffractive multiplexing are explained. This is done in regards to the display layout and by using the coupled wave theory (CWT). Aspects of diffractive cross talk and its suppression will be discussed including longitudinal apodized volume gratings.

  6. Wavelength techniques for digital holographic memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, David

    Holographic storage is a technique to store and retrieve information spread out in a volume, in contrast to current optical devices which store information locally on a surface. It provides for parallel page-by-page recording and readout of data instead of the usual serial, bit-by-bit, technique, and offers much higher diffraction-limited capacity. Success in the development of a competitive holographic storage device then depends on its cost, compactness and reliability. Since the first digital demonstrations, considerable effort by various groups has been spent in the development of high performance, practical holographic systems. This thesis presents several contributions toward this goal, suitable for holographic storage in lithium niobate and other applicable media. An intuitive explanation of volume holography is given, and Fourier analysis is used to derive the diffraction- limited capacity of digital storage in the form of elementary refractive index gratings. The physics of photorefractive materials, which are commonly used in holographic recording, is then presented, along with an established phenomenological model for grating formation. Following an analysis of imaging and multiplexing, a completely automated storage system implementing wavelength-multiplexed holography is described and evaluated, highlighting the feasibility of systems with fewer optical and mechanical components. The volatility of information in photorefractive media is then addressed by a demonstration of optical fixing, a technique based on two-photon recording mechanisms. Such an all-optical technique removes the need for heating elements, high voltages, or other post-processing elements currently used in non-volatile systems. Two-photon recording is also used to modulate, or apodize, the amplitude of volume gratings within the crystal bulk, providing a flexible technique to reduce cross-talk noise between stored pages and optimize the system capacity. Finally, simulations of

  7. Photopolymer-based holographic variable data storage system for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeja, M. K.; Ajith Kumar, P. T.; Achuthsankar, S. Nair

    2006-09-01

    Photopolymer based microholograms are gaining much importance in the field of security imaging, product authentication and prevention of document forgery. Security holograms, mass produced through soft or hard embossing, from electroformed metal master holograms are not amenable to store and retrieve variable data. On the other side, rapid developments in optical and digital technologies result in large scale counterfeiting of conventional security holograms and look-alike holograms of great exactitude is becoming a real threat to original manufacturers. In contrast to conventional recording materials, photopolymer holograms do not need wet processing. They are amenable to replication and, at the same time, can hold variable data. This, apart from security at various levels, facilitates machine readability, automation, easy tracking and effective maintenance of inventory. This paper presents design, development and performance evaluation of a photopolymer based holographic variable data storage system for security applications. A liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to create a modulated optical data beam that varies from hologram to hologram. Photopolymer films in tape form are applied for continuous recording of micro-holograms, synchronous with the variable data content. This is a novel, but simple data storage system and can be used to give added security, in conjunction with conventional holograms. Easy and on site verification by applying special reading devices and dedicated software is the other charm of the proposed system. Moreover, for added protection, variable key based data encryption can be applied effectively. System parameters like diffraction efficiency, recording speed, preprocessing requirements etc. are analyzed and the response of the photopolymer material is also evaluated.

  8. Highly efficient waveguide display with space-variant volume holographic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Peng, Yifan; Zhao, Qing; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    We propose a highly efficient waveguide display based on space-variant volume holographic gratings (SVVHGs). The local period and slant angle of the SVVHG vary along the tangential direction, enabling variant incident angles to satisfy the Bragg condition of the local gratings. As a result, we enlarge the field of view (FOV) without using the conventional multiplexing scheme, while achieving high efficiency and large FOV at the same time. We experimentally record the SVVHGs on Bayfol HX200 films. We demonstrate that the proposed display can achieve 31.9% system efficiency for a broadband light source and 52.3% for a coherent light source, 20° FOV, and high brightness uniformity, making it a promising candidate for widespread applications in the augmented reality (AR) industry.

  9. Intelligent holographic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbastathis, George

    Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features

  10. Influence of blue and red light illumination on the holographic storage in an azopolyester–PMMA blend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berges, C.; Díez, I.; Javakhishvili, Irakli

    2014-01-01

    Volume holographic polarization gratings have been stored in thick films of blends of a side-chain azobenzene polyester and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) homopolymers. The azobenzene content in the blend is 0.2wt%, and the holograms are recorded by using 2ms 4mJ/cm2 488nm light pulses...... the grating efficiency can be changed by blue and red light irradiation. By choosing appropriate conditions stable and rewritable polarization gratings have been recorded. Up to 20 gratings with diffraction efficiency values higher than 5×10−5 have been multiplexed....

  11. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  12. Binary Intensity Modulation and Hybrid Ternary Modulation Applied to Multiplexing Objects Using Holographic Data Storage on a PVA/AA Photopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Holographic data pages were multiplexed in a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer and a liquid crystal device was used to modify the object beam and store objects in the material. A peristrophic multiplexing method was used to store a large number of objects in the same spot of the material. The objects were stored using two different modulations: binary intensity modulation and hybrid ternary modulation. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER of the images was calculated in order to compare which modulation is most appropriate to be used for holographic data storage.

  13. Optimization of self-processing photopolymers as holographic storage material taking into account application requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Christiane; Lougnot, Daniel-Joseph

    1996-09-01

    Photopolymerizable systems were developed in Mulhouse as holographic recording materials. The direct generation of images with no post-treatment nor repositioning is their most attractive feature. Such media are ideally suited for real time interferometry. Compromises for definition of the exposure parameters were established, taking into account the desired diffraction efficiency and the exposure time that could not be lower than a few tenths of a second. On the other hand, the self-processing system was optimized for the recording of off-axis holographic lenses. With such a n end in view, the aim was not to attain the shortest and easiest handling time but the highest diffraction efficiency and the lowest optical noise. The diffracted beams were sharply focused and diffraction efficiencies higher than 80 percent were obtained at 514 nm. Since the chemical composition and the method of conditioning are very flexible, they can be adapted to meet the requirements for various applications.

  14. Image scale measurement with correlation filters in a volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2013-08-01

    A search engine containing various target images or different part of a large scene area is of great use for many applications, including object detection, biometric recognition, and image registration. The input image captured in realtime is compared with all the template images in the search engine. A volume holographic correlator is one type of these search engines. It performs thousands of comparisons among the images at a super high speed, with the correlation task accomplishing mainly in optics. However, the inputted target image always contains scale variation to the filtering template images. At the time, the correlation values cannot properly reflect the similarity of the images. It is essential to estimate and eliminate the scale variation of the inputted target image. There are three domains for performing the scale measurement, as spatial, spectral and time domains. Most methods dealing with the scale factor are based on the spatial or the spectral domains. In this paper, a method with the time domain is proposed to measure the scale factor of the input image. It is called a time-sequential scaled method. The method utilizes the relationship between the scale variation and the correlation value of two images. It sends a few artificially scaled input images to compare with the template images. The correlation value increases and decreases with the increasing of the scale factor at the intervals of 0.8~1 and 1~1.2, respectively. The original scale of the input image can be measured by estimating the largest correlation value through correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images. The measurement range for the scale can be 0.8~4.8. Scale factor beyond 1.2 is measured by scaling the input image at the factor of 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4, correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images, and estimating the new corresponding scale factor inside 0.8~1.2.

  15. Multiplexing storage using angular variation in a transmission holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Yeon-Gil, E-mail: jungyg@changwon.ac.kr

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous angular multiplexing of transmission gratings in a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) film as a function of resin and film compositions, irradiation intensity, and cell thickness has been studied by exposing the material to three coherent laser beams. It was found that the diffraction efficiency monotonically increases with irradiation intensity and cell gap, whereas a maximum of 43% is obtained at specific compositions of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA)/N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) = 8/1 and polymer/LC = 65/35. The multiplexed gratings have been captured using SEM imaging and the reconstructed images using a charge-coupled device camera, showing successful reconstructed images of gratings. - Highlights: • Multiplex images were well recorded using simultaneous angular method. • The periodic structures of the LC and polymer regions were well prepared. • The angular selectivity was variable nevertheless fabrication by three beams. • The images were successfully reconstructed in gratings of same spot.

  16. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: volume phase holographic grating performance testing and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Meyer, Elliot; Wright, Shelley A.; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc

    2014-07-01

    Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82μm (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19-1.37μm (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000. The center wavelengths for each grating are 1.629μm and 1.27μm, and the groove densities are 177l/mm and 440l/mm for H-band R=4000 and J-band R=8000, respectively. We directly measure the efficiencies in the lab and find that the peak efficiencies of these two types of gratings are quite good with a peak efficiency of ~88% at the Bragg angle in both TM and TE modes at H-band, and 90.23% in TM mode, 79.91% in TE mode at J-band for the best vendor. We determine the drop in efficiency off the Bragg angle, with a 20-23% decrease in efficiency at H-band when 2.5° deviation from the Bragg angle, and 25%-28% decrease at J-band when 5° deviation from the Bragg angle.

  17. A two-dimensional partial response maximum likelihood detection scheme for misalignment compensation in holographic data storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong

    2017-09-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) detection scheme for misalignment compensation for holographic data storage systems is proposed. In the proposed detection scheme, a misalignment estimator and a predetermined table are added to the conventional 2D PRML scheme to estimate and reflect the effect of misalignment in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. In the vertical detection, the misalignment estimator located behind the vertical 2D equalizer and one-dimensional PRML detector estimates the misalignment by the adaptive least-mean-square algorithm (LMS). To improve the estimation accuracy, the misalignment is estimated iteratively by modifying the vertical equalizer coefficients reflecting the estimated misalignment. By considering the estimated misalignment, the vertical 2D equalizer coefficients, horizontal 2D equalizer coefficients, and 2D partial response (PR) target are selected among the predetermined table. In the predetermined table, the vertical and horizontal 2D equalizer coefficients for various misalignments were previously computed on the basis of the misalignment and 2D PR target by the LMS. By employing the horizontal 2D equalizer coefficients and 2D PR target reflecting the misalignment in the horizontal detection, the effect of misalignment is effectively mitigated. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has more than 3 dB gains than the conventional scheme in the 10% misalignment in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  18. Photoinitiation and Inhibition under Monochromatic Green Light for Storage of Colored 3D Images in Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guannan; Ni, Mingli; Peng, Haiyan; Huang, Feihong; Liao, Yonggui; Wang, Mingkui; Zhu, Jintao; Roy, V A L; Xie, Xiaolin

    2017-01-18

    Holographic photopolymer composites have garnered a great deal of interest in recent decades, not only because of their advantageous light sensitivity but also due to their attractive capabilities of realizing high capacity three-dimensional (3D) data storage that is long-term stable within two-dimensional (2D) thin films. For achieving high performance holographic photopolymer composites, it is of critical importance to implement precisely spatiotemporal control over the photopolymerization kinetics and gelation during holographic recording. Though a monochromatic blue light photoinitibitor has been demonstrated to be useful for improving the holographic performance, it is impractical to be employed for constructing holograms under green light due to the severe restriction of the First Law of Photochemistry, while holography under green light is highly desirable considering the relatively low cost of laser source and high tolerance to ambient vibration for image reconstruction. Herein, we disclose the concurrent photoinitiation and inhibition functions of the rose bengal (RB)/N-phenylglycine (NPG) system upon green light illumination, which result in significant enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) gratings from zero up to 87.6 ± 1.3%, with an augmentation of the RB concentration from 0.06 × 10(-3) to 9.41 × 10(-3) mol L(-1). Interestingly, no detectable variation of the ϕ(1/2)kp/kt(1/2), which reflects the initiation efficiency and kinetic constants, is given when increasing the RB concentration. The radical inhibition by RBH(•) is believed to account for the greatly improved phase separation and enhanced diffraction efficiency, through shortening the weight-average polymer chain length and subsequently delaying the photopolymerization gelation. The reconstructed colored 3D images that are easily identifiable to the naked eye under white light demonstrate great potential to be applied for advanced

  19. Design of high-resolution and multilevel reference pattern for improvement of both light utilization efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio in coaxial holographic data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2014-06-10

    A high-resolution and multilevel designed reference pattern (DRP) is presented for improvement of both light utilization efficiency and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of reconstructed images in coaxial holographic data storage. With a DRP, the desired Fourier power spectrum of a reference beam is obtained. Numerical and experimental results show that the DRP increases the SNR compared with that of a random phase mask (RPM). Moreover, the light utilization efficiency of the DRP is higher than that of a high-resolution RPM. In addition, the effect of the phase level and the pixel pitch of DRPs on the SNR and the light utilization efficiency are investigated.

  20. Regenerative flywheel storage system, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    A vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  1. Holographic Baryons and Instanton Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Melnikov, Dmitry; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    In a wide class of holographic models, like the one proposed by Sakai and Sugimoto, baryons can be approximated by instantons of non-abelian gauge fields that live on the world-volume of flavor D-branes. In the leading order, those are just the Yang-Mills instantons, whose solutions can be constructed from the celebrated ADHM construction. This fact can be used to study various properties of baryons in the holographic limit. In particular, one can attempt to construct a holographic description of the cold dense nuclear matter phase of baryons. It can be argued that holographic baryons in such a regime are necessarily in a solid crystalline phase. In this review we summarize the known results on the construction and phases of crystals of the holographic baryons.

  2. Holographic baryons and instanton crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Melnikov, Dmitry; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    In a wide class of holographic models, like the one proposed by Sakai and Sugimoto, baryons can be approximated by instantons of non-Abelian gauge fields that live on the world-volume of flavor D-branes. In the leading order, those are just the Yang-Mills instantons, whose solutions can be constructed from the celebrated Atiyah-Drinfeld-Hitchin-Manin (ADHM) construction. This fact can be used to study various properties of baryons in the holographic limit. In particular, one can attempt to construct a holographic description of the cold dense nuclear matter phase of baryons. It can be argued that holographic baryons in such a regime are necessarily in a solid crystalline phase. In this review, we summarize the known results on the construction and phases of crystals of the holographic baryons.

  3. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  4. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  5. Enhanced 2/3 four-ary modulation code using soft-decision Viterbi decoding for four-level holographic data storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced 2/3 four-ary modulation code using soft-decision Viterbi decoding is proposed for four-level holographic data storage systems. While the previous four-ary modulation codes focus on preventing maximum two-dimensional intersymbol interference patterns, the proposed four-ary modulation code aims at maximizing the coding gains for better bit error rate performances. For achieving significant coding gains from the four-ary modulation codes, we design a new 2/3 four-ary modulation code in order to enlarge the free distance on the trellis through extensive simulation. The free distance of the proposed four-ary modulation code is extended from 1.21 to 2.04 compared with that of the conventional four-ary modulation code. The simulation result shows that the proposed four-ary modulation code has more than 1 dB gains compared with the conventional four-ary modulation code.

  6. Performance optimization in mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in smart glasses and augmented reality (SG and AR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept, discuss the opto-mechanical construction and outline the downstream process of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we focus on aspects like performance optimization of the copy vHOE, the bleaching process and the suitable choice of protective cover film in the re-lamination step, preparing the integration of the vHOE into the final device.

  7. Fischler Susskind holographic cosmology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pablo; Per, M. A.; Segui, Antonio

    2007-11-01

    When Fischler and Susskind proposed a holographic prescription based on the particle horizon, they found that spatially closed cosmological models do not verify it due to the apparently unavoidable recontraction of the particle horizon area. In this paper, after a short review of their original work, we expose graphically and analytically that spatially closed cosmological models can avoid this problem if they expand fast enough. It has also been shown that the holographic principle is saturated for a codimension one-brane dominated universe. The Fischler Susskind prescription is used to obtain the maximum number of degrees of freedom per Planck volume at the Planck era compatible with the holographic principle.

  8. Holographic investigations of azobenzene-containing low-molecular-weight compounds in pure materials and binary blends with polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audorff, Hubert; Walker, Roland; Kador, Lothar; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2011-11-04

    This paper reports on the synthesis and the thermal and optical properties of photochromic low-molecular-weight compounds, especially with respect to the formation of holographic volume gratings in the pure materials and in binary blends with polystyrene. Its aim is to provide a basic understanding of the holographic response with regard to the molecular structure, and thus to show a way to obtain suitable rewritable materials with high sensitivity for holographic data storage. The photoactive low-molecular-weight compounds consist of a central core with three or four azobenzene-based arms attached through esterification. Four different cores were investigated that influence the glass transition temperature and the glass-forming properties. Additional structural variations were introduced by the polar terminal substituent at the azobenzene chromophore to fine-tune the optical properties and the holographic response. Films of the neat compounds were investigated in holographic experiments, especially with regard to the material sensitivity. In binary blends of the low-molecular-weight compounds with polystyrene, the influence of a polymer matrix on the behavior in holographic experiments was studied. The most promising material combination was also investigated at elevated temperatures, at which the holographic recording sensitivity is even higher. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Shrinkage measurement for holographic recording materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Gallego, S.; Márquez, A.; Francés, J.; Navarro Fuster, V.; Neipp, C.; Ortuño, M.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2017-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for new holographic recording materials. One of them are photopolymers, which are becoming a classic media in this field. Their versatility is well known and new possibilities are being created by including new components, such as nanoparticles or dispersed liquid crystal molecules in classical formulations, making them interesting for additional applications in which the thin film preparation and the structural modification have a fundamental importance. Prior to obtaining a wide commercialization of displays based on photopolymers, one of the key aspects is to achieve a complete characterization of them. In this sense, one of the main parameters to estimate and control is the shrinkage of these materials. The volume variations change the angular response of the hologram in two aspects, the angular selectivity and the maximum diffraction efficiency. One criteria for the recording material to be used in a holographic data storage application is the shrinkage, maximum of 0.5%. Along this work, we compare two different methods to measure the holographic recording material shrinkage. The first one is measuring the angle of propagation for both diffracted orders +/-1 when slanted gratings are recorded, so that an accurate value of the grating vector can be calculated. The second one is based on interference measurements at zero spatial frequency limit. We calculate the shrinkage for three different photopolymers: a polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (PVA/AA) based photopolymer, one of the greenest photopolymers whose patent belongs to the Alicante University called Biophotopol and on the last place a holographic-dispersed liquid crystal photopolymer (H-PDLC).

  10. Volume phase holographic gratings for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph: performance measurements of the prototype grating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouser, Robert H.; Arns, James; Gunn, James E.

    2014-08-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a major instrument under development for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea. Four identical, fixed spectrograph modules are located in a room above one Nasmyth focus. A 55 m fiber optic cable feeds light into the spectrographs from a robotic fiber positioner mounted at the telescope prime focus, behind the wide field corrector developed for Hyper Suprime-Cam. The positioner contains 2400 fibers and covers a 1.3 degree hexagonal field of view. Each spectrograph module will be capable of simultaneously acquiring 600 spectra. The spectrograph optical design consists of a Schmidt collimator, two dichroic beamsplitters to separate the light into three channels, and for each channel a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating and a dual- corrector, modified Schmidt reimaging camera. This design provides a 275 mm collimated beam diameter, wide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 380 nm to 1.26 µm, and good imaging performance at the fast f/1.1 focal ratio required from the cameras to avoid oversampling the fibers. The three channels are designated as the blue, red, and near-infrared (NIR), and cover the bandpasses 380-650 nm (blue), 630-970 nm (red), and 0.94-1.26 µm (NIR). A mosaic of two Hamamatsu 2k×4k, 15 µm pixel CCDs records the spectra in the blue and red channels, while the NIR channel employs a 4k×4k, substrate-removed HAWAII-4RG array from Teledyne, with 15 µm pixels and a 1.7 µm wavelength cutoff. VPH gratings have become the dispersing element of choice for moderate-resolution astronomical spectro- graphs due their potential for very high diffraction efficiency, low scattered light, and the more compact instru- ment designs offered by transmissive dispersers. High quality VPH gratings are now routinely being produced in the sizes required for instruments on large telescopes. These factors made VPH gratings an obvious choice for PFS. In order to reduce risk to the project, as well as fully exploit the performance

  11. Holographic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  12. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  13. Temperature-induced spectrum response of volume grating as an effective strategy for holographic sensing in acrylamide polymer part I: sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Zhou, Ke; Mao, Dongyao; Liu, Langbo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Weibo; Song, Qinggong

    2016-12-10

    Temperature-induced diffraction spectrum responses of holographic gratings are characterized for exploring the temperature-sensing capability of a holographic sensor. Linear blue shift of peak wavelength and linear diffraction reduction are observed. It provides quantitative expressions for sensing applications. Inorganic nanoparticles are dispersed into the binder to improve sensing properties. Obvious improvement of sensing parameters, including wavelength shift and diffraction change, is confirmed. The sensitivity, response rate, and linear response region of holographic sensors are determined to evaluate sensing capacity. Influence of relative humidity on holographic sensing response is discussed. Expansion of humidity range provides a probability for extending the range of wavelength shift. Finally, the temperature response reversibility of a holographic sensor is evaluated. These experimental results can expand the practical application field of holographic sensing strategy and accelerate the development of holographic sensors.

  14. Holographic versatile disc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi

    2005-09-01

    A Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) system, using Collinear Technologies for a high capacity and high data transfer rates storage system, is proposed. With its unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as a DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the disc. With the HVD's special structure, the system can servo the focus/track and locate reading/writing address. A unique selectable capacity recording format of HVD and its standardization activity are also introduced. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the tilt, wavelength, defocus and de-track margins are wide enough to miniaturize the HVD system at a low cost. HVD systems using Collinear Technologies will be compatible with existing disc storage systems, like CD and DVD, and will enable us to expand its applications into other optical information storage systems.

  15. Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Kairat, E-mail: kairatmyrzakul@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-10

    It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.

  16. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  17. Holographic complexity for time-dependent backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, we will analyze the holographic complexity for time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries. We will first use a covariant zero mean curvature slicing of the time-dependent bulk geometries, and then use this co-dimension one spacelike slice of the bulk spacetime to define a co-dimension two minimal surface. The time-dependent holographic complexity will be defined using the volume enclosed by this minimal surface. This time-dependent holographic complexity will reduce to the usual holographic complexity for static geometries. We will analyze the time-dependence as a perturbation of the asymptotically AdS geometries. Thus, we will obtain time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries, and we will calculate the holographic complexity for such time-dependent geometries.

  18. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  19. Holographic Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, T.; Fischler, W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a cosmology of the very early universe, based on the holographic principle of 't Hooft and Susskind. We have described the initial state as a dense black hole fluid. Here we present a mathematical model of this heuristic picture, as well as a non-rigorous discussion of how a more normal universe could evolve out of such a state. The gross features of the cosmology depend on a few parameters, which cannot yet be calculated from first principles. For some range of these parameters, ...

  20. Holographic technidilaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Kazumoto; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2010-09-01

    Technidilaton, a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of scale symmetry, was predicted long ago in the scale-invariant/walking/conformal technicolor (SWC-TC) as a remnant of the (approximate) scale symmetry associated with the conformal fixed point, based on the conformal gauge dynamics of ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation with nonrunning coupling. We study the technidilaton as a flavor-singlet bound state of technifermions by including the technigluon condensate (tGC) effect into the previous (bottom-up) holographic approach to the SWC-TC, a deformation of the holographic QCD with γm≃0 by large anomalous dimension γm≃1. With including a bulk scalar field corresponding to the gluon condensate, we first improve the operator product expansion of the current correlators so as to reproduce gluonic 1/Q4 term both in QCD and SWC-TC. We find in QCD about 10% (negative) contribution of gluon condensate to the ρ meson mass. We also calculate the oblique electroweak S-parameter in the presence of the effect of the tGC and find that for the fixed value of S the tGC effects dramatically reduce the flavor-singlet scalar (technidilaton) mass MTD (in the unit of Fπ), while the vector and axial-vector masses Mρ and Ma1 are rather insensitive to the tGC, where Fπ is the decay constant of the technipion. If we use the range of values of tGC implied by the ladder SD analysis of the nonperturbative scale anomaly in the large Nf QCD near the conformal window, the phenomenological constraint S≃0.1 predicts the technidilaton mass MTD˜600GeV which is within reach of LHC discovery.

  1. Mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol® HX photopolymer film in a roll-to-roll copy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in augmented and virtual reality (AR and VR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept and discuss the mechanical construction of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we treat aspects like master design, effects of vibration and suppression of noise gratings. Furthermore, digital vHOEs are introduced as master holograms. They enable new ways of optical design and paths to large scale vHOEs.

  2. Holographic Gratings in Azobenzene Side-Chain Polymethacrylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andruzzi, Luisa; Altomare, Angelina; Ciardelli, Francesco

    1999-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin unoriented liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain azobenzene polymethacrylate films are examined by polarization holographic measurements. The investigated materials are free radical copolymers derived from two photochromic monomers, 6-(4-oxy-4...

  3. Holographic equipartition and the maximization of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, P. B.; Mathew, Titus K.

    2017-09-01

    The accelerated expansion of the Universe can be interpreted as a tendency to satisfy holographic equipartition. It can be expressed by a simple law, Δ V =Δ t (Nsurf-ɛ Nbulk) , where V is the Hubble volume in Planck units, t is the cosmic time in Planck units, and Nsurf /bulk is the number of degrees of freedom on the horizon/bulk of the Universe. We show that this holographic equipartition law effectively implies the maximization of entropy. In the cosmological context, a system that obeys the holographic equipartition law behaves as an ordinary macroscopic system that proceeds to an equilibrium state of maximum entropy. We consider the standard Λ CDM model of the Universe and show that it is consistent with the holographic equipartition law. Analyzing the entropy evolution, we find that it also proceeds to an equilibrium state of maximum entropy.

  4. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  5. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000 pound class are described. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  6. Type II Forward Storage Site Facilities: POMCUS System. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    fluctuate cyclically, enemy air strikes and conventional artillery weapons, although thermal and direct visual camouflage tech- c. There are equipment...guidance in terms of the best "state-of-the- art " POMCUS operations, especially the 10. TI 55-46-1, Standard Characteristics (Dimensions, mobilization issue...storage and retrieval.(2] workship area to accommodate b. 4.12.2 Workshop area shall be testing and servicing of stored approximately 20 square meters

  7. Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

  8. Reusable holographic velocimetry system based on polarization multiplexing in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Chan, V.S.S.; Ooms, T.A.; Bhattacharya, N.; Westerweel, J.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) system using a reversible holographic material as the recording medium. In HPIV the three-dimensional flow field throughout a volume is detected by adding small tracer particles to a normally transparent medium. By recording the

  9. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume I. Technical report. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Chan, Y.K.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume I gives a brief overview of the SIMWEST program and describes the two NASA defined simulation studies.

  10. Holographic reflector for reflective LCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsushi; Murillo-Mora, Luis M.; Iwata, Fujio

    1997-05-01

    We describe a new holographic optical element to improve the image's quality of a reflective liquid crystal displays (LCDs). This new holographic reflector consists basically of 2 layers: a volume type transmission hologram layer and a metallic reflection layer. Compared with conventional reflectors for reflective LCDs, a high optical efficiency can be obtained because the hologram is able to concentrate the reflected light to the observer's eyes. Also, it avoids the problems of glare in the LCDs by deviating the reflected incident light (used for display) away from the direction of the direct reflection light. The transmission hologram's low wavelength selectivity permits us to obtain a near white color reflector for reflective LCDs which for multiple applications is the preferable color for the background.

  11. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  12. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  13. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume III. Program descriptions. [SIMWEST CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume III, the SIMWEST program description contains program descriptions, flow charts and program listings for the SIMWEST Model Generation Program, the Simulation program, the File Maintenance program and the Printer Plotter program. Volume III generally would not be required by SIMWEST user.

  14. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume II. Operation manual. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume II, the SIMWEST operation manual, describes the usage of the SIMWEST program, the design of the library components, and a number of simple example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation. Volume II also contains a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  15. Storage Reliability Missile Materiel Program. Storage Reliability Summary Report. Volume 2. Electromechanical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    gyroscopes has improved in the last ton years. Sub- atantially highor roltability for gyros i•i within the state of the art but only at a significantly...FITS Microminiature .1168 0 (򔤲) Miniature .7244 0 (򒴤) Rotary .164 0 k򓾒) Solenoid .370 0 (򓉏) Sw.- 2 pole .318 0 (򓐉) Thermal .458 0...of-the- art . 5-13 TABLE 5.1-11. NON-OPERATING DATA BY RELAY TYPE NON-OPERATING STORAGE FAILURE RATE TYPE HRS. IN MILLIONS FAILURES INIFITS General

  16. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  17. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  18. The holographic universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, P.L.; Skenderis, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a holographic description of four-dimensional single-scalar inflationary universes in terms of a three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). The holographic description correctly reproduces standard inflationary predictions in their regime of applicability. In the opposite case, wherein

  19. Spatial distribution of residence time, microbe and storage volume of groundwater in headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Maki; Ogawa, Mahiro; Yamamoto, Chisato; Sakakibara, Koichi; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Kato, Kenji; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Yano, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    Headwater catchments in mountainous region are the most important recharge area for surface and subsurface waters, and time and stock information of the water is principal to understand hydrological processes in the catchments. Also, a variety of microbes are included in the groundwater and spring water, and those varies in time and space, suggesting that information of microbe could be used as tracer for groundwater flow system. However, there have been few researches to evaluate the relationship among the residence time, microbe and storage volume of the groundwater in headwater catchments. We performed an investigation on age dating using SF6 and CFCs, microbe counting in the spring water, and evaluation of groundwater storage volume based on water budget analysis in 8 regions underlain by different lithology, those are granite, dacite, sedimentary rocks, serpentinite, basalt and volcanic lava all over Japan. We conducted hydrometric measurements and sampling of spring water in base flow conditions during the rainless periods 2015 and 2016 in those regions, and SF6, CFCs, stable isotopic ratios of oxygen-18 and deuterium, inorganic solute concentrations and total number of prokaryotes were determined on all water samples. Residence time of spring water ranged from 0 to 16 years in all regions, and storage volume of the groundwater within topographical watershed was estimated to be 0.1 m to 222 m in water height. The spring with the longer residence time tends to have larger storage volume in the watershed, and the spring underlain by dacite tends to have larger storage volume as compared with that underlain by sand stone and chert. Also, total number of prokaryotes in the spring water ranged from 103 to 105 cells/mL, and the spring tends to show clear increasing of total number of prokaryotes with decreasing of residence time. Thus, we observed a certain relationship among residence time, storage volume and total number of prokaryotes in the spring water, and

  20. Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-06-01

    A holographic display system for realizing a three-dimensional optical see-through augmented reality (AR) is proposed. A multi-functional holographic optical element (HOE), which simultaneously performs the optical functions of a mirror and a lens, is adopted in the system. In the proposed method, a mirror that is used to guide the light source into a reflection type spatial light modulator (SLM) and a lens that functions as Fourier transforming optics are recorded on a single holographic recording material by utilizing an angular multiplexing technique of volume hologram. The HOE is transparent and performs the optical functions just for Bragg matched condition. Therefore, the real-world scenes that are usually distorted by a Fourier lens or an SLM in the conventional holographic display can be observed without visual disturbance by using the proposed mirror-lens HOE (MLHOE). Furthermore, to achieve an optimized optical recording condition of the MLHOE, the optical characteristics of the holographic material are measured. The proposed holographic AR display system is verified experimentally.

  1. Temperature-induced spectrum response of a volume grating as an effective strategy for holographic sensing in an acrylamide polymer part II: physical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Zhou, Ke; Mao, Dongyao; Liu, Langbo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Weibo; Song, Qinggong

    2016-12-10

    The temperature response mechanism of a diffraction spectrum in a holographic grating is characterized. Two possible major factors, changes in the refractive index and thermal expansion, are measured and analyzed to identify the sensing physical mechanism. Average refractive indices at various temperatures and relative humidity values are independently measured. Thermal optical coefficients of polymers are estimated quantitatively to evaluate the temperature response capability of the refractive index. Angle selectivity of multiplexing gratings is scanned at various temperatures to obtain magnitudes of Bragg angle detuning. The linear thermal expansion coefficients are extracted by the nonlinear fitting reading angle dependence of angle detuning. The significance of the thermal optical coefficient and the thermal expansion coefficient for holographic sensing is discussed. Finally, the primary factor for temperature-induced wavelength blueshift is analyzed theoretically.

