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Sample records for volume curve obtained

  1. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Estrada Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel’s size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel’s size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  2. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  3. 7 CFR 42.142 - Curve for obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Curve for obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection. 42.142 Section 42.142 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Miscellaneous § 42.142 Curve for obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve...

  4. Obtaining DDF Curves of Extreme Rainfall Data Using Bivariate Copula and Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, S.; Madsen, H.; Mikkelsen, P. S.; Burn, D. H.

    2009-05-01

    The traditional rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve is a reliable approach for representing the variation of rainfall intensity with duration for a given return period. In reality rainfall variables intensity, depth and duration are dependent and therefore a bivariate analysis using copulas can give a more accurate IDF curve. We study IDF curves using a copula in a bivariate frequency analysis of extreme rainfall. To be able to choose the most suitable copula among candidate copulas (i.e., Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank) we demonstrated IDF curves based on variation of depth with duration for a given return period and name them DDF (depth-duration-frequency) curves. The copula approach does not assume the rainfall variables are independent or jointly normally distributed. Rainfall series are extracted in three ways: (1) by maximum mean intensity; (2) by depth and duration of individual rainfall events; and (3) by storage volume and duration. In each case we used partial duration series (PDS) to extract extreme rainfall variables. The DDF curves derived from each method are presented and compared. This study examines extreme rainfall data from catchment Vedbæ k Renseanlæ g, situated near Copenhagen in Denmark. For rainfall extracted using method 2, the marginal distribution of depth was found to fit the Generalized Pareto distribution while duration was found to fit the Gamma distribution, using the method of L-moments. The volume was fit with a generalized Pareto distribution and the duration was fit with a Pearson type III distribution for rainfall extracted using method 3. The Clayton copula was found to be appropriate for bivariate analysis of rainfall depth and duration for both methods 2 and 3. DDF curves derived using the Clayton copula for depth and duration of individual rainfall events (method 2) are in agreement with empirically derived DDF curves obtained from maximum mean intensity (method 1) for a 10-year return period. For a 100-year

  5. ICP curve morphology and intracranial flow-volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unnerbäck, Mårten; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Reinstrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    proposed to shape the ICP curve. This study tested the hypothesis that the ICP curve correlates to intracranial volume changes. METHODS: Cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were performed in neuro-intensive care patients with simultaneous ICP monitoring. The MRI was set...

  6. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Obtaining DDF Curves of Extreme Rainfall Data Using Bivariate Copula and Frequency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadri, Sara; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2009-01-01

    of individual rainfall events; and (3) by storage volume and duration. In each case we used partial duration series (PDS) to extract extreme rainfall variables. The DDF curves derived from each method are presented and compared. This study examines extreme rainfall data from catchment Vedbæ k Renseanlæ g......The traditional rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve is a reliable approach for representing the variation of rainfall intensity with duration for a given return period. In reality rainfall variables intensity, depth and duration are dependent and therefore a bivariate analysis using...... copulas can give a more accurate IDF curve. We study IDF curves using a copula in a bivariate frequency analysis of extreme rainfall. To be able to choose the most suitable copula among candidate copulas (i.e., Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank) we demonstrated IDF curves based on variation of depth...

  8. Hydraulic Conductivity of a Silty Sand Obtained from the Soil Water Characteristic Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos-Fonseca G.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand (SM, according to USCS. For this purpose, the soil water characteristic curve at drying and wetting was first determined. Then, these curves were adjusted using the Fredlund and Xing model and finally the hydraulic conductivity of the soil for both paths was obtained.

  9. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  10. Comparison of orbital volume obtained by tomography and rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roça, Guilherme Berto; Foggiatto, José Aguiomar; Ono, Maria Cecilia Closs; Ono, Sergio Eiji; da Silva Freitas, Renato

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to compare orbital volume obtained by helical tomography and rapid prototyping. The study sample was composed of 6 helical tomography scans. Eleven healthy orbits were identified to have their volumes measured. The volumetric analysis with the helical tomography utilized the same protocol developed by the Plastic Surgery Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. From the CT images, 11 prototypes were created, and their respective volumes were analyzed in 2 ways: using software by SolidWorks and by direct analysis, when the prototype was filled with saline solution. For statistical analysis, the results of the volumes of the 11 orbits were considered independent. The average orbital volume measurements obtained by the method of Ono et al was 20.51 cm, the average obtained by the SolidWorks program was 20.64 cm, and the average measured using the prototype method was 21.81 cm. The 3 methods demonstrated a strong correlation between the measurements. The right and left orbits of each patient had similar volumes. The tomographic method for the analysis of orbital volume using the Ono protocol yielded consistent values, and by combining this method with rapid prototyping, both reliability validations of results were enhanced.

  11. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card. Fixation disparity curves were measured on 50 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card and the Saladin fixation disparity card. The x intercepts were on average more in the base-in direction with the Wesson card than with the Saladin card. The y intercepts were shifted in the exo direction with the Wesson card compared with the Saladin card. The slope with the Wesson card was steeper than the slope obtained with the Saladin card. The distribution of curve types was also different with the two different instruments. Fixation disparity curves measured with these two instruments are different, and separate norms should be used for each fixation disparity measurement method.

  12. Infrared microscopy imaging applied to obtain the index finger pad's thermoregulation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viafora, Laura A.; Torres, Sergio N.; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Machuca, Guillermo; Jara, Anselmo

    2017-03-01

    In this work, mid wavelength infrared microscopy imaging videos of several index finger pads, from voluntary people, are recorded to obtain their thermoregulation curves. The proposed non-invasive technique is able to capture spatial and temporal thermal information emitted from blood vessels under-skin, and the irrigation finger pad system, making possible to capture features that a visual-spectrum microscopy cannot detect. Using an infrared laboratory prepared method several voluntary patients exposed theirs fingers to thermal stress while the infrared data is recorded. Using standard infrared imaging and signal processing techniques the thermoregulation curves are estimated. The Cold/Hot Stress experiments have shown infrared data with exponential trend curves, with different recovering slopes for each voluntary person, and sometimes with two steps increasing slope in one person thermoregulation curve response.

  13. Specific airway conductance and airway conductance-lung volume curves in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylin, G; Hedenstierna, G; Rehn, T; Sundin, B

    1987-01-01

    Airway conductance (Gaw) depends on lung volume (TGV). An approximate correction for this volume dependence can be obtained by calculating specific airway conductance (sGaw = Gaw-TGV). In this study, Gaw-TGV curves were compared with sGaw in 30 healthy and 20 asthmatic subjects who were studied by body plethysmography. Gaw, TGV and sGaw were measured five times at three to five different lung volumes. sGaw was dependent on TGV, the regression having a negative slope (-0.24 and -0.27 kPa-1.s-1.l-1, in the group without and with asthma, respectively). A change in TGV by 1 l caused a 9 and 11% decrease in sGaw, respectively. Bronchial obstruction induced by histamine inhalation in the asthmatic subjects increased the dependence on TGV by sGaw, now with a positive slope. Thus, a change in TGV by 1 l caused a 20-100% increase in sGaw, depending on the degree of airway obstruction. The Gaw-TGV curve was approximately linear around the resting lung volume. The coefficient of variation in determining the slope of the Gaw-TGV curve was as high as 110 and 153% in health and asthmatic subjects, respectively. It is concluded that sGaw, although rapidly determined, has a systematic error in its correction of lung volume dependence, which the Gaw-TGV curve does not. The Gaw-TGV curve therefore has advantages in research work, but since its construction is time consuming it is hardly suitable in clinical practice.

  14. 7 CFR 42.141 - Obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve... FOOD CONTAINERS Miscellaneous § 42.141 Obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection. The Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information (probability of...

  15. Stationary cuvette: a new approach to obtaining analytical curves by UV-VIS spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K G H; Júnior, F H Xavier; Farias, I E G; Silva, A K A; Neto, J A Caldas; Souza, L C A; Santiago, R R; Júnior, F Alexandrino; Júnior, T Nagashima; Soares, L A L; Santos-Magalhães, N S; Egito, E S T

    2009-01-01

    Investigations in the field of pharmaceutical analysis and quality control of medicines require analytical procedures that achieve suitable performance. An analytical curve is one of the most important steps in the chemical analysis presenting a direct relationship to features such as linearity. This study has the aim of developing a new methodology, the stationary cuvette, to derive analytical curves by spectroscopy for drug analysis. The method consists basically of the use of a cuvette with a path length of 10 cm, containing a constant volume of solvent in which increasing amounts of a stock solution of the sample are added, droplet by droplet. After each addition, the cuvette is stirred and the absorbance is measured. This procedure was compared with the currently used methodology, which requires a labour-intensive dilution process, and possible sources of variation between them were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the proposed technique presented high sensitivity and similar reproducibility compared with the conventional methodology. In addition, a number of advantages were observed, such as user-friendliness, cost-effectiveness, accuracy, precision and robustness. The stationary cuvette approach may be considered to be an appropriate alternative to derive analytical curves for analysing drug content in raw materials and medicines through UV-VIS spectrophotometry.

  16. Curvas de nível obtidas de aerofotos verticais Isoline curves obtained from vertical aerophotos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacarias Xavier de Barros

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se, com este trabalho, obter curvas de nível a partir de fotografias aéreas verticais, utilizando-se de gráfico linear de correção, em áreas com diferentes classes de declividade. A análise estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de regressões múltiplas das variáveis, erro horizontal e erro vertical, em função das variáveis independentes: altitude; altitude e declividade. Os erros médios horizontais e verticais pouco dependem da altitude, bem como da altitude e declividade, induzindo à conclusão de que não há necessidade de se levar em conta compartimentos de relevo com declividades uniformes e constantes para o traçado das curvas de nível em aerofotos.This study was conducted to obtain level curves from vertical aerial photographs, using linear graphics correction in areas with different slope classes. Statistical analysis of data was made by multiple regressions of horizontal and vertical deviation as a function of the following independent variables: altitude, altitude and slope. Vertical and horizontal deviations showed no significant dependence either on altitude or the altitude and slope, leading to the conclusion that there is no need to involve topography with uniform and constant slopes to obtain iso-level curves from aerophotos.

  17. Bedside evaluation of pressure-volume curves in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Lluis; López-Aguilar, Josefina; Villagrá, Ana

    2007-06-01

    To describe the physiologic and diagnostic utility of static pressure-volume curves of the respiratory system at the bedside in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The pressure-volume curve of the respiratory system is a useful tool for the measurement of respiratory system mechanics in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The pressure-volume curve has a sigmoid shape, with lower and upper points on the inspiratory limb and a point of maximum curvature on the expiratory limb. Visual and mathematical pressure-volume curve analysis may be useful for understanding individual lung mechanics and for selecting ventilator settings. Among the different techniques for acquiring pressure-volume curves at the bedside, the constant slow flow method is the simplest to perform, the most clinically reliable and has the fewest limitations. Measurement of pressure-volume curves at the bedside in critically ill patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome should be considered a useful respiratory monitoring tool to assess physiologic lung status and to adjust ventilator settings, when appropriate, to minimize superimposed lung injury associated with mechanical ventilators.

  18. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card...

  19. Hydraulic Conductivity of a Silty Sand Obtained from the Soil Water Characteristic Curve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallegos-Fonseca G; Leal-Vaca J.C; Rojas-González E

    2011-01-01

    This work shows the determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand (SM), according to USCS. For this purpose, the soil water characteristic curve at drying and wetting was first determined...

  20. An Algorithm for Obtaining Reliable Priors for Constrained-Curve Fits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrence Draper; Shao-Jing Dong; Ivan Horvath; Frank Lee; Nilmani Mathur; Jianbo Zhang

    2004-03-01

    We introduce the ''Sequential Empirical Bayes Method'', an adaptive constrained-curve fitting procedure for extracting reliable priors. These are then used in standard augmented-chi-square fits on separate data. This better stabilizes fits to lattice QCD overlap-fermion data at very low quark mass where a priori values are not otherwise known. We illustrate the efficacy of the method with data from overlap fermions, on a quenched 16{sup 3} x 28 lattice with spatial size La = 3.2 fm and pion mass as low as {approx} 180 MeV.

  1. Angle β of greater than 80° at the start of spirometry may identify high-quality flow volume curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ningfang; Li, Li; Ren, Weiying; Jiang, Zhilong; Zhu, Lei

    2017-04-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) emphasize a satisfactory start in maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves and highlight subjective parameters: performance without hesitation and expiration with maximum force. We described a new parameter, angle β for characterization of the start to the MEFV curve. Subjects completed the MEFV curve at least three times and at least two curves met ATS/ERS quality. Subjects were divided into normal, restrictive and obstructive groups according to pulmonary function test results. The tangent line was drawn at the start of the MEFV curve's ascending limb to the x-axis and the angle β between the tangent line and x-axis was obtained. The relationships between tangent of β, pulmonary function parameters (PFPs) and anthropometric data were assessed. The MEFV curves with insufficient explosion at the start were considered as poor-quality MEFV curves. In 998 subjects with high-quality spirometry, although PFP varied in relation to the three aspects: the angle β and its tangent were similar (P > 0.05), the tangent of β did not correlate with PFP or anthropometric measurements (P > 0.05) and the lower limit of normal (LLN) of the angle β was 80° in the group with high-quality spirometry (P < 0.05). Angle β derived from poor-quality MEFV curves was smaller than that from good quality one (P < 0.05). Angle β may function as a parameter to assess the expiratory efforts, which can be used to assess the quality of the MEFV curve start. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Evaluation of stroke volume variation obtained by arterial pulse contour analysis to predict fluid responsiveness intraoperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, D; Kabon, B; Marschalek, C; Chiari, A; Pestel, G; Kaider, A; Fleischmann, E; Hetz, H

    2009-09-01

    Fluid management guided by oesophageal Doppler monitor has been reported to improve perioperative outcome. Stroke volume variation (SVV) is considered a reliable clinical predictor of fluid responsiveness. Consequently, the aim of the present trial was to evaluate the accuracy of SVV determined by arterial pulse contour (APCO) analysis, using the FloTrac/Vigileo system, to predict fluid responsiveness as measured by the oesophageal Doppler. Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery received intraoperative fluid management guided by oesophageal Doppler monitoring. Fluid boluses of 250 ml each were administered in case of a decrease in corrected flow time (FTc) to 10%. The ability of SVV to predict fluid responsiveness was assessed by calculation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Twenty patients received 67 fluid boluses. Fifty-two of the 67 fluid boluses administered resulted in fluid responsiveness. SVV achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.512 [confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.70]. A cut-off point for fluid responsiveness was found for SVV > or =8.5% (sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 43%; positive predictive value: 84%; and negative predictive value: 33%). This prospective, interventional observer-blinded study demonstrates that SVV obtained by APCO, using the FloTrac/Vigileo system, is not a reliable predictor of fluid responsiveness in the setting of major abdominal surgery.

  3. Limited bronchoconstriction to methacholine using partial flow-volume curves in nonasthmatic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, P. J.; Daniel, E. E.; Zamel, N.; Hargreave, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated whether the plateau of the dose-response to nonsensitizing stimuli, such as methacholine, could be explained by the airway dilation that follows lung inflation in nonasthmatics. We used maximal expiratory partial flow-volume curves to measure the response of the airways to doubling

  4. Interactive navigation of segmented MR angiograms using simultaneous curved planar and volume visualizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Suinesiaputra, A.; Reiber, J.H.C.

    Purpose Interactive visualization is required to inspect and monitor the automatic segmentation of vessels derived from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA). A dual-view visualization scheme consisting of curved planar reformation (CPR) and direct volume rendering (DVR) was

  5. [A New Method of Analyzing the Closing Volume (CV) Curve: "N2 First Derivative Wave Method"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shinichi; Imai, Tadashi; Min, Kyongyob; Ogo, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Takuya; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Fujioka, Shigekazu

    2015-11-01

    Evaluation of the lung function involves the measurement of many factors. The closing volume (CV) curve is clinically important as an index of uneven alveolar ventilation and airway closure. Although conventional methods for CV measurement are usually based on the pattern of the exhaled nitrogen (N2) concentration curve with respect to the lung volume, it is often difficult to measure the steep pattern of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this paper, we proposed a new method called the "N2 first derivative (fdN) wave method" for measuring CV. The N2 concentration of the CV curve was transformed to a derivative with respect to the lung volume, which revealed the existence of cardiogenic oscillations. Discrimination between phases III and IV was straightforward based on the difference in the slope or in the amplitude of oscillations of the fdN wave. Our new method was able to distinguish phase IV from phase III using the difference in amplitude of the oscillation of the fdN wave even in the presence of COPD with steep patterns of the CV curve. Close relationships were seen among normal subjects including COPD patients in both the slope of the alveolar plateau (ΔN2) and the CV values measured with the conventional and new methods. In conclusion, the new method we propose in this paper was able to provide measurements of CV for all subjects including those with COPD. [Original

  6. Maximum expiratory flow-volume curves during short periods of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, H. J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nine normal subjects were studied in a NASA microgravity research aircraft to elucidate the effect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV). They performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0, 1, and approximately 2 G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at residual volume, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the forced vital capacity at 0 G. The mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0 G over about the upper half of the vital capacity. There were consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve. This supports the concept that the location and motion of choke points that determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFG curves can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and thus wave speed.

  7. An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, George X.; Krauss, Rob

    2013-07-01

    For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm2 fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.

  8. Dose-volume histogram parameters for predicting radiation pneumonitis using receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqing; Shi, Jian; Liang, Shaohua; Lu, Shiyong; Qi, Xiangjie; Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Guojing; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Kemin; Liu, Hongfu

    2013-05-01

    To assess the predictability of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for radiation pneumonitis (RP) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. One hundred and thirty-five cases of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with three-dimensional radiotherapy and chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. The end point of follow-up was ≥2 grade RP defined according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The ROC curve was used to explore the predictive sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for potential DVH parameters associated with RP. Relative volumes of total lungs receiving ≥5 Gy (V(5)), ≥10 Gy (V(10)), ≥13 Gy (V(13)), ≥20 Gy (V(20)), and mean lung dose (MLD), were all correlated to the development of RP (p curve was 0.643 and 0.648 for using V(5) and V(20) as predictors. If predictive cut-off values were established as follows: V(5) = 0.8 and V(20) = 0.3, the parameters could provide predictive SEN, SPE, PPV and NPV were 0.387 and 0.581, 0.882 and 0.701, 0.444 and 0.321, and 0.855 and 0.873, respectively. V(5) and V(20) could act as predictors for RP; however, single DVH metrics did not appear to have high predictive power for RP.

  9. Static inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H.; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure–volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg–1) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLCest) from body mass (Mb) by applying the equation: TLCest=0.135 Mb0.92. Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure–volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  10. Static inflation and deflation pressure-volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J

    2011-11-15

    Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure-volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg(-1)) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLC(est)) from body mass (M(b)) by applying the equation: TLC(est)=0.135 M(b)(0.92). Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure-volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases.