  2. Lake volume and groundwater storage variations in Tibetan Plateau's endorheic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Yao, Tandong; Shum, C. K.; Yi, Shuang; Yang, Kun; Xie, Hongjie; Feng, Wei; Bolch, Tobias; Wang, Lei; Behrangi, Ali; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Weicai; Xiang, Yang; Yu, Jinyuan

    2017-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world, with complex and competing cryospheric-hydrologic-geodynamic processes, is particularly sensitive to anthropogenic warming. The quantitative water mass budget in the TP is poorly known. Here we examine annual changes in lake area, level, and volume during 1970s-2015. We find that a complex pattern of lake volume changes during 1970s-2015: a slight decrease of -2.78 Gt yr-1 during 1970s-1995, followed by a rapid increase of 12.53 Gt yr-1 during 1996-2010, and then a recent deceleration (1.46 Gt yr-1) during 2011-2015. We then estimated the recent water mass budget for the Inner TP, 2003-2009, including changes in terrestrial water storage, lake volume, glacier mass, snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture, and permafrost. The dominant components of water mass budget, namely, changes in lake volume (7.72 ± 0.63 Gt yr-1) and groundwater storage (5.01 ± 1.59 Gt yr-1), increased at similar rates. We find that increased net precipitation contributes the majority of water supply (74%) for the lake volume increase, followed by glacier mass loss (13%), and ground ice melt due to permafrost degradation (12%). Other term such as SWE (1%) makes a relatively small contribution. These results suggest that the hydrologic cycle in the TP has intensified remarkably during recent decades.

  3. Fifth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Fifth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies held September 17 - 19, 1996, at the University of Maryland, University Conference Center in College Park, Maryland. As one of an ongoing series, this conference continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include storage architecture, database management, data distribution, file system performance and modeling, and optical recording technology. There will also be a paper on Application Programming Interfaces (API) for a Physical Volume Repository (PVR) defined in Version 5 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Reference Model (RM). In addition, there are papers on specific archives and storage products.

  4. Note on subregion holographic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2017-07-01

    The volume inside a Ryu-Takayanagi surface has been conjectured to be related to the complexity of subregions of the boundary field theory. Here, we study the behavior of this volume analytically, when the entangling surface has a strip geometry. We perform systematic expansions in the low- and high-temperature regimes for AdS-Schwarzschild and RN-AdS black holes. In the latter regime, we point out spurious divergences that might occur due to the limitations of a near horizon expansion. A similar analysis is performed for extremal black holes and, at large charge, we find that there might be some new features of the volume as compared to the area. Finally, we numerically study a four-dimensional RN-AdS black hole in global AdS, the entangling surface being a sphere. We find that the holographic complexity captures essentially the same information as the entanglement entropy, as far as phase transitions are concerned.

  5. Holographic Dark Information Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Gough

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Landauer’s principle and the Holographic principle are used to derive the holographic information energy contribution to the Universe. Information energy density has increased with star formation until sufficient to start accelerating the expansion of the universe. The resulting reduction in the rate of star formation due to the accelerated expansion may provide a feedback that limits the information energy density to a constant level. The characteristics of the universe’s holographic information energy then closely match those required to explain dark energy and also answer the cosmic coincidence problem. Furthermore the era of acceleration will be clearly limited in time.

  6. Dynamical holographic QCD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Danning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a dynamical holographic QCD model, which resembles the renormalization group from ultraviolet (UV to infrared (IR. The dynamical holographic model is constructed in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework with the dilaton background field Φ and scalar field X responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. We summarize the results on hadron spectra, QCD phase transition and transport properties including the jet quenching parameter and the shear/bulk viscosity in the framework of the dynamical holographic QCD model.

  7. On holographic entanglement density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushterov, Nikola I.; O'Bannon, Andy; Rodgers, Ronnie

    2017-10-01

    We use holographic duality to study the entanglement entropy (EE) of Conformal Field Theories (CFTs) in various spacetime dimensions d, in the presence of various deformations: a relevant Lorentz scalar operator with constant source, a temperature T , a chemical potential μ, a marginal Lorentz scalar operator with source linear in a spatial coordinate, and a circle-compactified spatial direction. We consider EE between a strip or sphere sub-region and the rest of the system, and define the "entanglement density" (ED) as the change in EE due to the deformation, divided by the sub-region's volume. Using the deformed CFTs above, we show how the ED's dependence on the strip width or sphere radius, L, is useful for characterizing states of matter. For example, the ED's small- L behavior is determined either by the dimension of the perturbing operator or by the first law of EE. For Lorentz-invariant renormalization group (RG) flows between CFTs, the "area theorem" states that the coefficient of the EE's area law term must be larger in the UV than in the IR. In these cases the ED must therefore approach zero from below as L→∞. However, when Lorentz symmetry is broken and the IR fixed point has different scaling from the UV, we find that the ED often approaches the thermal entropy density from above, indicating area theorem violation.

  8. Main Trend Extraction Based on Irregular Sampling Estimation and Its Application in Storage Volume of Internet Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The storage volume of internet data center is one of the classical time series. It is very valuable to predict the storage volume of a data center for the business value. However, the storage volume series from a data center is always “dirty,” which contains the noise, missing data, and outliers, so it is necessary to extract the main trend of storage volume series for the future prediction processing. In this paper, we propose an irregular sampling estimation method to extract the main trend of the time series, in which the Kalman filter is used to remove the “dirty” data; then the cubic spline interpolation and average method are used to reconstruct the main trend. The developed method is applied in the storage volume series of internet data center. The experiment results show that the developed method can estimate the main trend of storage volume series accurately and make great contribution to predict the future volume value. 
 PMID:28090205

  9. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project`s scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary.

  10. Periodically driven holographic superconductor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Wei-Jia; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2013-01-01

    .... As a result, our holographic superconductor is driven to the final oscillating state, where the condensate is suppressed and the oscillation frequency is controlled by twice of the driving frequency...

  11. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  12. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  13. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  14. Energy analysis of holographic lenses for solar concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Collados, M. Victoria; Chemisana, Daniel; Atencia, Jesús

    2017-05-01

    The use of volume and phase holographic elements in the design of photovoltaic solar concentrators has become very popular as an alternative solution to refractive systems, due to their high efficiency, low cost and possibilities of building integration. Angular and chromatic selectivity of volume holograms can affect their behavior as solar concentrators. In holographic lenses, angular and chromatic selectivity varies along the lens plane. Besides, considering that the holographic materials are not sensitive to the wavelengths for which the solar cells are most efficient, the reconstruction wavelength is usually different from the recording one. As a consequence, not all points of the lens work at Bragg condition for a defined incident direction or wavelength. A software tool that calculates the direction and efficiency of solar rays at the output of a volume holographic element has been developed in this study. It allows the analysis of the total energy that reaches the solar cell, taking into account the sun movement, the solar spectrum and the sensitivity of the solar cell. The dependence of the recording wavelength on the collected energy is studied with this software. As the recording angle is different along a holographic lens, some zones of the lens could not act as a volume hologram. The efficiency at the transition zones between volume and thin behavior in lenses recorded in Bayfol HX is experimentally analyzed in order to decide if the energy of generated higher diffraction orders has to be included in the simulation.

  15. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  16. The holographic universe

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot, Michael

    1991-01-01

    'There is evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it - from snowflakes to maple trees to falling stars and spinning electrons - are only ghostly images, projections from a level of reality literally beyond both space and time.' This is the astonishing idea behind the holographic theory of the universe, pioneered by two eminent thinkers: physicist David Bohm, a former protege of Albert Einstein, and quantum physicist Karl Pribram. The holographic theory of the universe encompasses consciousness and reality as we know them, but can also explain such hitherto unexplained phenomena as telepathy, out-of-body experiences and even miraculous healing. In this remarkable book, Michael Talbot reveals the extraordinary depth and power of the holographic theory of the universe, illustrating how it makes sense of the entire range of experiences within our universe - and in other universes beyond our own.

  17. Phenomenology of Holographic Quenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  18. The methods of evaluating storage volume for single-chamber reservoir in urban catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a method of designing single-chamber rectangular detention reservoirs based on nomographs connecting the parameters and the shape of the inflow with the reservoir hydrograph (triangular, described by the power function and described by the gamma distribution as well as the hydraulic characteristics of the accumulation chamber and the orifice. The preparation of nomographs involved using the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model program with the application of numerical calculations’ results of a differential equation for the stormwater volume balance. The performed analyses confirm a high level of similarity between the results of calculating the reservoir volume obtained by using the above mentioned program and using the developed nomographs. The examples of calculations presented in the paper confirm the application aspects of the discussed method of designing the detention reservoir. Moreover, based on the conducted analyses it was concluded that the inflow hydrograph described by the gamma distribution has the greatest impact on the reservoir’s storage volume, whereas the hydrograph whose shape in the rise and recession phases is described by the power function has the smallest effect.

  19. Technology transfer for the US Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, C.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1988-10-01

    This document contains the appendices to Technology Transfer Recommendations for the US Department of Energy's Storage Program (PNL-6484, Vol. 1). These appendices are a list of projects, publications, and presentations connected with the Energy Storage (STOR) program. In Volume 1, the technology transfer activities of the STOR program are examined and mechanisms for increasing the effectiveness of those activities are recommended.

  20. Holographic analysis of photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy C.; Alim, Marvin D.; Glugla, David J.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2017-05-01

    Two-beam holographic exposure and subsequent monitoring of the time-dependent first-order Bragg diffraction is a common method for investigating the refractive index response of holographic photopolymers for a range of input writing conditions. The experimental set up is straightforward, and Kogelnik's well-known coupled wave theory (CWT)[1] can be used to separate measurements of the change in index of refraction (Δn) and the thickness of transmission and reflection holograms. However, CWT assumes that the hologram is written and read out with a plane wave and that the hologram is uniform in both the transverse and depth dimensions, assumptions that are rarely valid in practical holographic testing. The effect of deviations from these assumptions on the measured thickness and Δn become more pronounced for over-modulated exposures. As commercial and research polymers reach refractive index modulations on the order of 10-2, even relatively thin (material analysis must be carefully evaluated in this regime. We present a study of the effects of the finite Gaussian write and read beams on the CWT analysis of photopolymer materials and discuss what intuition this can give us about the effect other non-uniformities, such as mechanical stresses and significant absorption of the write beam, will have on the analysis of the maximum attainable refractive index in a material system. We use this analysis to study a model high Δn two-stage photopolymer holographic material using both transmission and reflection holograms.

  1. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  2. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  3. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  4. Physics and technology of optical storage in polymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren; Ujhelyi, F.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss different strategies for optical storage of information in polymeric films. An outline of the existing trends is given. The synthesis and characterization of side-chain azobenzene polyester films for holographic storage of information is described. A compact holographic memory card sys...

  5. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  6. Holographic entanglement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the field of holographic entanglement entropy. Within the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, it is shown how quantum entanglement is computed by the area of certain extremal surfaces. The general lessons one can learn from this connection are drawn out for quantum field theories, many-body physics, and quantum gravity. An overview of the necessary background material is provided together with a flavor of the exciting open questions that are currently being discussed. The book is divided into four main parts. In the first part, the concept of entanglement, and methods for computing it, in quantum field theories is reviewed. In the second part, an overview of the AdS/CFT correspondence is given and the holographic entanglement entropy prescription is explained. In the third part, the time-dependence of entanglement entropy in out-of-equilibrium systems, and applications to many body physics are explored using holographic methods. The last part f...

  7. Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images. S K Tripathy S Ananda Rao. Brief Reports Volume 60 Issue 1 January 2003 pp 151-157 ... Author Affiliations. S K Tripathy1 S Ananda Rao1. Department of Physics, Jagannath Institute for Technology and Management, Parlakhemundi 761 200, India ...

  8. The Holographic Principle in a Cosmological Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savonije, Ivo Lothar

    2003-01-01

    We study the holographic principle in a cosmological context. First, entropy bounds are derived from the holographic principle and applied within a Anti-de Sitter spacetime. Next, the compatibility of the holographic principle and de Sitter spacetime is considered. The holographic principle is a

  9. A holographic bound for D3-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Department of General Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we will regularize the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for a configuration of D3-branes. We will also study the regularization of the holographic complexity from the action for a configuration of D3-branes. It will be demonstrated that for a spherical shell of D3-branes the regularized holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to the regularized fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the regularized holographic complexity is related to the regularized holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving regularized holographic complexity, regularized holographic entanglement entropy and regularized fidelity susceptibility of a configuration of D3-brane. We will also discuss a bound for regularized holographic complexity from action, for a D3-brane configuration. (orig.)

  10. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Design, specifications, and diagrams for the thermal storage subsystem for the 10-MW pilot tower focus power plant are presented in detail. The Honeywell thermal storage subsystem design features a sensible heat storage arrangement using proven equipment and materials. The subsystem consists of a main storage containing oil and rock, two buried superheater tanks containing inorganic salts (Hitec), and the necessary piping, instrumentation, controls, and safety devices. The subsystem can provide 7 MW(e) for three hours after twenty hours of hold. It can be charged in approximately four hours. Storage for the commercial-scale plant consists of the same elements appropriately scaled up. Performance analysis and tradeoff studies are included.

  11. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  12. Holographic effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  13. Laser adaptive holographic hydrophone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Kulchin, Yu N; Bezruk, M N; Ermolaev, S A [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    A new type of a laser hydrophone based on dynamic holograms, formed in a photorefractive crystal, is proposed and studied. It is shown that the use of dynamic holograms makes it unnecessary to use complex optical schemes and systems for electronic stabilisation of the interferometer operating point. This essentially simplifies the scheme of the laser hydrophone preserving its high sensitivity, which offers the possibility to use it under a strong variation of the environment parameters. The laser adaptive holographic hydrophone implemented at present possesses the sensitivity at a level of 3.3 mV Pa{sup -1} in the frequency range from 1 to 30 kHz. (laser hydrophones)

  14. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  15. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  16. Generalized holographic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Bhowmick, Samrat; Sahay, Anurag; Siopsis, George

    2013-04-01

    We consider general black hole solutions in five-dimensional spacetime in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We obtain a cosmological evolution via the gravity/gauge theory duality (holography) by defining appropriate boundary conditions on a four-dimensional boundary hypersurface. The standard counterterms are shown to renormalize the bare parameters of the system (the four-dimensional Newton's constant and cosmological constant). We discuss the thermodynamics of cosmological evolution and present various examples. The standard brane-world scenarios are shown to be special cases of our holographic construction.

  17. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Nonlinear processes in the formation of dynamic volume holographic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, V. G.; Danileĭko, Yu K.; Lebedeva, T. P.; Nesterov, D. A.

    1987-10-01

    The solutions of wave equations are used to develop new ideas on the dynamics of the diffraction efficiency of a volume light-induced grating in a medium with a nonlinear refractive index and/or absorption coefficient. It is shown that the earlier solutions have failed to describe satisfactorily the diffraction of radiation by volume phase and amplitude gratings because of distortion of the amplitude-phase profile of the radiation forming the grating. An analysis is made of the influence of the radial distribution of the intensity of the grating-forming beams on the observed changes in the diffraction efficiency. Predictions are made and experimental evidence is provided of the role of nonlinear refraction of a beam as a whole, which is an important factor in the space-time dynamics of the diffracted radiation in the far-field zone.

  18. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 2, Environmental assessment for a monitored retrievable storage facility. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) supports the DOE proposal to Congress to construct and operate a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portion of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first part of this document is an assessment of the value of, need for, and feasibility of an MRS facility as an integral component of the waste management system. The second part is an assessment and comparison of the potential environmental impacts projected for each of six site-design combinations. The MRS facility would be centrally located with respect to existing reactors, and would receive and canister spent fuel in preparation for shipment to and disposal in a geologic repository. 207 refs., 57 figs., 132 tabs.

  19. Holographic Optics For Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael H.

    1989-05-01

    The human visual system is often equated to a photographic camera. This is a poor analogy because the differences are far greater than the similarities. The processing of the human visual system is complex and non-linear so that even optical transfer function concepts must be applied with caution. Holographic optics offers some extra degrees of freedom with respect to refractive optics. Unlike refractive optics, diffractive effects are not, in the first order, dependent on material and geometric shape and require no significant volume. On the other hand they may suffer from fractional efficiencies and strong wavelength dependencies. The Pilkington 'Diffrax' lens invented by the author is an example of a product which steers between the disadvantages and maximises the advantages to provide the world's first diffractive bifocal contact lens. Indications for other visual applications are not very propitious although time and development may show this to be incorrect. This paper will review the interaction between the preferences and antipathies of the human visual system and the optical effects of diffractive systems.

  20. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  1. Digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Solomon; Dimiduk, Thomas; Manoharan, Vinothan

    Digital holographic microscopy is a 3D optical imaging technique with high temporal ( ms) and spatial ( 10 nm) precision. However, its adoption as a characterization technique has been limited due to the inherent difficulty of recovering 3D data from the holograms. Successful analysis has traditionally required substantial knowledge about the sample being imaged (for example, the approximate positions of particles in the field of view), as well as expertise in scattering theory. To overcome the obstacles to widespread adoption of holographic microscopy, we developed HoloPy - an open source python package for analysis of holograms and scattering data. HoloPy uses Bayesian statistical methods to determine the geometry and properties of discrete scatterers from raw holograms. We demonstrate the use of HoloPy to measure the dynamics of colloidal particles at interfaces, to ascertain the structures of self-assembled colloidal particles, and to track freely swimming bacteria. The HoloPy codebase is thoroughly tested and well-documented to facilitate use by the broader experimental community. This research is supported by NSF Grant DMR-1306410 and NSERC.

  2. Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almheiri, Ahmed; Dong, Xi; Swingle, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula...

  3. Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Karch, Andreas; /Washington U., Seattle; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  4. Adventures in holographic dimer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  5. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: Dam Density and Storage Volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the dam density and storage volumes within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on National...

  6. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Dam Density and Storage Volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the dam density and storage volumes within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on National...

  7. Relaxation effect of stilbene azobenzene derivatives on their holographic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saharov, D; Ozols, A; Kokars, V; Kampars, V; Mezinskis, G; Maleckis, A; Pludons, A; Jansone, M [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry, Azenes 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    The material relaxation effect on holographic properties of stilbene azobenzene derivatives in the form of glassy films has been experimentally studied. Holographic grating recording with the period of 2 {mu}m was made by a He-Ne laser at 633 nm in the self-diffraction mode. The readout was made simultaneously in order to follow the fast self-diffraction efficiency changes. The existence of the optimal material storage time (6-51 day) is established enabling the most efficient recording. Material relaxation amplitude and the holographic recording efficiency increased when the chromophore concentration was increased, especially above the threshold of about 70 mass %. It is also found that 633 nm recording due to the modulation of refraction and absorption indices is accompanied by the formation of surface relief grating. The conclusion is made that holographic recording in stilbene azobenzene derivatives at 633 nm is due to the chromophore reorientation by linearly polarized light possibly including trans-cis-trans transformations.

  8. Digital Double-Pulse Holographic Interferometry for Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Tiziani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Different arrangements for double-pulsed holographic and speckle interferometry for vibration analysis will be described. Experimental results obtained with films (classical holographic interferometry and CCD cameras (digital holographic interferometry as storage materials are presented. In digital holography, two separate holograms of an object under test are recorded within a few microseconds using a CCD camera and are stored in a frame grabber. The phases of the two reconstructed wave fields are calculated from the complex amplitudes. The deformation is obtained from the phase difference. In the case of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (or image plane hologram, the phase can be calculated by using the sinusoid-fitting method. In the case of digital holographic interferometry, the phase is obtained by digital reconstruction of the complex amplitudes of the wave fronts. Using three directions of illumination and one direction of observation, all the information necessary for the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional deformation vector can be recorded at the same time. Applications of the method for measuring rotating objects are discussed where a derotator needs to be used.

  9. On holographic defect entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); O’Bannon, Andy [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Tsatis, Efstratios [8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364 (Greece); Wrase, Timm [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  10. On holographic defect entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-05-01

    We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  11. Causality & holographic entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headrick, Matthew [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Hubeny, Veronika E. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Lawrence, Albion [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-29

    We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.

  12. Holographic Vortex Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, David

    2010-01-01

    A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.

  13. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  14. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  15. Spatial mode demultiplexing technique using angularly multiplexed volume holograms with a phase plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Shimpei; Okamoto, Atsushi; Mizukawa, Fumiya; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Tomita, Akihisa; Takahata, Taketoshi; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a spatial mode demultiplexing technique that uses a volume holographic demultiplexer (VHDM) with a phase plate. The VHDM can separate the multiplexed spatial modes with a single device by using angularly multiplexed volume holograms. In the VHDM, modal cross-talks, which are called inter-page cross-talks in the holographic data storages, are generated, and hence the separation performance of the VHDM is degraded by the intensity overlap between spatial modes. Therefore, we propose a novel scheme wherein phase modulation with a phase plate is added to the conventional scheme. The proposed scheme can achieve high separation performance by modulating the phase of spatial modes to reduce the intensity overlap. In this study, we demonstrated the basic operation of the proposed method for a specific linearly polarized mode group. The separation performance of the VHDM was observed to be markedly improved by the proposed method.

  16. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  17. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  18. Holographic Gratings for Slow-Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Juergen; Pruner, Christian; Tomita, Yasuo; Geltenbort, Peter; Drevenšek-Olenik, Irena; Gyergyek, Saso; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fally, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of holographic gratings for neutron-optics applications is reviewed. We summarize the properties of gratings recorded in deuterated (poly)methylmethacrylate, holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and nanoparticle-polymer composites revealed by diffraction experiments with slow neutrons. Existing and anticipated neutron-optical instrumentations based on holographic gratings are discussed.

  19. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  20. Digital Holographic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Orlov, Sergei S.

    Optical data storage is a phenomenal success story. Since its introduction in the early 1980s, optical data storage devices have evolved from being focused primarily on music distribution, to becoming the prevailing data distribution and recording medium. Each year, billions of optical recordable and prerecorded disks are sold worldwide. Almost every computer today is shipped with a CD or DVD drive installed.

  1. Noncontact holographic detection for photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Christian; Münter, Michael; Schmarbeck, Benedikt; Horstmann, Jens; Hüttmann, Gereon; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2017-10-01

    A holographic method for high-speed, noncontact photoacoustic tomography is introduced and evaluated. Relative changes of the object's topography, induced by the impact of thermoelastic pressure waves, were determined at nanometer sensitivity without physical contact. The object's surface was illuminated with nanosecond laser pulses and imaged with a high-speed CMOS camera. From two interferograms measured before and after excitation of the acoustic wave, surface displacement was calculated and then used as the basis for a tomographic reconstruction of the initial pressure caused by optical absorption. The holographic detection scheme enables variable sampling rates of the photoacoustic signal of up to 50 MHz. The total acquisition times for complete volumes with 230 MVoxel is far below 1 s. Measurements of silicone and porcine skin tissue phantoms with embedded artificial absorbers, which served as a model for human subcutaneous vascular networks, were possible. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the absorbing structures show details with a diameter of 310 μm up to a depth of 2.5 mm. Theoretical limitations and the experimental sensitivity, as well as the potential for in vivo imaging depending on the detection repetition rate, are analyzed and discussed.

  2. Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy–temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy–temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.

  3. Holographic framework for eternal inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivogel, Ben; Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we provide some circumstantial evidence for a holographic duality between bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating universe and a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT). The holographic correspondence (which is different than Strominger’s de Sitter (dS)/CFT duality) relates the decay of (3+1)-dimensional de Sitter space to a two-dimensional CFT. It is not associated with pure de Sitter space, but rather with Coleman-De Luccia bubble nucleation. Alternatively, it can be thought of as a holographic description of the open, infinite, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology that results from such a bubble. The conjectured holographic representation is of a new type that combines holography with the Wheeler-DeWitt formalism to produce a Wheeler-DeWitt theory that lives on the spatial boundary of a k=-1 FRW cosmology. We also argue for a more ambitious interpretation of the Wheeler-DeWitt CFT as a holographic dual of the entire Landscape.

  4. Collinear technology for holographic versatile disc (HVD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Ichimura, Shotaro; Fujimura, Ryushi; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD TM) using Collinear TM Technologies is proposed by OPTWARE Corporation, in which the information and reference beams are displayed co-axially by the same SLM. With this unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as the DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the recording disc. In HVD TM structure, the pre-formatted meta-data reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and the dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increased recording density of HVD TM. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the holographic material is very effective to increased recording density of the system. As the servo technology is being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and the reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. HVD TM will be compatible with existing disc storage systems, like CD and DVD, and enable us to expand its applications into other optical information storage systems.

  5. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  6. Temporal and storage effects on ultra-low volume droplets of insecticides collected on Teflon-coated slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Lloyd, Aaron M; Estep, Alden S; Walker, Todd W; Hughes, Tony

    2013-12-01

    Use of microscope slides is the most commonly used method to field-assess the droplet spectrum of ultra-low volume (ULV) sprays. Due to absence of analysis facilities during military deployments, slides must be stored and shipped, and the impact of delays in processing and storage conditions on droplets is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of storage temperatures and duration on droplets on Teflon-coated slides. Treatments included BVA-13 mineral oil, Kontrol 30-30 (30% permethrin), and Fyfanon (96.5% malathion), 2 slide wrapping techniques (proper and improper), and 2 storage temperatures (23 and 45 degrees C), replicated 6 times. The same areas of a slide were measured at different times for 56-58 days using the DropVision droplet measurement system. Regardless of the wrapping technique, droplets of BVA-13, Fyfanon, and Kontrol 30-30 on slides stored at 45 degrees C reduced significantly after 1, 2, and 1 day, respectively, but droplets on slides stored at 23 degrees C were not significantly affected. The results of this study may assist vector control professionals to accurately interpret the droplet size and help in the effective dispersal of ULV-applied insecticides.

  7. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  8. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Brian J.

    2016-12-29

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas, which is part of the High Plains aquifer, serves as a source of water for municipal and agricultural users in the area. The city of Wichita has used the Equus Beds aquifer as one of its primary water sources since the 1940s. The aquifer in and around Wichita’s well field reached historically low water levels in 1993, prompting the city to adopt new water-use and conservation strategies to ensure future water supply needs were met. Part of the plan was to initiate a managed aquifer recharge program called the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. The goal of the managed aquifer recharge program is to artificially recharge the Equus Beds aquifer with treated water from the Little Arkansas River. As part of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project, the city of Wichita and the U.S. Geological Survey have partnered in a long-term cooperative study to monitor and describe the quantity and quality of the water in the Equus Beds aquifer and the Little Arkansas River.The city of Wichita, the Equus Beds Groundwater Management District No. 2, the Kansas Department of Agriculture–Division of Water Resources, and the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater levels in numerous wells screened in the Equus Beds aquifer in the area in and around Wichita’s well field in January 2016. The measurements were used to interpolate potentiometric surfaces for shallow and deep parts of the aquifer in the study area. These potentiometric surfaces were compared with potentiometric surfaces from previous years to estimate changes in water levels and storage volume in the study area.Groundwater levels were generally higher in January 2016 than they were in January 2015. On average, in January 2016, groundwater levels in the shallow part of the aquifer were about 3.4 feet higher and groundwater levels in the deep part of the aquifer were about 3.8 feet higher than in January 2015. The volume of water stored in the

  9. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy storage and power conditioning aspects of photovoltaic solar power systems. Volume I. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Solar energy may be utilized as thermal energy or converted into electricity by solar cells. ERDA's National Photovoltaic Conversion Program is concerned with this latter approach and is currently sponsoring industrial programs for photovoltaic systems and devices. In one such program, Spectrolab, Inc., is charged with performing conceptual design and analysis of three photovoltaic solar power systems. The sizes of these three systems will cover the requirements of residential, commercial and electric utility central station applications. In addition to a solar cell array, photovoltaic power systems must also include an energy storage system to enable operation during periods of low insolation and a power conditioning system to control the dc power from the array and convert it into an ac waveshape compatible with existing electrical equipment. The Scientific Development Operation of Bechtel Corporation is participating in the Spectrolab program by compiling and studying data on the energy storage and power conditioning aspects of all three photovoltaic solar power systems and by the conceptual design of the system for electric utility central station applications. The results of the energy storage and power conditioning study effort are presented in this report. (W.D.M.)

  11. Advances with holographic DESA emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünkel, Lothar; Eichler, Jürgen; Schneeweiss, Claudia; Ackermann, Gerhard

    2006-02-01

    DESA emulsions represent layer systems based on ultra-fine grained silver halide (AgX) technology. The new layers have an excellent performance for holographic application. The technology has been presented repeatedly in recent years, including the emulsion characterization and topics of chemical and spectral sensitization. The paper gives a survey of actual results referring to panchromatic sensitization and other improvements like the application of silver halide sensitized gelatine (SHSG) procedure. These results are embedded into intensive collaborations with small and medium enterprises (SME's) to commercialize DESA layers. Predominant goals are innovative products with holographic components and layers providing as well as cost effectiveness and high quality.

  12. Pinning of holographic sliding stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Järvinen, Matti; Lippert, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    In a holographic probe-brane model exhibiting a spontaneously spatially modulated ground state, we introduce explicit sources of symmetry breaking in the form of ionic and antiferromagnetic lattices. For the first time in a holographic model, we demonstrate pinning, in which the translational Goldstone mode is lifted by the introduction of explicit sources of translational symmetry breaking. The numerically computed optical conductivity fits very well to a Drude-Lorentz model with a small residual metallicity, precisely matching analytic formulas for the DC conductivity. We also find an instability of the striped phase in the presence of a large-amplitude ionic lattice.

  13. Holographic photolysis for multiple cell stimulation in mouse hippocampal slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Zahid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced light microscopy offers sensitive and non-invasive means to image neural activity and to control signaling with photolysable molecules and, recently, light-gated channels. These approaches require precise and yet flexible light excitation patterns. For synchronous stimulation of subsets of cells, they also require large excitation areas with millisecond and micrometric resolution. We have recently developed a new method for such optical control using a phase holographic modulation of optical wave-fronts, which minimizes power loss, enables rapid switching between excitation patterns, and allows a true 3D sculpting of the excitation volumes. In previous studies we have used holographic photololysis to control glutamate uncaging on single neuronal cells. Here, we extend the use of holographic photolysis for the excitation of multiple neurons and of glial cells. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The system combines a liquid crystal device for holographic patterned photostimulation, high-resolution optical imaging, the HiLo microscopy, to define the stimulated regions and a conventional Ca(2+ imaging system to detect neural activity. By means of electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in acute hippocampal slices, we show that the use of excitation patterns precisely tailored to the shape of multiple neuronal somata represents a very efficient way for the simultaneous excitation of a group of neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that fast shaped illumination patterns also induce reliable responses in single glial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that the main advantage of holographic illumination is that it allows for an efficient excitation of multiple cells with a spatiotemporal resolution unachievable with other existing approaches. Although this paper focuses on the photoactivation of caged molecules, our approach will surely prove very efficient for other probes, such as light-gated channels, genetically

  14. Cellular Dynamics Revealed by Digital Holographic Microscopy☆

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, P.

    2016-11-22

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a new optical method that provides, without the use of any contrast agent, real-time, three-dimensional images of transparent living cells, with an axial sensitivity of a few tens of nanometers. They result from the hologram numerical reconstruction process, which permits a sub wavelength calculation of the phase shift, produced on the transmitted wave front, by the optically probed cells, namely the quantitative phase signal (QPS). Specifically, in addition to measurements of cellular surface morphometry and intracellular refractive index (RI), various biophysical cellular parameters including dry mass, absolute volume, membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale and biomechanical properties, transmembrane water permeability as swell as current, can be derived from the QPS. This article presents how quantitative phase DHM (QP-DHM) can explored cell dynamics at the nanoscale with a special attention to both the study of neuronal dynamics and the optical resolution of local neuronal network.

  15. A Comment on Holographic Luttinger Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Robustness of the Luttinger theorem for fermionic liquids is examined in holography. The statement of the Luttinger theorem, the equality between the fermion charge density and the volume enclosed by the Fermi surface, can be mapped to a Gauss's law in the gravity dual, a la Sachdev. We show that various deformations in the gravity dual, such as inclusion of magnetic fields, a parity-violating theta-term, dilatonic deformations, and higher-derivative corrections, do not violate the holographic derivation of the Luttinger theorem, as long as the theory is in a confining phase. Therefore a robustness of the theorem is found for strongly correlated fermions coupled with strongly coupled sectors which admit gravity duals. On the other hand, in the deconfined phase, we also show that the deficit appearing in the Luttinger theorem is again universal. It measures a total deficit which measures the charge of the deconfined ("fractionalized") fermions, independent of the deformation parameters.

  16. Holograph in noncommutative geometry: Part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jingbo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the holograph principle emergent from noncommutative geometry, based on the spectral action principle. We show that under some appropriate conditions, the gravity theory on a manifold with boundary could be equivalent to a gauge theory $SU(N)$ on the boundary. Then an expression for $N$ with the geometrical quantities of the manifold is given. Based on this result, we find that the volume of the manifold and the boundary have some discrete structure. Applying the result to the black hole, we get that the radium of the Schwarzschild black hole is quantized. We also find an explanation why the extremal RN-black hole has zero temperature but with finite entropy.

  17. Soil weight (lbf/ft{sup 3}) at Hanford waste storage locations (2 volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford Reservation waste storage tanks are fabricated in accordance with approved construction specifications. After an underground tank has been constructed in the excavation prepared for it, soil is place around the tank and compacted by an approved compaction procedure. To ensure compliance with the construction specifications, measurements of the soil compaction are taken by QA inspectors using test methods based on American Society for the Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Soil compaction tests data taken for the 241AP, 241AN, and 241AW tank farms constructed between 1978 and 1986 are included. The individual data values have been numerically processed to obtain average soil density values for each of these tank farms.

  18. Holographic recording of surface relief gratings in stilbene azobenzene derivatives at 633 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozols, A; Saharov, D; Kokars, V; Kampars, V; Maleckis, A; Mezinskis, G; Pludons, A, E-mail: aozols@latnet.l [Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Azenes iela 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-11-01

    Holographic recording in stilbene azobenzene derivatives by He-Ne 633 nm laser light has been experimentally studied. It was found that surface relief gratings (SRG) can be recorded by red light. Usually shorter wavelengths are used to induce the trans-cis photo-isomerization in organic materials. SRG with 2 {mu}m period and an amplitude of 130 nm have been recorded with 0.88 W/cm{sup 2} light in about 20 minutes in amorphous films of 3-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)phenyl)-2-(4-(2-bromo-4-nitrophenyl) diazenyl)phenyl)acrylonitrile spin-coated on glass substrates. Self-diffraction efficiency up to 17.4% and specific recording energy down to 114 J/(cm{sup 2}%) were measured. The recorded SRG were stable as proved by subsequent AFM measurements. The photo-induced changes in absorption spectra did not reveal noticeable signs of trans-cis transformations. Rather, spectrally uniform bleaching of the films took place. We conclude that a photothermally stimulated photo-destruction of chromophores is responsible for the SRG recording. The recording of stable SRG in the stilbene azobenzene derivatives we studied is accompanied by the recording of relaxing volume-phase gratings due to the photo-orientation of chromophores by the linearly polarized recording light. It should also be noted that holographic recording efficiency in stilbene azobenzene derivatives exhibit an unusual non-monotonic sample storage-time dependence presumably caused by the peculiarities of structural relaxation of the films.

  19. Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bzowski, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of

  20. Code Properties from Holographic Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pastawski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2015 163.JHEPFG1029-847910.1007/JHEP04(2015163] proposed a highly illuminating connection between the AdS/CFT holographic correspondence and operator algebra quantum error correction (OAQEC. Here, we explore this connection further. We derive some general results about OAQEC, as well as results that apply specifically to quantum codes that admit a holographic interpretation. We introduce a new quantity called price, which characterizes the support of a protected logical system, and find constraints on the price and the distance for logical subalgebras of quantum codes. We show that holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically negative curvature exhibit uberholography, meaning that a bulk logical algebra can be supported on a boundary region with a fractal structure. We argue that, for holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically flat or positive curvature, the boundary physics must be highly nonlocal, an observation with potential implications for black holes and for quantum gravity in AdS space at distance scales that are small compared to the AdS curvature radius.

  1. Picosecond Holographic-Grating Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Interfering light waves produce an optical interference pattern in any medium that interacts with light. This modulation of some physical parameter of the system acts as a classical holographic grating for optical radiation. When such a grating is produced through interaction of pulsed light waves

  2. Thermalization after holographic bilocal quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, Irina Ya.; Khramtsov, Mikhail A.; Tikhanovskaya, Maria D.

    2017-09-01

    We study thermalization in the holographic (1 + 1)-dimensional CFT after simultaneous generation of two high-energy excitations in the antipodal points on the circle. The holographic picture of such quantum quench is the creation of BTZ black hole from a collision of two massless particles. We perform holographic computation of entanglement entropy and mutual information in the boundary theory and analyze their evolution with time. We show that equilibration of the entanglement in the regions which contained one of the initial excitations is generally similar to that in other holographic quench models, but with some important distinctions. We observe that entanglement propagates along a sharp effective light cone from the points of initial excitations on the boundary. The characteristics of entanglement propagation in the global quench models such as entanglement velocity and the light cone velocity also have a meaning in the bilocal quench scenario. We also observe the loss of memory about the initial state during the equilibration process. We find that the memory loss reflects on the time behavior of the entanglement similarly to the global quench case, and it is related to the universal linear growth of entanglement, which comes from the interior of the forming black hole. We also analyze general two-point correlation functions in the framework of the geodesic approximation, focusing on the study of the late time behavior.

  3. Code Properties from Holographic Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastawski, Fernando; Preskill, John

    2017-04-01

    Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2015) 163., 10.1007/JHEP04(2015)163] proposed a highly illuminating connection between the AdS /CFT holographic correspondence and operator algebra quantum error correction (OAQEC). Here, we explore this connection further. We derive some general results about OAQEC, as well as results that apply specifically to quantum codes that admit a holographic interpretation. We introduce a new quantity called price, which characterizes the support of a protected logical system, and find constraints on the price and the distance for logical subalgebras of quantum codes. We show that holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically negative curvature exhibit uberholography, meaning that a bulk logical algebra can be supported on a boundary region with a fractal structure. We argue that, for holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically flat or positive curvature, the boundary physics must be highly nonlocal, an observation with potential implications for black holes and for quantum gravity in AdS space at distance scales that are small compared to the AdS curvature radius.

  4. Confined-Volume Effect on the Thermal Properties of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Paula F; Ahmed, Adham; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2016-03-18

    We have encapsulated the heat exchange material, n-docosane, into polyurethane capsules of different sizes. Decreasing the size of the capsules leads to changes of the crystallinity of phase-change material as well as melting/crystallization temperature. The novelty of the paper includes 1) protection of the nanostructured energy-enriched materials against environment during storage and controlled release of the encapsulated energy on demand and 2) study of the structure and surface-to-volume properties of the energy-enriched materials dispersed in capsules of different sizes. The stability of energy nanomaterials, influence of capsule diameter on their energy capacity, homogeneity and operation lifetime are investigated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Supersymmetric holographic dual of a fractional topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Martin; Gutperle, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We construct a supersymmetric generalization of the holographic dual of a fractional topological insulator found in . This is accomplished by introducing a nontrivial gauge field on the world volume of the probe D7-brane. The Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld monopoles (BPS) equations are derived from the κ-symmetry transformation of the probe brane. The BPS equations are shown to reduce to two first-order nonlinear partial differential equations. Solutions of the BPS equations correspond to a probe brane configuration which preserves four of the 32 supersymmetries of the AdS5×S5 background. Solutions of the BPS equations which correspond to a holographic fractional topological insulator are obtained numerically.

  6. CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    The CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP) has been constructed to describe the activities required for the relocation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the CPP-603 facility. These activities are the only Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) actions identified in the Implementation Plan developed to meet the requirements of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 to the Secretary of Energy regarding an improved schedule for remediation in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Complex. As described in the DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan, issued February 28, 1995, an INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan is currently under development to direct the placement of SNF currently in existing INEL facilities into interim storage, and to address the coordination of intrasite SNF movements with new receipts and intersite transfers that were identified in the DOE SNF Programmatic and INEL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement Record, of Decision. This SISMP will be a subset of the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and the activities described are being coordinated with other INEL SNF management activities. The CPP-603 relocation activities have been assigned a high priority so that established milestones will be meet, but there will be some cases where other activities will take precedence in utilization of available resources. The Draft INEL Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), INEL-94/0279, Draft Rev. 2, dated March 10, 1995, is being superseded by the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and this CPP-603 specific SISMP.

  7. Digital holographic smart card system using an organic-inorganic hybrid type photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoi; Kim, Nam; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Seokhee

    2005-02-01

    Organic-inorganic nanocomposite films were prepared by dispersing an aromatic methacrylic monomer and a photo-initiator in organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel matrices. The film properties could be controlled by optimizing the content of an organically modified silica precursor (TSPEG) in the sol-gel matrices. The photopolymer film modified with the organic chain (TSPEG) showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized condition. In addition, we implement a digital holographic security system that combines the electrical biometrics technology with fully digital holographic storage using an organic-inorganic hybrid type photopolymer film.

  8. Magnonic holographic devices for special type data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitun, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we consider the possibility of building magnetic analog logic devices utilizing spin wave interference for special task data processing. As an example, we consider a multi-terminal magnonic matrix switch comprising multiferroic elements and a two-dimensional grid of magnetic waveguides connected via four-terminal cross-junctions. The multiferroic elements are placed on the periphery of the switch and used as input/output ports for signal conversion among the electric and magnetic domains. Data processing is accomplished via the use of spin wave interference within the magnonic matrix. We present the results of numerical modeling illustrating device operation for pattern matching, finding the period of the data string, and image processing. We also present the results of numerical modeling showing the device capabilities as a magnetic holographic memory. Magnonic holographic devices are of great potential to complement the conventional general-type processors in special task data processing and may provide a new direction for functional throughput enhancement. According to estimates, magnonic holographic devices can provide up to 1 Tb/cm2 data storage density and data processing rate exceeding 1018 bits/s/cm2. The physical limitations and practical challenges of the proposed approach are discussed.

  9. Holographic kinetic k-essence model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: a.rozas@cfmac.csic.es; Sanchez, Guillermo [Departamento de Matematica y Ciencia de la Computacion, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: gsanchez@usach.cl

    2009-08-31

    We consider a connection between the holographic dark energy density and the kinetic k-essence energy density in a flat FRW universe. With the choice c{>=}1, the holographic dark energy can be described by a kinetic k-essence scalar field in a certain way. In this Letter we show this kinetic k-essential description of the holographic dark energy with c{>=}1 and reconstruct the kinetic k-essence function F(X)

  10. Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T>Tc to the superconductor phase (Tholographic complexity will be divergent.

  11. An eye on small reservoirs: remote sensing of storage volumes, their use as remotely sensed runoff gauges, and evaporation losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, J. R.; van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M. S.; Walter, M. T.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2009-04-01

    Small reservoirs are important sources of water supply for the scattered rural population in semi-arid areas. Due to their small size, and their existence in large numbers, such reservoirs have not been studied much. Little is known about their storage volumes, their impact on their watershed's contribution to runoff downstream, and their evaporation losses are frequently stated to be prohibitive. Satellite remote sensing can be used to assess and monitor small reservoirs' storage volumes with regional area-volume equations. Radar remote sensing of small reservoirs was found suitable especially during the rainy season due to its capability to penetrate clouds, but is affected by wind and lack of vegetation context during the dry season. Reservoirs were extracted most often successfully with a quasi-manual classification approach, as stringent classification rules often failed under less than optimal conditions. Especially wind speeds above 2.6 m s-1 at the time of image acquisition were detrimental (Bragg scattering) to the extraction of reservoirs. Due to lower wind speeds, the use of night time acquisitions was more effective than the use of daytime images. With a time series of radar images, small reservoirs were used as remotely sensed runoff gauges, and to calibrate hydrological rainfall-runoff models. Eight small reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana, and Togo, were monitored to calibrate modified Thornthwaite-Mather models, in which increasing precipitation leads to exponentially increasing contributing areas. Model results indicate that the reservoirs captured, on the average, 34% of the quick flow, and 15% of overall runoff from their watersheds. Reservoir evaporation losses were measured directly with a floating evaporation pan and were compared to evaporation rates determined from the reservoir's energy budget, and Penman's equation. The direct pan measurements were generally lower than the evaporation determined with the energy budget or Penman

  12. Read-only holographic versatile disc system using laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi

    2006-05-01

    A Read-only Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD-ROM) system, using a laser diode for high capacity and high data transfer rates storage system, is proposed. With the collinear technologies' unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as a DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the disc. With the HVD's special structure, the system can servo the focus/tracking and locate reading/writing address. The experiments and theoretical studies suggest that a laser diode is very suitable as a light source of our HVD-ROM system.

  13. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  14. Optimisation and coupling of high-performance photocyclic initiating systems for efficient holographic materials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Christian; Carré, Christian; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Allonas, Xavier

    2017-05-01

    For fabrication of diffractive optical elements or for holographic data storage, photopolymer materials have turned out to be serious candidates, taking into account their performances such as high spatial resolution, dry processing capability, ease of use, high versatility. From the chemical point of view, several organic materials are able to exhibit refractive index changes resulting from polymerization, crosslinking or depolymerization, such as mixtures of monomers with several reactive functions and oligomers, associated to additives, fillers and to a photoinitiating system (PIS). In this work, the efficiencies of two and three component PIS as holographic recording materials are analyzed in term of photopolymerization kinetics and diffraction yield. The selected systems are based on visible dyes, electron donor and electron acceptor. In order to investigate the influence of the photophysical properties of dye on the holographic recording material performance time resolved and steady state spectroscopic studies of the PIS are presented. This detailed photochemical studies of the PIS outline the possible existence of photocyclic initiating systems (PCIS) where the dye is regenerated during the chemical process. Simultaneously, these visible systems are associated to fluorinated acrylate monomers for the recording of transmission gratings. To get more insight into the hologram formation, gratings' recording curves were compared to those of monomer to polymer conversion obtained by real time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This work outlines the importance of the coupling of the the photochemical reactions and the holographic resin. Moreover the application of the PCIS in holographic recording outlines the importance of the photochemistry on final holographic material properties: here a sensitive material with high diffraction yield is described. Indeed, this work outlines the importance of the coupling between the photochemistry underlying the radicals

  15. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky,Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Melby-Thompson, Charles M. [Department of Physics, Fudan University,220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Meyer, René [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Sugimoto, Shigeki [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-06-28

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  16. Holographic renormalization in teleparallel gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krssak, Martin [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    We consider the problem of IR divergences of the action in the covariant formulation of teleparallel gravity in asymptotically Minkowski spacetimes. We show that divergences are caused by inertial effects and can be removed by adding an appropriate surface term, leading to the renormalized action. This process can be viewed as a teleparallel analog of holographic renormalization. Moreover, we explore the variational problem in teleparallel gravity and explain how the variation with respect to the spin connection should be performed. (orig.)

  17. Photopolymerizable Nanocomposites for Holographic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    Photopolymerizable nanocomposites with good optical properties consisting of an acrylamide based photopolymer and zeolite nanoparticles (Beta, zeolite A, AlPO-18, silicalite-1 and zeolite L) were fabricated and characterized for holographic applications. The colloidal zeolite solutions used in this project were characterized by several techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy to ensure their success...

  18. Constructive use of holographic projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der FU, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  19. Engineering Holographic Superconductor Phase Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-01-01

    We study how to engineer holographic models with features of a high temperature superconductor phase diagram. We introduce a field in the bulk which provides a tunable "doping" parameter in the boundary theory. By designing how this field changes the effective masses of other order parameter fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered. We give examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries similar to a superconducting dome and an anti-ferromagnetic phase by including two ord...

  20. Holographic cosmology from BIonic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we will use a BIonic solution for analyzing the holographic cosmology. A BIonic solution is a configuration of a D3-brane and an anti-D3-brane connected by a wormhole, and holographic cosmology is a recent proposal to explain cosmic expansion by using the holographic principle. In our model, a BIonic configuration will be produced by the transition of fundamental black strings. The formation of a BIonic configuration will cause inflation. As the D3-brane moves away from the anti-D3-brane, the wormhole will get annihilated, and the inflation will end with the annihilation of this wormhole. However, it is possible for a D3-brane to collide with an anti-D3-brane. Such a collision will occur if the distance between the D3-brane and the anti-D3-brane reduces, and this will create tachyonic states. We will demonstrate that these tachyonic states will lead to the formation of a new wormhole, and this will cause acceleration of the universe before such a collision.

  1. Holographic interferometry in construction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.

    1995-12-31

    In this work techniques for visualizing phase and opaque objects by ruby laser interferometry are introduced. A leakage flow as a phase object is studied by holographic interferometry and the intensity distribution of the interferograms presenting the leakage flow are computer-simulated. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leakage flow is made. The analysis is based on the experimental and theoretical results presented in this work. The holographic setup and the double pass method for visualizing leakage flow are explained. A vibrating iron plate is the opaque object. Transient impact waves are generated by a pistol bullet on the iron plate and visualized by holographic interferometry. An apparatus with the capability of detecting and calculating the delays necessary for laser triggering is introduced. A time series of interferograms presenting elastic wave formation in an iron plate is shown. A computer-simulation of the intensity distributions of these interferograms is made. An analysis based on the computer-simulation and the experimental data of the transient elastic wave is carried out and the results are presented. (author)

  2. Medical applications of holographic stereograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Jumpei

    1991-02-01

    A method for displaying 3D images of medical objects by using holographic stereogram is described together with basic properties of reconstructed images of cylindrical holographic stereograms. INTRODUCTI ON A holographic stereogram (HS) is a synthesized hologram from an original film which consists of a series of ordinary photographs taken from different directions of an object and is possible to apply to an object whose hologram is very difficult or impossible to take with conventional techniques [U. Such a feature of HS can be used for 3D display of medical images such as X-ray images computer assisted tomogrphy (CT) images nuclear magnetic reasonance images (MRI) or ultrasonic images of a patient. CYLINDRICAL HOLOGRAPHI C STEREOGRAMS The original film of the medical HS is taken by rotating around the body axis of a patient a U-shaped arm equipment one end of which has a pulse X-ray source and the other end a movie camera with an image intensifier [2]. Synthesis of HS is carried out by using a special optical system the hologram is shaped into a cylinder and is reconstructed by illuminating the hologram with a small white light source located on the axis of the cylinder. Such a HS is called multiplex hologram (MH) the most popular HS and the reconstructed image can be observed in the cylinder. The formation of reconstructed image is made in unusual way and fundamental properties

  3. Estimation of the possible flood discharge and volume of stormwater for designing water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzhner, Felix; Kadmon, Avri

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of good-quality water resources is an important issue in arid and semiarid zones. Stormwater-harvesting systems that are capable of delivering good-quality wastewater for non-potable uses while taking into account environmental and health requirements must be developed. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, like stormwater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. Current stormwater management practices in the world require the creation of control systems that monitor quality and quantity of the water and the development of stormwater basins to store increased runoff volumes. Public health and safety considerations should be considered. Urban and suburban development, with the creation of buildings and roads and innumerable related activities, turns rain and snow into unwitting agents of damage to our nation's waterways. This urban and suburban runoff, legally known as stormwater, is one of the most significant sources of water pollution in the world. Based on various factors like water quality, runoff flow rate and speed, and the topography involved, stormwater can be directed into basins, purification plants, or to the sea. Accurate floodplain maps are the key to better floodplain management. The aim of this work is to use geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor and control the effect of stormwater. The graphic and mapping capabilities of GIS provide strong tools for conveying information and forecasts of different storm-water flow and buildup scenarios. Analyses of hydrologic processes, rainfall simulations, and spatial patterns of water resources were performed with GIS, which means, based on integrated data set, the flow of the water was introduced into the GIS. Two cases in Israel were analyzed--the Hula Project (the Jordan River floods over the peat soil area) and the Kishon River floodplains as it existed in the Yizrael Valley.

  4. Digital Holographic Interferometry for Airborne Particle Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    and its extinction cross section, and a computational demonstration that holographic interferometry can resolve aerosol particle size evolution ...hologram and its extinction cross section, and a computational demonstration that holographic interferometry can resolve aerosol particle size... evolution . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING

  5. 3D color reconstructions in single DMD holographic display with LED source and complex coding scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlipała, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    In the paper we investigate the possibility of color reconstructions of holograms with a single DMD and incoherent LED source illumination. Holographic display is built with 4F imaging system centering reconstruction volume around the DMD surface. The display design employs complex coding scheme, which allows reconstructing complex wave from a binary hologram. In order to improve the quality of reconstructed holograms time multiplexing method is used. During the optical reconstructions we analyze quality of reconstructed holograms with incoherent RGB light sources as a function of reconstruction distance, present the possibility of 3D hologram reconstruction, and investigate temporal coherence effects in holographic display with the DMD.

  6. Improvement of holographic sensing response in substrate-free acrylamide photopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Geng, Yaohui; Liu, Hongpeng; Wang, Shichan; Mao, Dongyao; Yu, Dan

    2017-05-01

    A novel substrate-free acrylamide photopolymer was proposed to improve holographic sensing characterization. The diffraction spectrum response of reflection volume grating recorded in the medium was characterized for exploring the improvement of sensitivity. The compared result indicated that the response rate and sensitivity were evidently improved by absorption of double surface in substrate-free polymer. The thickness of the sample as a significant factor was discussed in detail experimentally. During the sensing process, the inhibition concentration and concentration constant of organic vapor were extracted to evaluate the significance of sample thickness. Simultaneously, optimization of thickness could be considered as an effective approach to improve the response rate of holographic sensing. The reversibility of a novel holographic sensor with double surface was demonstrated by recovery measurement. The swelling ratio indicated that the peak wavelength shift was attributed to the expansion of binder induced by absorption of organic vapor. Theoretically, the sensing physical mechanism and the dynamic swelling process were analyzed and simulated using a diffusional model with nonlocal response. These experimental results provide an effective strategy for improving the response of a holographic sensor and accelerate the development of the holographic optical element based on photopolymer.

  7. Clustering of red blood cells using digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, K.; Ahmadzadeh, E.; Moon, I.; Gholami, S.

    2017-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy can provide quantitative phase images (QPIs) of 3D profile of red blood cell (RBC) with nanometer accuracy. In this paper we propose applying k-means clustering method to cluster RBCs into two groups of young and old RBCs by using a four-dimensional feature vector. The features are RBC thickness average, surface area-volume ratio, sphericity coefficient and RBC perimeter that can be obtained from QPIs. The proposed features are related to the morphology of RBC. The experimental result shows that by utilizing the proposed method two groups of sphero-echinocytes (old RBCs) and non-spheroechinocytes RBCs can be perfectly clustered.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  9. Holographic Read-Only Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, F.; Zhou, G.; Psaltis, D.

    The most successful use of optical memories so far has been as read-only memories (ROM). A main reason for this success has been the availability of inexpensive methods to mass-produce copies of recorded disks. This has made it possible to publish data (audio, video, databases, computer games) and distribute it widely through normal retail channels. In this chapter, we show results of a holographic read-only memory (HROM) of which digital data on a master disk can be copied onto replicate disks efficiently.

  10. A Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    We present a UV completion of the twin Higgs idea in the framework of holographic composite Higgs. The SM contribution to the Higgs potential is effectively cut off by the SM-singlet mirror partners at the sigma-model scale f, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. The bulk symmetry is SU(7) X SO(8), broken on the IR brane into SU(7) X SO(7) and on the UV brane into (SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1))^{SM} X (SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1))^{mirror} X Z2. The field content on the UV brane is the SM, ex...

  11. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  12. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  13. Analogue holographic correspondence in optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khveshchenko, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    We assess the prospects of using metamaterials for simulating various aspects of analogue gravity and holographic correspondence. Albeit requiring a careful engineering of the dielectric media, some hallmark features reminiscent of the hypothetical “generalized holographic conjecture” can be detected by measuring non-local optical field correlations. The possibility of such simulated behavior might also shed light on the true origin of those ostensibly holographic phenomena in the condensed-matter systems with emergent effective metrics which may not, in fact, require any reference to the string-theoretical holography.

  14. Holographic entanglement entropy on generic time slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuki, Yuya; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Umemoto, Koji

    2017-06-01

    We study the holographic entanglement entropy and mutual information for Lorentz boosted subsystems. In holographic CFTs at zero and finite temperature, we find that the mutual information gets divergent in a universal way when the end points of two subsystems are light-like separated. In Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating geometries dual to non-relativistic theories, we show that the holographic entanglement entropy is not well-defined for Lorentz boosted subsystems in general. This strongly suggests that in non-relativistic theories, we cannot make a real space factorization of the Hilbert space on a generic time slice except the constant time slice, as opposed to relativistic field theories.

  15. Corrections to holographic entanglement plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Zhibin; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the robustness of the Araki-Lieb inequality in a two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT) on torus. The inequality requires that Δ S = S( L) - | S( L - ℓ) - S( ℓ)| is nonnegative, where S( L) is the thermal entropy and S( L - ℓ), S( ℓ) are the entanglement entropies. Holographically there is an entanglement plateau in the BTZ black hole background, which means that there exists a critical length such that when ℓ ≤ ℓ c the inequality saturates Δ S =0. In thermal AdS background, the holographic entanglement entropy leads to Δ S = 0 for arbitrary ℓ. We compute the next-to-leading order contributions to Δ S in the large central charge CFT at both high and low temperatures. In both cases we show that Δ S is strictly positive except for ℓ = 0 or ℓ = L. This turns out to be true for any 2D CFT. In calculating the single interval entanglement entropy in a thermal state, we develop new techniques to simplify the computation. At a high temperature, we ignore the finite size correction such that the problem is related to the entanglement entropy of double intervals on a complex plane. As a result, we show that the leading contribution from a primary module takes a universal form. At a low temperature, we show that the leading thermal correction to the entanglement entropy from a primary module does not take a universal form, depending on the details of the theory.

  16. Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.

  17. Uncertainty determination in a custody transfer operation from vertical cylinder storage tanks; Determinacao da incerteza do volume transferido em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio C.; Ferreira, Ana Luisa A.S. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir F.; Val, Luiz G. do [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The INMETRO/ANP 1 regulation (2000), presents rules to be followed for measuring and calibrating cylindrical vertical oil storage tanks in Brazil, according to ISO 7507-1 (1993) standard. A methodology for estimating the uncertainty (95,45 % confidence level) of the volume in a custody transfer process was developed, based on ISO GUM (1998) standard. The strapping method was selected for this study, because it has been used as a standard procedure by INMETRO. In this study, the same uncertainty values, as suggested by the standard, were used to estimate the uncertainty of the liquid volume in the tank. This study showed that the uncertainty of the transferred liquid volume from the tank varies from 0,2% to 0,4%, being smaller for larger volumes, which is thus the recommended application. The uncertainty of the ring height measurement is the largest contribution to the volume measurement uncertainty, and, thus, must be accurately measured. The tank internal diameter uncertainty is a small contribution to it. This paper calculates the uncertainty of liquid volume transferred from the tank by three methods, namely, this paper's, ISO 7507- 1's and INMETRO's, and shows that the most important contribution to the measurement uncertainty is the density measurement uncertainty, which must be accurately measured, at least, to within {+-} 0,0005, if the volume uncertainty is to remain in the 0,5 % to 1 % range. (author)

  18. Simulation of groundwater flow, effects of artificial recharge, and storage volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer near the city of Wichita, Kansas well field, 1935–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.; Pickett, Linda L.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Arkansas River for the transient simulation is 7,916,564 cubic feet per day (91.6 cubic feet per second) and the RMS error divided by (/) the total range in streamflow (7,916,564/37,461,669 cubic feet per day) is 22 percent. The RMS error calculated for observed and simulated streamflow gains or losses for the Little Arkansas River for the transient simulation is 5,610,089 cubic feet per day(64.9 cubic feet per second) and the RMS error divided by the total range in streamflow (5,612,918/41,791,091 cubic feet per day) is 13 percent. The mean error between observed and simulated base flow gains or losses was 29,999 cubic feet per day (0.34 cubic feet per second) for the Arkansas River and -1,369,250 cubic feet per day (-15.8 cubic feet per second) for the Little Arkansas River. Cumulative streamflow gain and loss observations are similar to the cumulative simulated equivalents. Average percent mass balance difference for individual stress periods ranged from -0.46 to 0.51 percent. The cumulative mass balance for the transient calibration was 0.01 percent. Composite scaled sensitivities indicate the simulations are most sensitive to parameters with a large areal distribution. For the steady-state calibration, these parameters include recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and vertical conductance. For the transient simulation, these parameters include evapotranspiration, recharge, and hydraulic conductivity. The ability of the calibrated model to account for the additional groundwater recharged to the Equus Beds aquifer as part of the Aquifer Storage and Recovery project was assessed by using the U.S. Geological Survey subregional water budget program ZONEBUDGET and comparing those results to metered recharge for 2007 and 2008 and previous estimates of artificial recharge. The change in storage between simulations is the volume of water that estimates the recharge credit for the aquifer storage and recovery system. The estimated increase in storage of 1,607 acre-ft in the basin

  19. Tree water storage and its diurnal dynamics related to sap flow and changes in stem volume in old-growth Douglas-fir trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermák, Jan; Kucera, Jiri; Bauerle, William L; Phillips, Nathan; Hinckley, Thomas M

    2007-02-01

    Diurnal and seasonal tree water storage was studied in three large Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research site. Changes in water storage were based on measurements of sap flow and changes in stem volume and tissue water content at different heights in the stem and branches. We measured sap flow by two variants of the heat balance method (with internal heating in stems and external heating in branches), stem volume with electronic dendrometers, and tissue water content gravimetrically. Water storage was calculated from the differences in diurnal courses of sap flow at different heights and their integration. Old-growth Douglas-fir trees contained large amounts of free water: stem sapwood was the most important storage site, followed by stem phloem, branch sapwood, branch phloem and needles. There were significant time shifts (minutes to hours) between sap flow measured at different positions within the transport system (i.e., stem base to shoot tip), suggesting a highly elastic transport system. On selected fine days between late July and early October, when daily transpiration ranged from 150 to 300 liters, the quantity of stored water used daily ranged from 25 to 55 liters, i.e., about 20% of daily total sap flow. The greatest amount of this stored water came from the lower stem; however, proportionally more water was removed from the upper parts of the tree relative to their water storage capacity. In addition to lags in sap flow from one point in the hydrolic pathway to another, the withdrawal and replacement of stored water was reflected in changes in stem volume. When point-to-point lags in sap flow (minutes to hours near the top and stem base, respectively) were considered, there was a strong linear relationship between stem volume changes and transpiration. Volume changes of the whole tree were small (equivalent to 14% of the total daily use of stored water) indicating that most stored water came from

  20. Entanglement entropy and complexity for one-dimensional holographic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kord Zangeneh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Holographic superconductor is an important arena for holography, as it allows concrete calculations to further understand the dictionary between bulk physics and boundary physics. An important quantity of recent interest is the holographic complexity. Conflicting claims had been made in the literature concerning the behavior of holographic complexity during phase transition. We clarify this issue by performing a numerical study on one-dimensional holographic superconductor. Our investigation shows that holographic complexity does not behave in the same way as holographic entanglement entropy. Nevertheless, the universal terms of both quantities are finite and reflect the phase transition at the same critical temperature.

  1. G-corrected holographic dark energy model

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, M

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant,$G$, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of $G$, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of $G$. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of $G$- corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of $G$ on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for $G$- corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in $s-r$ plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

  2. Surface counterterms and regularized holographic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Run-Qiu; Niu, Chao; Kim, Keun-Young

    2017-09-01

    The holographic complexity is UV divergent. As a finite complexity, we propose a "regularized complexity" by employing a similar method to the holographic renor-malization. We add codimension-two boundary counterterms which do not contain any boundary stress tensor information. It means that we subtract only non-dynamic back-ground and all the dynamic information of holographic complexity is contained in the regularized part. After showing the general counterterms for both CA and CV conjectures in holographic spacetime dimension 5 and less, we give concrete examples: the BTZ black holes and the four and five dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black holes. We propose how to obtain the counterterms in higher spacetime dimensions and show explicit formulas only for some special cases with enough symmetries. We also compute the complexity of formation by using the regularized complexity.

  3. Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeni, Jean P. L.

    1992-03-01

    Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.

  4. Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volovich

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.

  5. Fischler-Susskind holographic cosmology revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Pablo; Per, M. A.; Segui, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    When Fischler and Susskind proposed a holographic prescription based on the Particle Horizon, they found that spatially closed cosmological models do not verify it due to the apparently unavoidable recontraction of the Particle Horizon area. In this article, after a short review of their original work, we expose graphically and analytically that spatially closed cosmological models can avoid this problem if they expand fast enough. It has been also shown that the Holographic Principle is satu...

  6. Strongly interacting matter from holographic QCD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yidian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the 5-dimension dynamical holographic QCD model, which is constructed in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework with the dilaton background field Φ and the scalar field X responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. We review our results on the hadron spectra including the glueball and light meson spectra, QCD phase transitions and transport properties in the framework of the dynamical holographic QCD model.

  7. High-speed inline holographic Stokesmeter imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Heifetz, Alexander; Tseng, Shih C; Shahriar, M S

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate a high-speed inline holographic Stokesmeter that consists of two liquid crystal retarders and a spectrally selective holographic grating. Explicit choices of angles of orientation for the components in the inline architecture are identified to yield higher measurement accuracy than the classical architecture. We show polarimetric images of an artificial scene produced by such a Stokesmeter, demonstrating the ability to identify an object not recognized by intensity-only imaging systems.

  8. Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S.S.; Pusenkov, I.V. [Saint Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the soft wall holographic approach for description of the high-T{sub c} superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological and does not describe the superconducting phase transition. On the other hand, technically it is simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-T{sub c} materials in the superconducting phase. Some examples of emerging models are analyzed. (orig.)

  9. A Mach-Zender Holographic Microscope for Quantifying Bacterial Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, B.; Nadeau, J. L.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.; Liewer, K.; Kuhn, J.; Graff, E.; Lindensmith, C.