  11. Mapping Regional Differences of Local Pressure-Volume Curves With Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Alessandro; Carvalho, Alysson R; Carvalho, Nadja C; Hammermüller, Sören; Amato, Marcelo B P; Muders, Thomas; Gittel, Claudia; Noreikat, Katharina; Wrigge, Hermann; Reske, Andreas W

    2017-04-01

    Lung-protective mechanical ventilation aims to prevent alveolar collapse and overdistension, but reliable bedside methods to quantify them are lacking. We propose a quantitative descriptor of the shape of local pressure-volume curves derived from electrical impedance tomography, for computing maps that highlight the presence and location of regions of presumed tidal recruitment (i.e., elastance decrease during inflation, pressure-volume curve with upward curvature) or overdistension (i.e., elastance increase during inflation, downward curvature). Secondary analysis of experimental cohort study. University research facility. Twelve mechanically ventilated pigs. After induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome by hydrochloric acid instillation, animals underwent a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure titration (steps of 2 cm H2O starting from ≥ 26 cm H2O). Electrical impedance tomography-derived maps were computed at each positive end-expiratory pressure-titration step, and whole-lung CT taken every second steps. Airway flow and pressure were recorded to compute driving pressure and elastance. Significant correlations between electrical impedance tomography-derived maps and positive end-expiratory pressure indicate that, expectedly, tidal recruitment increases in dependent regions with decreasing positive end-expiratory pressure (p electrical impedance tomography-derived tidal recruitment with poorly aerated regions (r = 0.43; p electrical impedance tomography-derived overdistension with nonaerated regions at lower positive end-expiratory pressures and with hyperaerated regions at higher positive end-expiratory pressures (r ≥ 0.72; p electrical impedance tomography-derived maps showed nonnegligible regions of presumed overdistension and tidal recruitment. Electrical impedance tomography-derived maps of pressure-volume curve shapes allow to detect regions in which elastance changes during inflation. This could promote individualized mechanical

  12. Volume-duration growth curves for flood estimation in permeable catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume and duration of groundwater discharge following extreme winter recharge events in permeable catchments can often be more disruptive than the peak discharge. An estimation procedure for annual maxima flood series in permeable catchments is extended to annual flood volumes for different durations. Growth factors for durations of 1 to 30 days and return periods of up to 250 years are derived for a sample of 12 permeable catchments in the UK. In most cases, adjusting the growth curves for ‘non-flood’ years has only a small effect and L-moment parameters show little change with duration. L-CV and L-skewness are highly correlated for the sample of Chalk catchments. Keywords: Chalk, groundwater flood estimation

  13. A sigmoidal fit for pressure-volume curves of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients on mechanical ventilation: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana C; Benseñor, Fabio E M; Rocha, Marcelo J J; Salge, Joao M; Harris, R Scott; Malhotra, Atul; Kairalla, Ronaldo A; Kacmarek, Robert M; Carvalho, Carlos R R

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory pressure-volume curves fitted to exponential equations have been used to assess disease severity and prognosis in spontaneously breathing patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Sigmoidal equations have been used to fit pressure-volume curves for mechanically ventilated patients but not for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. We compared a sigmoidal model and an exponential model to fit pressure-volume curves from mechanically ventilated patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Six idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients and five controls underwent inflation pressure-volume curves using the constant-flow technique during general anesthesia prior to open lung biopsy or thymectomy. We identified the lower and upper inflection points and fit the curves with an exponential equation, V = A-B.e-k.P, and a sigmoid equation, V = a+b/(1+e-(P-c)/d). The mean lower inflection point for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients was significantly higher (10.5 ± 5.7 cm H2O) than that of controls (3.6 ± 2.4 cm H₂O). The sigmoidal equation fit the pressure-volume curves of the fibrotic and control patients well, but the exponential equation fit the data well only when points below 50% of the inspiratory capacity were excluded. The elevated lower inflection point and the sigmoidal shape of the pressure-volume curves suggest that respiratory system compliance is decreased close to end-expiratory lung volume in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The sigmoidal fit was superior to the exponential fit for inflation pressure-volume curves of anesthetized patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and could be useful for guiding mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia in this condition.

  14. A sigmoidal fit for pressure-volume curves of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients on mechanical ventilation: clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Respiratory pressure-volume curves fitted to exponential equations have been used to assess disease severity and prognosis in spontaneously breathing patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Sigmoidal equations have been used to fit pressure-volume curves for mechanically ventilated patients but not for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. We compared a sigmoidal model and an exponential model to fit pressure-volume curves from mechanically ventilated patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Six idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients and five controls underwent inflation pressure-volume curves using the constant-flow technique during general anesthesia prior to open lung biopsy or thymectomy. We identified the lower and upper inflection points and fit the curves with an exponential equation, V = A-B.e-k.P, and a sigmoid equation, V = a+b/(1+e-(P-c/d. RESULTS: The mean lower inflection point for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients was significantly higher (10.5 ± 5.7 cm H2O than that of controls (3.6 ± 2.4 cm H2O. The sigmoidal equation fit the pressure-volume curves of the fibrotic and control patients well, but the exponential equation fit the data well only when points below 50% of the inspiratory capacity were excluded. CONCLUSION: The elevated lower inflection point and the sigmoidal shape of the pressure-volume curves suggest that respiratory system compliance is decreased close to end-expiratory lung volume in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The sigmoidal fit was superior to the exponential fit for inflation pressure-volume curves of anesthetized patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and could be useful for guiding mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia in this condition.

  15. Target Volume Delineation in Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Based on Time Activity Curve Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymurazyan, Artur

    Tumor volume delineation plays a critical role in radiation treatment planning and simulation, since inaccurately defined treatment volumes may lead to the overdosing of normal surrounding structures and potentially missing the cancerous tissue. However, the imaging modality almost exclusively used to determine tumor volumes, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), does not readily exhibit a distinction between cancerous and normal tissue. It has been shown that CT data augmented with PET can improve radiation treatment plans by providing functional information not available otherwise. Presently, static PET scans account for the majority of procedures performed in clinical practice. In the radiation therapy (RT) setting, these scans are visually inspected by a radiation oncologist for the purpose of tumor volume delineation. This approach, however, often results in significant interobserver variability when comparing contours drawn by different experts on the same PET/CT data sets. For this reason, a search for more objective contouring approaches is underway. The major drawback of conventional tumor delineation in static PET images is the fact that two neighboring voxels of the same intensity can exhibit markedly different overall dynamics. Therefore, equal intensity voxels in a static analysis of a PET image may be falsely classified as belonging to the same tissue. Dynamic PET allows the evaluation of image data in the temporal domain, which often describes specific biochemical properties of the imaged tissues. Analysis of dynamic PET data can be used to improve classification of the imaged volume into cancerous and normal tissue. In this thesis we present a novel tumor volume delineation approach (Single Seed Region Growing algorithm in 4D (dynamic) PET or SSRG/4D-PET) in dynamic PET based on TAC (Time Activity Curve) differences. A partially-supervised approach is pursued in order to allow an expert reader to utilize the information available from other imaging

  16. Entropy Production and the Pressure-Volume Curve of the Lung

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Cláudio L N; Bates, Jason H T; Andrade, José S; Suki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure-volume ($P-V$) curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropy spring-like rubber. The bulk modulus, $B$, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the $P-V$ relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs $B$ increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the $P-V$ curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, $\\Delta S$, is related to the hysteresis area, $\\Delta A$, enclosed by the $P...

  17. Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: The Learning Curve of a Low Volume Surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze the learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a low volume program. Materials and Methods. A single surgeon operated on 165 patients. Patients were consecutively divided in 3 groups of 55 patients (groups A, B, and C. An enhancement of estimated blood loss, surgery length, and presence of a positive surgical margin were all considered as a function of surgeon’s experience. Results. Operative time was 267 minutes for group A, 230 minutes for group B, and 159 minutes for group C, and the operative time decreased over time, but a significant difference was present only between groups A and C (. Mean estimated blood loss was 328 mL, 254 mL, and 206 mL (. A conversion to open surgery was necessary in 4 patients in group A. Positive surgical margin rates were 29.1%, 21.8%, and 5.5% (. Eight patients in group A, 4 patients in group B, and one in group C had biochemical recurrence. Conclusion. Significantly less intraoperative complications were evident after the first 51 cases. All other parameters (blood loss, operative time, and positive surgical margins significantly decreased and stabilized after 110 cases. Those outcomes were somehow similar to previous published series by high-volume centers.

  18. Bubble curves and saturated liquid molar volumes for chlorofluorohydrocarbon-hydrocarbon mixtures: Experimental data and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, S. (Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie et Physique de Bordeaux, Talence (France)); Richon, D.; Renon, H. (Ecole National Superieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France). Lab. de Thermodynamique)

    1994-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid densities were obtained using a static apparatus fitted with a variable-volume cell which was described in detail by Valtz et al. (1). Results are given at four temperatures for the binary systems butane--1,2,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, pentane--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, hexane--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, heptane--1,12-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoromethane, heptane--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, and benzene--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and the ternary system 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane--1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoromethane--heptane. The best simultaneous representation of pressures and saturated liquid molar volumes at a given temperature and liquid composition for these mixtures is obtained using either the Patel-Teja or Trebble-Bishnoi-Salim equation of state (TBS EOS) in either their standard or generalized form (maximum deviation 0.7% in pressure and 3.1% in saturated liquid molar volume with the TBS EOS).

  19. Sigmoid model versus median-effect analysis for obtaining dose-response curves for in vitro chemosensitivity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöch, G; Vychodil-Kahr, S; Petru, E

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how the in vitro dose-response effects of chemotherapeutic agents should be analyzed and reported. We arbitrarily evaluated the effects of mitomycin-C and 4-OH-cyclophosphamide on the human ovarian cancer cell line CAOV-3. Dose-response curves (DRCs) were calculated by non-linear (sigmoid model: SigmaPlot) and linear curve fitting (median-effect analysis: CalcuSyn). In theory and practice, the sigmoid model provided better curve fits and graphical presentation than the median-effect analysis. Thus, this model should preferably be used as a basis for selection of anti-cancer drugs for clinical use.

  20. Setting mean airway pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation according to the static pressure--volume curve in surfactant-deficient lung injury: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Thomas; Meinhardt, Juergen P; Herrmann, Peter; Weisser, Gerald; Pelosi, Paolo; Quintel, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Numerous studies suggest setting positive end-expiratory pressure during conventional ventilation according to the static pressure-volume (P-V) curve, whereas data on how to adjust mean airway pressure (P(aw)) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are still scarce. The aims of the current study were to (1) examine the respiratory and hemodynamic effects of setting P(aw) during HFOV according to the static P-V curve, (2) assess the effect of increasing and decreasing P(aw) on slice volumes and aeration patterns at the lung apex and base using computed tomography, and (3) study the suitability of the P-V curve to set P(aw) by comparing computed tomography findings during HFOV with those obtained during recording of the static P-V curve at comparable pressures. Saline lung lavage was performed in seven adult pigs. P-V curves were obtained with computed tomography scanning at each volume step at the lung apex and base. The lower inflection point (Pflex) was determined, and HFOV was started with P(aw) set at Pflex. The pigs were provided five 1-h cycles of HFOV. P(aw), first set at Pflex, was increased to 1.5 times Pflex (termed 1.5 Pflex(inc)) and 2 Pflex and decreased thereafter to 1.5 times Pflex and Pflex (termed 1.5 Pflex(dec) and Pflex(dec)). Hourly measurements of respiratory and hemodynamic variables as well as computed tomography scans at the apex and base were made. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation at a P(aw) of 1.5 Pflex(inc) reestablished preinjury arterial oxygen tension values. Further increase in P(aw) did not change oxygenation, but it decreased oxygen delivery as a result of decreased cardiac output. No differences in respiratory or hemodynamic variables were observed when comparing HFOV at corresponding P(aw) during increasing and decreasing P(aw). Variation in total slice lung volume (TLVs) was far less than expected from the static P-V curve. Overdistended lung volume was constant and less than 3% of TLVs. TLVs values during HFOV

  1. A self-sampling method to obtain large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Moench, Thomas R; Hees, Paul S; Cone, Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Studies of vaginal physiology and pathophysiology sometime require larger volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions than can be obtained by current methods. A convenient method for self-sampling these secretions outside a clinical setting can facilitate such studies of reproductive health. The goal was to develop a vaginal self-sampling method for collecting large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. A menstrual collection device (the Instead cup) was inserted briefly into the vagina to collect secretions that were then retrieved from the cup by centrifugation in a 50-ml conical tube. All 16 women asked to perform this procedure found it feasible and acceptable. Among 27 samples, an average of 0.5 g of secretions (range, 0.1-1.5 g) was collected. This is a rapid and convenient self-sampling method for obtaining relatively large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. It should prove suitable for a wide range of assays, including those involving sexually transmitted diseases, microbicides, vaginal physiology, immunology, and pathophysiology.

  2. A practical approach to obtain the soil freezing characteristic curve and the freezing/melting point of a soil-water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukenthaler, Manuel; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.; Haxaire, A

    2016-01-01

    Knowing that extensive field tests and laboratory tests are time-consuming and expensive, this paper describes a practical approach to obtain crucial properties of frozen soil such as the soil freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), the freezing/melting point of a soil-water system and its hydraulic

  3. Analysis of heavy soils water retention curves with respect to volume changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, B.; Tall, A.; Gomboš, M.; Pavelková, D.

    2017-10-01

    This work analyses the problem of measuring water retention curves in heavy soils. The results present the differences between soil water retention curves measured in soil samples collected from the selected localities of the Czech and Slovak area. In the drying process, the results showed an increased rate of soil shrinkage depending on clay content and water content. The rate of shrinkage affected the results of the water retention curves points measurement.

  4. Non-invasive assessment of distribution volume ratios and binding potential: tissue heterogeneity and interindividually averaged time-activity curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Otfried-Mueller-Strasse 14, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, G.A. [Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Reischl, G. [Radiopharmacy, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Due to the stochastic nature of radioactive decay, any measurement of radioactivity concentration requires spatial averaging. In pharmacokinetic analysis of time-activity curves (TAC), such averaging over heterogeneous tissues may introduce a systematic error (heterogeneity error) but may also improve the accuracy and precision of parameter estimation. In addition to spatial averaging (inevitable due to limited scanner resolution and intended in ROI analysis), interindividual averaging may theoretically be beneficial, too. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of such averaging on the binding potential (BP) calculated with Logan's non-invasive graphical analysis and the ''simplified reference tissue method'' (SRTM) proposed by Lammertsma and Hume, on the basis of simulated and measured positron emission tomography data [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate (dMP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (RAC) PET. dMP was not quantified with SRTM since the low k {sub 2} (washout rate constant from the first tissue compartment) introduced a high noise sensitivity. Even for considerably different shapes of TAC (dMP PET in parkinsonian patients and healthy controls, [{sup 11}C]raclopride in patients with and without haloperidol medication) and a high variance in the rate constants (e.g. simulated standard deviation of K {sub 1}=25%), the BP obtained from average TAC was close to the mean BP (<5%). However, unfavourably distributed parameters, especially a correlated large variance in two or more parameters, may lead to larger errors. In Monte Carlo simulations, interindividual averaging before quantification reduced the variance from the SRTM (beyond a critical signal to noise ratio) and the bias in Logan's method. Interindividual averaging may further increase accuracy when there is an error term in the reference tissue assumption E=DV {sub 2}-DV ' (DV {sub 2} = distribution volume of the first tissue compartment, DV &apos

  5. Inspiratory vs. expiratory pressure-volume curves to set end-expiratory pressure in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiceta, Guillermo M; Luyando, Luis H; Parra, Diego; Menendez, Rafael; Calvo, Juan; Pedreira, Paula Rodríguez; Taboada, Francisco

    2005-10-01

    To study the effects of two levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), 2 cm H(2)O above the lower inflection point of the inspiratory limb and equal to the point of maximum curvature on the expiratory limb of the pressure-volume curve, in gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and lung aeration. Prospective clinical study in the intensive care unit and computed tomography ward of a university hospital. Eight patients with early acute lung injury. Both limbs of the static pressure-volume curve were traced and inflection points calculated using a sigmoid model. During ventilation with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg we sequentially applied a PEEP 2 cm H(2)O above the inspiratory lower inflection point (15.5+/-3.1 cm H(2)O) and a PEEP equal to the expiratory point of maximum curvature (23.5+/-4.1 cmH(2)O). Arterial blood gases, respiratory system compliance and resistance and changes in lung aeration (measured on three computed tomography slices during end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pauses) were measured at each PEEP level. PEEP according to the expiratory point of maximum curvature was related to an improvement in oxygenation, increase in normally aerated, decrease in nonaerated lung volumes, and greater alveolar stability. There was also an increase in PaCO(2), airway pressures, and hyperaerated lung volume. High PEEP levels according to the point of maximum curvature of the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curve have both benefits and drawbacks.

  6. Prostate volume measurement by TRUS using heights obtained by transaxial and midsagittal scaning: comparison with specimen volume following radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bung Bin; Kim, Jae Kyun; Choi, Sung Hoon; Noh, Han Na; Ji, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyoung Sik [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, when measuring prostate volume by TRUS, whether height is more accurately determined by transaxial or midsagittal scanning. Sixteen patients who between March 1995 and March 1998 underwent both preoperative TRUS and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included in this study. Using prolate ellipse volume calculation (height x length x width x {pi}/6), TRUS prostate volume was determined, and was compared with the measured volume of the specimen. Prostate volume measured by TRUS, regardless of whether height was determined transaxially or midsagittally, correlated closely with real specimen volume. When height was measured in one of these planes, a paired t test revealed no significant difference between TRUS prostate volume and real specimen volume (p = .411 and p = .740, respectively), nor were there significant differences between the findings of transaxial and midsagittal scanning (p = .570). A paired sample test, however, indicated that TRUS prostate volumes determined transaxially showed a higher correlation coefficient (0.833) and a lower standard deviation (9.04) than those determined midsagittally (0.714 and 11.48, respectively). Prostate volume measured by TRUS closely correlates with real prostate volume. Furthermore, we suggest that when measuring prostate volume in this way, height is more accurately determined by transaxial than by midsagittal scanning.

  7. Non-invasive measurement of the mean alveolar O(2) tension from the oxygen uptake versus tidal volume curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanoglou, J; Latsi, P; Chroneou, A; Koulouris, N G

    2007-10-01

    The classical equations for measuring the mean and the ideal alveolar O(2) tension are based on assumptions, which are shown to be invalid. So we thought to develop a new, non-invasive method for measuring the mean alveolar P,O(2) within the volume domain (PA,O(2(Bohr))). This method is based on the oxygen uptake vs. tidal volume curve (VO(2) vs. VT) obtained during tidal breathing of room air and/or air enriched with oxygen. PA,O(2(Bohr)) and the ideal alveolar PO(2) (PA,O(2(ideal))) were simultaneously measured in 10 healthy subjects and 34 patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) breathing tidally room air at rest. Additionally, 10 subjects (three healthy subjects and seven COPD patients) were studied while breathing initially room air and subsequently air enriched with oxygen. According to the results, PA,O(2(Bohr)) considerably differed from PA,O(2(ideal)) (P = 0.004). The cause of the difference, at the individual's R, is: (1) the difference between the arterial and Bohr's alveolar CO(2) tension, mainly in COPD patients, and (2) the inequality between Bohr's alveolar part of the tidal volume for CO(2) and O(2). Furthermore, end-tidal gas tension (PET,CO(2) and PET,O(2)) differed from Pa,CO(2) and PA,O(2(Bohr)) respectively. The deviation of PA,O(2(Bohr)) from PA,O(2(ideal)) has a definite impact on Bohr's dead space ratio for O(2) and CO(2), and on the alveolar-arterial O(2) difference. The difference (PA,O(2(Bohr)) - PA,O(2(ideal))) is not related to the pathology of the disease. So, gas exchange within the lungs should be assessed at the subject's R from PA,O(2(Bohr)) and PA,CO(2(Bohr)) but not from PA,O(2(ideal)) nor Pa,CO(2).

  8. Relationship between flow volume curve and CT findings in non-smoking patients with long histories of bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Kambe, Masayuki; Yamagata, Mitsunori; Nakajima, Hidekatsu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamane, Kousuke; Kuraoka, Toshihiko; Miyamura, Isao

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether bronchial asthma (BA) alone causes pulmonary emphysema (PE), and to examine the computed tomography (CT) findings in non-smokers with BA demonstrating the flow volume curve (FV curve) characteristic of PE. Non-smoking patients with a history of BA for more than 20 years were divided into 2 groups: the dogleg pattern group (n=5), with an FV curve characteristic of PE, and the concave pattern group (n=16) with an FV curve characteristic of BA. CT scans was performed using CT values (level, 900 H.U.; width, 400 H.U.) that facilitate detection of a low attenuation area (LAA), and using conventional CT values (level, 700 H.U.; width, 1,300 H.U.). LAA (including air trapping), thickness of the bronchial wall, and partial atelectasis were compared between the 2 groups. PE was not detected, although air trapping was found in all subjects. The thickness of the airway was greater in the dogleg pattern than in the concave pattern. The incidences of air trapping and partial atelectasis were higher in the former than in the latter. BA alone may not cause PE. Some BA patients without PE show the FV curve characteristic of PE, reflecting an increase in the thickness of the airway wall and a decrease in the pulmonary ventilation probably due to the air trapping and the partial atelectasis. (author)

  9. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  10. Evaluation of volume and total nucleated cell count as cord blood selection parameters: a receiver operating characteristic curve modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Pérez, José C; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura N; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Herrera-Garza, José Luís; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the current standard practice of using volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) count for the selection of cord blood (CB) units for cryopreservation and further transplantation. Data on 794 CB units whose CD34+ cell content was determined by flow cytometry were analyzed by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve model to validate the performance of volume and TNC count for the selection of CB units with grafting purposes. The TNC count was the best parameter to identify CB units having 2 × 10(6) or more CD34+ cells, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.828 (95% confidence interval, 0.800-0.856; P < .01) and an efficiency of 75.4%. Combination of parameters (TNC/mononuclear cells [MNCs], efficiency 74.7%; TNC/volume, efficiency 68.9%; and volume/MNCs, efficiency 68.3%) did not lead to improvement in CB selection. All CB units having a TNC count of 8 × 10(8) or more had the required CD34+ cell dose for patients weighing 10 kg or less.

  11. SU-E-T-562: Scanned Percent Depth Dose Curve Discrepancy for Photon Beams with Physical Wedge in Place (Varian IX) Using Different Sensitive Volume Ion Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H; Sarkar, V; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Szegedi, M; Huang, L; Salter, B [University Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate and report the discrepancy of scanned percent depth dose (PDD) for photon beams with physical wedge in place when using ion chambers with different sensitive volumes. Methods/Materials: PDD curves of open fields and physical wedged fields (15, 30, 45, and 60 degree wedge) were scanned for photon beams (6MV and 10MV, Varian iX) with field size of 5x5 and 10x10 cm using three common scanning chambers with different sensitive volumes - PTW30013 (0.6cm3), PTW23323 (0.1cm3) and Exradin A16 (0.007cm3). The scanning system software used was OmniPro version 6.2, and the scanning water tank was the Scanditronix Wellhoffer RFA 300.The PDD curves from the three chambers were compared. Results: Scanned PDD curves of the same energy beams for open fields were almost identical between three chambers, but the wedged fields showed non-trivial differences. The largest differences were observed between chamber PTW30013 and Exradin A16. The differences increased as physical wedge angle increased. The differences also increased with depth, and were more pronounced for 6MV beam. Similar patterns were shown for both 5x5 and 10x10 cm field sizes. For open fields, all PDD values agreed with each other within 1% at 10cm depth and within 1.62% at 20 cm depth. For wedged fields, the difference of PDD values between PTW30013 and A16 reached 4.09% at 10cm depth, and 5.97% at 20 cm depth for 6MV with 60 degree physical wedge. Conclusion: We observed a significant difference in scanned PDD curves of photon beams with physical wedge in place obtained when using different sensitive volume ion chambers. The PDD curves scanned with the smallest sensitive volume ion chamber showed significant difference from larger chamber results, beyond 10cm depth. We believe this to be caused by varying response to beam hardening by the wedges.

  12. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  13. Implementation of a local principal curves algorithm for neutrino interaction reconstruction in a liquid argon volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, J. J.; Barker, G. J.; Boyd, S. B.; Einbeck, J.; Haigh, M.; Morgan, B.; Oakley, B.; Ramachers, Y. A.; Roythorne, D.

    2014-03-01

    A local principal curve algorithm has been implemented in three dimensions for automated track and shower reconstruction of neutrino interactions in a liquid argon time projection chamber. We present details of the algorithm and characterise its performance on simulated data sets.

  14. Methods for fitting of efficiency curves obtained by means of HPGe gamma rays spectrometers; Metodos de ajuste de curvas de eficiencia obtidas por meio de espectrometros de HPGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2002-07-01

    The present work describes a few methodologies developed for fitting efficiency curves obtained by means of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The interpolated values were determined by simple polynomial fitting and polynomial fitting between the ratio of experimental peak efficiency and total efficiency, calculated by Monte Carlo technique, as a function of gamma-ray energy. Moreover, non-linear fitting has been performed using a segmented polynomial function and applying the Gauss-Marquardt method. For the peak area obtainment different methodologies were developed in order to estimate the background area under the peak. This information was obtained by numerical integration or by using analytical functions associated to the background. One non-calibrated radioactive source has been included in the curve efficiency in order to provide additional calibration points. As a by-product, it was possible to determine the activity of this non-calibrated source. For all fittings developed in the present work the covariance matrix methodology was used, which is an essential procedure in order to give a complete description of the partial uncertainties involved. (author)

  15. Global and regional assessment of sustained inflation pressure-volume curves in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, T; Rostalski, P; Kott, M; Adler, A; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Frerichs, I

    2017-06-01

    Static or quasi-static pressure-volume (P-V ) curves can be used to determine the lung mechanical properties of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). According to the traditional interpretation, lung recruitment occurs mainly below the lower point of maximum curvature (LPMC) of the inflation P-V curve. Although some studies have questioned this assumption, setting of positive end-expiratory pressure 2 cmH2O above the LPMC was part of a 'lung-protective' ventilation strategy successfully applied in several clinical trials. The aim of our study was to quantify the amount of unrecruited lung at different clinically relevant points of the P-V curve. P-V curves and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data from 30 ARDS patients were analysed. We determined the regional opening pressures for every EIT image pixel and fitted the global P-V curves to five sigmoid model equations to determine the LPMC, inflection point (IP) and upper point of maximal curvature (UPMC). Points of maximal curvature and IP were compared between the models by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The percentages of lung pixels remaining closed ('unrecruited lung') at LPMC, IP and UPMC were calculated from the number of lung pixels exhibiting regional opening pressures higher than LPMC, IP and UPMC and were also compared by one-way ANOVA. As results, we found a high variability of LPMC values among the models, a smaller variability of IP and UPMC values. We found a high percentage of unrecruited lung at LPMC, a small percentage of unrecruited lung at IP and no unrecruited lung at UPMC. Our results confirm the notion of ongoing lung recruitment at pressure levels above LPMC for all investigated model equations and highlight the importance of a regional assessment of lung recruitment in patients with ARDS.

  16. Computer quantification of "angle of collapse" on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xie, Mengshuang; Dou, Shuang; Cui, Liwei; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that asthma patients with signs of emphysema on quantitative computed tomography (CT) fulfill the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, quantitative CT measurements of emphysema are not routinely available for patients with chronic airway disease, which limits their application. Spirometry was a widely used examination tool in clinical settings and shows emphysema as a sharp angle in the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve, called the "angle of collapse (AC)". The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS. This study included 716 participants: 151 asthma patients, 173 COPD patients, and 392 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests. COPD and asthma patients also underwent quantitative CT measurements of emphysema. The AC was measured using computer models based on Matlab software. The value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The AC of COPD patients was significantly lower than that of asthma patients and control subjects. The AC was significantly negatively correlated with emphysema index (EI; r=-0.666, P<0.001), and patients with high EI had a lower AC than those with low EI. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AC had higher diagnostic efficiency for high EI (area under the curve =0.876) than did other spirometry parameters. In asthma patients, using the AC ≤137° as a surrogate criterion for the diagnosis of ACOS, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 89.1%, respectively. The AC on the MEFV curve quantified by computer models correlates with the extent of emphysema. The AC may become a surrogate marker for the diagnosis of emphysema and help to diagnose ACOS.

  17. Micro distillation of crude oil to obtain TBP (True Boiling Points) curve; Micro destilacao de petroleo para obtencao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria de Lourdes S.P.; Mendes, Luana de Jesus [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS and others petroleum companies adopt the ASTM norms as reference method for oil distillation, ASTM D2892 (2005) that uses columns with 14 to 18 theoretical plates and the ASTM D 5236 (2003) , that distills mixture of heavy hydrocarbons with boiling point over 150 deg C. The result of these two distillations is the TBP (True Boiling Point) curve that is the main tool to define the yield of oil derivatives, the 'royalties' payment, the oil price for commercialization and the logistic support of oil location or in new plants projects of distillation and optimization studies. This procedure has some limitations as the volume sample, at least 1L, and the time of distillation, 2 to 4 days. The objective of this work is to propose a new alternative to attain de PEV curve, developing a new methodology using micro scale distillation that uses a more efficient column than the conventional method. Graphics of both methods were created and the results between the conventional and the micro distillation received statistical treatment to prove the equivalence between them. (author)

  18. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements obtained via two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography of the left atrium and time-left atrial area curve analysis in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Lim, Sue Yee; Tamura, Yu; Kumara, Wickramasekara Rajapakshage Bandula; Murakami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Noboru; Morishita, Keitaro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs by means of 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography with time-left atrial area curve analysis and to assess repeatability and reproducibility of obtained measurements. 6 healthy Beagles. Each dog underwent echocardiography twice on different days (3 nonconsecutive examinations/d). Images were analyzed with offline software; area of the left atrium was automatically calculated in each frame throughout the cardiac cycle to derive time-left atrial area curves. Variables used to assess left atrial phasic function (total, passive, and active emptying area and emptying fractions and mean active and total emptying rates) were calculated. Agreement between variables measured via speckle tracking echocardiography and a manual tracing method was assessed with modified Bland-Altman analysis. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were determined. Mean ± SD total, passive, and active emptying fractions of the left atrium were 49.8 ± 3.5%, 277 ± 4.0%, and 30.5 ± 4.3%, respectively. Mean ± SD total and active emptying rates were 16.0 ± 2.5 cm(2)/s and 25.1 ± 4.9 cm(2)/s, respectively. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were canine patients.

  19. The experimental cascade curves of EAS at E sub 0 10(17) eV obtained by the method of detection of Cherenkov pulse shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Y. A.; Kalmykov, G. B.; Khristiansen, M. V.; Motova, M. V.; Nechin, Y. A.; Prosin, V. V.; Zhukov, V. Y.; Efimov, N. N.; Grigoriev, V. M.; Nikiforova, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    The individual cascade curves of EAS with E sub 0 10 to the 17th power eV/I to 3/ were studied by detection of EAS Cherenkov light pulses. The scintillators located at the center of the Yakutsk EAS array within a 500-m radius circle were used to select the showers and to determine the main EAS parameters. The individual cascade curves N(t) were obtained using the EAS Cherenkov light pulses satisfying the following requirements: (1) the signal-to-noise ratio fm/delta sub n 15, (2) the EAS axis-detector distance tau sub 350 m, (3) the zenith angle theta 30 deg, (4) the probability for EAS to be detected by scintillators W 0.8. Condition (1) arises from the desire to reduce the amplitude distortion of Cherenkov pulses due to noise and determines the range of EAS sizes, N(t). The resolution times of the Cherenkov pulse shape detectors are tau sub 0 approx. 23 ns which results in distortion of a pulse during the process of the detection. The distortion of pulses due to the finiteness of tau sub 0 value was estimated. It is shown that the rise time of pulse becomes greater as tau sub 0.5/tau sub 0 ratio decreases.

  20. Influence of body weight and body conformation on the pressure-volume curve during capnoperitoneum in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Melissa J; Bockstahler, Barbara A; Dupré, Gilles P

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pressure-volume relationship during capnoperitoneum in dogs and effects of body weight and body conformation. ANIMALS 86 dogs scheduled for routine laparoscopy. PROCEDURES Dogs were allocated into 3 groups on the basis of body weight. Body measurements, body condition score, and body conformation indices were calculated. Carbon dioxide was insufflated into the abdomen with a syringe, and pressure was measured at the laparoscopic cannula. Volume and pressure data were processed, and the yield point, defined by use of a cutoff volume (COV) and cutoff pressure (COP), was calculated. RESULTS 20 dogs were excluded because of recording errors, air leakage attributable to surgical flaws, or trocar defects. For the remaining 66 dogs, the pressure-volume curve was linear-like until the yield point was reached, and then it became visibly exponential. Mean ± SD COP was 5.99 ± 0.805 mm Hg. No correlation was detected between yield point, body variables, or body weight. Mean COV was 1,196.2 ± 697.9 mL (65.15 ± 20.83 mL of CO2/kg), and COV was correlated significantly with body weight and one of the body condition indices but not with other variables. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, there was a similar COP for all dogs of all sizes. In addition, results suggested that increasing the abdominal pressure after the yield point was reached did not contribute to a substantial increase in working space in the abdomen. No correlation was found between yield point, body variables, and body weight.

  1. Using of residential load curves obtained for determination of the load diversity, and loading of distribution transformers; Utilizacao de curvas de carga de consumidores industriais medidas para determinacao de diversidade de carga, e carregamento de transformadores de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Eduardo Luiz; Jardini, Jose Antonio

    1996-07-01

    This work presents some applications of the residential loads, obtained from measurements conducted by the electric power utilities in the state of Sao Paulo , Brazil. During the first application, curve of coincidence of load peaks occurrence, as function of the number of consumers simultaneously connected to a specific residential distribution transformer. This curve provides a information on the number of consumers presenting coincident load peaks coincident relative to the total numbers of consumers connected to the distribution transformer. Those curves allow to obtain the diversity curves. The second application focused the calculation of the distribution transformer life reduction.

  2. Comparison of the Volume Charge Density of Nanofiltration Membranes Obtained from Retention and Conductivity Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, J.; Silva, V.; Pradanos, P.

    2010-01-01

    by impedance spectroscopy, and the electric potential drop during retention experiments has also been measured. These experimental data on conductivity and electric potential are analyzed, by using the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and the space charge model, to obtain the pore charge density...

  3. 3D CT cerebral angiography technique using a 320-detector machine with a time-density curve and low contrast medium volume: comparison with fixed time delay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K; Biswas, S; Roughley, S; Bhojak, M; Niven, S

    2014-03-01

    To describe a cerebral computed tomography angiography (CTA) technique using a 320-detector CT machine and a small contrast medium volume (35 ml, 15 ml for test bolus). Also, to compare the quality of these images with that of the images acquired using a larger contrast medium volume (90 or 120 ml) and a fixed time delay (FTD) of 18 s using a 16-detector CT machine. Cerebral CTA images were acquired using a 320-detector machine by synchronizing the scanning time with the time of peak enhancement as determined from the time-density curve (TDC) using a test bolus dose. The quality of CTA images acquired using this technique was compared with that obtained using a FTD of 18 s (by 16-detector CT), retrospectively. Average densities in four different intracranial arteries, overall opacification of arteries, and the degree of venous contamination were graded and compared. Thirty-eight patients were scanned using the TDC technique and 40 patients using the FTD technique. The arterial densities achieved by the TDC technique were higher (significant for supraclinoid and basilar arteries, p machine by coupling the time of data acquisition with the time of peak enhancement. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curves in acute respiratory distress syndrome from pulmonary and extrapulmonary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiceta, Guillermo M; Taboada, Francisco; Parra, Diego; Blanco, Armando; Escudero, Dolores; Otero, Jesús

    2003-11-01

    To assess the differences in the deflation pressure-volume (PV) curves between acute respiratory distress syndrome from pulmonary (ARDSp) and extrapulmonary (ARDSe) origin. . Prospective study. Twenty-bed intensive care unit in an university hospital. Ten patients within the first 24 h from meeting ARDS criteria, classified as ARDSp or ARDSe in a clinical basis. A deflation PV curve was recorded by means of decreasing steps of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from 35 to 0 cmH(2)O. The simultaneous recording of pressure at the airway opening (Pao), esophageal pressure (Pes) and volumes (V) allows us to trace the Pao-V, Pes-V and transpulmonary pressure (Ptp)-V curves. These data were fitted to a sigmoid model and ARDSp and ARDSe groups were compared. ARDSp has lower lung compliance and higher chest wall compliance than ARDSe (35.9+/-11.3 vs. 77.2+/-50.6 and 199.6+/-44.4 vs. 125.5+/-16.5 ml/cmH(2)O, respectively, Pcurve in ARDSp is shifted down and right with respect to ARDSe. The Ptp-V curve shows a similar displacement. The Pes-V curve in the ARDSp group is, however, shifted to the left. When relative values (percentage to the maximum volume achieved at 35 cmH(2)O) are considered, these differences persist, but, in the Ptp-V curves, are only significant in the low-pressure range. Differences between ARDSp and ARDSe PV curves are present all along the pressure axis and are related to differences not only in the Pes-V curve, but also in the Ptp-V curve.

  5. Volume of milk obtained in relation to location and circumstances of expression in mothers of very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Muga, Juliana; Ureta-Velasco, Noelia; de la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Ballesteros-López, Rosa; Sánchez-Martínez, Rocío; Miranda-Casabona, Eugenia; Miguel-Trigoso, Almudena; García-San José, Lidia; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    Given the importance of mother's milk for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, it would be helpful to know which circumstances are most favorable for milk expression. This study aimed to estimate the volume of milk obtained by mothers of VLBW infants as a function of proximity to the infant and use of the kangaroo position during the actual expression. In this prospective cohort study, when the infant was stable and the mother had established a breastfeeding routine, she was given a notebook in which to record the location of expression and the amount of milk expressed for 10 consecutive days. Breast milk expression volumes were recorded and analyzed. Data were collected on 26 mother-VLBW infant dyads and 1642 milk expressions. The first early morning expressions (n = 276, 17%) were conducted at home. Thereafter, 743 (45%) expressions were conducted far from the infant, either in a different room within the hospital or at home, and 623 (38%) were performed in proximity to the infant (beside the incubator, during kangaroo mother care [KMC], after KMC, or during kangaroo father care). The mean milk volume was significantly higher when expression was conducted in proximity to the infant. When only milk expressions conducted in proximity to the infant were considered, volumes obtained during KMC (107.7 mL, 91.8-123.5) and after KMC (117.7 mL, 99.0-136.5) were significantly higher than those obtained beside the incubator (96.9 mL, 79.9-113.9), respectively, P = .0030 and P = .0024. Milk expression conducted in proximity to the infant, particularly during and immediately after KMC, is associated with higher milk volume.