    2014-12-01

    New microscopic techniques have revolutionized cell biology over the past two decades. However, there are still biological processes whose details elude us, especially those involving motility: e.g. feeding behavior of microorganisms in the ocean, or migration of cancer cells to form metastases. Imaging prokaryotes, which range in size from several hundred nm to a few microns, is especially challenging. An emerging technique to address these issues is Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). DHM is an imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional magnified images of objects. This approach has several advantages over ordinary brightfield microscopy for fieldwork: a larger depth of field, hands-off operation, robustness regarding environmental conditions, and large sampling volumes with quantitative 3D records of motility behavior. Despite these promising features, real-time DHM was thought to be impractical for technological and computational reasons until recently, and there has so far been very limited application of DHM to biology. Most existing instruments are limited in performance by their particular (e.g. in-line, lens-less, phase-shifting) approach to holography. These limitations can be mitigated with an off-axis dual-path configuration. Here we describe the design and implementation of a design for a Mach-Zehnder-type holographic microscope with diffraction-limited lateral resolution, with intended applications in environmental microbiology. We have achieved sub-micron resolution and three-dimensional tracking of prokaryotic and eukaryotic test strains designed to represent different modes and speeds of microbial motility. Prokaryotes are Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Bacillus subtilis. Each shows a characteristic motility pattern, as we illustrate in holographic videos in sample chambers 0.6 mm in depth. The ability to establish gradients of attractants with bacterial taxis towards the

  10. Recent changes in total ice volume storage on Volcán Villarrica, Southern Chile, by means of airborne radar and lidar surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Andrés; Zamora, Rodrigo; Andrés Uribe, José; Wendt, Anja; Oberreuter, Jonathan; Cisternas, Sebastián; Gimeno, Fernando; Clavero, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Numerous active ice-capped volcanoes are found along the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 36-46°S) of Chile. Because they represent a potential natural hazard during eruptive events, when glaciers are susceptible to rapid melting, leading to laharic flows, knowledge upon the ice volume storage and their changes is therefore, very relevant in terms of risk assessment studies. We present the first intensive airborne surveys carried out at Volcán Villarrica (39ºS) in Southern Chile, one of the main active ice-capped volcanoes and lahar generator within historical times within the SVZ. We deployed a scanner laser system for detecting the glacier surface topography, and helicopter-borne ice penetrating radar, for measuring ice thicknesses, allowing altogether to determine the volume of snow and ice storage susceptible to be melted during eruptive events. The total estimated volume resulted in 1.17± 0.1 km3 of water equivalent (w.eq.) at the volcano in 2012, only 37% of the estimated volume of 1961. This reduction is mainly explained by the area shrinkage and ice thinning rates observed in the last 51 years. This total volume is the lower bound available for melting during eruptive events when lahars mudows can be generated, because in the winter, nearly 0.14 km3 w.eq. are potentially added to the volcano as temporal snow falls. The decreasing volume of water equivalent does not mean a lower risk associated to these flows because there has been a huge increase in populated areas and tourism industry in the surroundings of the volcano in recent years.

  11. History Of Holographic Display In Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Fujio

    1987-06-01

    The first exhibition of holographic display was held at Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo in 1975 and played a role of opening of the holographic era in Japan. This exhibition and the next big exhibition of holography held at Isetan department store 3 years later in 1978 were really epoch-making facts on holographic display in Japan. Since these two exhibitions, holographic display in Japan has come to attract attention of a lot of people to the new display media, holography. At that time, mass production technology of holograms had not been fully developed yet, and the hologram was so expensive that they were found only at the big event. Some companies and universities still continued research and development to have holograms get into practical applications of display media. Few years later, people became interested in 3-D displays and sometimes many peoples took an interest in holographic display, mainly mass produced embossed type holograms applied to the field of publications, book and magazine, etc. 3-D display booms occurred in the year of Tsukuba Science Expo'85 in 1985 and embossed type hologram became much popular. History of holographic display of Japan in terms of technical development and practical use on laser reconstruction hologram, rainbow hologram, multiplex hologram and lippmann hologram will be introduced.

  12. Compositional Changes for Reduction of Polymerisation-Induced Shrinkage in Holographic Photopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerisation-induced shrinkage is one of the main reasons why many photopolymer materials are not used for certain applications including holographic optical elements and holographic data storage. Here, two compositional changes for the reduction of shrinkage in an acrylamide-based photopolymer are reported. A holographic interferometric technique was used to study changes in the dynamics of the shrinkage processes occurring in the modified photopolymer during holographic recording in real time. Firstly, the effect of the replacement of the acrylamide monomer in the photopolymer composition with a larger monomer molecule, diacetone acrylamide, on polymerisation-induced shrinkage has been studied. A reduction in relative shrinkage of 10–15% is obtained using this compositional change. The second method tested for shrinkage reduction involved the incorporation of BEA-type zeolite nanoparticles in the acrylamide-based photopolymer. A reduction in relative shrinkage of 13% was observed for acrylamide photopolymer layers doped with 2.5% wt. BEA zeolites in comparison to the undoped photopolymer.

  13. Holographic reconstruction by compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leportier, T.; Park, M.-C.

    2017-06-01

    Techniques based on compressive sensing (CS) have been proposed recently for the optical capture of compressed holographic data. However, even though several remarkable articles have presented mathematical theories and numerical simulations, only a few experimental demonstrations have been reported. In this paper, we investigate the use of different metrics for the estimation of sparsity and show that the Gini index is the most consistent. In addition, we compare the sparsifying bases based on discrete cosine transform, Fourier transform and Fresnelets. We demonstrate that the Fresnelets basis is the best choice for the reconstruction of digital holograms by CS. Finally, we present an experimental set-up for optical acquisition of phase-shifted holograms with an imaging system based on a single-pixel sensor.

  14. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  15. Emergent Spacetime and Holographic CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    El-Showk, Sheer

    2012-01-01

    We discuss universal properties of conformal field theories with holographic duals. A central feature of these theories is the existence of a low-lying sector of operators whose correlators factorize. We demonstrate that factorization can only hold in the large central charge limit. Using conformal invariance and factorization we argue that these operators are naturally represented as fields in AdS as this makes the underlying linearity of the system manifest. In this class of CFTs the solution of the conformal bootstrap conditions can be naturally organized in structures which coincide with Witten diagrams in the bulk. The large value of the central charge suggests that the theory must include a large number of new operators not captured by the factorized sector. Consequently we may think of the AdS hologram as an effective representation of a small sector of the CFT, which is embedded inside a much larger Hilbert space corresponding to the black hole microstates.

  16. Construction of Hadamard phase-codes for holographic memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangyang; Wen, James Z.; Xu, Yu

    1996-10-01

    In order to accommodate to the available pixel numbers of spatial light modulators and to achieve the maximum possible storage capacity of a phase-code multiplexed holographic memory, it is often required to generate orthogonal phase- codes whose length (or order) is not a power of 2. This paper reviews various methods for the construction of Hadamard matrices of order n equals 4 m (with m a positive integer). It is meant to be tutorial in nature and useful in scope. No attempt is made to be exhaustive in the mathematic treatment. A complete list of Hadamard matrices for all orders n equals 4 m < 400 is given. The list can certainly be extended to even higher orders.

  17. Development of integral holographic motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1995-02-01

    In 1985 Anne-Marie Christakis selected me to make the first pulse holographic feature-fiction movie. Up to that time, the process had only been used for laboratory tests. The running time for the movie was to be 1 minute 20 seconds. Apparently quite long compared with previous tests, but an extremely short time in which to tell a story. I chose the characters of Beauty and the Beast. A lot of time was spent in preparatory work: triple distilling the scenario to get it down to 80 seconds; paintings and masks, and I extracted the music from a suite I had already written in medieval style. The movie was made in 1986 in the laboratory of Professeur Smigielsky, which was located in the Franco-German Defense Research Establishment, at St. Louis in France. Prof. Smigielsky's staff operated all the equipment and Anne-Marie Christakis coordinated everything, as she had done throughout the project. As soon as we arrived at the laboratory, we were told not to look beyond a certain angle towards the laser, otherwise we could be blinded for life. With all that dangerous power however, it was only possible to illuminate a volume for the set of half a meter wide by half a meter deep by one third of a meter high. Such a set gives real meaning to the expression `cramp one's style.' The layout used was, in principle, the same as for making a simple hologram. A pulsed YAG laser was used and each pulse was synchronized with a new frame to be exposed in the camera. When the movie was finished, it was not very bright, and one had to look through a small aperture to view it.

  18. Process optimization for the manufacturing of holographic elements using Darol photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Resio, Federico; Bertarelli, Chiara; Bianco, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Design and manufacturing of high efficiency and reliable volume phase holographic optical elements require photosensitive materials where the performances of the device are straightforwardly related to the recording and post process parameters. In this context, Darol® photopolymers are promising materials since the modulation of the refractive index is set during the thermal process that follows the holographic exposure. In the present study, dry Darol® films are thermally processed to determine the optimized conditions to achieve a large modulation of the refractive index together with good optical properties of the hologram (i.e. transparency), flatness and homogeneity. For each condition, volume phase gratings are written and characterized in terms of diffraction efficiency. A threshold temperature of 150 °C is found, and only latent holograms are obtained at lower temperature, as confirmed by thermal characterizations. Moreover, a dependence of the refractive index modulation on the line density and laser intensity is highlighted.

  19. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  20. Didactical Holographic Exhibit Including Holo TV (holographic Television)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunazzi, José J.; Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noemí I. R.

    2008-04-01

    Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.

  1. Theta dependence in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigazzi, Francesco [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bolognesi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Cotrone, Aldo L. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Manenti, Andrea [Institute of Physics, EPFL,Rte de la Sorge, BSP 728, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-02-07

    We study the effects of the CP-breaking topological θ-term in the large N{sub c} QCD model by Witten, Sakai and Sugimoto with N{sub f} degenerate light flavors. We first compute the ground state energy density, the topological susceptibility and the masses of the lowest lying mesons, finding agreement with expectations from the QCD chiral effective action. Then, focusing on the N{sub f}=2 case, we consider the baryonic sector and determine, to leading order in the small θ regime, the related holographic instantonic soliton solutions. We find that while the baryon spectrum does not receive O(θ) corrections, this is not the case for observables like the electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons. In particular, it exhibits a dipole term, which turns out to be vector-meson dominated. The resulting neutron electric dipole moment, which is exactly the opposite as that of the proton, is of the same order of magnitude of previous estimates in the literature. Finally, we compute the CP-violating pion-nucleon coupling constant ḡ{sub πNN}, finding that it is zero to leading order in the large N{sub c} limit.

  2. An automatic holographic adaptive phoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsolaimani, Babak; Peyghambarian, N.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Bablumyan, Arkady; Savidis, Nickolaos; Peyman, Gholam

    2017-08-01

    Phoropters are the most common instrument used to detect refractive errors. During a refractive exam, lenses are flipped in front of the patient who looks at the eye chart and tries to read the symbols. The procedure is fully dependent on the cooperation of the patient to read the eye chart, provides only a subjective measurement of visual acuity, and can at best provide a rough estimate of the patient's vision. Phoropters are difficult to use for mass screenings requiring a skilled examiner, and it is hard to screen young children and the elderly etc. We have developed a simplified, lightweight automatic phoropter that can measure the optical error of the eye objectively without requiring the patient's input. The automatic holographic adaptive phoropter is based on a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor and three computercontrolled fluidic lenses. The fluidic lens system is designed to be able to provide power and astigmatic corrections over a large range of corrections without the need for verbal feedback from the patient in less than 20 seconds.

  3. Holographic model for charmonium dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Nelson R. F.; Ferreira, Luiz F.; Vega, Alfredo

    2017-11-01

    We present a holographic bottom up model for the thermal behavior of c c bar vector mesons in a finite temperature and density plasma. There is a clear physical interpretation for the three input energy parameters of the model. Two of them are related to the mass spectrum of the heavy meson. Namely the quark mass and the string tension of the quark-anti-quark interaction. The third parameter is a large energy scale associated with the non-hadronic meson decay. In such a process the heavy meson is transformed into a much lighter state by electroweak processes. The corresponding transition amplitude is assumed to depend on the energy scale associated with this large mass variation. With this three parameter model one can fit the masses and decay constants of J / Ψ and three radial excitations with an rms error of 20.7%. Using the geometry of a charged black hole, one finds the spectral function for charmonium states inside a plasma at finite temperature and density. The charmonium dissociation in the medium is represented by the decrease in the height of the spectral function peaks.

  4. Holographic correlation functions in Critical Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Giorgos; Olea, Rodrigo

    2017-11-01

    We compute the holographic stress tensor and the logarithmic energy-momentum tensor of Einstein-Weyl gravity at the critical point. This computation is carried out performing a holographic expansion in a bulk action supplemented by the Gauss-Bonnet term with a fixed coupling. The renormalization scheme defined by the addition of this topological term has the remarkable feature that all Einstein modes are identically cancelled both from the action and its variation. Thus, what remains comes from a nonvanishing Bach tensor, which accounts for non-Einstein modes associated to logarithmic terms which appear in the expansion of the metric. In particular, we compute the holographic 1-point functions for a generic boundary geometric source.

  5. Holographic butterfly effect at quantum critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-10-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent λL in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound λL ≤ 2π k B T , it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this paper we propose that the butterfly velocity can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with an anisotropic holographic model exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the derivatives of the butterfly velocity with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes in zero temperature limit. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  6. Holographic dark energy in the DGP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or any other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holographic dark energy is included, taking the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated flat universe (de Sitter-like expansion) for the two branches: {epsilon}={+-}1, of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter-like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. (orig.)

  7. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  8. Anomalous transport and holographic momentum relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Christian; Fernández-Pendás, Jorge; Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio

    2017-09-01

    The chiral magnetic and vortical effects denote the generation of dissipationless currents due to magnetic fields or rotation. They can be studied in holographic models with Chern-Simons couplings dual to anomalies in field theory. We study a holographic model with translation symmetry breaking based on linear massless scalar field backgrounds. We compute the electric DC conductivity and find that it can vanish for certain values of the translation symmetry breaking couplings. Then we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities. They are completely independent of the holographic disorder couplings and take the usual values in terms of chemical potential and temperature. To arrive at this result we suggest a new definition of energy-momentum tensor in presence of the gravitational Chern-Simons coupling.

  9. Holographic duality in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...

  10. Collapse and revival in holographic quenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  11. Efficient Storage of Large Volume Spatial and Temporal Point-Data in an Object-Oriented Database

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliver, David

    2002-01-01

    Data mining applications must deal with large volumes of data. In particular, Spatio-Temporal Information Systems must efficiently store and access potentially very large quantities of spatial and temporal data...

  12. Holographic mutual information for singular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffar, M. Reza Mohammadi; Mollabashi, Ali [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidi, Farzad [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-14

    We study corner contributions to holographic mutual information for entangling regions composed of a set of disjoint sectors of a single infinite circle in 3-dimensional conformal field theories. In spite of the UV divergence of holographic mutual information, it exhibits a first order phase transition. We show that tripartite information is also divergent for disjoint sectors, which is in contrast with the well-known feature of tripartite information being finite even when entangling regions share boundaries. We also verify the locality of corner effects by studying mutual information between regions separated by a sharp annular region. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and hyperscaling violating geometries is also considered for disjoint sectors.

  13. Holographic corrections to meson scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin, E-mail: 746616@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-06-15

    We compute meson scattering amplitudes using the holographic duality between confining gauge theories and string theory, in order to consider holographic corrections to the Veneziano amplitude and associated higher-point functions. The generic nature of such computations is explained, thanks to the well-understood nature of confining string backgrounds, and two different examples of the calculation in given backgrounds are used to illustrate the details. The effect we discover, whilst only qualitative, is re-obtainable in many such examples, in four-point but also higher point amplitudes.

  14. Holographic Photon Production and Anisotropic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kiritsis, Elias; Shen, Chun; Yang, Di-Lun

    2017-08-01

    The thermal-photon emission from strongly coupled gauge theories at finite temperature via the bottom-up models in holographic QCD in the deconfined phase is studied. The models are constructed to approximately reproduce the electric conductivity obtained from lattice simulations for the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The emission rates are then embedded in hydrodynamic simulations combined with prompt photons and hadronic contributions to analyze the spectra and anisotropic flow of direct photons in RHIC and LHC. In general, the holographic models enhance the yield and improve the agreement in spectra, while they reduce the flow in low pT and increase it in high pT.

  15. A computer test of holographic flavour dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filev, Veselin G.; O’Connor, Denjoe [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-05-20

    We perform computer simulations of the Berkooz-Douglas (BD) matrix model, holographically dual to the D0/D4-brane intersection. We generate the fundamental condensate versus bare mass curve of the theory both holographically and from simulations of the BD model. Our studies show excellent agreement of the two approaches in the deconfined phase of the theory and significant deviations in the confined phase. We argue the discrepancy in the confined phase is explained by the embedding of the D4-brane which yields stronger α{sup ′} corrections to the condensate in this phase.

  16. Holographic Aspects of a Relativistic Nonconformal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a general D-dimensional Schwarzschild-type black brane solution of the Einstein-dilaton theory and derive, by using the holographic renormalization, its thermodynamics consistent with the geometric results. Using the membrane paradigm, we calculate the several hydrodynamic transport coefficients and compare them with the results obtained by the Kubo formula, which shows the self-consistency of the gauge/gravity duality in the relativistic nonconformal theory. In order to understand more about the relativistic non-conformal theory, we further investigate the binding energy, drag force, and holographic entanglement entropy of the relativistic non-conformal theory.

  17. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  18. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    and holographic storage in one particular polyester are described in detail and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data complementing the optical data are presented. Optical and atomic force microscope investigations point to a laser-induced aggregation as responsible for permanent optical storage.......Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations...

  19. Shift selectivity of the collinear holographic storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Ichimura, Shotaro; Ashizuka, Yasushi; Fujimura, Ryushi; Kuroda, Kazuo; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the signal decay with media shift were performed. Principle of the shift selectivity of the data pages are explained with our simple numerical model. Decay of the diffracted signal is calculated with the shift of the media. The dependencies of the shift selectivity on the reference pixel patterns, radius and width of the of the reference pixel area, and the media thickness. Shift selectivity of the page does not depend on the media thickness or reference pixel patterns. It is mainly determined by the radius and the width of the reference pixel area.

  20. Holographic heat engines: general considerations and rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A.; McCarthy, Fiona; Ballon, Alvaro; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    We perform the first study of holographic heat engines where the working material is a rotating black hole, obtaining exact results for the efficiency of a rectangular engine cycle. We also make general considerations in the context of benchmarking these engines on circular cycles. We find an exact expression that is valid for black holes with vanishing specific heat at constant volume and derive an upper bound, below the Carnot efficiency and independent of spacetime dimension, which holds for any black hole of this kind. We illustrate our results with applications to a variety of black holes, noting the effects of spacetime dimension, rotation, and higher curvature corrections on the efficiency of the cycle.

  1. Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure

    CERN Document Server

    Coppola, Gianluca; Wilding, Martin; Ferraro, Pietro; Esposito, Giusy; Di Matteo, Loredana; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dale, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). In this paper, we have studied whether Digital Holographic (DH) microscopy may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique to high power digitally enhanced Nomarski microscope. The main advantage of DH is that a high resolution 3-D quantitative sample imaging may be obtained thorugh numerical refocusing at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DH can furnish useful information on the dimensions and structure of human spermatozoo, that cannot be revealed by conventional phase contrast microscopy. In fact, in this paper DH has been used to evaluate volume and indicate precise location of vacuoles, thus suggesting its use as ...

  2. Holographic flows and thermodynamics of Polyakov loop impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Silvani, Dorian [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-21

    We study holographic probes dual to heavy quark impurities interpolating between fundamental and symmetric/antisymmetric tensor representations in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory. These correspond to non-conformal D3- and D5-brane probe embeddings in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} exhibiting flows on their world-volumes. By examining the asymptotic regimes of the embeddings and the one-point function of static fields sourced by the boundary impurity, we conclude that the D5-brane embedding describes the screening of fundamental quarks in the UV into an antisymmetric source in the IR, whilst the non-conformal, D3-brane solution interpolates between the symmetric representation in the UV and fundamental sources in the IR. The D5-brane embeddings exhibit nontrivial thermodynamics with multiple branches of solutions, whilst the thermal analogue of the interpolating D3-brane solution does not appear to exist.

  3. Holographic flows and thermodynamics of Polyakov loop impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Silvani, Dorian

    2017-03-01

    We study holographic probes dual to heavy quark impurities interpolating between fundamental and symmetric/antisymmetric tensor representations in strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. These correspond to non-conformal D3- and D5-brane probe embeddings in AdS5 × S5 exhibiting flows on their world-volumes. By examining the asymptotic regimes of the embeddings and the one-point function of static fields sourced by the boundary impurity, we conclude that the D5-brane embedding describes the screening of fundamental quarks in the UV into an antisymmetric source in the IR, whilst the non-conformal, D3-brane solution interpolates between the symmetric representation in the UV and fundamental sources in the IR. The D5-brane embeddings exhibit nontrivial thermodynamics with multiple branches of solutions, whilst the thermal analogue of the interpolating D3-brane solution does not appear to exist.

  4. Experimental holographic movie to estimate picture quality for holographic television (III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo

    1994-05-01

    Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. The authors have previously developed two versions of an experimental holographic movie system, and this paper is a report on an improved version 3 of the system. The new version features a newly-developed recording system which utilizes a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with an injection seeder, and an automatic film driver unit which moves perforated 35 mm holographic film intermittently. The system is mounted on a dolly to which a hydraulic lifter is attached. A twin diamond-shaped hologram format, developed for an earlier version of the system, is adopted for the films. After the films are developed, they are driven intermittently with a shutter, illuminated by the LD pumped CW Nd:YAG laser, and viewed through twin diamond-shaped windows. This version 3 system makes it possible to record live scenes, including those of the human body, flowing liquids, smoke, etc., which was impossible in the version 1 and version 3 systems. As a consequence, the characteristics of holographic 3D images with motion can be studied over an area covered by both eyes, and the labor required of animators in taking holograms is greatly reduced.

  5. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  6. Signal intensity enhancement of laser ablated volume holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnel, J. M.; Williams, C.; Davidson, C. A. B.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Lowe, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Conventional volume holographic gratings (VHGs) fabricated in photosensitive emulsions such as gelatin containing silver salts enable the facile visualization of the holographic image in ambient lighting. However, for the fabrication of holographic sensors, which require more defined and chemically-functionalised polymer matrices, laser ablation has been introduced to create the VHGs and thereby broaden their applications, although the replay signal can be challenging to detect in ambient lighting. When traditional photochemical bleaching solutions used to reduce light scattering and modulate refractive index within the VHG are applied to laser ablated volume holographic gratings, these procedures decrease the holographic peak intensity. This is postulated to occur because both light and dark fringes contain a proportion of metal particles, which upon solubilisation are converted immediately to silver iodide, yielding no net refractive index modulation. This research advances a hypothesis that the reduced intensity of holographic replay signals is linked to a gradient of different sized metal particles within the emulsion, which reduces the holographic signal and may explain why traditional bleaching processes result in a reduction in intensity. In this report, a novel experimental protocol is provided, along with simulations based on an effective medium periodic 1D stack, that offers a solution to increase peak signal intensity of holographic sensors by greater than 200%. Nitric acid is used to etch the silver nanoparticles within the polymer matrix and is thought to remove the smaller particles to generate more defined metal fringes containing a soluble metal salt. Once the grating efficiency has been increased, this salt can be converted to a silver halide, to modulate the refractive index and increase the intensity of the holographic signal. This new protocol has been tested in a range of polymer chemistries; those containing functional groups that help to

  7. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 2. Pre- and post-test decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; Lombardo, N.J.; Heeb, C.M.; Jenquin, U.P.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Creer, J.M.; McCann, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses conducted in support of performance testing of a Ridhihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2033 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The cask testing program was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and by General Electric at the latters' Morris Operation (GE-MO) as reported in Volume I. The analyses effort consisted of performing pretest calculations to (1) select spent fuel for the test; (2) symmetrically load the spent fuel assemblies in the cask to ensure lateral symmetry of decay heat generation rates; (3) optimally locate temperature and dose rate instrumentation in the cask and spent fuel assemblies; and (4) evaluate the ORIGEN2 (decay heat), HYDRA and COBRA-SFS (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) computer codes. The emphasis of this second volume is on the comparison of code predictions to experimental test data in support of the code evaluation process. Code evaluations were accomplished by comparing pretest (actually pre-look, since some predictions were not completed until testing was in progress) predictions with experimental cask testing data reported in Volume I. No attempt was made in this study to compare the two heat transfer codes because results of other evaluations have not been completed, and a comparison based on one data set may lead to erroneous conclusions.

  8. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, David A. [Physics Department, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Thorlacius, Larus [University of Iceland, Science Institute,Dunhaga 3, IS-107, Reykjavik (Iceland); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics,Department of Physics, Stockholm University,AlbaNova University Centre, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-12-07

    We explore a version of black hole complementarity, where an approximate semiclassical effective field theory for interior infalling degrees of freedom emerges holographically from an exact evolution of exterior degrees of freedom. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to a breakdown of the semiclassical description for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between the complementary time evolutions, and to define a decoherence time. We propose a dictionary where the evolution with respect to the bulk effective Hamiltonian corresponds to mean field evolution in the holographic theory. In a particular model for the holographic theory, which exhibits fast scrambling, the decoherence time coincides with the scrambling time. The results support the hypothesis that decoherence of the infalling holographic state and disruptive bulk effects near the curvature singularity are complementary descriptions of the same physics, which is an important step toward resolving the black hole information paradox.

  9. Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erf, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.

  10. Display applications for holographic optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, William J., Jr.; Armstrong, Mark L.; Hamzavy, Babak; Levin, Michael L.; Mackara, Steven R.; Molteni, William J., Jr.; Steijn, Kirk W.; Stevenson, Sylvia H.; Felder, Thomas C.; Heidt, Gerald L.; Miller, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01

    In the last several years, holographic elements have been introduced into a wide array of display applications. Holographic Reflectors are incorporated with liquid crystal displays to shift optimum viewing angle away form specular glare and raise brightness by concentrating light at a convenient viewing angle. Reflectors can be produced in blue, green, gold, red, or white colors. Denso GlassVision projection screens incorporate transmission holograms to efficiently direct projected light to the viewer in a screen that reverts to clear glass When the projection image is turned off. JVC has introduce da large-screen HDTV that uses a holographic color filter to separate blue, green, and red light from the illumination beam, and direct the sorted colors to the appropriate color pixel, raising brightness with a passive component. Most recently, HOE prototypes have been produced to improve the efficiency of portable liquid crystal color display. Front diffuser are affixed to the face of reflective color LCDs and direct output light from the LCD to the viewer at a convenient viewing angle in a concentrated view cone. Reflective Colors Filters are pixelated diffuse reflectors internal to the LCD structure and aligned to the LCD matrix. These reflective filters provide higher brightness, larger color gamut, and better color saturation including a holographic grating are under development to provide wider view angle in direct-view LCDs.

  11. Holographic applications of logarithmic conformal field theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grumiller, D.; Riedler, W.; Rosseel, J.; Zojer, T.

    2013-01-01

    We review the relations between Jordan cells in various branches of physics, ranging from quantum mechanics to massive gravity theories. Our main focus is on holographic correspondences between critically tuned gravity theories in anti-de Sitter space and logarithmic conformal field theories in

  12. Holographic recording in two-stage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Robert R.; Peng, Haiyan; Nair, Devatha P.; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate holography in a traditional two-component holographic photopolymer in which the solid polymer host matrix has three distinct sets of material properties: 1) an initially liquid state appropriate for formulation and casting into the desired final shape, 2) a rubbery state with low glass transition temperature appropriate for holographic recording, and 3) a final higher modulus state with improved mechanical robustness. The general chemical scheme is to form the second stage rubbery polymer network via a thiol-acrylate Michael addition with an excess of one functional group. Holographic recording then takes place via radically initiated photopolymerization of a mobile high refractive index monomer, per the common two-chemistry process. During final flood illumination of the material, the remaining monomer and excess functional groups are polymerized to increase crosslink density and improve the mechanical properties of the matrix. We described three such material schemes and report general trends. We demonstrate high (96%) efficiency holographic recording, low (1.1%) shrinkage, no oxygen sensitivity and stage 2 glass transition temperatures at or above room temperature, sufficient to enable self-supporting films.

  13. Holographic space: presence and absence in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In terms of contemporary art, time-based media generally refers to artworks that have duration as a dimension and unfold to the viewer over time, that could be a video, slide, film, computer-based technologies or audio. As part of this category, holography pushes this visual-oriented narrative a step further, which brings a real 3D image to invite and allow audiences revisiting the scene of the past, at the moment of recording in space and time. Audiences could also experience the kinetic holographic aesthetics through constantly moving the viewing point or illumination source, which creates dynamic visual effects. In other words, when the audience and hologram remain still, the holographic image can only be perceived statically. This unique form of expression is not created by virtual simulation; the principal of wavefront reconstruction process made holographic art exceptional from other time-based media. This project integrates 3D printing technology to explore the nature of material aesthetics, transiting between material world and holographic space. In addition, this series of creation also reveals the unique temporal quality of a hologram's presence and absence, an ambiguous relationship existing in this media.

  14. Phases of kinky holographic nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Sutcliffe, Paul; Zamaklar, Marija [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    Holographic QCD at finite baryon number density and zero temperature is studied within the five-dimensional Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce a new approximation that models a smeared crystal of solitonic baryons by assuming spatial homogeneity to obtain an effective kink theory in the holographic direction. The kink theory correctly reproduces a first order phase transition to lightly bound nuclear matter. As the density is further increased the kink splits into a pair of half-kink constituents, providing a concrete realization of the previously suggested dyonic salt phase, where the bulk soliton splits into constituents at high density. The kink model also captures the phenomenon of baryonic popcorn, in which a first order phase transition generates an additional soliton layer in the holographic direction. We find that this popcorn transition takes place at a density below the dyonic salt phase, making the latter energetically unfavourable. However, the kink model predicts only one pop, rather than the sequence of pops suggested by previous approximations. In the kink model the two layers produced by the single pop form the surface of a soliton bag that increases in size as the baryon chemical potential is increased. The interior of the bag is filled with abelian electric potential and the instanton charge density is localized on the surface of the bag. The soliton bag may provide a holographic description of a quarkyonic phase.

  15. Holographic Josephson junction from massive gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Li, Huai-Fan; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction in de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity. If the boundary theory is independent of spatial directions, i.e., if the chemical potential is homogeneous in spatial directions, we find that the graviton mass

  16. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  17. Preliminary feasibility evalution of compressed air storage power systems. Volume II. Appendices, period June 1975--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Interest in compressed air storage has been developing in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, England, and France, as well as the United States. One commercial unit is under construction in Huntorf, West Germany. Compressed air for peak power can be stored either in natural or man-made caverns. Only new excavations in hard rock down to depths of about 2500 feet are considered in this report. In 1974, conditions for underground storage were discussed in a Geological Survey of Potential Cavern Areas in New England, referred to as the CAINE report. In this survey of the northeast region, the rest of the corridor between Washington and Boston has been added. The rock formations in the entire area of about 45,000 square miles are evaluated. The physical properties of rocks and criteria for their evaluation in underground openings are discussed. Methods of rock excavation and the basis for selecting areas are considered. Information on bedrock units along the corridor is reviewed. A list of favorable rock formations is included.

  18. Analysis of data recorder optical scheme impact on quality of computer generated Fourier holograms in holographic memory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchenko, Sergey S.; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Verenikina, Nina M.; Betin, Alexandr U.; Hanevich, Pavel; Zlokazov, Evgenii Y.

    2017-05-01

    Holographic memory systems provide such advantages as long data storage term, high data density and do not need a power supply. Instead of recording interference pattern, it is proposed to record computer generated 1D Fourier holograms (CGFH). High information density is reached by multiplexing 1D Fourier Holograms. In this work factors, which impact the quality of recorded CGFH are analyzed in mathematical modelling and experimental researches.

  19. Use of Laser-Etched Pouches to Control the Volume Expansion of Kimchi Packages During Distribution: Impact of Packaging and Storage on Quality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Yoo, SeungRan

    2017-08-01

    Use of laser-etched pouches was investigated to develop kimchi packages with gas control functions. According to the degree of laser processing, the headspace pressure, atmospheric composition, and water vapor transmission rate of the kimchi packages were measured to investigate the potential use of laser-etched packages for kimchi. In addition, the pH, titratable acidity, organic acid, and microbial population of the packaged kimchi were examined to study the effect of packaging and storage conditions on its quality characteristics. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the pouches with a high gas transmission rate was less than that in other pouches (P kimchi (for example, pH, titratable acidity, organic acid, and microbial count). In addition, this study indicated that the higher the storage temperature, the more rapid the fermentation. Consequently, laser-etched pouches demonstrate the potential for controlling the gas, which in turn maintains the quality of kimchi. The use of laser-etched films could exert marked effects on alleviating the volume expansion or pressure build-up in kimchi packages. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Status of groundwater levels and storage volume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, 2012 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.; Whisnant, Joshua A.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Wichita well field in the Equus Beds aquifer in southwest Harvey County and northwest Sedgwick County began in the 1940s to supply water to the city of Wichita. The decline of water levels in the Equus Beds aquifer was noted soon after the development of the Wichita well field began. Development of irrigation wells began in the 1960s. City and agricultural withdrawals led to substantial water-level declines. Water-level declines likely enhanced movement of brines from past oil and gas activities near Burrton, Kansas, as well as natural saline water from the Arkansas River into the Wichita well field area. Large chloride concentrations may limit use, or require the treatment of water from the well field for irrigation or public supply. In 1993, the city of Wichita adopted the Integrated Local Water Supply Program to ensure an adequate water supply for the city through 2050 and manage effectively the part of the Equus Beds aquifer Wichita uses. The Integrated Local Water Supply Program uses several strategies to do this, including the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. The purpose of the Aquifer Storage and Recovery project is to store water in the aquifer for later recovery, and help protect the aquifer from encroachment of a known oil-field-brine plume near Burrton and saline water from the Arkansas River. Since 1940, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has monitored changes in the Equus Beds aquifer as part of Wichita’s effort to manage this resource effectively.

  1. Norland Optical Adhesive 72® as phase holographic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ortiz-Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the holographic material composed by adhesive polymer Norland Optical Adhesive 72® (NOA 72® was studied. With a wavelength of 457 nm from an Ar laser, real time phase holographic gratings under different parameters such as energy, frequency and thickness were recorded. The diffraction efficiency of the recorded holographic gratings was measured and some experimental results are shown. Furthermore, the material was used to record Fourier holograms.

  2. Applications of holographic interferometry for spacecraft structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V.; Samuel, R.; Nair, P. S.

    1994-06-01

    An overview of the applications of holographic interferometry for spacecraft structural components at ISRO Satellite Center, Bangalore, India, is presented. The details of the development of a dual vacuum stressing technique and its application for holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT) of honeycomb panels are presented. Results of some calibration studies conducted for HNDT of propellant tanks are also presented. It is found that holographic interferometry is quite useful, particularly for HNDT of honeycomb panels and propellant tanks used for spacecraft structural components.

  3. X-ray holographic microscopy experiments at the Brookhaven synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Kirz, J.; Rarback, H.

    1983-01-01

    Soft x-ray holographic microscopy is discussed from an experimental point of view. Three series of measurements have been carried out using the Brookhaven 750 MeV storage ring as an x-ray source. Young slits fringes, Gabor (in line) holograms and various data pertaining to the soft x-ray performance of photographic plates are reported. The measurements are discussed in terms of the technique for recording them and the experimental limitations in effect. Some discussion is also given of the issues involved in reconstruction using visible light.

  4. Saturation of the Holographic Principle for Spatially Closed Cosmological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, P.; Per, M. A.; Segui, A.

    Under the assumption on the fundamental character of the Holographic Principle as a primary principle guiding the behavior of our universe the saturation of the holographic limit is reasonable. On the other hand the Fischler-Susskind holographic prescription seems to be incompatible with closed cosmological models due to the apparently unavoidable recontraction of the particle horizon area. However we will show that the saturation of the Fischler-Susskind holographic prescription over a closed (although almost flat) cosmological model enforces a cosmological evolution very similar to the observed universe.

  5. Holographic display with LED sources illumination and enlarged viewing angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlipała, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present holographic display that uses LED sources illumination and have enlarged viewing angle. In this holographic display design we employ phase only SLM because it allows to obtain reconstructions of high quality. Our setup realizes complex coding scheme and allows to reconstruct complex holographic images. Thus reconstruction of inplane holograms is possible. Holograms displayed on SLM are computer generated. For enlargement of angular field of view we use three spatially separated illumination sources and time multiplexing technique. In experimental part, where we display computer generated holograms, we show that it is possible to obtain holographic reconstructions of 3D object with extended viewing angle.

  6. Higher order corrections to holographic black hole chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinamuli, Musema; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the holographic Smarr relation beyond the large N limit. By making use of the holographic dictionary, we find that the bulk correlates of subleading 1 /N corrections to this relation are related to the couplings in Lovelock gravity theories. We likewise obtain a holographic equation of state and check its validity for a variety of interesting and nontrivial black holes, including rotating planar black holes in Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld gravity, and nonextremal rotating black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We provide an explanation of the N -dependence of the holographic Smarr relation in terms of contributions due to planar and nonplanar diagrams in the dual theory.

  7. HOMES - Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HOMES (Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy) is a space telescope designed for exoplanet discovery. Its double dispersion architecture employs a...

  8. Holographic microscopy for 3D tracking of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; Cho, Yong Bin; El-Kholy, Marwan; Bedrossian, Manuel; Rider, Stephanie; Lindensmith, Christian; Wallace, J. Kent

    2016-03-01

    Understanding when, how, and if bacteria swim is key to understanding critical ecological and biological processes, from carbon cycling to infection. Imaging motility by traditional light microscopy is limited by focus depth, requiring cells to be constrained in z. Holographic microscopy offers an instantaneous 3D snapshot of a large sample volume, and is therefore ideal in principle for quantifying unconstrained bacterial motility. However, resolving and tracking individual cells is difficult due to the low amplitude and phase contrast of the cells; the index of refraction of typical bacteria differs from that of water only at the second decimal place. In this work we present a combination of optical and sample-handling approaches to facilitating bacterial tracking by holographic phase imaging. The first is the design of the microscope, which is an off-axis design with the optics along a common path, which minimizes alignment issues while providing all of the advantages of off-axis holography. Second, we use anti-reflective coated etalon glass in the design of sample chambers, which reduce internal reflections. Improvement seen with the antireflective coating is seen primarily in phase imaging, and its quantification is presented here. Finally, dyes may be used to increase phase contrast according to the Kramers-Kronig relations. Results using three test strains are presented, illustrating the different types of bacterial motility characterized by an enteric organism (Escherichia coli), an environmental organism (Bacillus subtilis), and a marine organism (Vibrio alginolyticus). Data processing steps to increase the quality of the phase images and facilitate tracking are also discussed.

  9. Holographic interpolation between a and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Teruhiko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakaguchi, Yuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Nishioka, Tatsuma [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-29

    An interpolating function F-tilde between the a-anomaly coefficient in even dimensions and the free energy on an odd-dimensional sphere has been proposed recently and is conjectured to monotonically decrease along any renormalization group flow in continuous dimension d. We examine F-tilde in the large-N CFT’s in d dimensions holographically described by the Einstein-Hilbert gravity in the AdS{sub d+1} space. We show that F-tilde is a smooth function of d and correctly interpolates the a coefficients and the free energies. The monotonicity of F-tilde along an RG flow follows from the analytic continuation of the holographic c-theorem to continuous d, which completes the proof of the conjecture.

  10. Holographic Associative Memory Employing Phase Conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, B. H.; Marom, E.; Owechko, Y.; Dunning, G.

    1986-12-01

    The principle of information retrieval by association has been suggested as a basis for parallel computing and as the process by which human memory functions.1 Various associative processors have been proposed that use electronic or optical means. Optical schemes,2-7 in particular, those based on holographic principles,8'8' are well suited to associative processing because of their high parallelism and information throughput. Previous workers8 demonstrated that holographically stored images can be recalled by using relatively complicated reference images but did not utilize nonlinear feedback to reduce the large cross talk that results when multiple objects are stored and a partial or distorted input is used for retrieval. These earlier approaches were limited in their ability to reconstruct the output object faithfully from a partial input.

  11. Multiplexed fluorescence spectroscopy with holographic optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, M. A.; Kendrick, M. J.; Gruss, D. S.; Bychkova, V.; Pylypiuk, N.; Koesdjojo, M.; Remcho, V. T.; Ostroverkhova, O.; McIntyre, D. H.

    2011-10-01

    We present a multiplexed spectroscopy technique using holographic optical tweezers to trap and excite multiple sensor particles. Our goal is to develop a lab-on-a-chip measurement platform for monitoring pH and other ion concentrations with high spatial resolution in a microfluidic device or within biological cells. We have developed a variety of polymeric pH/ion sensitive nanoparticles with fluorescence spectra that change with the pH/ion concentration of the surrounding environment. We optically trap and manipulate multiple nanosensors using holographic optical tweezers. The trapped particles are irradiated with a separate excitation laser and the fluorescence from all the particles is detected simultaneously with an imaging spectrometer. Electronic separation of the parallel, discrete spectra allows for concurrent determination of multiple spectra.

  12. Revisiting holographic superconductors with hyperscaling violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Qiyuan [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Zhang, Shao-Jun [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    We investigate the effect of the hyperscaling violation on the holographic superconductors. In the s-wave model, we find that the critical temperature decreases first and then increases as the hyperscaling violation increases, and the mass of the scalar field will not modify the value of the hyperscaling violation which gives the minimum critical temperature. We analytically confirm the numerical results by using the Sturm-Liouville method with the higher order trial function and improve the previous findings in Fan (J High Energy Phys 09:048, 2013). However, different from the s-wave case, we note that the critical temperature decreases with the increase of the hyperscaling violation in the p-wave model. In addition, we observe that the hyperscaling violation affects the conductivity of the holographic superconductors and changes the expected relation in the gap frequency in both s-wave and p-wave models. (orig.)

  13. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke.kawai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Nakayama, Yu [California Institute of Technology, 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  14. Spiral holographic imaging through quantum interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Ming, Yang; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2017-07-01

    Spiral holographic imaging in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference scheme is introduced. Using spontaneous parametric down-conversion as a source of photon pairs, we analyze the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum of a reference photon and the photon encoding information of the object. The first-order interference of light beams in standard holographic imaging is replaced by the quantum interference of two-photon probability amplitudes. The difficulty in retrieving the amplitude and phase structure of an unknown photon is thereby avoided as classical interferometric techniques such as optical holography do not apply. Our results show that the full information of the object's transmission function can be recorded in the spiral hologram, which originates directly from the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum. This presents a lateral demonstration of compressive imaging and can potentially be used for remote sensing.

  15. Holographic trace anomaly at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Park, Chanyong

    2017-01-01

    Using the holographic renormalization, we investigate the finite temperature and size effect to the energy-momentum tensor of the dual field theory and its renormalization group (RG) flow. Following the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, the dual field theory of the AdS space is well known to be a conformal field theory that has no nontrivial RG flow. Holographically, that theory can be lifted to a finite temperature version by considering a AdS black hole solution. Because the black hole horizon associated with temperature is dimensionful, it breaks the boundary conformal symmetry and leads to a nontrivial RG flow. In this work, we investigate the finite temperature and size correction to a strongly interacting conformal field theory along the Wisonian renormalization group flow.

  16. Transonic flow visualization using holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.

    1987-05-01

    An account is made of some of the applications of holographic interferometry to the visualization of transonic flows. In the case of the compressor shock visualization, the method is used regularly and has moved from being a research department invention to a design test tool. With the implementation of automatic processing and simple digitization systems, holographic vibrational analysis has also moved into routine nondestructive testing. The code verification interferograms were instructive, but the main turbomachinery interest is now in 3 dimensional flows. A major data interpretation effort will be required to compute tomographically the 3 dimensional flow around the leading or the trailing edges of a rotating blade row. The bolt on approach shows the potential application to current unsteady flows of interest. In particular that of the rotor passing and vortex interaction effects is experienced by the new generation of unducted fans. The turbocharger tests presents a new area for the application of holography.

  17. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kawai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  18. Formation of temperature dependable holographic memory using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru; Moriwaki, Retsu

    2013-04-01

    Grating devices using photosensitive organic materials play an important role in the development of optical and optoelectronic systems. High diffraction efficiency and polarization dependence achieved in a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating are expected to provide polarization controllable optical devices, such as the holographic memory for optically reconfigurable gate arrays (ORGAs). However, the optical property is affected by the thermal modulation around the transition temperature (T(ni)) that the liquid crystal (LC) changes from nematic to isotropic phases. The temperature dependence of the diffraction efficiency in HPDLC grating is discussed with two types of LC composites comprised of isotropic and LC diacrylate monomers. The holographic memory formed by the LC and LC diacrylate monomer performs precise reconstruction of the context information for ORGAs at high temperatures more than 150°C.

  19. Holographic window for solar power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-12-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  20. Non-relativistic geometry of holographic screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Mudassir

    2017-06-01

    We propose that the intrinsic geometry of holographic screens should be described by the Newton-Cartan geometry. As a test of this proposal, we show that the evolution equations of the screen can be written in a covariant form in terms of a stress tensor, an energy current, and a momentum one-form. We derive the expressions for the stress tensor, energy density, and momentum one-form using Brown-York action formalism.

  1. Holographic cosmological models on the braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: joel.saavedra@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)

    2009-01-26

    In this Letter we have studied a closed universe which a holographic energy on the brane whose energy density is described by {rho}(H)=3c{sup 2}H{sup 2} and we obtain an equation for the Hubble parameter. This equation gave us different physical behavior depending if c{sup 2}>1 or c{sup 2}<1 against of the sign of the brane tension.

  2. Holographic Investigation of Solid Propellant Particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    used at the Naval Postgraduate School in an attempt to obtain this type of data. They are: 1. High speed cinematography of burning propellant strands in...techniques vice conventional photography. Utilization of the holographic procedure results in a film plate which has recorded on it both the phase and...AGFA-GEVAERT 8E75 HD film plate is mounted on a kinematic plate holder near the focal plane of a pair of plano convex lenses. This device serves to

  3. Geometric Analogue of Holographic Reduced Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; De Moor, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Holographic reduced representations (HRR) are based on superpositions of convolution-bound $n$-tuples, but the $n$-tuples cannot be regarded as vectors since the formalism is basis dependent. This is why HRR cannot be associated with geometric structures. Replacing convolutions by geometric products one arrives at reduced representations analogous to HRR but interpretable in terms of geometry. Variable bindings occurring in both HRR and its geometric analogue mathematically correspond to two ...

  4. Magnonic holographic imaging of magnetic microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, D.; Chiang, H.; Bhowmick, T.; Volodchenkov, A.D.; Ranjbar, M.; Liu, G.; Jiang, C.; Warren, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Khivintsev, Y.; Filimonov, Y. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov Branch, Saratov 410019 (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Garay, J.; Lake, R.; Balandin, A.A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Khitun, A., E-mail: akhitun@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We propose and demonstrate a technique for magnetic microstructure imaging via their interaction with propagating spin waves. In this approach, the object of interest is placed on top of a magnetic testbed made of material with low spin wave damping. There are micro-antennas incorporated in the testbed. Two of these antennas are used for spin wave excitation while another one is used for the detecting of inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves. The measurements are repeated for different phase differences between the spin wave generating antennas which is equivalent to changing the angle of illumination. The collected data appear as a 3D plot – the holographic image of the object. We present experimental data showing magnonic holographic images of a low-coercivity Si/Co sample, a high-coercivity sample made of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and a diamagnetic copper sample. We also present images of the three samples consisting of a different amount of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder. The imaging was accomplished on a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}(FeO{sub 4}){sub 3} testbed at room temperature. The obtained data reveal the unique magnonic signatures of the objects. Experimental data is complemented by the results of numerical modeling, which qualitatively explain the characteristic features of the images. Potentially, magnonic holographic imaging may complement existing techniques and be utilized for non-destructive in-situ magnetic object characterization. The fundamental physical limits of this approach are also discussed. - Highlights: • A technique for magnetic microstructure imaging via their interaction with propagating spin waves is proposed. • In this technique, magnetic structures appear as 3D objects. • Several holographic images of magnetic microstructures are presented.

  5. Prehistory of holographic art: a personal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Margaret

    1998-02-01

    The history of art contains works by artists that may be seen as `holographic' in their aesthetic, philosophic and formal implications. This paper briefly explores some of these parallels, chosen for their interest as preholographic images. Examples are taken from works of Eastern and Western visionary art, works by individual artists such as Rembrandt and Marcel Duchamp, and from early 20th century art movements.

  6. Fourier RGB synthetic aperture color holographic capture for wide angle holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołoś, Anna; Zaperty, Weronika; Finke, Grzegorz; Makowski, Piotr; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present a high pixel count color holographic registration system that is designed to provide 3D holographic content of real-world large objects. Captured data is dedicated for holographic displays with a wide-viewing angle. The registration in color is realized by means of sequential recording with the use of three RGB laser light sources. The applied Fourier configuration of capture system gives large viewing angle and an optimal coverage of the detector resolution. Moreover, it enables to filter out zero order and twin image. In this work the captured Fourier holograms are transformed to general Fresnel type that is more suitable for 3D holographic displays. High resolution and large pixel count of holographic data and its spatial continuity is achieved through synthetic aperture concept with camera scanning and subpixel correlation based stitching. This grants an access to many tools of numerical hologram processing e.g. continuous viewing angle adjustment, and control of 3D image position and size. In this paper the properties of 1D synthetic aperture (60000 x 2500 pixels) are investigated. Each of the RGB 1D SA holograms is composed of 71 frames, which after stitching result in approx. 150 Megapixel hologram pixel count and 12° angular field of view. In experimental part high quality numerical reconstructions for each type of the hologram are shown. Moreover, the captured holograms are used for generation of hybrid hologram that is assembled from a set of RGB holograms of different color statues of height below 20 cm. In the final experiment this hybrid hologram as well as RGB hologram of a single object are reconstructed in the color holographic display.

  7. M theory as a holographic field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hořava, Petr

    1999-02-01

    We suggest that M theory could be nonperturbatively equivalent to a local quantum field theory. More precisely, we present a ``renormalizable'' gauge theory in eleven dimensions, and show that it exhibits various properties expected of quantum M theory, most notably the holographic principle of 't Hooft and Susskind. The theory also satisfies Mach's principle: A macroscopically large space-time (and the inertia of low-energy excitations) is generated by a large number of ``partons'' in the microscopic theory. We argue that at low energies in large eleven dimensions, the theory should be effectively described by eleven-dimensional supergravity. This effective description breaks down at much lower energies than naively expected, precisely when the system saturates the Bekenstein bound on energy density. We show that the number of partons scales like the area of the surface surrounding the system, and discuss how this holographic reduction of degrees of freedom affects the cosmological constant problem. We propose the holographic field theory as a candidate for a covariant, nonperturbative formulation of quantum M theory.

  8. Drawing Lines with Light in Holographic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores the dynamic and expressive possibilities of holographic art through a comparison of art history and technical media such as photography, film and holographic technologies. Examples of modern art and creative expression of time and motions are examined using the early 20th century art movement, Cubism, where subjects are portrayed to be seen simultaneously from different angles. Folding space is represented as subject matter as it can depict space from multiple points of time. The paper also investigates the way holographic art has explored time and space. The lenticular lens-based media reveal a more subjective poetic art in the form of the lyrical images and messages as spectators pass through time, or walk along with the piece of work through an interactive process. It is argued that photographic practice is another example of artistic representation in the form of aesthetic medium of time movement and as such shares a common ground with other dynamic expression that require time based interaction.

  9. Holographic Hall conductivities from dyonic backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Jonathan [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, I 34136 Trieste (Italy); Taliotis, Anastasios; Vanhoof, Joris [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-07-20

    We develop a general framework for computing the holographic 2-point functions and the corresponding conductivities in asymptotically locally AdS backgrounds with an electric charge density, a constant magentic field, and possibly non-trivial scalar profiles, for a broad class of Einstein-Maxwell-Axion-Dilaton theories, including certain Chern-Simons terms. Holographic renormalization is carried out for any theory in this class and the computation of the renormalized AC conductivities at zero spatial momentum is reduced to solving a single decoupled first order Riccati equation. Moreover, we develop a first order fake supergravity formulalism for dyonic renormalization group flows in four dimensions, allowing us to construct analytically infinite families of such backgrounds by specifying a superpotential at will. These RG flows interpolate between AdS{sub 4} in the UV and a hyperscaling violating Lifshitz geometry in the IR with exponents 1holographic 1- and 2-point functions and the corresponding transport coefficients in any dyonic background, both in the context of AdS/CMT and AdS/QCD.

  10. Holographic Video Disc And Laser Scanning Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, I.; Rosenbruch, K. J.

    1983-10-01

    Holographic optical elements or systems of holographic elements may replace glass optical imaging systems or may be used for the correction of glass optics. The main advantages of such systems are their low weight, small and compact construction, and their simple and inexpensive manufacture. The disadvantages to be overcome are mainly the low light through-put and chromatic aberrations. In the special case of optics for video discs we present an optical imaging system which is capable of giving the required high resolution for illumination with polychromatic radiation of limited bandwidth in the case of semiconductor laser diodes. Optimization programs based on ray tracing yield highly corrected imaging systems by comparably simple holographic means. The use of only two surfaces gives very compact and lightweight systems, the image quality of which is described for monochromatic and polychro-matic irradiance by means of optical transfer functions. The holograms are recorded on photo-resist material with short wavelength laser radiation. Such holograms have almost no scatter light and do not alter their properties with time or under radiation. These holograms generate wavefronts for the correction of aberrations which, in the case of glass optics, could only be achieved by aspherical surfaces.

  11. Holographic coherent states from random tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Yang, Zhao; You, Yi-Zhuang

    2017-08-01

    Random tensor networks provide useful models that incorporate various important features of holographic duality. A tensor network is usually defined for a fixed graph geometry specified by the connection of tensors. In this paper, we generalize the random tensor network approach to allow quantum superposition of different spatial geometries. We setup a framework in which all possible bulk spatial geometries, characterized by weighted adjacient matrices of all possible graphs, are mapped to the boundary Hilbert space and form an overcomplete basis of the boundary. We name such an overcomplete basis as holographic coherent states. A generic boundary state can be expanded in this basis, which describes the state as a superposition of different spatial geometries in the bulk. We discuss how to define distinct classical geometries and small fluctuations around them. We show that small fluctuations around classical geometries define "code subspaces" which are mapped to the boundary Hilbert space isometrically with quantum error correction properties. In addition, we also show that the overlap between different geometries is suppressed exponentially as a function of the geometrical difference between the two geometries. The geometrical difference is measured in an area law fashion, which is a manifestation of the holographic nature of the states considered.

  12. Holographic renormalization as a canonical transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The gauge/string dualities have drawn attention to a class of variational problems on a boundary at infinity, which are not well defined unless a certain boundary term is added to the classical action. In the context of supergravity in asymptotically AdS spaces these problems are systematically addressed by the method of holographic renormalization. We argue that this class of a priori ill defined variational problems extends far beyond the realm of holographic dualities. As we show, exactly the same issues arise in gravity in non asymptotically AdS spaces, in point particles with certain unbounded from below potentials, and even fundamental strings in flat or AdS backgrounds. We show that the variational problem in all such cases can be made well defined by the following procedure, which is intrinsic to the system in question and does not rely on the existence of a holographically dual theory: (i) The first step is the construction of the space of the most general asymptotic solutions of the classical equati...

  13. Phase control during reconstruction of holographically recorded flow fields using real-time holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    A technique of phase control during reconstruction of holographic interferograms is demonstrated in which the recorded scene beam with disturbance present is made to interfere with the real-time scene beam after the disturbance is removed. The reference phase is adjusted during reconstruction by manipulating either the scene or reference beams. Comparisons are made between the present technique and the two-reference-beam and two-plate techniques, more commonly used for phase control during reconstruction of holographic interferograms for flow visualization.

  14. Site characterization plan: Conceptual design report: Volume 4, Appendices F-O: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, H R; Scully, L W; Tillerson, J R [comps.

    1987-09-01

    The site for the prospective repository is located at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, and the waste emplacement area will be constructed in the underlying volcanic tuffs. The target horizon for waste emplacement is a sloping bed of densely welded tuff more than 650 ft below the surface and typically more than 600 ft above the water table. The conceptual design described in this report is unique among repository designs in that it uses ramps in addition to shafts to gain access to the underground facility, the emplacement horizon is located above the water table, and it is possible that 300- to 400-ft-long horizontal waste emplacement boreholes will be used. This report summarizes the design bases, design and performance criteria, and the design analyses performed. The current status of meeting the preclosure performance objectives for licensing and of resolving the repository design and preclosure issues is presented. The repository design presented in this report will be expanded and refined during the advanced conceptual design, the license application design, and the final procurement and construction design phases. Volume 4 contains Appendices F to O.

  15. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  16. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  17. Holographic self-tuning of the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmousis, Christos; Kiritsis, Elias; Nitti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    We propose a brane-world setup based on gauge/gravity duality in which the four-dimensional cosmological constant is set to zero by a dynamical self-adjustment mechanism. The bulk contains Einstein gravity and a scalar field. We study holographic RG flow solutions, with the standard model brane separating an infinite volume UV region and an IR region of finite volume. For generic values of the brane vacuum energy, regular solutions exist such that the four-dimensional brane is flat. Its position in the bulk is determined dynamically by the junction conditions. Analysis of linear fluctuations shows that a regime of 4-dimensional gravity is possible at large distances, due to the presence of an induced gravity term. The graviton acquires an effective mass, and a five-dimensional regime may exist at large and/or small scales. We show that, for a broad choice of potentials, flat-brane solutions are manifestly stable and free of ghosts. We compute the scalar contribution to the force between brane-localized sources and show that, in certain models, the vDVZ discontinuity is absent and the effective interaction at short distances is mediated by two transverse graviton helicities.

  18. Holographic bounds on the UV cutoff scale in inflationary cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how holographic bounds can be applied to the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton. In general the holographic principle will lead to a bound on the UV cutoff scale of the effective theory of inflation, but it will depend on the coarse-graining prescription involved in calculating the e...

  19. Holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirzad, Ahmad [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology,P.O.Box 84156-83111, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-19

    We study holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity using the Chern-Simons-like formulation of the model. We explicitly present Gibbons- Hawking term as well as all counterterms needed to make the action finite in terms of dreibein and spin-connection. This can be used to find correlation functions of stress tensor of holographic dual field theory.

  20. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  1. Holographic characterization of colloidal particles in turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Fook Chiong; Kasimbeg, Priya; Ruffner, David B.; Hlaing, Ei Hnin; Blusewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Philips, Laura A.; Grier, David G.

    2017-10-01

    Holographic particle characterization uses in-line holographic microscopy and the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure the diameter and the refractive index of individual colloidal particles in their native dispersions. This wealth of information has proved invaluable in fields as diverse as soft-matter physics, biopharmaceuticals, wastewater management, and food science but so far has been available only for dispersions in transparent media. Here, we demonstrate that holographic characterization can yield precise and accurate results even when the particles of interest are dispersed in turbid media. By elucidating how multiple light scattering contributes to image formation in holographic microscopy, we establish the range conditions under which holographic characterization can reliably probe turbid samples. We validate the technique with measurements on model colloidal spheres dispersed in commercial nanoparticle slurries.

  2. Holographic implementation of a binary associative memory for improved recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Ghosh, Ajay; Datta, Asit K.

    1998-03-01

    Neural network associate memory has found wide application sin pattern recognition techniques. We propose an associative memory model for binary character recognition. The interconnection strengths of the memory are binary valued. The concept of sparse coding is sued to enhance the storage efficiency of the model. The question of imposed preconditioning of pattern vectors, which is inherent in a sparsely coded conventional memory, is eliminated by using a multistep correlation technique an the ability of correct association is enhanced in a real-time application. A potential optoelectronic implementation of the proposed associative memory is also described. The learning and recall is possible by using digital optical matrix-vector multiplication, where full use of parallelism and connectivity of optics is made. A hologram is used in the experiment as a longer memory (LTM) for storing all input information. The short-term memory or the interconnection weight matrix required during the recall process is configured by retrieving the necessary information from the holographic LTM.

  3. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  4. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. [Sensible heat storage using Caloria HT43 and mixture of gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The proposed 100-MWe Commercial Plant Thermal Storage System (TSS) employs sensible heat storage using dual liquid and solid media for the heat storage in each of four tanks, with the thermocline principle applied to provide high-temperature, extractable energy independent of the total energy stored. The 10-MW Pilot Plant employs a similar system except uses only a single tank. The high-temperature organic fluid Caloria HT43 and a rock mixture of river gravel and No. 6 silica sand were selected for heat storage in both systems. The system design, installation, performance testing, safety characteristics, and specifications are described in detail. (WHK)

  5. A simple holographic scenario for gapped quenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Esperanza; Bosch, Guillermo Milans del [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-24

    We construct gravitational backgrounds dual to a family of field theories parameterized by a relevant coupling. They combine a non-trivial scalar field profile with a naked singularity. The naked singularity is necessary to preserve Lorentz invariance along the boundary directions. The singularity is however excised by introducing an infrared cutoff in the geometry. The holographic dictionary associated to the infrared boundary is developed. We implement quenches between two different values of the coupling. This requires considering time dependent boundary conditions for the scalar field both at the AdS boundary and the infrared wall.

  6. Persistent superconductor currents in holographic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Maeda, Kengo

    2014-07-04

    We consider a persistent superconductor current along the direction with no translational symmetry in a holographic gravity model. Incorporating a lattice structure into the model, we numerically construct novel solutions of hairy charged stationary black branes with momentum or rotation along the latticed direction. The lattice structure prevents the horizon from rotating, and the total momentum is only carried by matter fields outside the black brane horizon. This is consistent with the black hole rigidity theorem, and it suggests that in dual field theory with lattices, superconductor currents are made up of "composite" fields, rather than "fractionalized" degrees of freedom. We also show that our solutions are consistent with the superfluid hydrodynamics.

  7. Holographic collisions in non-conformal theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attems, Maximilian; Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Santos-Oliván, Daniel; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Triana, Miquel; Zilhão, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We numerically simulate gravitational shock wave collisions in a holographic model dual to a non-conformal four-dimensional gauge theory. We find two novel effects associated to the non-zero bulk viscosity of the resulting plasma. First, the hydrodynamization time increases. Second, if the bulk viscosity is large enough then the plasma becomes well described by hydrodynamics before the energy density and the average pressure begin to obey the equilibrium equation of state. We discuss implications for the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collision experiments.

  8. Holographic Lattices Give the Graviton a Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike; Vegh, David

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the DC conductivity of holographic theories with translational invariance broken by a background lattice. We show that the presence of the lattice induces an effective mass for the graviton via a gravitational version of the Higgs mechanism. This allows us to obtain, at leading order in the lattice strength, an analytic expression for the DC conductivity in terms of the size of the lattice at the horizon. In locally critical theories this leads to a power law resistivity that is in agreement with an earlier field theory analysis of Hartnoll and Hofman.

  9. Holographic Investigation of Solid Propellant Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    IITLE (B=m* £Se-T) CaruatwICi, HOLOGRAPHIC INIL’ESTIGWI’ION OF SOLZ ’PROPELLANT COMBUSTION 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) -Butler, Albert G. 13a TYPE OF REPORT...Speckle 19 ABSTRACT (Ccin1,rn WI ree~rse if IlCCenr~y anld ,dentify by blod number) An Investigcation into the behavior of aissmnied solid propellant...required to obtain a good quality hologram. Nuetral density filters, :3 placed in the scene beam for collimated type transmission holograms or in the

  10. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  11. Heavy quarkonium in a holographic basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the heavy quarkonium within the basis light-front quantization approach. We implement the one-gluon exchange interaction and a confining potential inspired by light-front holography. We adopt the holographic light-front wavefunction (LFWF as our basis function and solve the non-perturbative dynamics by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. We obtain the mass spectrum for charmonium and bottomonium. With the obtained LFWFs, we also compute the decay constants and the charge form factors for selected eigenstates. The results are compared with the experimental measurements and with other established methods.

  12. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  13. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage - The van't Hoff Connection. C S Sunandana. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 31-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath. General Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 61-68 ...

  15. Inflation via logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darabi, F.; Felegary, F. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We study the inflation in terms of the logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with future event horizon, particle horizon, and Hubble horizon cut-offs, and we compare the results with those obtained in the study of inflation by the holographic dark energy HDE model. In comparison, the spectrum of primordial scalar power spectrum in the LECHDE model becomes redder than the spectrum in the HDE model. Moreover, the consistency with the observational data in the LECHDE model of inflation constrains the reheating temperature and Hubble parameter by one parameter of holographic dark energy and two new parameters of logarithmic corrections. (orig.)

  16. Lifshitz holographic superconductor in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: rocengeng@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kuang, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: xmeikuang@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2016-08-10

    We study the holographic phase transition of superconductor dual to a Lifshitz black brane probed by an anisotropic scalar field in the probe limit in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity. With the use of numerical and analytical method, we investigate how the critical temperature of the condensation is affected by the Lifshitz exponent z, α-correction term in the action as well as the dimensions of the gravity. We also numerically explore the condensation of the dual operator and optical conductivity of the holographic system. Various interesting properties of the holographic condensation affected by the parameters of model are discussed.