  6. Effect of food plants on the volume of repellent secretion obtained in adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babatunde Idowu

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume of secretion obtained from adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidaewas influenced by the type of food plants. Insects fed on leaves of cassava Manihot esculenta, bitter leaves Vernonia amygdalina, and a mixture of M. esculenta and Acalypha wilkesiana gave a good volume of secretion while Chromolaena odorata, Elaeis guinensis, Aspilia africana and Citrus sinensis did not favour secretion production. No significant difference was recorded in the volume of secretion obtained from Z. variegatus from the two seasons irrespective of the food plant. Similarly, food plants gave no significant difference on the volume of secretion between the two seasons.El volumen de secreción obtenida de adultos de Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae fue influenciado por el tipo de planta de alimento. Los insectos alimentados de hojas de casava Manihot esculenta, hojas ácidas de Vernonia amygdalina y una mezcla de M.esculenta y Acalypha wilkesiana dieron un voulumen bueno de secreción, mientras que Chromolaena odorata, Elaeis guinensis, Aspilia africana y Citrus sinensis no favorecieron la producción de secreción. No se encontró diferencia significativa en el volumen de secreción obtenida de Z. variegatus en las dos estaciones independientemente de la planta de alimento. Similarmente, las plantas de alimento no dieron diferencia significativa en el volumen de secreción entre las dos estaciones.

  7. Three-Dimensional Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography with Gel Foam: Methodology and Feasibility to Obtain 3-Dimensional Volumes of Tubal Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exacoustos, Caterina; Pizzo, Alessandra; Lazzeri, Lucia; Pietropolli, Adalgisa; Piccione, Emilio; Zupi, Errico

    To investigate the feasibility of hysterosalpingo foam sonography (HyFoSy) with automated 3-dimensional (3D) software in the evaluation of tubal patency and visualization of the tubal course by obtaining a 3D volume acquisition of tubes. Prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force classification III). University hospital. A total of 132 infertile females evaluated between October 2013 and February 2015. All patients underwent HyFoSy with the new automated 3D coded contrast imaging (CCI) followed by 2-dimensional (2D) real-time HyFoSy. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D visualization of the tubal course, consecutive volume acquisitions were performed during gel foam contrast agent injection. Conventional 2D real-time hysterosalpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy) by detection of gel foam moving through the tubes and around the ovaries was finally performed and considered to indicate the final results of tubal status. All the patients underwent 3D CCI HyFoSy, followed by 2D real-time HyFoSy. After both procedures, we observed 108 patients (81.8%) with bilateral tubal patency, 22 patients (16.6%) with unilateral tubal patency, and 2 patients (1.5%) with bilateral tubal occlusion. The concordance rate for tubal status between the first and second 3D volume acquisitions and the final 2D real-time evaluation was 84.8% and 97.0%, respectively. Transvaginal ultrasound HyFoSy with 3D volume reconstruction of the uterus and tubes is an accurate and safe technique that allows complete visualization of tubal shape and patency with high patient compliance. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve results in protective conventional ventilation comparable to high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Rossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies comparing high frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome have used low values of positive end-expiratory pressure and identified a need for better recruitment and pulmonary stability with high frequency. OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional and high frequency ventilation using the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve as the determinant of positive end-expiratory pressure to obtain similar levels of recruitment and alveolar stability. METHODS: After lung lavage of adult rabbits and lower inflection point determination, two groups were randomized: conventional (positive end-expiratory pressure = lower inflection point; tidal volume=6 ml/kg and high frequency ventilation (mean airway pressures= lower inflection point +4 cmH2O. Blood gas and hemodynamic data were recorded over 4 h. After sacrifice, protein analysis from lung lavage and histologic evaluation were performed. RESULTS: The oxygenation parameters, protein and histological data were similar, except for the fact that significantly more normal alveoli were observed upon protective ventilation. High frequency ventilation led to lower PaCO2 levels. DISCUSSION: Determination of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve is important for setting the minimum end expiratory pressure needed to keep the airways opened. This is useful when comparing different strategies to treat severe respiratory insufficiency, optimizing conventional ventilation, improving oxygenation and reducing lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve in the ventilation strategies considered in this study resulted in comparable efficacy with regards to oxygenation and hemodynamics, a high PaCO2 level and a lower pH. In addition, a greater number of normal alveoli were found after protective conventional ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  9. Development of volume equations using data obtained by upper stem dendrometry with Monte Carlo integration: preliminary results for eastern redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Rodney E. Will; Rider Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary results are given for development of an eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) cubic-volume equation based on measurements of redcedar sample tree stem volume using dendrometry with Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration techniques can be used to provide unbiased estimates of stem cubic-foot volume based on upper stem diameter...

  10. Which pulmonary volume should be used in physiotherapy to obtain higher maximal inspiratory pressure in COPD patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Patricia E M; Berenguer, Amanda; Barros, Andresa; Silva, Thayse N S; Galindo Filho, Valdecir C; De Andrade, Arméle Dornelas; Campos, Tânia F

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present pulmonary hyperinflation as the main cause of mechanical disadvantages in respiratory muscles. Measurement of the force generated by those muscles is converted into pressure changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) from the residual volume (RV) and from the functional residual capacity (FRC), in patients with COPD, and to determine which pulmonary volume should be used in physiotherapy so as to obtain higher MIP results. An investigation of 18 male patients with stable COPD. Patients were examined using a manual vacuometer to measure the MIP of 20 daily manoeuvres. Ten measurements were taken from the RV and 10 from the FRC, taken alternately with an interval of 1 minute between each measurement, for five consecutive days. Increases in MIP were obtained from the RV measurements (mean +/- SE) from 59.7 (+/- 5.2) to 66.6 (+/- 5.3) cm H2O (F(4,64) = 3.34; p < 0.015) and from the FRC measurements, from 55.4 (+/- 4.9) to 64.4 (+/- 4,8) cm H2O (F(4,64) = 6.72; p < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed an increase, over consecutive days, in both RV and FRC. For FRC, an increase was revealed on the second and third days, a fall was found on the fourth day and a new increase was found on the last day. MIP reached different levels, between RV and FRC, on the first (t = 2.888; p = 0.010) and fourth (t = 2.165; p = 0.045) days. In the present study, MIP reached higher levels at FRC during the five days of evaluation, and a learning effect occurred in the patients. Motor units from the respiratory muscles may have been recruited in order to perform the manoeuvres during the days of evaluation. The study suggests that there is good evidence for the use of the FRC as a parameter to find the major MIP value.

  11. Accuracy of maximal expiratory flow-volume curve curvilinearity and fractional exhaled nitric oxide for detection of children with atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hoo; Im, Min Ji; Eom, Sang-Yong; Hahn, Youn-Soo

    2017-09-01

    Airway pathology in children with atopic asthma can be reflected by the concave shape of the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve and high fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) values. We evaluated the capacity of the curvilinearity of the MEFV curve, FeNO, and their combination to distinguish subjects with atopic asthma from healthy individuals. FeNO and angle β, which characterizes the general configuration of the MEFV curve, were determined in 119 steroid-naïve individuals with atopic asthma aged 8 to 16 years, and in 92 age-matched healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the cutoff points of FeNO and angle β that provided the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for asthma detection. Asthmatic patients had a significantly smaller angle β and higher FeNO compared with healthy controls (both, Pcurve for the combination of angle β and FeNO improved to 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-0.95) from 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75-0.86; Pcurve and FeNO is a useful tool to differentiate between children with and without atopic asthma.

  12. Hydraulic conductivity obtained by instantaneous profile method using retention curve and neutron probes and Genuchten model; Condutividade hidraulica obtida pelo metodo do perfil instantaneo utilizando curva de retencao e sonda de neutrons e pelo modelo de Genuchten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berretta, Ana Lucia Olmedo

    1999-07-01

    The hydraulic conductivity is one of the most important parameters to understand the movement of water in the unsaturated zone. Reliable estimations are difficult to obtain, once the hydraulic conductivity is highly variable. This study was carried out at 'Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz', Universidade de Sao Paulo, in a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox soil. The hydraulic conductivity was determined by a direct and an indirect method. The instantaneous profile method was described and the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content was determined by solving the Richards equation. Tensiometers were used to estimate the total soil water potential, and the neutron probe and the soil retention curve were used to estimate soil water content in the direct method. The neutron probe showed to be not adequately sensible to the changes of soil water content in this soil. Despite of the soil retention curve provides best correlation values to soil water content as a function of water redistribution time, the soil water content in this soil did not vary too much till the depth of 50 cm, reflecting the influence of the presence of a Bt horizon. The soil retention curve was well fitted by the van Genuchten model used as an indirect method. The values of the van Genuchten and the experimental relative hydraulic conductivity obtained by the instantaneous profile method provided a good correlation. However, the values estimated by the model were always lower than that ones obtained experimentally. (author)

  13. Pressure-volume (P-V) curves in Atriplex nummularia Lindl. for evaluation of osmotic adjustment and water status under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Lins, Cíntia Maria; Rodrigues de Souza, Edivan; Farias de Melo, Hidelblandi; Silva Souza Paulino, Martha Katharinne; Dourado Magalhães, Pablo Rugero; Yago de Carvalho Leal, Lucas; Bentzen Santos, Hugo Rafael

    2018-03-01

    The survival of Atriplex nummularia plants in saline environments is possible mainly due to the presence of salt-accumulating epidermal vesicles. Commonly, destructive methods, such as plant material maceration and subsequent reading in osmometers, are employed in studies on water relations and osmotic adjustment and are inconvenient due to their underestimation of the total water potential inside the cells, which can cause overestimation of an osmotic adjustment that is not present. As a result, methods that preserve leaf structure, such as pressure-volume (P-V) curves, which take into consideration only the salts that compose the symplastic solution, are more adequate. Thus, the main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of determination methods of osmotic potential (Ψo) in Atriplex nummularia through destructive and leaf structure-preserving techniques and to determine the water relations of the species under increasing NaCl concentrations. Plants were subjected to daily irrigations, maintaining soil moisture at 80% of field capacity, with solutions of increasing NaCl concentration (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 M) for 84 days. Water potential, osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment were determined. In addition, P-V curves were constructed using pressure chambers. Water and osmotic potentials decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration in the irrigation solution. The main discrepancies observed were related to the osmotic adjustments determined through maceration and P-V curves. Based on the present research, it was possible to conclude that in studies with species that have salt-accumulating vesicles in the epidermis, such as the plants in the genus Atriplex, constructing P-V curves is more adequate than destructive methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Volume-monitored chest CT: a simplified method for obtaining motion-free images near full inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Kathryn S. [The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick R. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, The Children' s Radiological Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Flucke, Robert L. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Castile, Robert G. [The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Center for Perinatal Research, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Lung inflation and respiratory motion during chest CT affect diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. To describe a simple volume-monitored (VM) method for performing reproducible, motion-free full inspiratory and end expiratory chest CT examinations in children. Fifty-two children with cystic fibrosis (mean age 8.8 {+-} 2.2 years) underwent pulmonary function tests and inspiratory and expiratory VM-CT scans (1.25-mm slices, 80-120 kVp, 16-40 mAs) according to an IRB-approved protocol. The VM-CT technique utilizes instruction from a respiratory therapist, a portable spirometer and real-time documentation of lung volume on a computer. CT image quality was evaluated for achievement of targeted lung-volume levels and for respiratory motion. Children achieved 95% of vital capacity during full inspiratory imaging. For end expiratory scans, 92% were at or below the child's end expiratory level. Two expiratory exams were judged to be at suboptimal volumes. Two inspiratory (4%) and three expiratory (6%) exams showed respiratory motion. Overall, 94% of scans were performed at optimal volumes without respiratory motion. The VM-CT technique is a simple, feasible method in children as young as 4 years to achieve reproducible high-quality full inspiratory and end expiratory lung CT images. (orig.)

  15. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo

    1987-01-01

    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  16. Computer quantification of “angle of collapse” on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang, Mengshuang Xie, Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: In a previous study, we demonstrated that asthma patients with signs of emphysema on quantitative computed tomography (CT fulfill the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. However, quantitative CT measurements of emphysema are not routinely available for patients with chronic airway disease, which limits their application. Spirometry was a widely used examination tool in clinical settings and shows emphysema as a sharp angle in the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV curve, called the “angle of collapse (AC”. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS. Methods: This study included 716 participants: 151 asthma patients, 173 COPD patients, and 392 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests. COPD and asthma patients also underwent quantitative CT measurements of emphysema. The AC was measured using computer models based on Matlab software. The value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: The AC of COPD patients was significantly lower than that of asthma patients and control subjects. The AC was significantly negatively correlated with emphysema index (EI; r=-0.666, P<0.001, and patients with high EI had a lower AC than those with low EI. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AC had higher diagnostic efficiency for high EI (area under the curve =0.876 than did other spirometry parameters. In asthma patients, using the AC ≤137° as a surrogate criterion for the diagnosis of ACOS, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 89.1%, respectively. Conclusion: The AC on the MEFV curve quantified by computer models correlates with the extent of emphysema. The AC may become a

  17. Predictive and prognostic potential of volume-based metabolic variables obtained by a baseline18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicente, A M; Pérez-Beteta, J; Amo-Salas, M; Molina, D; Jimenez-Londoño, G A; Soriano-Castrejón, A M; Pena Pardo, F J; Martínez-González, A

    2017-11-02

    To investigate the usefulness of metabolic variables using 18 F-FDG PET/CT in the prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) response and the prognosis in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Prospective study including 67 patients with LABC, NC indication and a baseline 18 F-FDG PET/CT. After breast tumor segmentation, SUV variables (SUVmax, SUVmean and SUVpeak) and volume-based variables, such as metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), were obtained. Tumors were grouped into molecular phenotypes, and classified as responders or non-responders after completion of NC. Disease-free status (DFs), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. A univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to study the potential of all variables to predict DFs, DFS, and OS. Fourteen patients were classified as responders. Median±SD of DFS and OS was 43±15 and 46±13 months, respectively. SUV and TLG showed a significant correlation (pvariables and DFs. Volume-based variables were significantly associated with OS and DFS, although in multivariate analysis only MTV was related to OS. No SUV variables showed an association with the prognosis. Volume-based metabolic variables obtained with 18 F-FDG PET/CT, unlike SUV based variables, were good predictors of both neoadjuvant chemotherapy response and prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum curves

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    One says that a pair (P,Q) of ordinary differential operators specify a quantum curve if [P,Q]=const. If a pair of difference operators (K,L) obey the relation KL=const LK we say that they specify a discrete quantum curve. This terminology is prompted by well known results about commuting differential and difference operators, relating pairs of such operators with pairs of meromorphic functions on algebraic curves obeying some conditions. ...

  19. Application of histogram analysis for the evaluation of vascular permeability in glioma by the K2 parameter obtained with the dynamic susceptibility contrast method: Comparisons with Ktrans obtained with the dynamic contrast enhance method and cerebral blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Hori, Saeka; Ochi, Tomoko; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Naganawa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    The "K2" value is a factor that represents the vascular permeability of tumors and can be calculated from datasets obtained with the dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) method. The purpose of the current study was to correlate K2 with Ktrans, which is a well-established permeability parameter obtained with the dynamic contrast enhance (DCE) method, and determine the usefulness of K2 for glioma grading with histogram analysis. The subjects were 22 glioma patients (Grade II: 5, III: 6, IV: 11) who underwent DSC studies, including eight patients in which both DSC and DCE studies were performed on separate days within 10days. We performed histogram analysis of regions of interest of the tumors and acquired 20th percentile values for leakage-corrected cerebral blood volume (rCBV20%ile), K2 (K220%ile), and for patients who underwent a DCE study, Ktrans (Ktrans20%ile). We evaluated the correlation between K220%ile and Ktrans20%ile and the statistical difference between rCBV20%ile and K220%ile. We found a statistically significant correlation between K220%ile and Ktrans20%ile (r=0.717, p<0.05). rCBV20%ile showed a significant difference between Grades II and III and between Grades II and IV, whereas K220%ile showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) difference between Grades II and IV and between Grades III and IV. The K2 value calculated from the DSC dataset, which can be obtained with a short acquisition time, showed a correlation with Ktrans obtained with the DCE method and may be useful for glioma grading when analyzed with histogram analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of setting high APRV guided by expiratory inflection point of pressure-volume curve on oxygen delivery in canine models of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Qiong; Xu, Hong-Yang; Li, Mao-Qin; Chen, Jing-Yu

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of setting high airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) pressure guided by an expiratory inflection point of pressure-volume (PV) curve following lung recruitment maneuver (RM) on oxygen delivery (DO2) in canine models of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was examined. Canine models of severe ARDS were established by intravenous injection of oleic acid. After injection of sedative muscle relaxants, a PV curve plotted using the super-syringe technique, and the pressure at lower inflection point (LIP) at the inhale branch and the pressure at the point of maximum curvature (PMC) at the exhale branch were measured. The ventilation mode was biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP), an inspiration to expiration ratio of 1:2, and Phigh 40 cm H2O, Plow 25 cm H2O. Phigh was decreased to 30 cm H2O after 90 sec. The dogs were randomized into 3 groups after RM, i.e., Blip group, BiPAP Plow = LIP+2 cm H2O; Bpmc group, BiPAP Plow = PMC; and Apmc group. In the APRV group, Phigh was set as PMC, with an inspiratory duration of 4 sec and expiratory duration of 0.4 sec. PMC was 18±1.4 cm H2O, and LIP was 11±1.3 cm H2O. Thirty seconds after RM was stabilized, it was set as 0 h. Hemodynamics, oxygenation and DO2 were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h after RM in ARDS dogs. The results demonstrated: i) cardiac index (CI) in the 3 groups, where CI was significantly decreased in the Bpmc group at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h after RM compared to prior to RM (P0.05). However, the oxygenation index in the Blip group at 4 h was significantly lower than those at 0 h for the Apmc and Bpmc groups (P0.05). iii) DO2 in at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h in the Bpmc group was significantly lower than that in the Blip and Apmc groups, and not significantly improved after RM. DO2 in the Blip and Apmc groups after RM was improved as compard to that before RM and that in the Bpmc group. However, DO2 at 4 h in the Blip group was significantly lower than that at 0 h and in the Apmc

  1. Calculation of dose absorbed for the verification of the calibration curves UH-Density electronic relative obtained with various mannequins; Calculo de dosis absorbida para la verificacion de las curvas de calibracion UH-Densidad electronica relativa obtenidas con distintos maniquies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Sena Espinel, E. de; Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Martin Rincon, C.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.; Saez Beltran, M.

    2013-07-01

    In order to discern with what calibration curve is obtained a more accurate dosimetry distribution, dose measurements are carried out on the treatment unit and the values found are evaluated. (Author)

  2. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  3. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  4. The Concave Shape of the Forced Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve in 3 Seconds Is a Practical Surrogate of FEV1/FVC for the Diagnosis of Airway Limitation in Inadequate Spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Chunhong; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Spirometry is important for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea. However, some patients cannot exhale for ≥6 s to achieve the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society criteria. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the reliability of a new parameter that quantifies the degree of concavity in the first 3 s to define airway limitation as a surrogate for the FEV 1 /FVC. Four hundred spirometry test results were selected through complete random sampling. The new parameter, termed the AUC 3 /AT 3 , was calculated as the area under the descending limb of the expiratory flow-volume curve before the end of the first 3 s (AUC 3 ) divided by the area of the triangle before the end of the first 3 s (AT 3 ). The AUC 3 /AT 3 was compared with the FEV 1 /FVC using Pearson's correlation analysis. The level of agreement between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC in the detection of airway obstruction was analyzed using the kappa statistic. We also compared the diagnostic accuracy of the new index with that of the FEV 1 /forced expiratory volume in the first 3 s (FEV 3 ). There was a strong correlation (r = 0.88, P < .001) between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC. There was also strong agreement between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC in the detection of obstruction with kappa indices of 0.72 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criterion) and 0.67 (lower limit of normal criterion), and these values were greater than those obtained for the FEV 1 /FEV 3 . The AUC 3 /AT 3 also exhibited acceptable sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The diagnostic accuracies of the AUC 3 /AT 3 were 86.3% (GOLD criterion) and 83.8% (lower limit of normal criterion), which were greater than the 76.0 and 74.0% obtained for the FEV 1 /FEV 3 , respectively. The AUC 3 /AT 3 can be utilized as a surrogate parameter for the FEV 1 /FVC when patients cannot complete a 6-s expiratory effort. Additionally, the

  5. Curvas pressão-volume e expansão foliar em cultivares de algodoeiro submetidos à défcit hídrico Pressure-volume curves and leaf expansion in cotton cultivars under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Jamil Marur

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de dois cultivares de algodoeiro em resposta ao déficit hídrico, utilizando-se a expansão foliar como parâmetro discriminatório, bem como a metodologia das curvas pressão-volume para comparar suas habilidades com relação ao ajustamento osmótico. Nos tratamentos estressados, os valores dos Ys em plena turgescência e em turgescência zero obtidos para 'IAC 13-1' foram 0,1 MPa menores do que os obtidos para 'IAC 20'. O ajustamento osmótico em plena turgescência foi de 0.15 e 0.03 MPa, e em turgescência zero foi de 0.18 e 0.07 MPa, respectivamente para os dois cultivares. Os menores valores obtidos para o cultivar 'IAC 13-1' parecem indicar que seus tecidos suportam o estresse por um tempo maior antes das células atingirem o estado de plasmólise. Os valores do módulo volumétrico de elasticidade aumentaram quando os dois cultivares foram submetidos ao estresse hídrico, sendo que o cultivar 'IAC 13-1' parece apresentar paredes celulares com maior elasticidade. Os valores de Ya, antes do amanhecer, em que ocorreu a paralização do crescimento da folha foram -1,04 MPa e -0,98 MPa para os cultivares 'IAC 13-1' e 'IAC 20', respectivamente, mas não detectou-se diferenças significativas entre os dois cultivares.The response of two cotton cultivars to water deficit was studied using leaf expansion and pressure-volume curves method to compare their ability in relation to osmotic adjustment. The osmotic potential at full saturation and at the turgor loss point, for 'IAC 13-1', were 0.1 MPa lower than for `IAC 20' under later stress. Osmotic adjustment at full saturation was 0.15 and 0.03 MPa, and at turgor loss point was 0.18 and 0.07 MPa for 'IAC 13-1'and 'IAC 20', respectively. The low osmotic potential values observed for 'IAC 13-1' suggests that the tissues support water deficit longer, before cells reach plasmolysis. The values for bulk modulus of elasticity were higher when both cultivars were under water

  6. Unveiling the relationships among the viscosity equations of glass liquids and colloidal suspensions for obtaining universal equations with the generic free volume concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian

    2015-09-14

    The underlying relationships among viscosity equations of glass liquids and colloidal suspensions are explored with the aid of free volume concept. Viscosity equations of glass liquids available in literature are focused and found to have a same physical basis but different mathematical expressions for the free volume. The glass transitions induced by temperatures in glass liquids and the percolation transition induced by particle volume fractions in colloidal suspensions essentially are a second order phase transition: both those two transitions could induce the free volume changes, which in turn determines how the viscosities are going to change with temperatures and/or particle volume fractions. Unified correlations of the free volume to both temperatures and particle volume fractions are thus proposed. The resulted viscosity equations are reducible to many popular viscosity equations currently widely used in literature; those equations should be able to cover many different types of materials over a wide temperature range. For demonstration purpose, one of the simplified versions of those newly developed equations is compared with popular viscosity equations and the experimental data: it can well fit the experimental data over a wide temperature range. The current work reveals common physical grounds among various viscosity equations, deepening our understanding on viscosity and unifying the free volume theory across many different systems.

  7. Obtaining the conversion curve of CT numbers to electron density from the effective energy of the CT using the dummy SEFM; Obtencion de la curva de conversion de numeros TC a densidad electronica a partir de la energia efectiva del TC usando el maniqui de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Moreno Saiz, E. M.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Caudepon Moreno, F.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the conversion curve of Hounsfield units (A) versus electron densities using a mannequin with different tissue equivalent materials. This provides for the effective energy beam CT and is used to characterize the linear coefficients of absorption of different materials that comprise the dummy.

  8. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  9. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches:A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    II) Program for obtaining volume of sand / mineral along profiles from M.S.L. The listing of the software is given in Annexure: I and Annexure :2 of this report. LOGIC AND FLOW DIAGRAM The logic used in first program ?Program to obtain... data points from second set up = (HC1 ? successive staff readings observed from second set up) 5 The logical flow diagram is given below Fig.1 Flow chart for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea...

  10. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Can proctoring affect the learning curve of robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty? Experience at a high-volume pediatric robotic surgery center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Diana K; Lindgren, Bruce W; Cheng, Earl Y; Gong, Edward M

    2017-03-01

    We sought to determine if the learning curve in pediatric robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) for an experienced open surgeon (OS) converting to robotics would be affected by proctoring from an experienced robotic surgeon (RS), and/or the experience of training within the framework of an established robotics program. We reviewed pediatric RALP cases by three surgeons at our institution, including the OS, RS, and a new fellowship-trained surgeon (FTS). We compared the first eight independent RALPs for the OS with the most recent ten RALPs for the RS. As an ancillary analysis, to isolate the impact of proctoring and of a robotics program, we reviewed the first ten cases of the FTS as well the first and last eight cases of the RS at a prior institution. A total of 44 patient charts were reviewed, with a mean follow-up time of 16 months (range 6.7-45 months). Radiologic improvement was seen in all patients with the exception of one who required reoperative pyeloplasty. The FTS, RS, and OS had similar mean operative times; however; when comparing robotic cases at the beginning of each of their learning curves, shorter operative times were achieved by the proctored surgeon (OS). Finally, comparing two RALP cohorts by the RS at his prior institution revealed longer operative times with an inexperienced robotics team. We demonstrate that an experienced open surgeon and fellowship-trained surgeon can quickly attain levels of expertise with pediatric RALP within an established robotic surgical program.

  12. Pulse Characteristic Curves of Vidicons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    microamps, and in vidicons with heterotransition screens, up to 10 microamps. The use of static modulation characteristic curves of vidicons for the...determination of the pulse beam current can lead to an error > 100%. With the help of pulse-modulation characteristic curves, it is possible to obtain the

  13. Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Piantelli, S. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Rivet, M.F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Raduta, Ad.R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bonnet, E. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Gruyer, D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Marini, P. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-10

    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4–12 AMeV [S. Piantelli, et al., INDRA Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. A 809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  14. Curved geometry and Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Caravelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose--Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.

  15. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches: A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    Two programs have been developed to process profile data, for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea level (M.S.L.) and for computation of volume of heavy mineral / sand accumulation or erosion along the beaches. The final output...

  16. High-Grade Glioma Radiation Therapy Target Volumes and Patterns of Failure Obtained From Magnetic Resonance Imaging and {sup 18}F-FDOPA Positron Emission Tomography Delineations From Multiple Observers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosztyla, Robert, E-mail: rkosztyla@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Chan, Elisa K.; Hsu, Fred [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wilson, Don [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Functional Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ma, Roy; Cheung, Arthur [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Zhang, Susan [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Functional Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Benard, Francois [Department of Functional Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare recurrent tumor locations after radiation therapy with pretreatment delineations of high-grade gliomas from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) using contours delineated by multiple observers. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas underwent computed tomography (CT), gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI, and {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET/CT. The image sets (CT, MRI, and PET/CT) were registered, and 5 observers contoured gross tumor volumes (GTVs) using MRI and PET. Consensus contours were obtained by simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE). Interobserver variability was quantified by the percentage of volume overlap. Recurrent tumor locations after radiation therapy were contoured by each observer using CT or MRI. Consensus recurrence contours were obtained with STAPLE. Results: The mean interobserver volume overlap for PET GTVs (42% ± 22%) and MRI GTVs (41% ± 22%) was not significantly different (P=.67). The mean consensus volume was significantly larger for PET GTVs (58.6 ± 52.4 cm{sup 3}) than for MRI GTVs (30.8 ± 26.0 cm{sup 3}, P=.003). More than 95% of the consensus recurrence volume was within the 95% isodose surface for 11 of 12 (92%) cases with recurrent tumor imaging. Ten (91%) of these cases extended beyond the PET GTV, and 9 (82%) were contained within a 2-cm margin on the MRI GTV. One recurrence (8%) was located outside the 95% isodose surface. Conclusions: High-grade glioma contours obtained with {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET had similar interobserver agreement to volumes obtained with MRI. Although PET-based consensus target volumes were larger than MRI-based volumes, treatment planning using PET-based volumes may not have yielded better treatment outcomes, given that all but 1 recurrence extended beyond the PET GTV and most were contained by a 2-cm

  17. The curve of Spee revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Hnat, W P; Johnson, B E

    1996-08-01

    Through the use of a sophisticated measuring device and support computer technology, accurate arch circumferences were determined for 27 casts that exhibited moderate to severe curves of Spee. Arch circumference differences were subsequently obtained by comparing the measured arch length to a planar projection formed by the center of the incisal tips anteriorly and the distobuccal cusp tips of the second molars distally. A general relationship has been derived for the arch circumference differential, resulting from the elimination of the curve of Spee, versus the severity of the curve. The arch circumference reduction is considerably less than that found by earlier investigators, implying that the incisor protrusion often associated with leveling the curve of Spee is not primarily due to the aforementioned differential, but rather more directly due to the mechanics used in leveling the curve of Spee.

  18. Type-2 Fuzzy Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesah, R. S.; Zakaria, R.; Wahab, A. F.; Talibe, A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses about the formulation of type-2 fuzzy curve model. The generalization is carried out due to the existence of complex uncertainty which cannot be represented with classical type-1 fuzzy set. Hence, type-2 fuzzy set is proposed to define this type of complex uncertainty. Based on the complex uncertainty of data, fuzzy set theory type-2 with fuzzy number type-2 concept is used to represent the data with complex uncertainty. This process re-defines the data as type-2 fuzzy data which is also the result obtained by generalizing type-1 fuzzy data. Therefore, B-spline function is chosen to show the development of type-2 B-spline curve model via generalization. It is then followed by a number of processes, i.e. fuzzification, reduction and defuzzification are defined to model type-2 fuzzy B-spline curve to obtain a crisp type-2 fuzzy curve.

  19. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  20. Active motion on curved surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Sevilla, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of active motion on curved surfaces is presented in terms of a generalization of the Telegrapher's equation. Such generalized equation is explicitly derived as the polar approximation of the hierarchy of equations obtained from the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation of active particles diffusing on curved surfaces. The general solution to the generalized telegrapher's equation is given for a pulse with vanishing current as initial data. Expressions for the probability...

  1. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  2. Generalized Timelike Mannheim Curves in Minkowski Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akyig~it

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the definition of generalized timelike Mannheim curve in Minkowski space-time . The necessary and sufficient conditions for the generalized timelike Mannheim curve are obtained. We show some characterizations of generalized Mannheim curve.

  3. Pressure-volume analysis of the lung with an exponential and linear-exponential model in asthma and COPD. Dutch CNSLD Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, J. M.; Overbeek, S. E.; Verbraak, A. F.; Vons, C.; Folgering, H. T.; van der Mark, T. W.; Roos, C. M.; Sterk, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of abnormalities in lung elasticity in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still unclear. This might be due to uncertainties concerning the method of analysis of quasistatic deflation lung pressure-volume curves. Pressure-volume curves were obtained

  4. Special Bertrand Curves in 4D Galilean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Öztekin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalization of Bertrand curves in Galilean 4-space is introduced and the characterization of the generalized Bertrand curves is obtained. Furthermore, it is proved that no special curve is a classical Bertrand curve in Galilean 4-space such that the notion of classical Bertrand curve is definite only in three-dimensional spaces.

  5. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  6. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  7. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves. B Barua J Das. General Article Volume 20 ... Author Affiliations. B Barua1 J Das1. Indian Society of Nonlinear Analysts (INSA), 248 B, B B Chatterjee Road, Kolkata 700 042, W B, India ...

  8. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  9. Hyperorthogonal well-folded Hilbert curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Bos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available R-trees can be used to store and query sets of point data in two or more dimensions. An easy way to construct and maintain R-trees for two-dimensional points, due to Kamel and Faloutsos, is to keep the points in the order in which they appear along the Hilbert curve. The R-tree will then store bounding boxes of points along contiguous sections of the curve, and the efficiency of the R-tree depends on the size of the bounding boxes---smaller is better. Since there are many different ways to generalize the Hilbert curve to higher dimensions, this raises the question which generalization results in the smallest bounding boxes. Familiar methods, such as the one by Butz, can result in curve sections whose bounding boxes are a factor $\\Omega(2^{d/2}$ larger than the volume traversed by that section of the curve. Most of the volume bounded by such bounding boxes would not contain any data points. In this paper we present a new way of generalizing Hilbert's curve to higher dimensions, which results in much tighter bounding boxes: they have at most 4 times the volume of the part of the curve covered, independent of the number of dimensions. Moreover, we prove that a factor 4 is asymptotically optimal.

  10. Optimization In Searching Daily Rule Curve At Mosul Regulating Reservoir, North Iraq Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain optimal operating rules for storage reservoirs, large numbers of simulation and optimization models have been developed over the past several decades, which vary significantly in their mechanisms and applications. Rule curves are guidelines for long term reservoir operation. An efficient technique is required to find the optimal rule curves that can mitigate water shortage in long term operation. The investigation of developed Genetic Algorithm (GA technique, which is an optimization approach base on the mechanics of natural selection, derived from the theory of natural evolution, was carried out to through the application to predict the daily rule curve of  Mosul regulating reservoir in Iraq.  Record daily inflows, outflow, water level in the reservoir for 19 year (1986-1990 and (1994-2007 were used in the developed model for assessing the optimal reservoir operation. The objective function is set to minimize the annual sum of squared deviation from the desired downstream release and desired storage volume in the reservoir. The decision variables are releases, storage volume, water level and outlet (demand from the reservoir. The results of the GA model gave a good agreement during the comparison with the actual rule curve and the designed rating curve of the reservoir. The simulated result shows that GA-derived policies are promising and competitive and can be effectively used for daily reservoir operation in addition to the rational monthly operation and predicting also rating curve of reservoirs.

  11. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  12. Cassette dosing for pharmacokinetic screening in drug discovery: comparison of clearance, volume of distribution, half-life, mean residence time, and oral bioavailability obtained by cassette and discrete dosing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagilla, Rakesh; Nord, Melanie; McAtee, Jeff J; Jolivette, Larry J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare selected pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters obtained by cassette and discrete dosing of compounds in rats. The concordance of PK properties obtained by the two dosing strategies was evaluated for 116 compounds representing various therapeutic programs and diverse chemical structures. The correspondence between cassette- and discrete-dosing-derived PK properties was examined semiquantitatively and qualitatively. For semiquantitative comparison, compounds with cassette-to-discrete PK parameter ratios between 0.5 and 2 (inclusive) were considered to be in agreement. For qualitative comparison, compounds were divided into three categories (low, moderate, and high) based on the value of the PK parameter; compounds that fell into the same category following cassette and discrete dosing were considered to be in agreement. Of the 116 compounds evaluated, 89%, 91%, 80%, and 91% of the compounds were semiquantitatively equivalent for the intravenous PK parameters of clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vdss), terminal elimination plasma half-life (HL), and mean residence time (MRT), respectively, whereas 79%, 80%, 79%, and 72% were qualitatively similar for CL, Vdss, MRT, and terminal elimination plasma HL, respectively. Following oral administration, bioavailability concordance was 72% when assessed qualitatively and 78% when determined semiquantitatively. Results from these analyses indicate that a cassette dosing strategy is a viable approach to screen compounds for PK properties within a drug discovery setting. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  14. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  15. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  16. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  17. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  18. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  19. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  20. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  1. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  2. Water Retention Curves of Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Romero, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    The water retention curve of Opalinus clay samples was determined under different conditions: total and matric suction, stress or no-stress conditions, wetting and drying paths. Through the fitting of these results to the van Genuchten expression the P parameter, related to the air entry value (AEV), was obtained. The AEV is the suction value above which air is able to enter the pores of the sample, and consequently, above which 2-phase flow can take place in the soil pore structure. The samples used in this research came from two different boreholes, BHT-1 and BHG-D1, but the behaviour of them did not depend on their location, what was probably due to the fact that both were drilled in the shay facies of the Opalinus clay. There was not a distinct difference between the results obtained under total or matric suctions. In the drying paths, both the water contents and the degrees of saturation tended to be higher when total suction was applied, however the reverse trend was observed for the water contents reached in wetting paths. As well, no clear difference was observed in the water retention curves obtained in odometers under matric and total suctions, what points to the osmotic component of suction in Opalinus clay not being significant. Overall, the water contents were lower and the degrees of saturation higher when suction was applied under vertical stress, what would indicate that the water retention capacity was lower under 8 MPa vertical stress than under free volume conditions. This vertical stress value is slightly higher than the maximum in situ stress. Also, the samples showed hysteresis according to the expected behaviour, i.e. the water contents for a given suction were higher during a drying path than during a wetting path. The P values obtained were between 6 and 34 MPa, and tended to be higher for the samples tested under stress, in drying paths and when total suction was used. The air entry value calculated from the mercury intrusion porosimetry

  3. Growth curve analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Satoshi; Nakasu, Yoko; Fukami, Tadateru; Jito, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2011-04-01

    Meningiomas sometimes appear to stop growing after attaining a large size. Commonly used exponential growth models do not reflect this phenomenon. We attempted to find the best curve to simulate their growth. Fifty-two patients with meningioma were followed up for 3.1-21.7 years (mean 7.5 years) with four or more imaging studies each. Thirty-one patients had asymptomatic tumors. The other 21 patients with residual or recurrent tumor were followed up after surgery. Time-volume curves for each tumor were plotted. Nonlinear regression analyses were performed against power, exponential, logistic, and Gompertzian curves. Time-volume curves corresponded to the Gompertzian and logistic growth curves better than to power or exponential curves. When simulating time-volume curves with Gompertzian curves, the majority of benign meningiomas began to slow their growth before patient age of 80 years. Twenty-three of 31 asymptomatic meningiomas had already passed the inflection point before diagnosis. In contrast, this happened less frequently in symptomatic tumors. Especially, all six atypical meningiomas continued to grow quasi-exponentially. Sigmoid curves that approach a plateau were better descriptors of the growth of benign meningiomas than were curves of unlimited growth. However, atypical meningiomas were unlikely to slow their growth.