  17. Digital holographic microscopy for the characterization of microelectromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, V.; Miccio, L.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) in microscopy became an important interferometric tool in optical metrology since when camera sensors reached a higher pixel number with smaller size allowing to acquire more defined images and high-speed computers became able to process such data. Consequently, it was possible the investigation of engineered surfaces on micro-scale, such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) that are micro-devices composed by mechanical elements, electronics, sensors and actuators built in a small volume, realized using different material layers superimposed in various process steps, usually starting from a silicon substrate. In DH is necessary to perform the reconstruction of the wave field by means of numerical tools. This entails a computational burden but offers the possibility of retrieving not only the intensity of the acquired wave field, but also the phase distribution. This work describes the principles of DH and shows some interesting numerical tools suitable to process the holographic images in the field of MEMS. The use of different numerical tools is discussed and illustrated with examples taken from the literature.

  18. Applications of holographic on-chip microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-02-01

    My research focuses on the use of computation/algorithms to create new optical microscopy, sensing, and diagnostic techniques, significantly improving existing tools for probing micro- and nano-objects while also simplifying the designs of these analysis tools. In this presentation, I will introduce a set of computational microscopes which use lens-free on-chip imaging to replace traditional lenses with holographic reconstruction algorithms. Basically, 3D images of specimens are reconstructed from their "shadows" providing considerably improved field-of-view (FOV) and depth-of-field, thus enabling large sample volumes to be rapidly imaged, even at nanoscale. These new computational microscopes routinely generate active-area of the sensor-array, easily reaching, for example, swimming patterns observed in human and animal sperm. One of this newly discovered and extremely rare motion is in the form of "chiral ribbons" where the planar swings of the sperm head occur on an osculating plane creating in some cases a helical ribbon and in some others a twisted ribbon. Shedding light onto the statistics and biophysics of various micro-swimmers' 3D motion, these results provide an important example of how biomedical imaging significantly benefits from emerging computational algorithms/theories, revolutionizing existing tools for observing various micro- and nano-scale phenomena in innovative, high-throughput, and yet cost-effective ways.

  19. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  20. Solitonic approach to holographic nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Salvatore; Bolognesi, Stefano; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Koksal, Deniz

    2017-08-01

    We discuss nuclear physics in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the limit of a large number Nc of colors and large 't Hooft coupling λ . In this limit the individual baryons are described by classical solitons whose size is much smaller than the typical distance at which they settle in a nuclear bound state. We can thus use the linear approximation outside the instanton cores to compute the interaction potential. We find the classical geometry of nuclear bound states for baryon number up to 8. One of the interesting features that we find is that holographic nuclear physics provides a natural description for lightly bound states when λ is large. For the case of two nuclei, we also find the topology and metric of the manifold of zero modes and, quantizing it, we find that the ground state can be identified with the deuteron state. We discuss the relations with other methods in the literature used to study Skyrmions and holographic nuclear physics. We discuss 1 /Nc and 1 /λ corrections and the challenges to overcome to reach the phenomenological values to fit with real QCD.

  1. Holographic superconductor on a novel insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin; Wu, Meng-He

    2018-01-01

    We construct a holographic superconductor model, based on a gravity theory, which exhibits novel metal-insulator transitions. We investigate the condition for the condensation of the scalar field over the parameter space, and then focus on the superconductivity over the insulating phase with a hard gap, which is supposed to be Mott-like. It turns out that the formation of the hard gap in the insulating phase benefits the superconductivity. This phenomenon is analogous to the fact that the pseudogap phase can promote the pre-pairing of electrons in high {T}{{c}} cuprates. We expect that this work can shed light on understanding the mechanism of high {T}{{c}} superconductivity from the holographic side. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11575195, 11775036, 11305018), Y.L. also acknowledges the support from Jiangxi young scientists (JingGang Star) program and 555 talent project of Jiangxi Province. J. P. Wu is also supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (201602013)

  2. S -duality for holographic p -wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Alexander; Gubankova, Elena; Meyer, René; Zayakin, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    We consider the generalization of the S -duality transformation previously investigated in the context of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) and s -wave superconductivity to p -wave superconductivity in 2 +1 dimensions in the framework of the AdS /CFT correspondence. The vector Cooper condensate transforms under the S -duality action to the pseudovector condensate at the dual side. The 3 +1 -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, the holographic dual to p -wave superconductivity, is used to investigate the S -duality action via the AdS /CFT correspondence. It is shown that, in order to implement the duality transformation, chemical potentials on both the electric and magnetic sides of the duality have to be introduced. A relation for the product of the non-Abelian conductivities in the dual models is derived. We also conjecture a flavor S -duality transformation in the holographic dual to 3 +1 -dimensional QCD low-energy QCD with non-Abelian flavor gauge groups. The conjectured S -duality interchanges isospin and baryonic chemical potentials.

  3. Holographic Dynamics from Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Victor; Tiwari, Apoorv; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-01-01

    The Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) is a tensor network based variational ansatz that is capable of capturing many of the key physical properties of strongly correlated ground states such as criticality and topological order. MERA also shares many deep relationships with the AdS/CFT (gauge-gravity) correspondence by realizing a UV complete holographic duality within the tensor networks framework. Motivated by this, we have re-purposed the MERA tensor network as an analysis tool to study the real-time evolution of the 1D transverse Ising model in its low energy excited state sector. We performed this analysis by allowing the ancilla qubits of the MERA tensor network to acquire quantum fluctuations, which yields a unitary transform between the physical (boundary) and ancilla qubit (bulk) Hilbert spaces. This then defines a reversible quantum circuit which is used as a `holographic transform' to study excited states and their real-time dynamics from the point of the bulk ancillae. In the ga...

  4. The holographic dual of the Penrose transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Yasha

    2018-01-01

    We consider the holographic duality between type-A higher-spin gravity in AdS4 and the free U( N) vector model. In the bulk, linearized solutions can be translated into twistor functions via the Penrose transform. We propose a holographic dual to this transform, which translates between twistor functions and CFT sources and operators. We present a twistorial expression for the partition function, which makes global higher-spin symmetry manifest, and appears to automatically include all necessary contact terms. In this picture, twistor space provides a fully nonlocal, gauge-invariant description underlying both bulk and boundary spacetime pictures. While the bulk theory is handled at the linear level, our formula for the partition function includes the effects of bulk interactions. Thus, the CFT is used to solve the bulk, with twistors as a language common to both. A key ingredient in our result is the study of ordinary spacetime symmetries within the fundamental representation of higher-spin algebra. The object that makes these "square root" spacetime symmetries manifest becomes the kernel of our boundary/twistor transform, while the original Penrose transform is identified as a "square root" of CPT.

  5. Random holographic "large worlds" with emergent dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2016-11-01

    I propose a random network model governed by a Gaussian weight corresponding to Ising link antiferromagnetism as a model for emergent quantum space-time. In this model, discrete space is fundamental, not a regularization; its spectral dimension ds is not a model input but is, rather, completely determined by the antiferromagnetic coupling constant. Perturbative terms suppressing triangles and favoring squares lead to locally Euclidean ground states that are Ricci flat "large worlds" with power-law extension. I then consider the quenched graphs of lowest energy for ds=2 and ds=3 , and I show how quenching leads to the spontaneous emergence of embedding spaces of Hausdorff dimension dH=4 and dH=5 , respectively. One of the additional, spontaneous dimensions can be interpreted as time, causality being an emergent property that arises in the large N limit (with N the number of vertices). For ds=2 , the quenched graphs constitute a discrete version of a 5D-space-filling surface with a number of fundamental degrees of freedom scaling like N2 /5, a graph version of the holographic principle. These holographic degrees of freedom can be identified with the squares of the quenched graphs, which, being triangle-free, are the fundamental area (or loop) quanta.

  6. Archiving Saudi heritage using the holographic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althagafi, A.; Richardson, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the use of the Yuri Nikolaevich DENISYUK holographic recording process to document, archive and display Saudi heritage. The goal of this research is to develop a technique of archiving heritage by using a high-tech holographic process to capture a three-dimensional presentation of ancient jewelry artifacts of the Saudi Heritage in particular. This study concentrates on five particular items of handmade authentic ancient metal jewelry from different parts of Saudi Arabia. When conducting this research experiments were conducted using both red-green sensitive plates sensitive to 633 nm and 532 nm respectively. Material thickness ranged between 1.5 and 3 millimeters were used, consequently in the dark room, varied chemicals for developing the holograms were employed. Red and green laser devices were also used with exposure times between 8 to 18 seconds of laser light dispersion through diffused surfaces in reflection holography. The outcome in each case was varied. The holograms captured the jewelry pieces with all the engravings and minute details, thus archiving the Saudi Heritage of that time. What makes holograms a revolutionary method for presenting valuable and/or ancient artifacts is the fact that they offer a more practical and convenient solution to travel around the world than displaying the originals items. Thus, museum visitors can enjoy and appreciate the precious artifacts otherwise unseen and lost without holography.

  7. Setting up of holographic optical tweezer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Tata, B. V. R.; Ravindran, T. R.

    2017-05-01

    Optical tweezers use tightly focused laser beams to hold and move microscopic objects in a solvent. However, many applications require simultaneous control over multitude of particles, positioning them in 3D space at desired locations with desired symmetry, which is made possible by the use of holographic optical tweezers using the technique of beam shaping and holography. We have designed and developed a holographic optical tweezer set-up using a phase only liquid crystal, reflective spatial light modulator. We employ the technique of phase modulation to modulate the phase of the beam by generating holograms using Random Superposition (RS) and weighted Gerchberg Saxton algorithm (WGS) algorithm for generating desired patterns of light at the trapping plane. A 4×4 array of beams with square symmetry was generated using WGS algorithm and trapped polystyrene particles of size 1.2 micron in a 4×4 two dimensional array. There were uniformity issues among the trap intensities, as we move away from the zeroth order spot. This was corrected by taking into account diffraction effects due to the pixelated nature of SLM modulating the intensity of the trap spots and the ghost order suppression by spatial disorder.

  8. Holographic superconductor on Q-lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing, 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Liu, Peng; Niu, Chao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing, 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin [Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University,Jinzhou, 121013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Xian, Zhuo-Yu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2015-02-10

    We construct the simplest gravitational dual model of a superconductor on Q-lattices. We analyze the condition for the existence of a critical temperature at which the charged scalar field will condense. In contrast to the holographic superconductor on ionic lattices, the presence of Q-lattices will suppress the condensate of the scalar field and lower the critical temperature. In particular, when the Q-lattice background is dual to a deep insulating phase, the condensation would never occur for some small charges. Furthermore, we numerically compute the optical conductivity in the superconducting regime. It turns out that the presence of Q-lattice does not remove the pole in the imaginary part of the conductivity, ensuring the appearance of a delta function in the real part. We also evaluate the gap which in general depends on the charge of the scalar field as well as the Q-lattice parameters. Nevertheless, when the charge of the scalar field is relatively large and approaches the probe limit, the gap becomes universal with ω{sub g}≃9T{sub c} which is consistent with the result for conventional holographic superconductors.

  9. Sonorous images through digital holographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Sandford-Richardson, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    The art of the last fifty years has significantly surrounded the presence of the body, the relationship between human and interactive technologies. Today in interactive art, there are not only representations that speak of the body but actions and behaviours that involve the body. In holography, the image appears and disappears from the observer's vision field; because the holographic image is light, we can see multidimensional spaces, shapes and colours existing on the same time, presence and absence of the image on the holographic plate. And the image can be flowing in front of the plate that sometimes people try touching it with his hands. That means, to the viewer will be interactive events, with no beginning or end that can be perceived in any direction, forward or backward, depending on the relative position and the time the viewer spends in front of the hologram. To explore that feature we are proposing an installation with four holograms, and several sources of different kind of sounds connected with each hologram. When viewers will move in front of each hologram they will activate different sources of sound. The search is not only about the images in the holograms, but also the looking for different types of sounds that this demand will require. The digital holograms were produced using the HoloCam Portable Light System with the 35 mm camera Canon 700D to capture image information, it was then edited on computer using the Motion 5 and Final Cut Pro X programs.

  10. Holographic free energy and thermodynamic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorai, Debabrata [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India); Gangopadhyay, Sunandan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Nadia (India); West Bengal State University, Department of Physics, Barasat (India); Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India)

    2016-12-15

    We obtain the free energy and thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors in 2 + 1 dimensions. The gravitational theory in the bulk dual to this 2 + 1-dimensional strongly coupled theory lives in the 3 + 1 dimensions and is that of a charged AdS black hole together with a massive charged scalar field. The matching method is applied to obtain the nature of the fields near the horizon using which the holographic free energy is computed through the gauge/gravity duality. The critical temperature is obtained for a set of values of the matching point of the near horizon and the boundary behaviour of the fields in the probe limit approximation which neglects the back reaction of the matter fields on the background spacetime geometry. The thermodynamic geometry is then computed from the free energy of the boundary theory. From the divergence of the thermodynamic scalar curvature, the critical temperature is obtained once again. We then compare this result for the critical temperature with that obtained from the matching method. (orig.)

  11. Design evaluations for a flight cloud physics holocamera. [holographic/photographic camera for low-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Kurtz, R. L.; Lemons, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a holographic/photographic camera to be used with the zero-g or low-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The flight prototype holocamera is intended to record particles from 0.01 to 5 microns for an optimum two-dimensional plane only in the microscopic photography mode, particles on a volume basis in the in-line holography mode from 5 microns up, and all particle sizes possible on a volume basis in the acute sideband holography mode.

  12. Holographic butterfly effect and diffusion in quantum critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuo-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the butterfly effect and charge diffusion near the quantum phase transition in holographic approach. We argue that their criticality is controlled by the holographic scaling geometry with deformations induced by a relevant operator at finite temperature. Specifically, in the quantum critical region controlled by a single fixed point, the butterfly velocity decreases when deviating from the critical point. While, in the non-critical region, the behavior of the butterfly velocity depends on the specific phase at low temperature. Moreover, in the holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, the universal behavior of the butterfly velocity is absent. Finally, the tendency of our holographic results matches with the numerical results of Bose-Hubbard model. A comparison between our result and that in the O( N ) nonlinear sigma model is also given.

  13. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-04-21

    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  14. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesly, E.

    2013-02-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  15. Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    out rates has increased considerably. Thus, in recent years much attention has been centred on three-dimensional (3D) holographic disks [1,2]. Many recent studies have focussed on the characterization and optimization of ...

  16. Holographic Renormalization of general dilaton-axion gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We consider a very general dilaton-axion system coupled to Einstein-Hilbert gravity in arbitrary dimension and we carry out holographic renormalization for any dimension up to and including five dimensions. This is achieved by developing a new systematic algorithm for iteratively solving the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a derivative expansion. The boundary term derived is valid not only for asymptotically AdS backgrounds, but also for more general asymptotics, including non-conformal branes and Improved Holographic QCD. In the second half of the paper, we apply the general result to Improved Holographic QCD with arbitrary dilaton potential. In particular, we derive the generalized Fefferman-Graham asymptotic expansions and provide a proof of the holographic Ward identities.

  17. Holographic entanglement entropy in 2D holographic superconductor via AdS3/CFT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present letter is to find the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE in 2D holographic superconductors (HSC. Indeed, it is possible to compute the exact form of this entropy due to an advantage of approximate solutions inside normal and superconducting phases with backreactions. By making the UV and IR limits applied to the integrals, an approximate expression for HEE is obtained. In case the software cannot calculate minimal surface integrals analytically, it offers the possibility to proceed with a numerical evaluation of the corresponding terms. We'll understand how the area formula incorporates the structure of the domain wall approximation. We see that HEE changes linearly with belt angle. It's due to the extensivity of this type of entropy and the emergent of an entropic force. We find that the wider belt angle corresponds to a larger holographic surface. Another remarkable observation is that no “confinement/deconfinement” phase transition point exists in our 2D dual field theory. Furthermore, we observe that the slope of the HEE with respect to the temperature dSdT decreases, thanks to the emergence extra degree of freedom(s in low temperature system. A first order phase transition is detected near the critical point.

  18. Coherent backlight unit using holographic optical elements for full-color flat-panel holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Chil-Sung; An, Jungkwuen; Song, Hoon; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Young; Sung, Geeyoung; Seo, Wontaek; Seo, Juwon; Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Hojung; Kim, Yongkyu; Lee, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2017-03-01

    We propose the coherent backlight unit (BLU) using Holographic Optical Element (HOE) for full-color flat-panel holographic display. The HOE BLU consists of two reflective type HOEs that change the optical beam path and shape by diffraction. The diverging incident beam is transformed to the collimated beam which has a very small diffraction angle (7.5°) by HOE 1 (H1) in order to illuminate the whole display. This collimated beam is converged to a point at a distance from the glass substrate by HOE 2 (H2). As a result, the diverging incident beam is converted to a point light by H1 and H2. When the high resolution Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) displaying Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) is illuminated by HOE BLU, the hologram image is displayed at a view point near focal point. Practically, we fabricated the full color HOE BLU for 5.5" flat panel holographic display by using the proposed design. At least 5.5" size of HOE is required to illuminate the whole panel. For this reason, we recorded 150 mm x 90 mm size HOE on the 10 mm thickness glass substrate. This HOE BLU exhibits a total efficiency of 8.0% at Red (660 nm), 7.7% at Green (532 nm), 3.2% at Blue (460 nm) using optimized recording conditions for each wavelength. Finally, a bright full color hologram image was achieved.

  19. A pocket device for high-throughput optofluidic holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Bianco, V.; Wang, Z.; Paturzo, M.; Bramanti, A.; Pioggia, G.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    Here we introduce a compact holographic microscope embedded onboard a Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) platform. A wavefront division interferometer is realized by writing a polymer grating onto the channel to extract a reference wave from the object wave impinging the LoC. A portion of the beam reaches the samples flowing along the channel path, carrying their information content to the recording device, while one of the diffraction orders from the grating acts as an off-axis reference wave. Polymeric micro-lenses are delivered forward the chip by Pyro-ElectroHydroDynamic (Pyro-EHD) inkjet printing techniques. Thus, all the required optical components are embedded onboard a pocket device, and fast, non-iterative, reconstruction algorithms can be used. We use our device in combination with a novel high-throughput technique, named Space-Time Digital Holography (STDH). STDH exploits the samples motion inside microfluidic channels to obtain a synthetic hologram, mapped in a hybrid space-time domain, and with intrinsic useful features. Indeed, a single Linear Sensor Array (LSA) is sufficient to build up a synthetic representation of the entire experiment (i.e. the STDH) with unlimited Field of View (FoV) along the scanning direction, independently from the magnification factor. The throughput of the imaging system is dramatically increased as STDH provides unlimited FoV, refocusable imaging of samples inside the liquid volume with no need for hologram stitching. To test our embedded STDH microscopy module, we counted, imaged and tracked in 3D with high-throughput red blood cells moving inside the channel volume under non ideal flow conditions.

  20. Optical information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woike, T. [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

  1. Holographic model for dilepton production in p-p collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballon Bayona, C.A., E-mail: c.a.m.ballonbayona@durham.ac.uk [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); Centre for Particle Theory, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Boschi-Filho, Henrique, E-mail: boschi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    We propose a holographic model for dilepton production in proton-proton collisions through the exchange of vector mesons. The holographic hard wall model is used to describe the dynamics and interactions of vector mesons and baryons. We estimate the parameters {lambda}, {mu}, {nu} that characterize the angular distribution of the produced dileptons in a region of q{sub T}{sup 2}<

  2. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  3. Clocks, computers, black holes, spacetime foam, and holographic principle

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Y. Jack

    2000-01-01

    What do simple clocks, simple computers, black holes, space-time foam, and holographic principle have in common? I will show that the physics behind them is inter-related, linking together our concepts of information, gravity, and quantum uncertainty. Thus, the physics that sets the limits to computation and clock precision also yields Hawking radiation of black holes and the holographic principle. Moreover, the latter two strongly imply that space-time undergoes much larger quantum fluctuati...

  4. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  5. Handbook of Holographic Interferometry: Optical and Digital Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The book presents the principles and methods of holographic interferometry - a coherent-optical measurement technique for deformation and stress analysis, for the determination of refractive-index distributions, or applied to non-destructive testing. Emphasis of the book is on the quantitative computer-aided evaluation of the holographic interferograms. Based upon wave-optics the evaluation methods, their implementation in computer-algorithms, and their applications in engineering are described.

  6. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-05-10

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  7. Holographic Refraction and the Measurement of Spherical Ametropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nicholas Hoai Nam

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of a holographic logMAR chart for the subjective spherical refraction of the human eye. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the level of agreement between subjective spherical refraction using the holographic logMAR chart and conventional autorefraction and subjective spherical refraction. The 95% limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated between holographic refraction and the two standard methods (subjective and autorefraction). Holographic refraction has a lower mean spherical refraction when compared to conventional refraction (LoA 0.11 ± 0.65 D) and when compared to autorefraction (LoA 0.36 ± 0.77 D). After correcting for systemic bias, this is comparable between autorefraction and conventional subjective refraction (LoA 0.45 ± 0.79 D). After correcting for differences in vergence distance and chromatic aberration between holographic and conventional refraction, approximately 65% (group 1) of measurements between holography and conventional subjective refraction were similar (MD = 0.13 D, SD = 0.00 D). The remaining 35% (group 2) had a mean difference of 0.45 D (SD = 0.12 D) between the two subjective methods. Descriptive statistics showed group 2's mean age (21 years, SD = 13 years) was considerably lower than group 1's mean age (41 years, SD = 17), suggesting accommodation may have a role in the greater mean difference of group 2. Overall, holographic refraction has good agreement with conventional refraction and is a viable alternative for spherical subjective refraction. A larger bias between holographic and conventional refraction was found in younger subjects than older subjects, suggesting an association between accommodation and myopic over-correction during holographic refraction.

  8. Holographic superconductors in Einstein-æther gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Wu, Yumei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we apply Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solution of the Einstein-æther theory to the study of the holographic superconductor and show that the AdS black hole solution can be rewritten in some very simple forms, from which it is easy to identify the locations of various killing horizons. Then, we investigate the different effects of these horizons on the holographic superconductor.

  9. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  10. Holographic renormalization group and cosmology in theories with quasilocalized gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csaki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Terning, John

    2001-03-15

    We study the long distance behavior of brane theories with quasilocalized gravity. The five-dimensional (5D) effective theory at large scales follows from a holographic renormalization group flow. As intuitively expected, the graviton is effectively four dimensional at intermediate scales and becomes five dimensional at large scales. However, in the holographic effective theory the essentially 4D radion dominates at long distances and gives rise to scalar antigravity. The holographic description shows that at large distances the Gregory-Rubakov-Sibiryakov (GRS) model is equivalent to the model recently proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP), where a tensionless brane is embedded into 5D Minkowski space, with an additional induced 4D Einstein-Hilbert term on the brane. In the holographic description the radion of the GRS model is automatically localized on the tensionless brane, and provides the ghostlike field necessary to cancel the extra graviton polarization of the DGP model. Thus, there is a holographic duality between these theories. This analysis provides physical insight into how the GRS model works at intermediate scales; in particular it sheds light on the size of the width of the graviton resonance, and also demonstrates how the holographic renormalization group can be used as a practical tool for calculations.

  11. The azobenzene optical storage puzzle - Demands on the polymer scaffold?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic mechanism of optical information storage utilizing the azobenzene photoaddressable moiety will briefly be introduced. A synthetically flexible polyester matrix covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains is particularly well suited for holographic storage....... Notable figures of merits of thin film materials of liquid crystalline polyesters are: response time to laser light in the order of ns, storage capacity of 5000 lines/mm, high permanent (more than eight years) diffraction efficiency in the order of 50% or higher, and erasability. The implications...

  12. Volume Segmentation and Ghost Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Isaac; Adrian, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Volume Segmentation Tomographic PIV (VS-TPIV) is a type of tomographic PIV in which images of particles in a relatively thick volume are segmented into images on a set of much thinner volumes that may be approximated as planes, as in 2D planar PIV. The planes of images can be analysed by standard mono-PIV, and the volume of flow vectors can be recreated by assembling the planes of vectors. The interrogation process is similar to a Holographic PIV analysis, except that the planes of image data are extracted from two-dimensional camera images of the volume of particles instead of three-dimensional holographic images. Like the tomographic PIV method using the MART algorithm, Volume Segmentation requires at least two cameras and works best with three or four. Unlike the MART method, Volume Segmentation does not require reconstruction of individual particle images one pixel at a time and it does not require an iterative process, so it operates much faster. As in all tomographic reconstruction strategies, ambiguities known as ghost particles are produced in the segmentation process. The effect of these ghost particles on the PIV measurement is discussed. This research was supported by Contract 79419-001-09, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Noncommutative effects of spacetime on holographic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Ghorai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sturm–Liouville eigenvalue method is employed to analytically investigate the properties of holographic superconductors in higher dimensions in the framework of Born–Infeld electrodynamics incorporating the effects of noncommutative spacetime. In the background of pure Einstein gravity in noncommutative spacetime, we obtain the relation between the critical temperature and the charge density. We also obtain the value of the condensation operator and the critical exponent. Our findings suggest that the higher value of noncommutative parameter and Born–Infeld parameter make the condensate harder to form. We also observe that the noncommutative structure of spacetime makes the critical temperature depend on the mass of the black hole and higher value of black hole mass is favourable for the formation of the condensate.

  14. Noncommutative effects of spacetime on holographic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorai, Debabrata, E-mail: debanuphy123@gmail.com [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Gangopadhyay, Sunandan, E-mail: sunandan.gangopadhyay@gmail.com [Department of Physics, West Bengal State University, Barasat (India); Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Pune (India)

    2016-07-10

    The Sturm–Liouville eigenvalue method is employed to analytically investigate the properties of holographic superconductors in higher dimensions in the framework of Born–Infeld electrodynamics incorporating the effects of noncommutative spacetime. In the background of pure Einstein gravity in noncommutative spacetime, we obtain the relation between the critical temperature and the charge density. We also obtain the value of the condensation operator and the critical exponent. Our findings suggest that the higher value of noncommutative parameter and Born–Infeld parameter make the condensate harder to form. We also observe that the noncommutative structure of spacetime makes the critical temperature depend on the mass of the black hole and higher value of black hole mass is favourable for the formation of the condensate.

  15. Holographic bulk reconstruction with α' corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We outline a holographic recipe to reconstruct α' corrections to anti-de Sitter (AdS) (quantum) gravity from an underlying CFT in the strictly planar limit (N →∞ ). Assuming that the boundary CFT can be solved in principle to all orders of the 't Hooft coupling λ , for scalar primary operators, the λ-1 expansion of the conformal dimensions can be mapped to higher curvature corrections of the dual bulk scalar field action. Furthermore, for the metric perturbations in the bulk, the AdS /CFT operator-field isomorphism forces these corrections to be of the Lovelock type. We demonstrate this by reconstructing the coefficient of the leading Lovelock correction, also known as the Gauss-Bonnet term in a bulk AdS gravity action using the expression of stress-tensor two-point function up to subleading order in λ-1.

  16. Towards a Holographic Marginal Fermi Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kristan; Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva

    2011-08-15

    We present an infinite class of 2+1 dimensional field theories which, after coupling to semi-holographic fermions, exhibit strange metallic behavior in a suitable large N limit. These theories describe lattices of hypermultiplet defects interacting with parity-preserving supersymmetric Chern-Simons theories with U(N) x U(N) gauge groups at levels {+-}k. They have dual gravitational descriptions in terms of lattices of probe M2 branes in AdS{sub 4} x S{sup 7}/Z{sub k} (for N >> 1,N >> k{sup 5}) or probe D2 branes in AdS{sub 4} x CP{sup 3} (for N >> k >> 1,N << k{sup 5}). We discuss several challenges one faces in maintaining the success of these models at finite N, including backreaction of the probes in the gravity solutions and radiative corrections in the weakly coupled field theory limit.

  17. Digital holographic interferometer with correction of distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevryugin, A. A.; Pulkin, S. A.; Tursunov, I. M.; Venediktov, D. V.; Venediktov, V. Y.

    2015-10-01

    The paper considers the use of holographic interferometer for hologram re-recording with correction of distortions. Each optical system contains some beam path deviations, called aberrations of the optical system. They are seen in the resulting interference pattern as a distortion of fringes. While increasing the sensitivity of the interference pattern by N times at the same time we introduce new aberrations, caused by re-recording setup in addition to aberrations that are already presented on the interferogram, caused by initial recording, also multiplied by N times. In this experiment we decided to use a modified setup with spatially combined interferograms with use of matrix spatial light modulator and digital image processing of the interferograms recorded by CCD or CMOS camera.

  18. Photovoltaic concentrator using a holographic optical element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Ih, C S; Yan, H F; Chang, M J

    1988-08-15

    A photovoltaic concentrator is proposed that uses equatorial tracking (the rotation axis of a concentrator points to the North Star), so that the change of the sun's altitude angle is minimized. The solar concentrator consists of a Fresnel lens (objective), a holographic optical element made on photoresist with 90% diffraction efficiency, and a field lens (making the sunlight come from different fields of view uniformly falling on the solar cell). The accuracy of the original 2-D tracking is reduced several orders over previous methods; however, it may be that only 1-D tracking is needed. A theoretical analysis and a study model have been made, and a reasonable concentration ratio has been obtained. Therefore, it can be expected that the cost will be much lower than an accurate 2-D tracking system.

  19. Holographic superconductivity from higher derivative theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Pin; Liu, Peng

    2017-11-01

    We construct a 6 derivative holographic superconductor model in the 4-dimensional bulk spacetimes, in which the normal state describes a quantum critical (QC) phase. The phase diagram (γ1 ,Tˆc) and the condensation as the function of temperature are worked out numerically. We observe that with the decrease of the coupling parameter γ1, the critical temperature Tˆc decreases and the formation of charged scalar hair becomes harder. We also calculate the optical conductivity. An appealing characteristic is a wider extension of the superconducting energy gap, comparing with that of 4 derivative theory. It is expected that this phenomena can be observed in the real materials of high temperature superconductor. Also the Homes' law in our present models with 4 and 6 derivative corrections is explored. We find that in certain range of parameters γ and γ1, the experimentally measured value of the universal constant C in Homes' law can be obtained.

  20. Quantum corrections to holographic mutual information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agón, Cesar A. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, MA 02453 (United States); Faulkner, Thomas [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/46/28/285402. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)074 this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  1. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  2. Holographic construction of excited CFT states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Ariana; Skenderis, Kostas [STAG Research Centre and Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton,High-field, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    We present a systematic construction of bulk solutions that are dual to CFT excited states. The bulk solution is constructed perturbatively in bulk fields. The linearised solution is universal and depends only on the conformal dimension of the primary operator that is associated with the state via the operator-state correspondence, while higher order terms depend on detailed properties of the operator, such as its OPE with itself and generally involve many bulk fields. We illustrate the discussion with the holographic construction of the universal part of the solution for states of two dimensional CFTs, either on R×S{sup 1} or on R{sup 1,1}. We compute the 1-point function both in the CFT and in the bulk, finding exact agreement. We comment on the relation with other reconstruction approaches.

  3. Collinear technology for a holographic versatile disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi

    2006-02-01

    A novel reading and writing technology for a holographic versatile disk (HVD) system called collinear technology is developed. With this method a two-dimensional data page can be recorded as volumetric holograms generated by a reference beam and a signal beam that are bundled on the same axis and that are irradiated on the recording medium through a single objective lens. The multiplex recording and reconstruction process is demonstrated, and it is shown that the optical configuration and the dichroic medium disk structure are suitable for a compact system. With the HVD's special structure, the system can use a servo to focus, track, and locate the reading and writing addresses. A unique selectable-capacity recording format of a HVD and its standardization activity are also introduced. This method will enable us to construct a small HVD system with CD and DVD upper compatibilities.

  4. Holographic Polytropic f(T Gravity Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Chattopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a study on the cosmological consequences arising from reconstructing f(T gravity through new holographic polytropic dark energy. We assume two approaches, namely, a particular form of Hubble parameter H and a solution for f(T. We obtain the deceleration parameter and effective equation of state, as well as torsion equation of state parameters from total density and pressure in both cases. It is interesting to mention here that the deceleration and torsion equation of state represent transition from deceleration to acceleration phase. We study the statefinder parameters under both approaches which result in the fact that statefinder trajectories are found to attain ΛCDM point. The comparison with observational data represents consistent results. Also, we discuss the stability of reconstructed models through squared speed of sound which represents stability in late times.