  4. Improvement of cam performance curve using B-Spline curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriman, A. B.; Syafiq, A. K. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Z. M.; Wan, K.; Daud, R.; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.; Azizan, Azizi

    2017-10-01

    The mathematical modeling approach has been applied in order to increase the cam profile curve of Modenas CT115s performance by using MATLAB software as a programmed to calculate the mechanism of the cam profile. Cam is used inside the engine to push the rocker and consequently open and close the engine valve that allows the fuel-air mixture to be entered during the combustion process. The B-Spline curve was implemented in order to enhance the current performance of the cam profile. The calculation had been done by using manual and MATLAB software. The results obtained has been analyzed and interpreted in plotting the graphs. From the analysis, the profile that had the highest displacement factor, sk produced higher cam curve performance of the engine. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of the displacement factor, sk can increase the engine performance as the valve displace further in which allow higher fuel-air mixture entrance during the combustion process.

  5. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  6. A digital algorithm for characteristic film curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, J.; Cash, T.; Craven, P.; Edwards, T.

    1975-01-01

    The task of establishing a film calibration scheme for magnitude studies of Skylab photographic images of Comet Kohoutek is examined. Since the data are recorded in terms of film density and have to be used in terms of exposure, the conversion from density to exposure is critical. In this film calibration scheme, the hardware deals with the data sources, recording medium, and data conversion to a computer compatible program, whereas the software deals with signal to noise enhancement, stepwedge calibration curve and leads to modeling of the film characteristic curves. A mathematical model of the characteristic curve is obtained using a modified version of Efroymson's (1960) stepwise multiple linear regression algorithm, which gives log exposure as a function of density. The difference in the calibration curves from pre- and postflight exposures is well accounted for in the model as a result of sensitive statistical tests. The characteristic curve modeling program requires about 4K of core and is executed in about 3 min.

  7. Estimating reaction rate constants: comparison between traditional curve fitting and curve resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    A traditional curve fitting (TCF) algorithm is compared with a classical curve resolution (CCR) approach for estimating reaction rate constants from spectral data obtained in time of a chemical reaction. In the TCF algorithm, reaction rate constants an estimated from the absorbance versus time data

  8. Moduli of Trigonal Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stankova-Frenkel, Z E

    1997-01-01

    We study the moduli of trigonal curves. We establish the exact upper bound of ${36(g+1)}/(5g+1)$ for the slope of trigonal fibrations. Here, the slope of any fibration $X\\to B$ of stable curves with smooth general member is the ratio Hodge class $\\lambda$ on the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ to the base $B$. We associate to a trigonal family $X$ a canonical rank two vector bundle $V$, and show that for Bogomolov-semistable $V$ the slope satisfies the stronger inequality ${\\delta_B}/{\\lambda_B}\\leq 7+{6}/{g}$. We further describe the rational Picard group of the {trigonal} locus $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$ in the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ of genus $g$ curves. In the even genus case, we interpret the above Bogomolov semistability condition in terms of the so-called Maroni divisor in $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$.

  9. The sales learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  10. Archaeomagnetic SV curve for Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ech-chakrouni, Souad; Hus, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    Archaeomagnetic secular variation curves have been established for different countries in Europe, especially when different archeological sites are more or less uniformly distributed in time are available. The disadvantage in that case is that data had to be relocated to a single reference site. The proximity of the reference locality Paris to Belgium makes that we used the French archaeomagnetic SV curve for the last three millennia up to the present for archaeomagnetic dating undated baked structures. In total, 85 baked structures have been examined, unearthed in 24 archaeological sites of the territory of Belgium. The ChRM of each sample was obtained by principal component analysis for at least three demagnetisation steps (Kirschvink 1980). Except for some outliers, the ChRM directions are very coherent with a high confidence factor (α95Belgium with Uccle as reference locality, where the first measurement of the geomagnetic field was done in 1895. This curve would include all the available reference data in a radius of about 500 km around Uccle. Keywords: secular variation, archaeomagnetic dating, Belgium.

  11. Using the Hilbert curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, John

    2004-04-01

    The aim is to compute random samples from the posterior probability distribution for some object, modelled as a mixture distribution with a variable number of component "atoms", usually having relatively few attributes. We use a space-filling curve (specifically the Hilbert curve) to parameterise an atom's attributes by a single number, This simplifies the geometry, and we describe seven "engines" (LifeStory1&2, GuidedWalk, Leapfrog1&2, Chameleon1&2) for driving a MCMC exploration program. A binary variant of slice sampling underlies the engines.

  12. Elucidation of non-parallel EIA curves

    OpenAIRE

    François-Gérard, C.; Gérard, Paul; Rentier, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative determinations by EIA can be only obtained by reverse regression when linear portions of sample and standard curves are parallel. However, analysis of complex biological fluids often yields sigmoid curves displaying lower slopes, thus invalidating any quantitative interpretation. We hypothesized that this phenomenon was due to a competition effect between the target (for example an antigen) and related molecules for the binding sites (for example a capture antibody) immobilized o...

  13. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  14. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  15. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  16. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  17. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    painting and reading. Unlike most others he dislikes computers. Figure 1. Ritabrata Munshi. Introd uction. In the first part of the article (Resonance, Vol. 4, No.9 ) we proved the Jordan sepa.ration theorem which says that a simple closed curve in E2 separates it into at least two components. In this concluding part after some ...

  18. Graphing Polar Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  19. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  20. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  2. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  3. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  4. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  5. Effects of fluticasone propionate on methacholine dose-response curves in nonsmoking atopic asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Overbeek (Shelley); P.R. Rijnbeek (Peter); C. Vons; H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethacholine is frequently used to determine bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and to generate dose-response curves. These curves are characterized by a threshold (provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second

  6. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  7. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  8. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  9. Carbon Lorenz curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Loek [Utrecht University School of Economics (USE), Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram. (author)

  10. The Changes in Pulse Pressure Variation or Stroke Volume Variation After a "Tidal Volume Challenge" Reliably Predict Fluid Responsiveness During Low Tidal Volume Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Prabu, Natesh R; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Monnet, Xavier; Kulkarni, Atul Prabhakar; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2017-03-01

    Stroke volume variation and pulse pressure variation do not reliably predict fluid responsiveness during low tidal volume ventilation. We hypothesized that with transient increase in tidal volume from 6 to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight, that is, "tidal volume challenge," the changes in pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation will predict fluid responsiveness. Prospective, single-arm study. Medical-surgical ICU in a university hospital. Adult patients with acute circulatory failure, having continuous cardiac output monitoring, and receiving controlled low tidal volume ventilation. The pulse pressure variation, stroke volume variation, and cardiac index were recorded at tidal volume 6 mL/kg predicted body weight and 1 minute after the "tidal volume challenge." The tidal volume was reduced back to 6 mL/kg predicted body weight, and a fluid bolus was given to identify fluid responders (increase in cardiac index > 15%). The end-expiratory occlusion test was performed at tidal volumes 6 and 8 mL/kg predicted body weight and after reducing tidal volume back to 6 mL/kg predicted body weight. Thirty measurements were obtained in 20 patients. The absolute change in pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation after increasing tidal volume from 6 to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight predicted fluid responsiveness with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (with 95% CIs) being 0.99 (0.98-1.00) and 0.97 (0.92-1.00), respectively. The best cutoff values of the absolute change in pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation after increasing tidal volume from 6 to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight were 3.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The pulse pressure variation, stroke volume variation, central venous pressure, and end-expiratory occlusion test obtained during tidal volume 6 mL/kg predicted body weight did not predict fluid responsiveness. The changes in pulse pressure variation or stroke volume variation obtained by

  11. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  12. Multipulse phase resetting curves

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbatio...

  13. Closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, K S

    1993-01-01

    This lecture reviews recent research on closed timelike curves (CTCS), including these questions: Do the laws of physics prevent CTCs from ever forming in classical spacetime? If so, by what physical mechanism are C'I‘Cs prevented? Can the laws of physics be adapted in any reasonable way to a. spacetime that contains C'I‘Cs, or do they necessarily give nonsense? What insights into quantum gravity can one gain by asking questions such as these?

  14. Wolff: straight not curved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, A

    2017-11-01

    It was 140 years ago that George von Meyer presented his anatomical diagrams of human bones to a meeting in Zurich. There he was told by Prof. Karl Culmann that the trabecular lines shown within the diagram of the upper femur closely resembled those lines of force which Culmann had determined with Graphic Statics to be passing through a curved, loaded Fairbairn crane. This drew the attention of Julius Wolff, who used this as the basis for his 'Trajectorial theory' which was widely accepted and, to date, has been the underlying basis for all biomechanical investigations of this region. Following Wolff and Culmann, the upper femur is considered to be a curved structure and is investigated as such. Unfortunately, this concept is wrong. The upper femur is not curved but is angular. It is formed by the junction of two straight bones, the femoral neck and the femoral shaft, as may be simply seen as the neck/shaft angle constructed on the antero-posterior radiograph of any normal femur. The internal trabecular bone forms only part of the load bearing structure of the femoral neck. The configuration of this trabecular substance in this region suggests that it is related specifically to the force present during flexion and extension movements of the hip joint. This being so, combined with the delayed timing of the appearance of the trabecular columns, it must be questioned as to whether the remodelling of the upper femur is in response to one or to two distinct forces.

  15. Random Matrix Theory and Elliptic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    lecture on random matrix models for elliptic curves at the combined meeting of the Australian and New Zealand mathematical societies Melbourne, Australia...organizer). Associated with the Chichely meeting will be a special volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (the world’s oldest...Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5 USE OF SUPPORT 8 • JPK was awarded a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit

  16. Prediction of sediment load by sediment rating curve and neural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 5. Prediction of sediment load by sediment rating curve and neural network (ANN) in El Kebir catchment, Algeria. Z A Boukhrissa K Khanchoul Y Le Bissonnais M Tourki. Volume 122 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 1303-1312 ...

  17. On the Photometric Error Calibration for the Differential Light Curves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 34; Issue 3. On the Photometric Error Calibration for the Differential Light Curves of Point-like Active Galactic Nuclei. Arti Goyal Mukul Mhaskey Gopal-Krishna Paul J. Wiita C. S. Stalin Ram Sagar. Volume 34 Issue 3 September 2013 pp 273- ...

  18. Influence of Media on Seasonal Influenza Epidemic Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoshi; Saito, Norihiro; Itoga, Masamichi; Ozaki, Hiromi; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Okamura, Yuji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical investigations predicting the epidemic curves of seasonal influenza have been demonstrated so far; however, there is little empirical research using ever accumulated epidemic curves. The effects of vaccine coverage and information distribution on influenza epidemics were evaluated. Four indices for epidemics (i.e., onset-peak duration, onset-end duration, ratio of the onset-peak duration to onset-end duration and steepness of epidemic curves) were defined, and the correlations between these indices and anti-flu drug prescription dose, vaccine coverage, the volume of media and search trend on influenza through internet were analyzed. Epidemiological data on seasonal influenza epidemics from 2002/2003 to 2013/2014 excluding 2009/2010 season were collected from National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan. The onset-peak duration and its ratio to onset-end duration correlated inversely with the volume of anti-flu drug prescription. Onset-peak duration correlated positively with media information volume on influenza. The steepness of the epidemic curve, and anti-flu drug prescription dose inversely correlated with the volume of media information. Pre-epidemic search trend and media volume on influenza correlated with the vaccine coverage in the season. Vaccine coverage had no strong effect on epidemic curve. Education through media has an effect on the epidemic curve of seasonal influenza. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. MATHEMATICAL METHODS TO DETERMINE THE INTERSECTION CURVES OF THE CYLINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish the intersection curves between cylinders, by using the Mathematica program. This thing can be obtained by introducing the curves equations, which are inferred, in Mathematica program. This paper take into discussion three right cylinders and another inclined to 45 degrees. The intersection curves can also be obtained by using the classical methods of the descriptive geometry.

  20. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume...

  1. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  2. Analysis of the curve of Spee and the curve of Wilson in adult Indian population: A three-dimensional measurement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Velekkatt Surendran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The values of curve of Spee and curve of Wilson in Indian population obtained from this study were higher than the 4 inch (100 mm radius proposed by Monson. These findings suggest ethnic differences in the radius of curve of Spee and curve of Wilson.

  3. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  4. Page curves for tripartite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Yeom, Dong-han; Zoe, Heeseung

    2017-07-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A, B, and C) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem.

  5. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    Treats the arithmetic theory of elliptic curves in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. This book discusses the necessary algebro-geometric results, and offers an exposition of the geometry of elliptic curves, and the formal group of an elliptic curve.

  6. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  7. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  8. Curving and frustrating flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyusoon; Xiang, Hongqi; Moon, Sung In; Kim, Taehyung; McCarthy, Thomas J; Russell, Thomas P

    2004-10-01

    Two polymer chains that occupy equal volumes when covalently linked together at one end self-assemble into an alternating lamellar morphology that has a characteristic period dictated by the molecular weight. When such copolymers are confined within alumina membranes that have cylindrical pores with diameters comparable to the repeat period, the interaction of the blocks with the confining walls and the imposed curvature induces a morphological transformation to relieve the constraints. Here, we show a lamella-to-toroid transition, captured through the dissolution of the surrounding membrane.

  9. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  10. Dynamic Performance Characteristics of a Curved Slider Bearing Operating with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present theoretical investigation, the effect of ferrofluid on the dynamic characteristics of curved slider bearings is presented using Shliomis model which accounts for the rotation of magnetic particles, their magnetic moments, and the volume concentration in the fluid. The modified Reynolds equation for the dynamic state of the bearing is obtained. The results of dynamic stiffness and damping characteristics are presented. It is observed that the effect of rotation of magnetic particles improves the stiffness and damping capacities of the bearings.

  11. Mapping curved spacetimes into Dirac spinors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabín, Carlos

    2017-01-11

    We show how to transform a Dirac equation in a curved static spacetime into a Dirac equation in flat spacetime. In particular, we show that any solution of the free massless Dirac equation in a 1 + 1 dimensional flat spacetime can be transformed via a local phase transformation into a solution of the corresponding Dirac equation in a curved static background, where the spacetime metric is encoded into the phase. In this way, the existing quantum simulators of the Dirac equation can naturally incorporate curved static spacetimes. As a first example we use our technique to obtain solutions of the Dirac equation in a particular family of interesting spacetimes in 1 + 1 dimensions.

  12. BEST FIT MODEL FOR YIELD CURVE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravka Aljinović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield curve represents a relationship between the rate of return and maturity of certain securities. A range of activities on the market is determined by the abovementioned relationship; therefore its significance is unquestionable. Besides that, its shape reflects the shape of the economy, i.e. it can predict recession. These are the reasons why it is very important to properly and accurately estimate the yield curve. There are various models evolved for its estimation; however the most used are parametric models: Nelson-Siegel model and Svensson model. In this paper the yield curves are estimated on Croatian financial market, based on weekly data in years 2011 and 2012 both with Nelson-Siegel and Svensson model, and the obtained results are compared.

  13. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, D.M.; Peskin, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood with two curved leaflets is described. Each of the leaflets is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance. 26 figures.

  14. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, David M. (185 Hillside Ave., Chatham, NJ 07928); Peskin, Charles S. (186 Harrard Dr., Hartsdale, NY 10530)

    1991-06-25

    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood therethrough with two curved leaflets each of which is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance.

  15. A simple transformation for converting CW-OSL curves to LM-OSL curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.

    2000-01-01

    A simple mathematical transformation is introduced to convert from OSL decay curves obtained in the conventional way to those obtained using a linear modulation technique based on a linear increase of the stimulation light intensity during OSL measurement. The validity of the transformation...... was tested by the IR-stimulated luminescence curves from feldspars, recorded using both the conventional and the linear modulation techniques. The transformation was further applied to green-light-stimulated OSL from K and Na feldspars. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  17. Spacelike and timelike admissible Smarandache curves in pseudo-Galilean space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalifa Saad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study space and timelike admissible Smarandache curves in the pseudo-Galilean space G31. Also, we obtain Smarandache curves of the position vector of space and timelike arbitrary curve with some of its special curves. Finally, we defray and illustrate some examples to confirm our main results.

  18. Experimental Tailer like Thermal Lag Engine to obtain pressure and volume diagrams//Motor de Lag Térmico experimental tipo Tailer para obtener diagramas de presión y volumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández-Aballí-Altamirano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Thermal Lag Engine (TLE patented by Peter Tailer’s is briefly introduced. The discussion about the thermodynamic working principle of this external combustion machine is presented. For this work the claims in literature have been studied by the authors to design and develop an experimental installation with the objective of measuring for the first time the pressure-volume (pV relationship of a TLE asdescribed by Tailer and West. The pV diagrams are presented here and support previous theoretical claims about the TLE. Their triangular form shows the effects described by West in the expansion and compression processes caused by the variation of the cold heat transfer area. Also the relationshipbetween the heat transfer capacity of the engine and its working frequency becomes apparent from the measurements, indicating that larger heater areas and limited cold heat transfer characteristics allow more work production per cycle at higher operating frequencies.Key words: thermal lag engine, pressure-volume diagrams, external combustion engines._______________________________________________________________________________ResumenSe introduce brevemente el Motor de Lag Térmico (MLT patentado por Peter Tailer y se esboza el debate científico sobre la termodinámica de esta máquina de combustión externa. A partir del estudio de los distintos puntos de vista los autores de este trabajo desarrollaron una instalación experimental con elobjetivo de medir por primera vez la relación presión-volumen (pV de un MLT como el descrito por Tailer y West. Los diagramas pV son presentados y apoyan los planteamientos teóricos previos sobre los MLT.Su forma triangular muestra los efectos descritos por West sobre los procesos de compresión y expansión debido a la exposición variable del área fría de intercambio de calor. Las mediciones pV muestran la relación que existe entre la capacidad de intercambio de calor del motor y su frecuencia de

  19. Discreteness of Curved Spacetime from GUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adel Abutaleb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse theories of quantum gravity expect modifications of the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle near the Planck scale to a so-called Generalized uncertainty principle (GUP. It was shown by some authors that the GUP gives rise to corrections to the Schrodinger , Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. By solving the GUP corrected equations, the authors arrived at quantization not only of energy but also of box length, area, and volume. In this paper, we extend the above results to the case of curved spacetime (Schwarzschild metric. We showed that we arrived at the quantization of space by solving Dirac equation with GUP in this metric.

  20. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  1. The advanced learning curve in robotic prostatectomy: a multi-institutional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Hugh J; Samadi, David B; Thaly, Rahul; Albala, David; Ahlering, Thomas; Shalhav, Arieh; Wiklund, Peter; Tewari, Ashutosh; Fagin, Randy; Costello, Anthony J; Coughlin, Geoff; Patel, Vipul R

    2009-10-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the learning curve associated with robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). These studies have focused on the acquisition of skills by novice robotic surgeons. It is unclear, however, if basic proficiency can be equated with satisfactory patient outcomes. We surveyed experienced robotic surgeons with high surgical volume in an attempt to define an "advanced" learning curve, relating to proficiency and outcomes with the robotic procedure. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the learning curve of the RALP from basic to advanced techniques. High-volume, experienced surgeons were asked to complete this questionnaire on the basis of their personal experience with the RALP procedure. Nine institutions participated in the study accounting for a total case volume of 6,276. Median surgeon experience was 460 cases (range 325-1,500); median total operative and robotic time were 165 and 105 min, respectively. Median time to "basic proficiency" with the robot was 40 cases; proficiency in more challenging cases was approached after a median of 50 cases. Surgical outcomes were deemed satisfactory to the surgeon for continence, potency, and surgical margins after a median of 100, 200, and 300 procedures, respectively. These data confirm previous studies that basic proficiency with the robotic system occurs relatively quickly, after 25-40 cases. Obtaining "satisfactory outcomes" took substantially longer, from 100 to 300 cases. Satisfactory outcomes regarding surgical margins and potency took longer to obtain than continence, likely reflecting the relative complexity of cancer control and nerve-sparing compared with the vesico-urethral anastomosis.