  5. Linearized holographic isotropization at finite coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atashi, Mahdi; Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Ghadir [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We study holographic isotropization of an anisotropic homogeneous non-Abelian strongly coupled plasma in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet corrections. It was verified before that one can linearize Einstein's equations around the final black hole background and simplify the complicated setup. Using this approach, we study the expectation value of the boundary stress tensor. Although we consider small values of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant, it is found that finite coupling leads to significant increasing of the thermalization time. By including higher order corrections in linearization, we extend the results to study the effect of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling on the entropy production on the event horizon. (orig.)

  6. Holographic superconductivity from higher derivative theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Pin Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We construct a 6 derivative holographic superconductor model in the 4-dimensional bulk spacetimes, in which the normal state describes a quantum critical (QC phase. The phase diagram (γ1,Tˆc and the condensation as the function of temperature are worked out numerically. We observe that with the decrease of the coupling parameter γ1, the critical temperature Tˆc decreases and the formation of charged scalar hair becomes harder. We also calculate the optical conductivity. An appealing characteristic is a wider extension of the superconducting energy gap, comparing with that of 4 derivative theory. It is expected that this phenomena can be observed in the real materials of high temperature superconductor. Also the Homes' law in our present models with 4 and 6 derivative corrections is explored. We find that in certain range of parameters γ and γ1, the experimentally measured value of the universal constant C in Homes' law can be obtained.

  7. Understanding the holographic principle via RG flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of some recent works which demonstrate how the classical equations of gravity in AdS themselves hold the key to understanding their holographic origin in the form of a strongly coupled large $N$ QFT whose algebra of local operators can be generated by a few (single-trace) elements. I discuss how this can be realised by reformulating Einstein's equations in AdS in the form of a non-perturbative RG flow that further leads to a new approach towards constructing strongly interacting QFTs. In particular, the RG flow can self-determine the UV data that are otherwise obtained by solving classical gravity equations and demanding that the solutions do not have naked singularities. For a concrete demonstration, I focus on the hydrodynamic limit in which case this RG flow connects the AdS/CFT correspondence with the membrane paradigm, and also reproduces the known values of the dual QFT transport coefficients.

  8. Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Myung K

    2011-01-01

    Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures with electronic imaging and having a direct numerical access to the complex optical field, a wide range of new imaging capabilities become available, many of them difficult or infeasible in conventional holography. An increasing number of researchers—not only in optical physics and optical engineering, but also in diverse applications areas such as microbiology, medicine, marine science, particle analysis, microelectromechanics, and metrology—are realizing and exploiting the new capabilities of digital holography. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, by Dr. Myung K. Kim, is intended to provide a brief but consistent introduction to the principles of digital holography as well as to give an organized overview of the large number of techniques and applications being developed. This will also shed some light on the range of possibilities for f...

  9. Synfograms: a new generation of holographic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Öhlmann, Odile; Öhlmann, Dietmar; Zacharovas, Stanislovas J.

    2008-04-01

    The new synthetic Four-dimensional printing technique (Syn4D) Synfogram is introducing time (animation) into spatial configuration of the imprinted three-dimensional shapes. While lenticular solutions offer 2 to 9 stereoscopic images Syn4D offers large format, full colors true 3D visualization printing of 300 to 2500 frames imprinted as holographic dots. This past 2 years Syn4D high-resolution displays proved to be extremely efficient for museums presentation, engineering design, automobile prototyping, and advertising virtual presentation as well as, for portrait and fashion applications. The main advantages of syn4D is that it offers a very easy way of using a variety of digital media, like most of 3D Modelling programs, 3D scan system, video sequences, digital photography, tomography as well as the Syn4D camera track system for life recording of spatial scenes changing in time. The use of digital holographic printer in conjunction with Syn4D image acquiring and processing devices separates printing and imaging creation in such a way that makes four-dimensional printing similar to a conventional digital photography processes where imaging and printing are usually separated in space and time. Besides making content easy to prepare, Syn4D has also developed new display and lighting solutions for trade show, museum, POP, merchandising, etc. The introduction of Synfograms is opening new applications for real life and virtual 4D displays. In this paper we will analyse the 3D market, the properties of the Synfograms and specific applications, the problems we encounter, solutions we find, discuss about customers demand and need for new product development.

  10. Holographic spin networks from tensor network states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; McMahon, Nathan A.; Brennen, Gavin K.

    2018-01-01

    In the holographic correspondence of quantum gravity, a global on-site symmetry at the boundary generally translates to a local gauge symmetry in the bulk. We describe one way how the global boundary on-site symmetries can be gauged within the formalism of the multiscale renormalization ansatz (MERA), in light of the ongoing discussion between tensor networks and holography. We describe how to "lift" the MERA representation of the ground state of a generic one dimensional (1D) local Hamiltonian, which has a global on-site symmetry, to a dual quantum state of a 2D "bulk" lattice on which the symmetry appears gauged. The 2D bulk state decomposes in terms of spin network states, which label a basis in the gauge-invariant sector of the bulk lattice. This decomposition is instrumental to obtain expectation values of gauge-invariant observables in the bulk, and also reveals that the bulk state is generally entangled between the gauge and the remaining ("gravitational") bulk degrees of freedom that are not fixed by the symmetry. We present numerical results for ground states of several 1D critical spin chains to illustrate that the bulk entanglement potentially depends on the central charge of the underlying conformal field theory. We also discuss the possibility of emergent topological order in the bulk using a simple example, and also of emergent symmetries in the nongauge (gravitational) sector in the bulk. More broadly, our holographic model translates the MERA, a tensor network state, to a superposition of spin network states, as they appear in lattice gauge theories in one higher dimension.

  11. Improved tracking and resolution of bacteria in holographic microscopy using dye and fluorescent protein labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eNadeau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital holographic microscopy (DHM is an emerging imaging technique that permits instantaneous capture of a relatively large sample volume. However, large volumes usually come at the expense of lower spatial resolution, and the technique has rarely been used with prokaryotic cells due to their small size and low contrast. In this paper we demonstrate the use of a Mach-Zehnder dual-beam instrument for imaging of labeled and unlabeled bacteria and microalgae. Spatial resolution of 0.3 micrometers is achieved, providing a sampling of several pixels across a typical prokaryotic cell. Both cellular motility and morphology are readily recorded. The use of dyes provides both amplitude and phase contrast improvement and is of use to identify cells in dense samples.

  12. Holographic 3D imaging through diffuse media by compressive sampling of the mutual intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falldorf, Claas; Klein, Thorsten; Agour, Mostafa; Bergmann, Ralf B.

    2017-05-01

    We present a method for holographic imaging through a volume scattering material, which is based on selfreference and light with good spatial but limited temporal coherence. In contrast to existing techniques, we do not require a separate reference wave, thus our approach provides great advantages towards the flexibility of the measurement system. The main applications are remote sensing and investigation of moving objects through gaseous streams, bubbles or foggy water for example. Furthermore, due to the common path nature, the system is also insensitive to mechanical disturbances. The measurement result is a complex amplitude which is comparable to a phase shifted digital hologramm and therefore allows 3D imaging, numerical refocusing and quantitative phase contrast imaging. As an example of application, we present measurements of the quantitative phase contrast of the epidermis of an onion through a volume scattering material.

  13. Bypassing absorbing objects in focused ultrasound using computer generated holographic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Y; Navon, G

    2011-12-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) technology is based on heating a small volume of tissue, while keeping the temperature outside the focus region with minimal heating only. Several FUS applications, such as brain and liver, suffer from the existence of ultrasound absorbers in the acoustic path between the transducer and the focus. These absorbers are a potential risk for the FUS therapy since they might cause to unwanted heating outside the focus region. An acoustic simulation based solution for reducing absorbers' heating is proposed, demonstrated, and compared to the standard geometrical solution. The proposed solution uses 3D continuous acoustic holograms, generated by the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm, which are described and demonstrated for the first time using ultrasound planar phased-array transducer. Holograms were generated using the iterative GS algorithm and fast Fourier transform (FFT) acoustic simulation. The performances of the holograms are demonstrated by temperature elevation images of the absorber, acquired by GE 1.5T MRI scanner equipped with InSightec FUS planar phased-array transducer built out of 986 transmitting elements. The acoustic holographic technology is demonstrated numerically and experimentally using the three letters patterns, "T," "A," and "U," which were manually built into 1 × 1 cm masks to represent the requested target fields. 3D holograms of a focused ultrasound field with a hole in intensity at the absorber region were generated and compared to the standard geometrical solution. The proposed holographic solution results in 76% reduction of heating on absorber, while keeping similar heating at the focus. In the present work we show for the first time the generation of efficient and uniform continuous ultrasound holograms in 3D. We use the holographic technology to generate a FUS beams that bypasses an absorber in the acoustic path to reduce unnecessary heating and potential clinical risk. The developed technique is superior

  14. Properties of diffraction gratings holographically recorded in poly(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate-ionic liquid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabban, Mostafa A.; Glavan, Gašper; Flauger, Peter; Klepp, Jürgen; Fally, Martin

    2017-05-01

    We investigated recording and readout of transmission gratings in composites of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and ionic liquids (IL) in detail. Gratings were recorded using a two-wave mixing technique for different grating periods, exposures and a series of film thicknesses. The recording kinetics as well as the post-exposure behavior of the gratings were studied by diffraction experiments. We found that - depending on the parameters - different grating types (pure phase or mixed) are generated, and at elevated thicknesses strong light-induced scattering develops. Gratings with thicknesses up to 85 micrometers are of the required quality with excellent optical properties, thicker gratings exhibit strong detrimental light-induced scattering. The obtained results are particularly valuable when considering PEGDMA-ionic liquid composites for applications as e.g., holographic storage materials or as neutron optic diffractive elements.

  15. Volume Hologram Formation in SU-8 Photoresist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the mechanism of volume hologram formation in photosensitive polymers, light-induced material response is analyzed in commonly used epoxy-based negative photoresist Epon SU-8. For this purpose, time-resolved investigation of volume holographic grating growth is performed in the SU-8 based host–guest system and in the pure SU-8 material, respectively. The comparison of grating growth curves from doped and undoped system allows us to draw conclusions on the impact of individual components on the grating formation process. The successive formation of transient absorption as well as phase gratings in SU-8 is observed. Influence of exposure duration and UV flood cure on the grating growth are investigated. Observed volume holographic grating formation in SU-8 can be explained based on the generation and subsequent diffusion of photoacid as well as time-delayed polymerization of exposed and unexposed areas.

  16. Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-05-26

    The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.

  17. Holographic microscope slide in a spatio-temporal imaging modality for reliable 3D cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Biagio; Bianco, Vittorio; Wang, Zhe; Mugnano, Martina; Bramanti, Alessia; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2017-08-08

    In the current trend of miniaturization and simplification of imaging flow cytometry, Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) microfluidic devices represent an innovative and cost-effective solution. In this framework, we propose for the first time a novel platform based on the compactness of a holographic microscope slide (HMS) in combination with the new computational features of space-time digital holography (STDH) that uses a 1D linear sensor array (LSA) instead of 2D CCD or CMOS cameras to respond to real diagnostic needs. In this LoC platform, computational methods, holography, and microfluidics are intertwined in order to provide an imaging system with a reduced amount of optical components and capability to achieve reliable cell counting even in the absence of very accurate flow control. STDH exploits the sample motion into the microfluidic channel to obtain an unlimited field-of-view along the flow direction, independent of the magnification factor. Furthermore, numerical refocusing typical of a holographic modality allows imaging and visualization of the entire volume of the channel, thus avoiding loss of information due to the limited depth of focus of standard microscopes. Consequently, we believe that this platform could open new perspectives for enhancing the throughput by 3D volumetric imaging.

  18. Wavefronts matching: a novel paradigm for three-dimensional holographic particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A.; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Digital Holography (DH) in microscopy allows to retrieve in an accurate way the spatial coordinates of multiple moving particles, performing 3D tracking of the sample in the entire field of view. In particular, a posteriori quantitative multifocus phase-contrast imaging, suitable for 3D tracking of micro-objects, is one of the main features of the holographic approach. However, classical methods need to decouple amplitude and phase contributions of the reconstructed complex wavefronts to calculate target positions in 3D, due to the fact that the lateral displacements can be calculated only after refocusing step. In order to overcome this limitation, recently, a novel method of the simultaneous calculation of both axial and lateral coordinates of moving particles has been proposed. This is based on the novel concept of wavefronts matching, i.e. the 3D positions of micro-object, moving in 3D volume, are obtained by aligning wo subsequent holographic complex reconstructions, calculated at the same distance. We test this approach in different experimental conditions in order to highlight its effectiveness in bio-microfluidic applications.

  19. Pattern-Recognition Processor Using Holographic Photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Cammack, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    proposed joint-transform optical correlator (JTOC) would be capable of operating as a real-time pattern-recognition processor. The key correlation-filter reading/writing medium of this JTOC would be an updateable holographic photopolymer. The high-resolution, high-speed characteristics of this photopolymer would enable pattern-recognition processing to occur at a speed three orders of magnitude greater than that of state-of-the-art digital pattern-recognition processors. There are many potential applications in biometric personal identification (e.g., using images of fingerprints and faces) and nondestructive industrial inspection. In order to appreciate the advantages of the proposed JTOC, it is necessary to understand the principle of operation of a conventional JTOC. In a conventional JTOC (shown in the upper part of the figure), a collimated laser beam passes through two side-by-side spatial light modulators (SLMs). One SLM displays a real-time input image to be recognized. The other SLM displays a reference image from a digital memory. A Fourier-transform lens is placed at its focal distance from the SLM plane, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) image detector is placed at the back focal plane of the lens for use as a square-law recorder. Processing takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the CCD records the interference pattern between the Fourier transforms of the input and reference images, and the pattern is then digitized and saved in a buffer memory. In the second stage, the reference SLM is turned off and the interference pattern is fed back to the input SLM. The interference pattern thus becomes Fourier-transformed, yielding at the CCD an image representing the joint-transform correlation between the input and reference images. This image contains a sharp correlation peak when the input and reference images are matched. The drawbacks of a conventional JTOC are the following: The CCD has low spatial resolution and is not an ideal square

  20. Development of an optoelectronic holographic platform for otolaryngology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ellery; Dobrev, Ivo; Bapat, Nikhil; Flores, Jorge Mauricio; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John; Cheng, Jeffery Tao; Scarpino, Chris; Ravicz, Michael

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we present advances on our development of an optoelectronic holographic computing platform with the ability to quantitatively measure full-field-of-view nanometer-scale movements of the tympanic membrane (TM). These measurements can facilitate otologists' ability to study and diagnose hearing disorders in humans. The holographic platform consists of a laser delivery system and an otoscope. The control software, called LaserView, is written in Visual C++ and handles communication and synchronization between hardware components. It provides a user-friendly interface to allow viewing of holographic images with several tools to automate holography-related tasks and facilitate hardware communication. The software uses a series of concurrent threads to acquire images, control the hardware, and display quantitative holographic data at video rates and in two modes of operation: optoelectronic holography and lensless digital holography. The holographic platform has been used to perform experiments on several live and post-mortem specimens, and is to be deployed in a medical research environment with future developments leading to its eventual clinical use.

  1. Holographic display system for restoration of sight to the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, G. A.; Mandel, Y.; Manivanh, R.; Palanker, D. V.; Čižmár, T.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. We present a holographic near-the-eye display system enabling optical approaches for sight restoration to the blind, such as photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, optogenetic and other photoactivation techniques. We compare it with conventional liquid crystal displays (LCD) or digital light processing (DLP)-based displays in terms of image quality, field of view, optical efficiency and safety. Approach. We detail the optical configuration of the holographic display system and its characterization using a phase-only spatial light modulator. Main results. We describe approaches to controlling the zero diffraction order and speckle related issues in holographic display systems and assess the image quality of such systems. We show that holographic techniques offer significant advantages in terms of peak irradiance and power efficiency, and enable designs that are inherently safer than LCD or DLP-based systems. We demonstrate the performance of our holographic display system in the assessment of cortical response to alternating gratings projected onto the retinas of rats. Significance. We address the issues associated with the design of high brightness, near-the-eye display systems and propose solutions to the efficiency and safety challenges with an optical design which could be miniaturized and mounted onto goggles.

  2. Holographic display system for restoration of sight to the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, G A; Mandel, Y; Manivanh, R; Palanker, D V; Čižmár, T

    2013-10-01

    We present a holographic near-the-eye display system enabling optical approaches for sight restoration to the blind, such as photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, optogenetic and other photoactivation techniques. We compare it with conventional liquid crystal displays (LCD) or digital light processing (DLP)-based displays in terms of image quality, field of view, optical efficiency and safety. We detail the optical configuration of the holographic display system and its characterization using a phase-only spatial light modulator. We describe approaches to controlling the zero diffraction order and speckle related issues in holographic display systems and assess the image quality of such systems. We show that holographic techniques offer significant advantages in terms of peak irradiance and power efficiency, and enable designs that are inherently safer than LCD or DLP-based systems. We demonstrate the performance of our holographic display system in the assessment of cortical response to alternating gratings projected onto the retinas of rats. We address the issues associated with the design of high brightness, near-the-eye display systems and propose solutions to the efficiency and safety challenges with an optical design which could be miniaturized and mounted onto goggles.

  3. AdS{sub 2} holographic dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetič, Mirjam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,University of Maribor, SI2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-12-02

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2013)152, in agreement with the results of Castro and Song http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.1948. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS{sub 2}×S{sup 2} or conformally AdS{sub 2}×S{sup 2} solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton

  4. Holographic duality from random tensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Thomas, Nathaniel; Walter, Michael; Yang, Zhao [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    Tensor networks provide a natural framework for exploring holographic duality because they obey entanglement area laws. They have been used to construct explicit toy models realizing many of the interesting structural features of the AdS/CFT correspondence, including the non-uniqueness of bulk operator reconstruction in the boundary theory. In this article, we explore the holographic properties of networks of random tensors. We find that our models naturally incorporate many features that are analogous to those of the AdS/CFT correspondence. When the bond dimension of the tensors is large, we show that the entanglement entropy of all boundary regions, whether connected or not, obey the Ryu-Takayanagi entropy formula, a fact closely related to known properties of the multipartite entanglement of assistance. We also discuss the behavior of Rényi entropies in our models and contrast it with AdS/CFT. Moreover, we find that each boundary region faithfully encodes the physics of the entire bulk entanglement wedge, i.e., the bulk region enclosed by the boundary region and the minimal surface. Our method is to interpret the average over random tensors as the partition function of a classical ferromagnetic Ising model, so that the minimal surfaces of Ryu-Takayanagi appear as domain walls. Upon including the analog of a bulk field, we find that our model reproduces the expected corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi formula: the bulk minimal surface is displaced and the entropy is augmented by the entanglement of the bulk field. Increasing the entanglement of the bulk field ultimately changes the minimal surface behavior topologically, in a way similar to the effect of creating a black hole. Extrapolating bulk correlation functions to the boundary permits the calculation of the scaling dimensions of boundary operators, which exhibit a large gap between a small number of low-dimension operators and the rest. While we are primarily motivated by the AdS/CFT duality, the main

  5. Improvements on digital inline holographic PTV for 3D wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provide the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present our latest developments on minimizing these challenges, which enables high-fidelity DIH-PTV implementation to larger sampling volumes with significantly higher particle seeding densities suitable for wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements. The improvements include: (1) adjustable window thresholding; (2) multi-pass 3D tracking; (3) automatic wall localization; and (4) continuity-based out-of-plane velocity component computation. The accuracy of the proposed DIH-PTV method is validated with conventional 2D PIV and double-view holographic PTV measurements in smooth-wall turbulent channel flow experiments. The capability of the technique in characterization of wall-bounded turbulence is further demonstrated through its application to flow measurements for smooth- and rough-wall turbulent channel flows. In these experiments, 3D velocity fields are measured within sampling volumes of 14.7  ×  50.0  ×  14.4 mm3 (covering the entire depth of the channel) with a velocity resolution of  art 3D whole-field flow measurement techniques.

  6. Up-to-date state of storage techniques used for large numerical data files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlouba, V.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for data storage and output in data banks and memory files are discussed along with a survey of equipment available for this. Topics discussed include magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, Terabit magnetic tape memory, Unicon 690 laser memory, IBM 1360 photostore, microfilm recording equipment, holographic recording, film readers, optical character readers, digital data storage techniques, and photographic recording. The individual types of equipment are summarized in tables giving the basic technical parameters.

  7. Holographic Spectroscopy: Wavelength-Dependent Analysis of Photosensitive Materials by Means of Holographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Michael Voit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Holographic spectroscopy is highlighted as a powerful tool for the analysis of photosensitive materials with pronounced alterations of the complex permittivity over a broad range in the visible spectrum, due to the advances made both in the fields of advanced holographic media and highly tunable lasers systems. To analytically discuss consequences for in- and off-Bragg reconstruction, we revised Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory strictly on the basis of complex permittivities. We extended it to comply with modern experimental parameters such as out-of-phase mixed holograms and highly modulated gratings. A spatially modulated, wavelength-dependent permittivity that superimposes a spatially homogeneous wavelength-dependent ground state spectrum is taken into account for signal wave reconstruction with bulky elementary mixed gratings as an example. The dispersion characteristics of the respective diffraction efficiency is modelled for color-center-absorption and absorption of strongly localized carriers. As an example for the theoretical possibilities of our newly derived set of equations, we present a quantitative analysis of the Borrmann effect connected to out-of-phase gratings, providing easier and more intuitive methods for the derivation of their grating parameters.

  8. Holographic equilibration under external dynamical electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali-Akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The holographic equilibration of a far-from-equilibrium strongly coupled gauge theory is investigated. In particular, the dynamics of a probe D7-brane in an AdS-Vaidya background is studied in the presence of an external time-dependent electric field. Defining the equilibration times teqc and teqj, at which condensation and current relax to their final equilibrated values, receptively, the smallness of transition time kM or kE is enough to observe a universal behaviour for re-scaled equilibration times kMkE(teqc−2 and kMkE(teqj−2. kM(kE is the time interval in which the temperature (electric field increases from zero to finite value. Moreover, regardless of the values for kM and kE, teqc/teqj also behaves universally for large enough value of the ratio of the final electric field to final temperature. Then a simple discussion of the static case reveals that teqc≤teqj. For an out-of-equilibrium process, our numerical results show that, apart from the cases for which kE is small, the static time-ordering, that is teqc≤teqj, persists.

  9. Glueball-baryon interactions in holographic QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Studying the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model with type IIA string theory, we find the glueball-baryon interaction is predicted in this model. The glueball is identified as the 11D gravitational waves or graviton described by the M5-brane supergravity solution. Employing the relation of M-theory and type IIA string theory, glueball is also 10D gravitational perturbations which are the excited modes by close strings in the bulk of this model. On the other hand, baryon is identified as a D4-brane wrapped on S4 which is named as baryon vertex, so the glueball-baryon interaction is nothing but the close string/baryon vertex interaction in this model. Since the baryon vertex could be equivalently treated as the instanton configurations on the flavor brane, we identify the glueball-baryon interaction as ;graviton-instanton; interaction in order to describe it quantitatively by the quantum mechanical system for the collective modes of baryons. So the effective Hamiltonian can be obtained by considering the gravitational perturbations in the flavor brane action. With this Hamiltonian, the amplitudes and the selection rules of the glueball-baryon interaction can be analytically calculated in the strong coupling limit. We show our calculations explicitly in two characteristic situations which are ;scalar and tensor glueball interacting with baryons;. Although there is a long way to go, our work provides a holographic way to understand the interactions of baryons in hadronic physics and nuclear physics by the underlying string theory.

  10. A holographic model for quantum critical responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sierens, Todd [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics & Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Witczak-Krempa, William [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-05-12

    We analyze the dynamical response functions of strongly interacting quantum critical states described by conformal field theories (CFTs). We construct a self-consistent holographic model that incorporates the relevant scalar operator driving the quantum critical phase transition. Focusing on the finite temperature dynamical conductivity σ(ω,T), we study its dependence on our model parameters, notably the scaling dimension of the relevant operator. It is found that the conductivity is well-approximated by a simple ansatz proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.90.245109 for a wide range of parameters. We further dissect the conductivity at large frequencies ω≫T using the operator product expansion, and show how it reveals the spectrum of our model CFT. Our results provide a physically-constrained framework to study the analytic continuation of quantum Monte Carlo data, as we illustrate using the O(2) Wilson-Fisher CFT. Finally, we comment on the variation of the conductivity as we tune away from the quantum critical point, setting the stage for a comprehensive analysis of the phase diagram near the transition.

  11. Holographic quenches in a confined phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert C.; Rozali, Moshe; Way, Benson

    2017-12-01

    We investigate quenches of holographic theories in a confined phase, where the energy injected is insufficient to reach the deconfined phase. In such quenches, thermalization is not associated with gravitational collapse and the formation of a black hole. Nevertheless, we attempt to characterize the late-time state of this scenario. We check a number of notions of thermalization that do not require horizon formation, and find no evidence for thermalization, or even equilibration, for our chosen parameters and initial states. We find that the post-quench behaviour of both local and nonlocal observables exhibit oscillatory behaviour rather than decaying towards equilibrium. We generally find that the response of the nonlocal observables is smoother than that of the local ones. We discuss mechanisms which generate such smoothing, as well as ‘beats’ which appear in the time-dependence of the nonlocal operators for certain classes of quenches. When tuning the quench parameters such that the smoothing is ineffective, we are able to perform ‘entanglement spectroscopy, recovering the spectrum of the confined phase of the theory from the time dependence of the entanglement entropy, as well as other nonlocal observables.

  12. Scanning for piecewise holographic grating generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Miroslav; Kostka, František; Dvořák, Martin

    2006-03-01

    Holographic gratings that are recorded as a whole in a single exposition are limited in size because of the available power of suitable laser sources and nonlinear response of and/or reciprocity effects in a recording medium. A sequential-illumination technique can help in this case. This technique relies on piecewise grating recording that consists in scanning with a relatively narrow laser beam, a pencil, across the grating surface employing an appropriate optical set up. The contribution describes a method utilizing a small parallel displacement of the laser pencil by turning a plane-parallel plate, which is then transferred to a larger angular deflection by a short focus lens. Simultaneously, the beam is expanded angularly. This all can take place either before light enters the beam-splitter or along paths of both the interfering beams. In this way, uniform diffraction efficiency gratings that are much larger than the cross-section of the beam can be achieved. The laser pencil can be moved in polar or rectangular coordinates. Recording of larger gratings supposes large precise collimating mirrors. If they are not available e.g. due to their high price, they can be replaced by long propagating homocentric beams with their origins in the same distance from the recording plate.

  13. Unitarity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    The bulk S-Matrix can be given a non-perturbative definition in terms of the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. We show that the unitarity of the S-Matrix, ie the optical theorem, can be derived by studying the behavior of the OPE and the conformal block decomposition in the flat space limit. When applied to perturbation theory in AdS, this gives a holographic derivation of the cutting rules for Feynman diagrams. To demonstrate these facts we introduce some new techniques for the analysis of conformal field theories. Chief among these is a method for conglomerating local primary operators O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} to extract the contribution of an individual primary O{sub {Delta},{ell}} in their OPE. This provides a method for isolating the contribution of specific conformal blocks which we use to prove an important relation between certain conformal block coefficients and anomalous dimensions. These techniques make essential use of the simplifications that occur when CFT correlators are expressed in terms of a Mellin amplitude.

  14. Thermalization in a holographic confining gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Takaaki [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Kiritsis, Elias [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); APC, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 7164 CNRS,10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Rosen, Christopher [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2015-08-03

    Time dependent perturbations of states in the holographic dual of a 3+1 dimensional confining theory are considered. The perturbations are induced by varying the coupling to the theory’s most relevant operator. The dual gravitational theory belongs to a class of Einstein-dilaton theories which exhibit a mass gap at zero temperature and a first order deconfining phase transition at finite temperature. The perturbation is realized in various thermal bulk solutions by specifying time dependent boundary conditions on the scalar, and we solve the fully backreacted Einstein-dilaton equations of motion subject to these boundary conditions. We compute the characteristic time scale of many thermalization processes, noting that in every case we examine, this time scale is determined by the imaginary part of the lowest lying quasi-normal mode of the final state black brane. We quantify the dependence of this final state on parameters of the quench, and construct a dynamical phase diagram. Further support for a universal scaling regime in the abrupt quench limit is provided.

  15. Harmonic resolution as a holographic quantum number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-01-31

    The Bekenstein bound takes the holographic principle into the realm of flat space, promising new insights on the relation of non-gravitational physics to quantum gravity. This makes it important to obtain a precise formulation of the bound. Conventionally, one specifies two macroscopic quantities, mass and spatial width, which cannot be simultaneously diagonalized. Thus, the counting of compatible states is not sharply defined. The resolution of this and other formal difficulties leads naturally to a definition in terms of discretized light-cone quantization. In this form, the area difference specified in the covariant bound converts to a single quantum number, the harmonic resolution K. The Bekenstein bound then states that the Fock space sector with K units of longitudinal momentum contains no more than exp(2 pi^2 K) independent discrete states. This conjecture can be tested unambiguously for a given Lagrangian, and it appears to hold true for realistic field theories, including models arising from string compactifications. For large K, it makes contact with more conventional but less well-defined formulations.

  16. Holographic free-electron light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanhai; Clarke, Brendan P.; So, Jin-Kyu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in the physics and technology of light generation via free-electron proximity and impact interactions with nanostructures (gratings, photonic crystals, nano-undulators, metamaterials and antenna arrays) have enabled the development of nanoscale-resolution techniques for such applications as mapping plasmons, studying nanoparticle structural transformations and characterizing luminescent materials (including time-resolved measurements). Here, we introduce a universal approach allowing generation of light with prescribed wavelength, direction, divergence and topological charge via point-excitation of holographic plasmonic metasurfaces. It is illustrated using medium-energy free-electron injection to generate highly-directional visible to near-infrared light beams, at selected wavelengths in prescribed azimuthal and polar directions, with brightness two orders of magnitude higher than that from an unstructured surface, and vortex beams with topological charge up to ten. Such emitters, with micron-scale dimensions and the freedom to fully control radiation parameters, offer novel applications in nano-spectroscopy, nano-chemistry and sensing.

  17. Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.

  18. Visor-display design based on planar holographic optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Y; Reinhorn, S; Friesem, A A

    1995-03-10

    A method for designing and recording visor displays based on planar holographic optics is presented. This method can deal with the problem of recording-readout wavelength shift. The display system is composed of two holographic optical elements that are recorded on the same substrate. One element collimates the waves from each data point in the display into a plane wave that is trapped inside the substrate by total internal reflection. The other diffracts the plane waves into the eye of an observer. Because the chromatic dispersion of the first element can be corrected by the dispersion of the second, this configuration is relatively insensitive to source wavelength shifts. The method is illustrated by the design, recording, and testing of a compact holographic doublet visor display. The recording was at a wavelength of 458 nm, and readout was at 633 nm. The results indicate that diffraction-limited performance and relatively low chromatic dispersion over a wide field of view can be obtained.

  19. Exploring neural cell dynamics with digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-07-11

    In this review, we summarize how the new concept of digital optics applied to the field of holographic microscopy has allowed the development of a reliable and flexible digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy (DH-QPM) technique at the nanoscale particularly suitable for cell imaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the original biological ormation provided by the quantitative phase signal. We present the most relevant DH-QPM applications in the field of cell biology, including automated cell counts, recognition, classification, three-dimensional tracking, discrimination between physiological and pathophysiological states, and the study of cell membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale. In the last part, original results show how DH-QPM can address two important issues in the field of neurobiology, namely, multiple-site optical recording of neuronal activity and noninvasive visualization of dendritic spine dynamics resulting from a full digital holographic microscopy tomographic approach. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

  20. Covariant generalized holographic dark energy and accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya (Japan); Odintsov, S.D. [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-15

    We propose the generalized holographic dark energy model where the infrared cutoff is identified with the combination of the FRW universe parameters: the Hubble rate, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant, the universe lifetime (if finite) and their derivatives. It is demonstrated that with the corresponding choice of the cutoff one can map such holographic dark energy to modified gravity or gravity with a general fluid. Explicitly, F(R) gravity and the general perfect fluid are worked out in detail and the corresponding infrared cutoff is found. Using this correspondence, we get realistic inflation or viable dark energy or a unified inflationary-dark energy universe in terms of covariant holographic dark energy. (orig.)

  1. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  2. Holographic stereogram using camera array in dense arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Oi, Ryutaro; Senoh, Takanori; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2011-02-01

    Holographic stereograms can display 3D objects by using ray information. To display high quality representations of real 3D objects by using holographic stereograms, relatively dense ray information must be prepared as the 3D object information. One promising method of obtaining this information uses a combination of a camera array and view interpolation which is signal processing technique. However, it is still technically difficult to synthesize ray information without visible error by using view interpolation. Our approach uses a densely arranged camera array to reduce this difficulty. Even though view interpolation is a simple signal processing technique, the synthesized ray information produced by this camera array should be adequate. We designed and manufactured a densely arranged camera array and used it to generate holographic stereograms.