  2. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  3. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    CERN Document Server

    Terra, Pedro; Farina, C

    2016-01-01

    The answer to this question is no. In fact, in addition to the solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658, given by the cycloid, we show that there is an infinite number of tautochrone curves. With this goal, we start by briefly reviewing an the problem of finding out the possible potential energies that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many solutions, called sheared potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a P\\"oschl-Teller and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same periods of oscillations for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of an uniform gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the period of oscillations, there is an infinity of tracks w...

  4. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  5. Logarithmic Spiral - A Splendid Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. In this article some properties of logarithmic spiral have been described along with the ap- pearance as well as applications of the curve in art and nature. After the discovery of anq,lytical geometry by Rene Des- cartes (1596-1650) in 1637, the custom of represent- ing various curves with the help of equations came into.

  6. Space curves, anholonomy and nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vector at each point on the chain can be regarded as defining the local tangent to some space curve [6,7]. Clearly, it is possible to have moving space curves as well. This happens when a vortex filament, a polymer or an elastic rod is in motion. Again, as one changes some parameters in a dynamical system, a given phase.

  7. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...

  8. Betti numbers of space curves bounded by Hilbert functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Maggioni

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available We study relationships between Hilbert functions and graded Betti numbers of two space curves C and C_0 bilinked by a sequence of basic double linkages; precisely we obtain bounds for the graded Betti numbers of C by means of the Hilbert functions of the two curves and the graded Betti numbers of C_0 . On the other hand for every set of integers satisfying these bounds we can construct a curve with these integers as its graded Betti numbers. As a consequence we get a Dubreil-type theorem for a curve C which strongly dominates C_0 at height h which is exactly the Amasaki bound for Buchsbaum curves. Moreover we deduce for biliaison classes of Buchsbaum curves that a strong Lazarsfeld-Rao property holds.

  9. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    This thesis is concerned with computational and theoretical aspects of Riemannian metrics on spaces of regular curves, and their applications. It was recently proved that second order constant coefficient Sobolev metrics on curves are geodesically complete. We extend this result to the case...... of Sobolev metrics with coefficient functions depending on the length of the curve. We show how to apply this result to analyse a wide range of metrics on the submanifold of unit and constant speed curves. We present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves...... on parametrization of immersions by B-splines, which ties in naturally with Isogeometric Analysis to solve the PDE. We give numerical examples of solutions, and compare the Riemannian optimization algorithms with different choices of metrics to a naive unregularized discretize-first approach....

  10. Influence of horizontally curved roadway section characteristics on motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J; Li, Xiaolong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency on horizontally curved roadway sections in Washington State using police-reported crash data linked with roadway data and augmented with barrier presence information. Data included 4915 horizontal curved roadway sections with 252 of these sections experiencing 329 motorcycle-to-barrier crashes between 2002 and 2011. Negative binomial regression was used to predict motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency using horizontal curvature and other roadway characteristics. Based on the model results, the strongest predictor of crash frequency was found to be curve radius. This supports a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure placement criterion based, at the very least, on horizontal curve radius. With respect to the existing horizontal curve criterion of 820 feet or less, curves meeting this criterion were found to increase motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency rate by a factor of 10 compared to curves not meeting this criterion. Other statistically significant predictors were curve length, traffic volume and the location of adjacent curves. Assuming curves of identical radius, the model results suggest that longer curves, those with higher traffic volume, and those that have no adjacent curved sections within 300 feet of either curve end would likely be better candidates for a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assirati, J.L.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  12. Superconformal quantum field theory in curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Paul; Hollands, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    By conformally coupling vector and hyper multiplets in Minkowski space, we obtain a class of field theories with extended rigid conformal supersymmetry on any Lorentzian 4-manifold admitting twistor spinors. We construct the conformal symmetry superalgebras which describe classical symmetries of these theories and derive an appropriate BRST operator in curved spacetime. In the process, we elucidate the general framework of cohomological algebra which underpins the construction. We then consider the corresponding perturbative quantum field theories. In particular, we examine the conditions necessary for conformal supersymmetries to be preserved at the quantum level, i.e. when the BRST operator commutes with the perturbatively defined S-matrix, which ensures superconformal invariance of amplitudes. To this end, we prescribe a renormalization scheme for time-ordered products that enter the perturbative S-matrix and show that such products obey certain Ward identities in curved spacetime. These identities allow us to recast the problem in terms of the cohomology of the BRST operator. Through a careful analysis of this cohomology, and of the renormalization group in curved spacetime, we establish precise criteria which ensure that all conformal supersymmetries are preserved at the quantum level. As a by-product, we provide a rigorous proof that the beta-function for such theories is one-loop exact. We also briefly discuss the construction of chiral rings and the role of non-perturbative effects in curved spacetime.

  13. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  14. Wide Field-of-View Fluorescence Imaging with Optical-Quality Curved Microfluidic Chamber for Absolute Cell Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Khan Shourav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide field-of-view (FOV fluorescence imaging method with an unconventional optical-quality curved sample chamber that corrects the field curvature caused by a simple lens. Our optics simulations and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a curved substrate with lens-dependent curvature can reduce greatly the distortion in an image taken with a conventional planar detector. Following the validation study, we designed a curved sample chamber that can contain a known amount of sample volume and fabricated it at reasonable cost using plastic injection molding. At a magnification factor of approximately 0.6, the curved chamber provides a clear view of approximately 119 mm2, which is approximately two times larger than the aberration-free area of a planar chamber. Remarkably, a fluorescence image of microbeads in the curved chamber exhibits almost uniform intensity over the entire field even with a simple lens imaging system, whereas the distorted boundary region has much lower brightness than the central area in the planar chamber. The absolute count of white blood cells stained with a fluorescence dye was in good agreement with that obtained by a commercially available conventional microscopy system. Hence, a wide FOV imaging system with the proposed curved sample chamber would enable us to acquire an undistorted image of a large sample volume without requiring a time-consuming scanning process in point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  15. Interpretation of Quasi-Isothermal Thermogravimetric Weight Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1979-01-01

    Quasi-isothermal analysis (QIA) is a very useful technique. Compared to conventional non-isothermal thermogravimetry, close-lying reactions can easily be separated by use of this method and kinetic data can be obtained for each intermediate reaction in a single run. This paper discusses the shape...... of the weight and temperature curves expected in QIA for different controlling mechanisms, and a method is given for calculating the activation energies from these curves. As an example, the QIA curves obtained in thermal decomposition of ammonium-uranyl carbonate (AUC) are analysed and the kinetics of some...... of the intermediate reactions are determined....

  16. More Unusual Light Curves from Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    Twenty-three new objects have been added to the growing collection of stars observed to have unusual dips in their light curves. A recent study examines these stars and the potential causes of their strange behavior.An Influx of DataThe primary Kepler mission provided light curves for over 100,000 stars, and its continuation K2 is observing another 20,000 stars every three months. As we enter an era where these enormous photometric data sets become commonplace Gaia will obtain photometry for millions of stars, and LSST billions its crucial that we understand the different categories of variability observed in these stars.The authors find three different types of light curves among their 23 unusual stars. Scallop-shell curves (top) show many undulations; persistent flux-dip class curves (middle) have discrete triangularly shaped flux dips; transient, narrow dip class curves (bottom) have only one dip that is variable in depth. The authors speculate a common cause for the scallop-shell and persistent flux-dip stars, and a different cause for the transient flux-dip stars. [Stauffer et al. 2017]After filtering out the stars with planets, those in binary systems, those with circumstellar disks, and those with starspots, a number of oddities remain: a menagerie of stars with periodic variability that cant be accounted for in these categories. Some of these stars are now famous (for instance, Boyajians star); some are lesser known. But by continuing to build up this sample of stars with unusual light curves, we have a better chance of understanding the sources of variability.Building the MenagerieTo this end, a team of scientists led by John Stauffer (Spitzer Science Center at Caltech) has recently hunted for more additions to this sample in the K2 data set. In particular, they searched through the light curves from stars in the Oph and Upper Scorpius star-forming region a data set that makes up the largest collection of high-quality light curves for low-mass, pre

  17. Some Properties of Mannheim Curves in Galilean and Pseudo - Galilean space

    OpenAIRE

    Öğrenmiş, Alper Osman; Öztekin, Handan; ERGÜT, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the Mannheim curves in 3-dimensional Galilean and Pseudo - Galilean space. We obtain the characterizations between the curvatures and torsions of the Mannheim partner curves.

  18. Advanced topics in the arithmetic of elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    1994-01-01

    In the introduction to the first volume of The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves (Springer-Verlag, 1986), I observed that "the theory of elliptic curves is rich, varied, and amazingly vast," and as a consequence, "many important topics had to be omitted." I included a brief introduction to ten additional topics as an appendix to the first volume, with the tacit understanding that eventually there might be a second volume containing the details. You are now holding that second volume. it turned out that even those ten topics would not fit Unfortunately, into a single book, so I was forced to make some choices. The following material is covered in this book: I. Elliptic and modular functions for the full modular group. II. Elliptic curves with complex multiplication. III. Elliptic surfaces and specialization theorems. IV. Neron models, Kodaira-Neron classification of special fibers, Tate's algorithm, and Ogg's conductor-discriminant formula. V. Tate's theory of q-curves over p-adic fields. VI. Neron's theory of can...

  19. CYCLING CURVES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAICU Lucian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the cyclic curves that can be considered as some of the most important regarding their applications in science, technique, design, architecture and art. These curves include the following: cycloid, epicycloid, hypocycloid, spherical cycloid and special cases thereof. In the first part of the paper the main curves of cycloids family are presented with their methods of generating and setting parametric equations. In the last part some of cycloid applications are highlighted in different areas of science, technology and art.

  20. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  1. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume III. An analysis of the validity of the utilities' stock-recruitment curve-fitting exercise and prior estimation of beta technique. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1792

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, S. W.; Goodyear, C. P.; Kirk, B. L.

    1982-03-01

    This report addresses the validity of the utilities' use of the Ricker stock-recruitment model to extrapolate the combined entrainment-impingement losses of young fish to reductions in the equilibrium population size of adult fish. In our testimony, a methodology was developed and applied to address a single fundamental question: if the Ricker model really did apply to the Hudson River striped bass population, could the utilities' estimates, based on curve-fitting, of the parameter alpha (which controls the impact) be considered reliable. In addition, an analysis is included of the efficacy of an alternative means of estimating alpha, termed the technique of prior estimation of beta (used by the utilities in a report prepared for regulatory hearings on the Cornwall Pumped Storage Project). This validation methodology should also be useful in evaluating inferences drawn in the literature from fits of stock-recruitment models to data obtained from other fish stocks.

  2. [Erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Stefanache, Alina; Tântaru, Gladiola; Poiată, Antonia; Dumitrache, M; Diaconu, D E; Profire, Lenuţa

    2008-01-01

    In this study we tried to improve the erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining, having in view to separate the erythromycin ester by crystallization in water. The erythromycin acylation and the erythromycin ethylsuccinate crystallization were realized, following the next steps: 1. the acylation of the erythromycin with a methylene chloride solution of monoethylsuccinyl chloride, at 25-28 degrees C for 3 hours in the presence of NaHCO3; 2. the transfer of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate from methylene chloride solution in acetone solution by distillation of mixture methylene chloride: acetone 1:1 at 25-28 degrees C; 3. erythromycin ethylsuccinate separation by crystallization in water at pH = 8-8.5 and 5 degrees C for 90 minutes. The quality control for the erythromycin ester was performed according to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards using national standard for erythromycin ethylsuccinate and national standard for erythromycin with an activity of 1: 937 U and 2.02% humidity. The Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was used as a test microorganism and a thin layer cromatography was performed for qualitative control. 13.1 g of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were obtained with an output of the process of 82.02%. Using water for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate the output of the process is greater (82.02%) than in case of using petroleum ether (74.14%) or hexane (80.25%). The thin layer cromatography revealed an Rf = 0.56 and the microbiological activity of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 98.7% compared with the standard. Using water instead of hexane or petroleum ether is gainful for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate from the reaction medium. The obtained erythromycin ethylsuccinate corresponds to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards. So, the raw materials consumption is decreased, the costs are cut down, the obtained product purity is high and the output of the process is greater.

  3. S-shaped learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M J

    2014-04-01

    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish words and one with Italian words. In both, S-shaped learning curves were observed, which were most obvious if the subjects were not very familiar with the materials and if they were slow learners. With prolonged learning, the S shapes disappeared. Three different mathematical functions are proposed to explain these S-shaped curves. A further analysis clarifies why S-shaped learning curves may go unnoticed in many experiments.

  4. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  5. Uso de informações obtidas no transporte de madeira e no inventário florestal para estimar o volume em esteréos Information obtained from timber transportation and forest inventory for the estimation of volume in steres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Carlos Lima de Andrade

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia para estimação do volume em estéreos sem uma amostragem prévia do empilhamento das toras. Os dados necessários são provenientes do inventário florestal e do transporte da madeira. Foi adotado o "método dos espaços vazios" para ilustrar o emprego das informações supracitadas. Foram utilizados dados de 91 parcelas de inventário pré-corte e de transporte do volume de um plantio de híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, com uma área de 243,1 ha. As equações geradas para estimar o volume em estéreos resultaram em um erro de -0,76% ou -2,34 st/ha para a equação advinda de deduções do método dos espaços vazios e de 4,54% ou 11,61 st/ha para a equação gerada com o emprego do modelo de taper de Demaerschalk. Estes resultados evidenciam que a metodologia apresentada gera resultados promissores, permitindo utilizar informações representativas da situação de uso da unidade estéreos.The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to estimate volume in steres (st without a previous log staking sampling. Data from a forest inventory and timber transportation were used. The "Empty Spaces Method" was adopted to illustrate the application of the information. Data on 91 plots of a pre-cut and transport inventory of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybride planting volume, with na area of 243.1 ha, were utilized. The equations generated to estimate the volume in steres resulted in an error of -0.76% or -2.34 st/ha, for the equation generated from the "empty spaces method" deductions and of 4.54% or 11.61 st/ha, for the equation generated from application the Demaerschalk taper model. These results indicate that this methodology generates promising results, allowing to apply representative information on the use of the steres unit.

  6. A Functional Equation Originating from Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeong Bae

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We obtain the general solution and the stability of the functional equation f(x+y+z,u+v+w+f(x+y−z,u+v+w+2f(x,u−w+2f(y,v−w=f(x+y,u+w+f(x+y,v+w+f(x+z,u+w+f(x−z,u+v−w+f(y+z,v+w+f(y−z,u+v−w. The function f(x,y=x3+ax+b−y2 having level curves as elliptic curves is a solution of the above functional equation.

  7. Inferring cardiac phase response curve in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovsky, Arkady; Kralemann, Bjoern; Fruehwirth, Matthias; Rosenblum, Michael; Kenner, Thomas; Schaefer, Jochen; Moser, Maximilian

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing properties of biological oscillators with phase response cirves (PRC) is one of main theoretical tools in neuroscience, cardio-respiratory physiology, and chronobiology. We present a technique that allows the extraction of the PRC from a non-invasive observation of a system consisting of two interacting oscillators, in this case heartbeat and respiration, in its natural environment and under free-running conditions. We use this method to obtain the phase coupling functions describing cardio-respiratory interactions and the phase response curve of 17 healthy humans. We show at which phase the cardiac beat is susceptible to respiratory drive and extract the respiratory-related component of heart rate variability. This non-invasive method of bivariate data analysis for the determination of phase response curves of coupled oscillators may find application in other biological and physical systems.

  8. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  9. On rating curve variability in presence of movable bed and unsteady flow. Applications to Tuscan rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatti, Lorenzo; Nicoletta De Cicco, Pina; Paris, Enio

    2014-05-01

    In common engineering practice, rating curves are obtained from direct stage-discharge measurements or, more often, from stage measurements coupled with flow simulations. The present work mainly focuses on the latter technique, where stage-measuring gauges are usually installed on bridges with flow conditions likely to be influenced by local geometry constraints. In such cases, backwater flow and flow transition to supercritical state may occur, influencing sediment transport capacity and triggering more intense changes in river morphology. The unsteadiness of the flow hydrograph may play an important role too, according to the velocity of its rising and falling limbs. Nevertheless, the simulations conducted to build a rating curve are often carried out with steady flow and fixed bed conditions where the afore-mentioned effects are not taken into account at all. Numerical simulations with mobile bed and different unsteady flow conditions have been conducted on some real case studies in the rivers of Tuscany (Italy), in order to assess how rating curves change with respect to the "standard" one (that is, the classical steady flow rating curve). A 1D finite volume numerical model (REMo, River Evolution Modeler) has been employed for the simulations. The model solves the 1D Shallow Water equations coupled with the sediments continuity equation in composite channels, where the overbanks are treated with fixed bed conditions while the main channel can either aggrade or be scoured. The model employs an explicit scheme with 2nd order accuracy in both space and time: this allows the correct handling of moderately stiff source terms via a local corrector step. Such capability is very important for the applications of the present work as it allows the modelling of abrupt contractions and jumps in bed bottom elevations which often occur near bridges. The outcomes of the simulations are critically analyzed in order to provide a first insight on the conditions inducing

  10. Combining MRI with PET for partial volume correction improves image-derived input functions in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Eleanor; Buonincontri, Guido [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, David [Athinoula A Martinos Centre, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Methner, Carmen [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Rob C [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ansorge, Richard E [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kreig, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Carpenter, T Adrian [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-29

    Kinetic modelling in PET requires the arterial input function (AIF), defined as the time-activity curve (TAC) in plasma. This measure is challenging to obtain in mice due to low blood volumes, resulting in a reliance on image-based methods for AIF derivation. We present a comparison of PET- and MR-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to obtain image-derived AIFs from the left ventricle (LV) of a mouse model. ROI-based partial volume correction (PVC) was performed to improve quantification.

  11. Drift curves from spray applications on commom bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Bueno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to avoid the occurrence of drift in pesticide applications, it is fundamental to know the behavior of sprayed droplets. This study aimed to determine drift curves in pesticide applications on common bean crop under brazilian weather conditions, using different nozzle types and compared them with the "German" and "Dutch" drift prediction models. The experiment was conducted in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais/Brazil, in completely randomized design with ten replications and 4 x 20 split-plot arrangement in space. Drift deposited on collectors located over ground level was resulted by 150 L ha-1 carrier volume applications through four nozzle types (XR 11002 (fine droplets; AIXR 11002 (coarse droplets; TT 11002 (medium droplets; TTI 11002 (extremely coarse droplets, collected in 20 downwind distances, parallel to the crop line outside the target area, spaced by 2.5 m. The tracer rhodamine B was added to the spray to be quantified by fluorimetry. Drift prediction models adjusted by exponential functions were obtained considering the 90th percentile for XR, TT, AIXR and TTI nozzles. It is suggested to use the estimated drift models from this study for each nozzle type in drift prediction evaluations on bean crops under brazilian weather conditions.