  3. Interacting holographic dark energy models: A general approach

    CERN Document Server

    Som, S

    2014-01-01

    Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density $\\rho_d=3(\\alpha H^2+\\beta\\dot{H})$. Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy(RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for $\\beta>0.5$ irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of $\\alpha=1$ and $\\beta=2/3$ leads to a varying $\\Lambda$-like model introducing an IR cutoff length $\\Lambda^{-1/2}$. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form $Q\\propto H\\rho_m$ suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.

  4. Imaging and Measuring Electron Beam Dose Distributions Using Holographic Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images...... and measurements of absorbed dose distributions were achieved in liquids of various densities and thermal properties and in water layers thinner than the electron range and with backings of materials of various densities and atomic numbers. The lowest detectable dose in some liquids was of the order of a few k...

  5. Holographic Ward identities for symmetry breaking in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Giribet, Gaston [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States); Physics Department, University of Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marzolla, Andrea; Naegels, Daniel [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sierra-Garcia, J. Anibal [Department of Particle Physics and IGFAE, University of Santiago de Compostela,E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2017-04-03

    We investigate symmetry breaking in two-dimensional field theories which have a holographic gravity dual. Being at large N, the Coleman theorem does not hold and Goldstone bosons are expected. We consider the minimal setup to describe a conserved current and a charged operator, and we perform holographic renormalization in order to find the correct Ward identities describing symmetry breaking. This involves some subtleties related to the different boundary conditions that a vector can have in the three-dimensional bulk. We establish which is the correct prescription that yields, after renormalization, the same Ward identities as in higher dimensions.

  6. Generalized holographic dark energy model described at the Hubble length

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, M

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the holographic dark energy model described in Hubble length IR cutoff by assuming a slowly time varying function for holographic parameter $c^2$. We calculate the evolution of EoS parameter and the deceleration parameter as well as the evolution of dark energy density in this generalized model. We show that the phantom line is crossed from quintessence regime to phantom regime which is in agreement with observation. The evolution of deceleration parameter indicates the transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion. Eventually, we show that the GHDE with HIR cutoff can interpret the pressureless dark matter era at the early time and dark energy dominated phase later.

  7. Holographic entanglement entropy close to quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Peng; Niu, Chao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics,School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xian, Zhuo-Yu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-04-19

    We investigate the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of a strip geometry in four dimensional Q-lattice backgrounds, which exhibit metal-insulator transitions in the dual field theory. Remarkably, we find that the HEE always displays a peak in the vicinity of the quantum critical points. Our model provides the first direct evidence that the HEE can be used to characterize the quantum phase transition (QPT). We also conjecture that the maximization behavior of HEE at quantum critical points would be universal in general holographic models.

  8. Real-time characterization of the neuronal response to osmotic shock by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomariz, Maria; Garcia, Isabel; Soto-Sánchez, Cristina; Martínez-Navarrete, Gema; Fernández, Eduardo; Fimia, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy has numerous applications in biology for visualizing living cells and 3D tissues. This technique allows for the direct visualization of biological structures avoiding invasive and phototoxic procedures such as fixation and dying processing. In this study we have characterized the morphometry changes of neurons subject to osmolarity changes. For this purpose, we have measured the variations of the amplitude and the oscillation frequency of the plasmatic membrane, as well as the volume changes of the cells before the osmotic shock. There was a relation between the neural culture ageing and its behavioral changes. "Long-term" cultures that had not previously been studied were used to analyze the behavioral changes in aged cells.

  9. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Feng; Weng, Ming-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs). The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA). The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors. PMID:28773889

  10. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Feng Hsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs. The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA. The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors.

  11. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 3, appendix B: State of the art, trends, and potential growth of selected DSG technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Present and future relatively small (30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration can help achieve national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. Based on current projections, it appears that dispersed storage and generation (DSG) electrical energy will comprise only a small portion, from 4 to 10 percent, of the national total by the end of this century. In general, the growth potential for DSG seems favorable in the long term because of finite fossil energy resources and increasing fuel prices. Recent trends, especially in the institutional and regulatory fields, favor greater use of the DSGs for the future.

  12. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 3, appendix B: State of the art, trends, and potential growth of selected DSG technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Present and future relatively small (30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration can help achieve national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. Based on current projections, it appears that dispersed storage and generation (DSG) electrical energy will comprise only a small portion, from 4 to 10 percent, of the national total by the end of this century. In general, the growth potential for DSG seems favorable in the long term because of finite fossil energy resources and increasing fuel prices. Recent trends, especially in the institutional and regulatory fields, favor greater use of the DSGs for the future.

  13. Glueball–baryon interactions in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wen Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the Witten–Sakai–Sugimoto model with type IIA string theory, we find the glueball–baryon interaction is predicted in this model. The glueball is identified as the 11D gravitational waves or graviton described by the M5-brane supergravity solution. Employing the relation of M-theory and type IIA string theory, glueball is also 10D gravitational perturbations which are the excited modes by close strings in the bulk of this model. On the other hand, baryon is identified as a D4-brane wrapped on S4 which is named as baryon vertex, so the glueball–baryon interaction is nothing but the close string/baryon vertex interaction in this model. Since the baryon vertex could be equivalently treated as the instanton configurations on the flavor brane, we identify the glueball–baryon interaction as “graviton–instanton” interaction in order to describe it quantitatively by the quantum mechanical system for the collective modes of baryons. So the effective Hamiltonian can be obtained by considering the gravitational perturbations in the flavor brane action. With this Hamiltonian, the amplitudes and the selection rules of the glueball–baryon interaction can be analytically calculated in the strong coupling limit. We show our calculations explicitly in two characteristic situations which are “scalar and tensor glueball interacting with baryons”. Although there is a long way to go, our work provides a holographic way to understand the interactions of baryons in hadronic physics and nuclear physics by the underlying string theory.

  14. A Position, Scale, and Rotation Invariant Holographic Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    printed on the Imagen Laser printer. An example is seen in Figure 20. A photographic negative of this laser plot was obtained from the Base Photo Lab...22. White, H. J. et al. " Digital and Analogue Holographic Associative Memories," Optics Letters, 11: 30-37 (January 1988). 23. Walrond, Capt Thomas

  15. Evolution of holographic dark energy with interaction term Q ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A flat FLRW Universe with dark matter and dark energy, which are interacting with each other, is considered. The dark energy is represented by the holographic dark energy model and the interaction term is taken as proportional to the dark energy density. We have studied the cosmological evolution and analysed ...

  16. Analysis of the optical parameters of phase holographic gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є.О. Тихонов

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  Suitability of 2- wave approximation of the coupled waves theory tor description of holographic phase gratings recorded on photopolymer compound ФПК-488 is proved. Using the basic formulas of the theory, main grating optical parameters - a depth of modulation and finished thickness are not measured immediately are determined.

  17. Massive pions, anomalies and baryons in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, O. [Departament de Fisica and IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Panico, G., E-mail: panico@phys.ethz.c [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wulzer, A. [Institut de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-03-01

    We consider a holographic model of QCD, obtained by a very simple modification of the original construction, which describes at the same time the pion mass, the QCD anomalies and the baryons as topological solitons. We study in detail its phenomenological implications in both the mesonic and baryonic sectors and compare with the observations.

  18. A 3D acquisition method for holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Situ, Guohai

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that holographic display can provide 3D scenes with continuous viewpoints and is free of accommodation-convergence conflict. So far most of the research in this area focuses on the display end, leaving the acquisition end merely explored. For holographic content acquisition, one needs to capture the scene in 3D. Ways to do this include the traditional optical holography and integral imaging. However, optical holography suffers from serious speckle while integral imaging has a long march to increase the resolution. In this paper, we propose a technique based on a variation of the transport of intensity equation to calculate the "phase" information of a scene from its defocusd intensity captured by a color camera under white light illumination. With the defocused phase and intensity data at hand, we can calculate the infocused wavefront of the scene, and further encode it into a computer generated hologram for subsequent holographic display. We demonstrate the proposed technique by simulation and experimental results. Compared with existing 3D acquisition techniques for holographic display, our method may provide better viewing experience due to the free of speckle in the acquisition stage, as well as the fact that the resolution does not limited by the microlenslet.

  19. Prospects of linear reconstruction in atomic resolution electron holographic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krehl, Jonas, E-mail: Jonas.Krehl@triebenberg.de; Lubk, Axel

    2015-03-15

    Tomography commonly requires a linear relation between the measured signal and the underlying specimen property; for Electron Holographic Tomography this is given by the Phase Grating Approximation (PGA). While largely valid at medium resolution, discrepancies arise at high resolution imaging conditions. We set out to investigate the artefacts that are produced if the reconstruction still assumes the PGA even with an atomic resolution tilt series. To forego experimental difficulties the holographic tilt series was simulated. The reconstructed electric potential clearly shows peaks at the positions of the atoms. These peaks have characterisitic deformations, which can be traced back to the defocus a particular atom has in the holograms of the tilt series. Exchanging an atom for one of a different atomic number results in a significant change in the reconstructed potential that is well contained within the atom's peak. - Highlights: • We simulate a holographic tilt series of a nanocrystal with atomic resolution. • Using PGA-based Holographic Tomography we reconstruct the atomic structure. • The reconstruction shows characteristic artefacts, chiefly caused by defocus. • Changing one atom's Z produces a well localised in the reconstruction.

  20. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Interferometry; holography; optical testing instruments. Abstract. The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple ...

  1. Multispectral digital holographic microscopy with applications in water quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Jin, Chao; Yu, Mei; Amelard, Robert; Haider, Shahid; Saini, Simarjeet; Emelko, Monica; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for human health, yet over a billion people worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water. Due to the presence and accumulation of biological contaminants in natural waters (e.g., pathogens and neuro-, hepato-, and cytotoxins associated with algal blooms) remain a critical challenge in the provision of safe drinking water globally. It is not financially feasible and practical to monitor and quantify water quality frequently enough to identify the potential health risk due to contamination, especially in developing countries. We propose a low-cost, small-profile multispectral (MS) system based on Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and investigate methods for rapidly capturing holographic data of natural water samples. We have developed a test-bed for an MSDHM instrument to produce and capture holographic data of the sample at different wavelengths in the visible and the near Infra-red spectral region, allowing for resolution improvement in the reconstructed images. Additionally, we have developed high-speed statistical signal processing and analysis techniques to facilitate rapid reconstruction and assessment of the MS holographic data being captured by the MSDHM instrument. The proposed system is used to examine cyanobacteria as well as Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts which remain important and difficult to treat microbiological contaminants that must be addressed for the provision of safe drinking water globally.

  2. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    holographic exposures, in conjunction with the common beam O2 for the formation of two different but overlapped .... used for Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD plates to give high efficiency and low noise grating holograms on H1 and H2. ... of India, New Delhi for the financial support for carrying out this work. One of the authors (AKS) ...

  3. Digital holographic 3D imaging spectrometry (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Kyu

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the digital holographic 3D imaging spectrometry. The principle of this method is a marriage of incoherent holography and Fourier transform spectroscopy. Review includes principle, procedure of signal processing and experimental results to obtain a multispectral set of 3D images for spatially incoherent, polychromatic objects.

  4. Holographic recording in thiophene-based polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar Singh; Chambers-Asman, David; Jeeva, Shehzad

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and optical data storage properties of a side-chain thiophene-phenyl azopolyester ThPhAzoP.ol is reported. The polyester is derived from diphenyl tetradecanedioate and a thiophenebased liquid crystalline diol which exhibits a short-lived enantiotropic SmA phase (Cryst 177.7 SmA 180...

  5. SOVRaD - A Digest of Recent Soviet R and D Articles. Volume, Number 1, 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Di’acuities are discussed which occur in r-f holographic systems designed for medico -biological studies or for defectoscopy. One obstacle to...description of coding and error correction techniques; handling of tapes, including indexing, storage and forwarding to the shore base. Chapter 2

  6. [Three-dimensional morphology of C6/36 cells infected by dengue virus: a study based on digital holographic microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hai; Liu, Xu-Ling; Liu, Yu-Jing; He, Xiao-En; Hui, Yuan; Zhang, Bao; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Wei

    2017-03-20

    To monitor the 3-dimensional (3D) morphological changes of C6/36 cells during dengue virus (DENV) infection using a live-cell imaging technique based on digital holographic microscopy and provide clues for better understanding the mechanisms of DENV infection. C6/36 cells were seeded in 6-well plates to determine the optimal imaging density under a holographic cell imager, and the morphological changes of the cells were recorded in response to a culture temperature change from 28 degrees celsius; to 37 degrees celsius; C6/36 cells were infected with 4 DENV strains with different serotypes at 28 degrees celsius; and incubated at 37 degrees celsius; for 24 h, and the 3D holograms and relevant morphological parameters were recorded at different time points using HoloMonitor M4 holographic cell imaging and analysis system. The holograms of C6/36 cells inoculated at the optimal density for imaging (4×105 per well) showed unified 3D morphologies of the single cells with minimal dispersions in the cell area, thickness and volume (P0.05). The cell area and volume of the cells infected with the 4 DENV strains all increased and the cell thickness was reduced during incubation. Among the 4 strains, DENV-1 and DENV-2 caused reduced cell thickness while DENV-3 and DENV-4 increased the cell thickness, and the pattern and degree of such changes differ among the 4 strains. Digital holographic microscopy allows monitoring of the complex morphological changes of cells during DENV infection. The 4 DENV strains with different serotypes causes characteristic cell damages during infection.

  7. Compact SMES with a superconducting film in a spiral groove on a Si wafer formed by MEMS technology with possible high-energy storage volume density comparable to that of rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, N.; Iguchi, N.; Kusano, Y.; Fukano, T.; Hioki, T.; Ichiki, A.; Bessho, T.; Motohiro, T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of a novel approach to make a compact SMES unit composed of a stack of Si wafers using a well-established MEMS process was proposed. The concept was backed up by pilot estimations for energy storage capacity and mechanical strength to endure electromagnetic stress. The estimated volume density of the storable energy is comparable to that of rechargeable batteries and the mechanical strength of Si wafer endures the electromagnetic stress imposed on it. These estimations support the feasibility of this novel concept, although there needs to be more detailed design of the system for its practical realization. Furthermore, there are a lot of challenges to overcome. The first step of the experimental proof of this new concept was successfully performed through several repeated test fabrications. In one of these test fabrications, the theoretically estimated upper limit value of the energy storage corresponding to a pilot design of a spiral superconducting NbN coil in the spiral trench formed on a Si wafer 10.15 cm in diameter was attained.

  8. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 3: Life cycle and cost-benefit analysis of a battery-flywheel electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control is described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE j227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alernator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system included a 108 volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited dc propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses.

  9. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  10. Comments on the Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Soft Wall Holographic QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe qualitatively some aspects of the holographic QCD. Inspired by a successfull 4D description, we try to separate the Confinement and the Chiral Symmetry Breaking dynamics. We also discuss the realization of the baryons as skyrmions in Soft Wall Holographic QCD, and the is......In this paper we describe qualitatively some aspects of the holographic QCD. Inspired by a successfull 4D description, we try to separate the Confinement and the Chiral Symmetry Breaking dynamics. We also discuss the realization of the baryons as skyrmions in Soft Wall Holographic QCD...

  11. Complex wavefront modulation and holographic display using single spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dezhao; Cao, Liangcai; Shen, Xueju; Zhang, Hao; Zong, Song; Jin, Guofan

    2017-08-01

    A holographic display method based on complex wavefront modulation using single spatial light modulator is proposed. The holographic display is achieved from complex wavefront encoded by double phase hologram. The modulated beam by single phase-only spatial light modulator passes through a 4f optical system to synthesize the expected complex modulated wavefront on the output plane, with a low-pass filter in the Fourier plane. The performance of holographic display is also improved by complex wavefront modulation, compared with the holographic display based on phase-only wavefront modulation. The proposed encoding and display technique is theoretically demonstrated, as well as validated in numerical simulations.

  12. Cost-effective and label-free holographic biosensor for detection of herpes simplex virus (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Ho, Ha; Daloglu, Mustafa; Torres, Avee; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted viral diseases. Timely detection of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) can help prevent the rampant spreading of the virus. Current detection techniques such as viral culture, immuno-assays or Polymerase-Chain-Reaction, are time extensive and require expert handling. Here we present a field-portable, easy-to-use, and cost-effective biosensor for the detection of HSV based on holographic imaging. The virus is first captured from a target solution onto specifically developed substrates, prepared by coating glass coverslips with HSV-specific antibodies, and imaged using a lensfree holographic microscope. Several light-emitting-diodes (LEDs), coupled to multi-mode optical-fibers, are used to illuminate the sample containing the viruses. A micro-controller is used to activate the LEDs one at a time and in-line holograms are recorded using a CMOS imager placed immediately above the substrate. These sub-pixel shifted holograms are used to generate a super-resolved hologram, which is reconstructed to obtain the phase and amplitude images of the viruses. The signal of the viruses is enhanced using self-assembled PEG-based nanolenses, formed around the viral particles. Based on the phase information of the reconstructed images we can estimate the size of the viral particles, with an accuracy of +/- 11 nm, as well as quantify the viral load. The limit-of-detection of this system is estimated to be <500 viral copies per 100 μL sample volume that is imaged over 30 mm^2 field-of-view. This holographic microscopy based biosensor is label-free, cost-effective and field-portable, providing results in 2 hours, including sample preparation and imaging time.

  13. Atomic storage

    CERN Multimedia

    Ricadela, A

    2003-01-01

    IBM is supplying CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, with its Storage Tank file system virtualization software, 20 terabytes of storage capacity, and services under a three-year deal to build computer systems that will support the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (1 paragraph).

  14. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  15. Finite temperature holographic duals of 2-dimensional BCFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.

    2015-07-01

    We consider holographic duals of 2-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of a boundary, interface, defect and/or junction, referred to collectively as BCFTs. In general, the presence of a boundary reduces the SO(2, 2) conformal symmetry to SO(2, 1) and the dual geometry is realized as a warped product of the form , where is not compact. In particular, it will contain points where the warp factor of the AdS 2 space diverges, leading to asymptotically AdS 3 regions. We show that the AdS 2 space-time may always be replaced with an AdS 2-"black-hole" space-time. We argue the resulting geometry describes the BCFT at finite temperature. To motivate this claim, we compute the entanglement entropy holographically for a segment centered around the defect or ending on the boundary and find agreement with a known universal formula.

  16. Holographic superconductors in the presence of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatko, Marek; Wysokiński, Karol I.

    2017-10-01

    The application of the gauge-gravity duality, also known as anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to study condensed matter systems has resulted in a number of important findings. Using the analogy, we have studied the phase transitions between a holographic insulator and a metal at zero temperature as well as finite temperature transition between a metal and a holographic superconductor of s- and p-wave symmetry. The main aim of this note is to look in which way the dark matter might affect the properties of superconductors. The hope is that some of the observed modifications could be used to detect this ubiquitous but still elusive component of matter in the Universe.

  17. Holographic P -wave superconductors in 1 +1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkac, Gokhan; Chakrabortty, Shankhadeep; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-10-01

    We study (1 +1 )-dimensional P -wave holographic superconductors described by three- dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity coupled to a massive complex vector field in the context of AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. In the probe limit, where the backreaction of matter fields is neglected, we show that there is a formation of a vector hair around the black hole below a certain critical temperature. In the dual strongly coupled (1 +1 )-dimensional boundary theory, this holographically corresponds to the formation of a charged vector condensate which breaks spontaneously both the U (1 ) and S O (1 ,1 ) symmetries. We numerically compute both the free energy and the ac conductivity for the superconducting phase of the boundary field theory. Our numerical computations clearly establish that the superconducting phase of the boundary theory is favorable to the normal phase, and the presence of a magnetic moment term in the dual bulk theory effects the conductivity in the boundary field theory.

  18. Comments on entanglement negativity in holographic field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangamani, Mukund; Rota, Massimiliano

    2014-10-01

    We explore entanglement negativity, a measure of the distillable entanglement contained in a quantum state, in relativistic field theories in various dimensions. We first give a general overview of negativity and its properties and then explain a well known result relating (logarithmic) negativity of pure quantum states to the Rényi entropy (at index 1/2), by exploiting the simple features of entanglement in thermal states. In particular, we show that the negativity of the thermofield double state is given by the free energy difference of the system at temperature T and 2 T respectively. We then use this result to compute the negativity in the vacuum state of conformal field theories in various dimensions, utilizing results that have been derived for free and holographic CFTs in the literature. We also comment upon general lessons to be learnt about negativity in holographic field theories.

  19. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  20. Impact of electron irradiation on electron holographic potentiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. B.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Berger, D. [Technische Universität Berlin, Zentraleinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Strae des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Knauer, A.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Koslow, I.; Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    While electron holography in the transmission electron microscope offers the possibility to measure maps of the electrostatic potential of semiconductors down to nanometer dimensions, these measurements are known to underestimate the absolute value of the potential, especially in GaN. We have varied the dose rates of electron irradiation over several orders of magnitude and observed strong variations of the holographically detected voltages. Overall, the results indicate that the electron beam generates electrical currents within the specimens primarily by the photovoltaic effect and due to secondary electron emission. These currents have to be considered for a quantitative interpretation of electron holographic measurements, as their negligence contributes to large parts in the observed discrepancy between the measured and expected potential values in GaN.

  1. Holographic and light-field imaging for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jong-Young; Jang, Changwon; Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Chang-Kun

    2017-02-01

    We discuss on the recent state of the augmented reality (AR) display technology. In order to realize AR, various seethrough three-dimensional (3D) display techniques have been reported. We describe the AR display with 3D functionality such as light-field display and holography. See-through light-field display can be categorized by the optical elements which are used for see-through property: optical elements controlling path of the light-fields and those generating see-through light-field. Holographic display can be also a good candidate for AR display because it can reconstruct wavefront information and provide realistic virtual information. We introduce the see-through holographic display using various optical techniques.

  2. Compact lensless off-axis transmission digital holographic microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostykus, Manon; Moser, Christophe

    2017-07-10

    Current compact lensless holographic microscopes are based on either multiple angle in-line holograms, multiple wavelength illumination or a combination thereof. Complex computational algorithms are necessary to retrieve the phase image which slows down the visualization of the image. Here we propose a simple compact lensless transmission holographic microscope with an off-axis configuration which simplifies considerably the computational processing to visualize the phase images and opens the possibility of real time phase imaging using off the shelf smart phone processors and less than $3 worth of optics and detectors, suitable for broad educational dissemination. This is achieved using a side illumination and analog hologram gratings to shape the reference and signal illumination beams from one light source. We demonstrate experimentally imaging of cells with a field of view (FOV) of ~12mm2, and a resolution of ~3.9μm.

  3. A Virtual Holographic Display Case for Museum Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Chessa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important in society to make artworks accessible to mass audiences and to widen participation in culture. In such a context, virtual reality is one of the areas of greatest interest: new devices and new techniques are affordable for many users, and virtual and real worlds are often mixed together. In this paper, we propose a "virtual holographic" display, i.e. a stereoscopic virtual reality system that is able to replicate the behavior of a real showcase for exhibitions. It works in a completely virtual manner and it can yield to a new generation of entertainment "holographic" installations. We evaluate such a system through an experimental session with 20 users. In particular, we compare the proposed system, based on a stereoscopic technique (TD3D, with respect to a standard motion parallax technique in terms of the users' perceptual experience.

  4. Multimodal holographic microscopy: distinction between apoptosis and oncosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Balvan

    Full Text Available Identification of specific cell death is of a great value for many scientists. Predominant types of cell death can be detected by flow-cytometry (FCM. Nevertheless, the absence of cellular morphology analysis leads to the misclassification of cell death type due to underestimated oncosis. However, the definition of the oncosis is important because of its potential reversibility. Therefore, FCM analysis of cell death using annexin V/propidium iodide assay was compared with holographic microscopy coupled with fluorescence detection - "Multimodal holographic microscopy (MHM". The aim was to highlight FCM limitations and to point out MHM advantages. It was shown that the annexin V+/PI- phenotype is not specific of early apoptotic cells, as previously believed, and that morphological criteria have to be necessarily combined with annexin V/PI for the cell death type to be ascertained precisely. MHM makes it possible to distinguish oncosis clearly from apoptosis and to stratify the progression of oncosis.

  5. Photoacoustic holographic imaging of absorbers embedded in silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erik; Gren, Per; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2011-06-10

    Light absorbing objects embedded in silicone have been imaged using photoacoustic digital holography. The photoacoustic waves were generated using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, λ=1064  nm, and pulse length=12  ns. When the waves reached the silicone surface, they were measured optically along a line using a scanning laser vibrometer. The acoustic waves were then digitally reconstructed using a holographic algorithm. The laser vibrometer is proven to be sensitive enough to measure the surface velocity due to photoacoustic waves generated from laser pulses with a fluence allowed for human tissue. It is also shown that combining digital holographic reconstructions for different acoustic wavelengths provides images with suppressed noise and improved depth resolution. The objects are imaged at a depth of 16.5  mm with a depth resolution of 0.5  mm.

  6. Stiff phases in strongly coupled gauge theories with holographic duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christian; Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Fernández, David Rodríguez; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2017-11-01

    According to common lore, Equations of State of field theories with gravity duals tend to be soft, with speeds of sound either below or around the conformal value of υ_s=1/√{3} . This has important consequences in particular for the physics of compact stars, where the detection of two solar mass neutron stars has been shown to require very stiff equations of state. In this paper, we show that no speed limit exists for holographic models at finite density, explicitly constructing examples where the speed of sound becomes arbitrarily close to that of light. This opens up the possibility of building hybrid stars that contain quark matter obeying a holographic equation of state in their cores.

  7. Conductivity tensor in a holographic quantum Hall ferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Hutchinson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hall and longitudinal conductivities of a recently studied holographic model of a quantum Hall ferromagnet are computed using the Karch–O'Bannon technique. In addition, the low temperature entropy of the model is determined. The holographic model has a phase transition as the Landau level filling fraction is increased from zero to one. We argue that this phase transition allows the longitudinal conductivity to have features qualitatively similar to those of two dimensional electron gases in the integer quantum Hall regime. The argument also applies to the low temperature limit of the entropy. The Hall conductivity is found to have an interesting structure. Even though it does not exhibit Hall plateaux, it has a flattened dependence on the filling fraction with a jump, analogous to the interpolation between Hall plateaux, at the phase transition.

  8. Holographic metal-insulator transition in higher derivative gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Zhou, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhouzh@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-03-10

    We introduce a Weyl term into the Einstein–Maxwell-Axion theory in four dimensional spacetime. Up to the first order of the Weyl coupling parameter γ, we construct charged black brane solutions without translational invariance in a perturbative manner. Among all the holographic frameworks involving higher derivative gravity, we are the first to obtain metal-insulator transitions (MIT) when varying the system parameters at zero temperature. Furthermore, we study the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of strip geometry in this model and find that the second order derivative of HEE with respect to the axion parameter exhibits maximization behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) of MIT. It testifies the conjecture in that HEE itself or its derivatives can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT).

  9. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  10. Digital Holographic Capture and Optoelectronic Reconstruction for 3D Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien P. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of digital holography as a viable solution to 3D capture and display technology is examined. A review of the current state of the field is presented in which some of the major challenges involved in a digital holographic solution are highlighted. These challenges include (i the removal of the DC and conjugate image terms, which are features of the holographic recording process, (ii the reduction of speckle noise, a characteristic of a coherent imaging process, (iii increasing the angular range of perspective of digital holograms (iv and replaying captured and/or processed digital holograms using spatial light modulators. Each of these challenges are examined theoretically and several solutions are put forward. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the validity of the theoretical solutions.

  11. Fingerprint sensor using a polymer dispersed liquid crystal holographic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ying; Jihong, Zheng

    2010-09-01

    We used a polymer dispersed liquid crystal material holographic lens in a fingerprint sensor, which reduced the total size of the sensor and improved image quality. The beam carrying fingerprint information was diffracted by the holographic lens and converged onto the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor directly, which omitted the traditional lens or fiber taper. The phenomenon that the image quality is poor when the finger is too dry or wet was explained based on the evanescent wave theory. The total size of the device was 50 mm x 25 mm x 30 mm. The fingerprint image had a contrast of 250:1 and a resolution of 800 dots/in.

  12. Non-thermal fixed point in a holographic superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewerz, Carlo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gasenzer, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karl, Markus; Samberg, Andreas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-05-14

    We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late-time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a non-thermal fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the non-thermal fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.

  13. Holographic entanglement entropy of N =2* renormalization group flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Da-Wei

    2015-10-01

    The N =2* theory is obtained by deforming N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with two relevant operators of dimensions 2 and 3. We study the holographic entanglement entropy of the N =2* theory along the whole renormalization group flow. We find that in the UV the holographic entanglement entropy for an arbitrary entangling region receives a universal logarithmic correction, which is related to the relevant operator of dimension 3. This universal behavior can be interpreted on the field theory side by perturbatively evaluating the entanglement entropy of a conformal field theory (CFT) under relevant deformations. In the IR regime, we obtain the large R behavior of the renormalized entanglement entropy for both a strip and a sphere entangling region, where R denotes the size of the entangling region. A term proportional to 1 /R is found for both cases, which can be attributed to the emergent CFT5 in the IR.

  14. Consistency relations and conservation of ζ in holographic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urakawa, Yuko [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University,Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-10-18

    It is well known that, in single clock inflation, the curvature perturbation ζ is constant in time on superhorizon scales. In the standard bulk description this follows quite simply from the local conservation of the energy momentum tensor in the bulk. On the other hand, in a holographic description, the constancy of the curvature perturbation must be related to the properties of the RG flow in the boundary theory. Here, we show that, in single clock holographic inflation, the time independence of correlators of ζ follows from the absence of the anomolous dimension of the energy momentum tensor in the boundary theory, and from the so-called consistency relations for vertex functions with a soft leg.

  15. Holographic metal-insulator transition in higher derivative gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Weyl term into the Einstein–Maxwell-Axion theory in four dimensional spacetime. Up to the first order of the Weyl coupling parameter γ, we construct charged black brane solutions without translational invariance in a perturbative manner. Among all the holographic frameworks involving higher derivative gravity, we are the first to obtain metal-insulator transitions (MIT when varying the system parameters at zero temperature. Furthermore, we study the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE of strip geometry in this model and find that the second order derivative of HEE with respect to the axion parameter exhibits maximization behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs of MIT. It testifies the conjecture in [1,2] that HEE itself or its derivatives can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT.

  16. Magnetic phenomena in holographic superconductivity with Lifshitz scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Dector

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of Lifshitz dynamical critical exponent z on a family of minimal D=4+1 holographic superconducting models, with a particular focus on magnetic phenomena. We see that it is possible to have a consistent Ginzburg–Landau approach to holographic superconductivity in a Lifshitz background. By following this phenomenological approach we are able to compute a wide array of physical quantities. We also calculate the Ginzburg–Landau parameter for different condensates, and conclude that in systems with higher dynamical critical exponent, vortex formation is more strongly unfavored energetically and exhibits a stronger Type I behavior. Finally, following the perturbative approach proposed by Maeda, Natsuume and Okamura, we calculate the critical magnetic field of our models for different values of z.

  17. Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang–Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang–Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.

  18. Holographic fluctuations and the principle of minimal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemissany, Wissam [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT,Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Osborne, Tobias J. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-12-14

    We discuss, from a quantum information perspective, recent proposals of Maldacena, Ryu, Takayanagi, van Raamsdonk, Swingle, and Susskind that spacetime is an emergent property of the quantum entanglement of an associated boundary quantum system. We review the idea that the informational principle of minimal complexity determines a dual holographic bulk spacetime from a minimal quantum circuit U preparing a given boundary state from a trivial reference state. We describe how this idea may be extended to determine the relationship between the fluctuations of the bulk holographic geometry and the fluctuations of the boundary low-energy subspace. In this way we obtain, for every quantum system, an Einstein-like equation of motion for what might be interpreted as a bulk gravity theory dual to the boundary system.

  19. Holo-GPC: Holographic Generalized Phase Contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew; Glückstad, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    volume. On the other hand, Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) forms beams with well-defined lateral shapes and could be classified as the latter. To certain extents, GPC and holography can also perform both beam distribution and beam shaping. But despite the overlap in beam distribution and beam shaping...

  20. Accelerated optical holographic recording using bis-DNO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle H.; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The design, synthesis and optical holographic recording properties of bis-DNO are reported. Bis-DNO is composed of two identical azobenzene oligoornithine segments (DNO) connected via a dipeptide linker. The two segments were assembled in a parallel fashion at the two amino groups of the dipeptide...... linker by Merrifield synthesis. Surprisingly, the response time of films of bis-DNOs was found to be much faster than that of their linear counterparts. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....