  12. Curved VPH gratings for novel spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. Christopher; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Dunlap, Bart H.

    2014-07-01

    The introduction of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings into astronomy over a decade ago opened new possibilities for instrument designers. In this paper we describe an extension of VPH grating technology that will have applications in astronomy and beyond: curved VPH gratings. These devices can disperse light while simultaneously correcting aberrations. We have designed and manufactured two different kinds of convex VPH grating prototypes for use in off-axis reflecting spectrographs. One type functions in transmission and the other in reflection, enabling Offnerstyle spectrographs with the high-efficiency and low-cost advantages of VPH gratings. We will discuss the design process and the tools required for modelling these gratings along with the recording layout and process steps required to fabricate them. We will present performance data for the first convex VPH grating produced for an astronomical spectrograph.

  13. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Magnetic Field on Natural Convection in a Curved-Shape Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheikholeslami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the magnetic field effect on natural convection heat transfer in a curved-shape enclosure. The numerical investigation is carried out using the control volume-based-finite element method (CVFEM. The numerical investigations are performed for various values of Hartmann number and Rayleigh number. The obtained results are depicted in terms of streamlines and isotherms which show the significant effects of Hartmann number on the fluid flow and temperature distribution inside the enclosure. Also, it was found that the Nusselt number decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number.

  14. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  15. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  16. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  17. Elliptic curves a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Susanne; Pethö, Attila

    2003-01-01

    The basics of the theory of elliptic curves should be known to everybody, be he (or she) a mathematician or a computer scientist. Especially everybody concerned with cryptography should know the elements of this theory. The purpose of the present textbook is to give an elementary introduction to elliptic curves. Since this branch of number theory is particularly accessible to computer-assisted calculations, the authors make use of it by approaching the theory under a computational point of view. Specifically, the computer-algebra package SIMATH can be applied on several occasions. However, the book can be read also by those not interested in any computations. Of course, the theory of elliptic curves is very comprehensive and becomes correspondingly sophisticated. That is why the authors made a choice of the topics treated. Topics covered include the determination of torsion groups, computations regarding the Mordell-Weil group, height calculations, S-integral points. The contents is kept as elementary as poss...

  18. Space filling curves in steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfeld, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a new method to increase the reliability of current steganalytic techniques by optimising the sample order. Space filling curves (e.g., Hilbert curve) take advantage of the correlation of adjacent pixels and thus make the detection of steganographic messages with low change densities more reliable. The findings are applicable, but not limited to LSB steganalysis. An experimental comparison of five different sampling paths reveals that recursive principles achieve by far the best performance. All measures, such as mean distance, median autocorrelation, and the ability to detect even tiny modifications show substantial improvements compared to conventional methods. We elaborate the relationship between those parameters and quantify the effectiveness with a large test database of small images, which are usually hard to detect. Apart from quantitative advances, visualisation of steganalytic measures can also gain from the application of reverse space filling curves.

  19. Measuring the actual I-131 thyroid uptake curve with a collar detector system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, Peter; Van Gils, Koen; Dickerscheid, Dennis B.M.; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kranenborg, Ellen; Lavalaye, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Radionuclide therapy using I-131 is commonly used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases. The therapeutic dose to be administered is calculated based on the type of disease, the volume of the thyroid, and the measured uptake percentage. This methodology assumes a similar biological half-life of iodine, whereas in reality a large variation in biological half-life is observed. More knowledge about the actual biological half-life of iodine for individual patients will improve the quantification of the delivered radiation dose during radioiodine therapy and could aid the evaluation of the success of the therapy. In this feasibility study we used a novel measurement device [Collar Therapy Indicator (CoTI)] to measure the uptake curve of patients undergoing I-131 radioiodine therapy. The CoTI device is a light-weight wearable device that contains two independent gamma radiation detectors that are placed in a collar. By comparing results of thyroid uptake measurements with results obtained with a gamma camera, the precision of the system is demonstrated. Additionally, for three patients the uptake curve is measured during 48 h of admission in the hospital. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of the new measurement device to measure the uptake curve during radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  20. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  1. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  2. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  3. Holomorphic curves in loop groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, M.A.; Pressley, A.N.

    1988-09-01

    It was observed by Atiyah that there is a correspondence between based gauge equivalence classes of SU/sub n/-instantons over S/sup 4/ of charge d on the one hand, and based holomorphic curves of genus zero in ..cap omega..SU/sub n/ of degree d on the other hand. In this paper we study the parameter space of such holomorphic curves which have the additional property that they lie entirely in the subgroup ..cap omega../sub alg/SU/sub n/ of algebraic loops. We describe a cell decomposition of this parameter space, and compute its complex dimension to be (2n-1)d.

  4. On the rotation curve of our Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weibin; Ruan, Guiping

    We precent a new rotation curve of our Milky Way through fitting from velocity measurements of HII regions, CO, HI, in clouds and, complexes, classical Cepheid, planetary nebulae, asymptotic giant branch stars and open star clusters. For each class of objects we adopted same selection criteria. First, we renalyze the galactic rotation curve using each class of object with the form Θ/Θ0 = a1 (R/R0 )a2 + a3 (Brand & Blitz 1993). We find cluster and AGB stars have big deviations. And we compare the rotation curve of each object to find AGB stars are not good at fitting rotation curve. So we use other kinds of objects to fit the rotation curve. Then, we compare the rotation curve of quadrant I, II and quadrant III, IV to find the effect of the spiral arms, the streaming motion and mass asymmetry in the Milky Way . Last, we use the choosen data to obtain a rotation curve with a mass distribution model of the Galaxy; there are three components in this model: the spheroid, the disk and the halo (Paczynski 1990). the mass of the Milky Way which we obtain from the model is agreement with the latest values in the literature. The new Galactic constants R0 = 8.0 kpc, and Θ0 = 220.0 km s-1 were adopted in our work.

  5. Implementation Learning and Forgetting Curve to Scheduling in Garment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Badri, Huda; Deros, Baba Md; Syahri, M.; Saleh, Chairul; Fitria, Aninda

    2016-02-01

    The learning curve shows the relationship between time and the cumulative number of units produced which using the mathematical description on the performance of workers in performing repetitive works. The problems of this study is level differences in the labors performance before and after the break which affects the company's production scheduling. The study was conducted in the garment industry, which the aims is to predict the company production scheduling using the learning curve and forgetting curve. By implementing the learning curve and forgetting curve, this paper contributes in improving the labors performance that is in line with the increase in maximum output 3 hours productive before the break are 15 unit product with learning curve percentage in the company is 93.24%. Meanwhile, the forgetting curve improving maximum output 3 hours productive after the break are 11 unit product with the percentage of forgetting curve in the company is 92.96%. Then, the obtained 26 units product on the productive hours one working day is used as the basic for production scheduling.

  6. Quaternion wave equations in curved space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The quaternion formulation of relativistic quantum theory is extended to include curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time in order to provide a framework for a unified quantum/gravity theory. Six basic quaternion fields are identified in curved space-time, the four-vector basis quaternions are identified, and the necessary covariant derivatives are obtained. Invariant field equations are derived, and a general invertable coordinate transformation is developed. The results yield a way of writing quaternion wave equations in curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time as well as a natural framework for solving the problem of second quantization for gravity.

  7. Curve fitting for RHB Islamic Bank annual net profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajan, Dineswary; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd

    2015-05-01

    The RHB Islamic Bank net profit data are obtained from 2004 to 2012. Curve fitting is done by assuming the data are exact or experimental due to smoothing process. Higher order Lagrange polynomial and cubic spline with curve fitting procedure are constructed using Maple software. Normality test is performed to check the data adequacy. Regression analysis with curve estimation is conducted in SPSS environment. All the eleven models are found to be acceptable at 10% significant level of ANOVA. Residual error and absolute relative true error are calculated and compared. The optimal model based on the minimum average error is proposed.

  8. Limits of PGL(3)-translates of plane curves, II

    OpenAIRE

    Aluffi, Paolo; Faber, Carel

    2007-01-01

    Every complex plane curve C determines a subscheme S of the $P^8$ of 3x3 matrices, whose projective normal cone (PNC) captures subtle invariants of C. In "Limits of PGL(3)-translates of plane curves, I" we obtain a set-theoretic description of the PNC and thereby we determine all possible limits of families of plane curves whose general element is isomorphic to C. The main result of this article is the determination of the PNC as a cycle; this is an essential ingredient in our computation in ...

  9. On some Closed Magnetic Curves on a 3-torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, Marian Ioan, E-mail: marian.ioan.munteanu@gmail.com [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Faculty of Mathematics (Romania); Nistor, Ana Irina, E-mail: ana.irina.nistor@gmail.com [Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iaşi, Department of Mathematics and Informatics (Romania)

    2017-06-15

    We consider two magnetic fields on the 3-torus obtained from two different contact forms on the Euclidean 3-space and we study when their corresponding normal magnetic curves are closed. We obtain periodicity conditions analogues to those for the closed geodesics on the torus.

  10. Dynamic Stiffness Analysis of Curved Thin-Walled Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y.T. Leung

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural vibration problem of curved thin-walled beams is solved by the dynamic stiffness method. The dynamic stiffness of a curved open thin-walled beam is given. The computed natural frequencies of the beam are compared with those obtained by a completely analytical method to show the high accuracy of the present method. The interaction of in-plane and out-of-plane modes is emphasized.

  11. Light Curve Solution of the Contact Binary AW UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Jeong

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1088 observations (272 in B,272 in V, 272 in R, and 272 in I were made from January to February in 1995 at Chungbuk National University observatory(CbNUO. We constructed BVRI light curves with our data. The photometric solution of these light curves was obtained by means of the Wilson-Devinney method. Our result was compared with those by previous investigators.

  12. Strength and deformation characteristics of polymer blend films obtained from water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinska, N.; Kalnins, M.

    2011-11-01

    The relationship between the tensile strength and deformation characteristics, composition, and structural organization of films obtained by casting of two-component water-based system blends — a solution of the rigid partly crystalline polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and an emulsion of the compliant amorphous polymer polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) — has been investigated. The aim of this investigation was to ascertain the possibility of obtaining film materials with increased deformability based on the biodegradable PVA. The composition dependences of the initial modulus of elasticity, the maximum stress, yield stress, the ultimate strength, the ultimate strain, and of the unit work of fracture and other characteristics of films have been analyzed. An analysis of the tensile true stress-strain curves of systems with volume fractions of PVA less than 0.5 points to their considerable orientation strengthening upon tension.

  13. Some Characterizations of Constant Breadth Spacelike Curves in Minkowski 4-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kocayiğit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the differential equation characterizations of constant breadth spacelike curves are given in the Minkowski 4-space . Furthermore, a criterion for a spacelike curve to be a curve of constant breadth in Minkowski 4-space is introduced. As an example, the obtained results are applied to the case that the curvatures are constants and are discussed.

  14. On restricting planar curve evolution to finite dimensional implicit subspaces with non-Euclidean metric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatu, Aditya Jayant; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with restricting curve evolution to a finite and not necessarily flat space of curves, obtained as a subspace of the infinite dimensional space of planar curves endowed with the usual but weak parametrization invariant curve L 2-metric.We first show how to solve differential...... of a 3-sphere and then a series of examples on a highly non-linear subspace of the space of closed spline curves, where we have restricted mean curvature motion, Geodesic Active contours and compute geodesic between two curves....

  15. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  16. S-shaped learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish

  17. Managing bias in ROC curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert D.; Webster-Clark, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Two modifications to the standard use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for evaluating virtual screening methods are proposed. The first is to replace the linear plots usually used with semi-logarithmic ones (pROC plots), including when doing "area under the curve" (AUC) calculations. Doing so is a simple way to bias the statistic to favor identification of "hits" early in the recovery curve rather than late. A second suggested modification entails weighting each active based on the size of the lead series to which it belongs. Two weighting schemes are described: arithmetic, in which the weight for each active is inversely proportional to the size of the cluster from which it comes; and harmonic, in which weights are inversely proportional to the rank of each active within its class. Either scheme is able to distinguish biased from unbiased screening statistics, but the harmonically weighted AUC in particular emphasizes the ability to place representatives of each class of active early in the recovery curve.

  18. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  19. Curves over finite fields with many rational points obtained by ray class field extensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Bosma, W

    2000-01-01

    A general type of ray class fields of global function fields is investigated. The computation of their genera is reduced to the determination of the degrees of these extensions, which turns out to be the main difficulty. While in two special situations explicit formulas for the degrees are known,

  20. Bone CO2-Titration Curves in Acute Hypercapnia Obtained with a Modified Titration Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-16

    C02 storage capacity of the body (11). Bone is also known to be a major reservoir for electrolytes such as potassium , sodium, cal- cium, and...C02, denned as the C02 liberated by bone upon complete dissolution in acid medium, was analyzed by indirect titrimetry employing the following

  1. Scale curve – a robust and nonparametric approach to study a dispersion and interdependence of multivariate distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniek Kosiorowski

    2008-01-01

    A scale curve is a nonparametric approach to study a dispersion of a random vector around a multivariate median. The scale curve is a volume functional based on probabilities allocated on the so-called central regions induced by a given statistical depth function. The curve expresses a degree of dispersion of random vector in a central regions expansion categories. We can also use the curve to display a degree of interdependence of marginal components of a specific distribution. In this paper...

  2. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  3. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  4. Prognostic value of tumor volume for patients with advanced lung cancer treated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Ke, Bo-Han; Wu, Nain-Ying; Kuo, Joseph; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2017-06-01

    We aim to develop a reference system utilizing computed tomography to calculate changes in tumor volume of lung cancer patients after chemotherapy to assist physicians in clinical treatment and evaluation. Image processing techniques were used to analyze the computed tomography of lung cancer, locate the tumor, and calculate the tumor volume. The medical indicator was then evaluated and analyzed. We examined the correlation between reduced tumor volume and survival duration of 88 patients after chemotherapy at Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan. The innovative survival prediction index was obtained by four statistical methods: receiver operating characteristic curve, Youden index, Kaplan-Meier method, and log rank test. From the image processing techniques, tumor volume from each patient were obtained within an average of 7.25 seconds. The proposed method was shown to achieve rapid positioning of lung tumors and volume reconstruction with an estimation error of 1.92% when calibrated with an irregularly shaped stone. In medical indicator evaluation and analysis, the area below the receiver operating characteristic curve is greater than 0.8, indicating good predictability of the medical index used herein. The Youden index spotted the best cut-off point of volume, and the correlation between the volume's cut-off point and survival time was confirmed again by Kaplan-Meier and log rank test. The p-values were all less than 0.05, presenting a high degree of correlation between the two, indicating that this medical indicator is highly reliable. The proposed techniques can automatically find the location of tumors in the lung, reconstruct the volume, and calculate changes in volume before and after treatment, thus obtaining an innovative survival prediction index. This will help facilitate early and accurate predictions of disease outcomes during the course of therapy, and categorize patient stratification into risk groups for more efficient therapies. Copyright © 2017

  5. Pixel-by-pixel analysis of DCE-MRI curve shape patterns in knees of active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Lavini, Cristina; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nusman, Charlotte M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Reade, Amsterdam (Netherlands); St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Marion A.J. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Reade, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    To compare DCE-MRI parameters and the relative number of time-intensity curve (TIC) shapes as derived from pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis between knees of clinically active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. DCE-MRI data sets were prospectively obtained. Patients were classified into two clinical groups: active disease (n = 43) and inactive disease (n = 34). Parametric maps, showing seven different TIC shape types, were created per slice. Statistical measures of different TIC shapes, maximal enhancement (ME), maximal initial slope (MIS), initial area under the curve (iAUC), time-to-peak (TTP), enhancing volume (EV), volume transfer constant (K {sup trans}), extravascular space fractional volume (V{sub e}) and reverse volume transfer constant (k{sub ep}) of each voxel were calculated in a three-dimensional volume-of-interest of the synovial membrane. Imaging findings from 77 JIA patients were analysed. Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 (P = 0.008), median ME (P = 0.015), MIS (P = 0.001) and iAUC (P = 0.002) were observed in clinically active compared with inactive patients. TIC shape 5 showed higher presence in the clinically inactive patients (P = 0.036). The pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis method proved capable of differentiating clinically active from inactive JIA patients by the difference in the number of TIC shapes, as well as the descriptive parameters ME, MIS and iAUC. (orig.)

  6. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  7. Differential and symplectic topology of knots and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Tabachnikov, S

    1999-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers on two related topics: topology of knots and knot-like objects (such as curves on surfaces) and topology of Legendrian knots and links in 3-dimensional contact manifolds. Featured is the work of international experts in knot theory (""quantum"" knot invariants, knot invariants of finite type), in symplectic and contact topology, and in singularity theory. The interplay of diverse methods from these fields makes this volume unique in the study of Legendrian knots and knot-like objects such as wave fronts. A particularly enticing feature of the volume is

  8. Growth Curve Models and Applications : Indian Statistical Institute

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Growth curve models in longitudinal studies are widely used to model population size, body height, biomass, fungal growth, and other variables in the biological sciences, but these statistical methods for modeling growth curves and analyzing longitudinal data also extend to general statistics, economics, public health, demographics, epidemiology, SQC, sociology, nano-biotechnology, fluid mechanics, and other applied areas.   There is no one-size-fits-all approach to growth measurement. The selected papers in this volume build on presentations from the GCM workshop held at the Indian Statistical Institute, Giridih, on March 28-29, 2016. They represent recent trends in GCM research on different subject areas, both theoretical and applied. This book includes tools and possibilities for further work through new techniques and modification of existing ones. The volume includes original studies, theoretical findings and case studies from a wide range of app lied work, and these contributions have been externally r...

  9. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  10. Infinite swapping in curved spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo

    2014-01-07

    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  11. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Acoustic formulation of elastic guided wave propagation and scattering in curved tubular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Alex J; Simonetti, Francesco; Nagy, Peter B; Instanes, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of guided wave technology in conjunction with tomographic techniques has provided the possibility of obtaining point-by-point maps of corrosion or erosion depth over the entire volume of a pipeline section between two ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers. However, current research has focused on straight pipes and little work has been done on pipe bends and other curved tubular structures which are also the most susceptible to developing damage. Tomography of curved tubes is challenging because of the complexity and computational cost of the 3-D elastic model required to accurately describe guided wave propagation. Based on the definition of travel-time-preserving orthogonal parametric representations of curved tubes, this paper demonstrates that guided wave propagation and scattering can be approximated by an equivalent 2-D acoustic model which is inhomogeneous and elliptically anisotropic. Numerical methods to solve the full wave equation and predict ray paths and travel times are introduced and applied to the case of a bend. Particular emphasis is given to the shortest-path ray tracing method, which is applied to the 2-D model to compute ray paths and predict travel times of the fundamental flexural mode, A0, propagating across a curved pipe. Good agreement is found between predictions and experiments performed on a 220-mm-diameter (8-in-diameter) (D) pipe with 1.5D bend radius. The 2-D model also reveals the existence of an acoustic lensing effect which leads to a focusing phenomenon also confirmed by the experiments. The computational efficiency of the 2-D model makes it ideally suited for tomographic algorithms.

  13. Triangular Numbers and Elliptic Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahal, Jasbir S.; Top, Jaap

    1996-01-01

    Some arithmetic of elliptic curves and theory of elliptic surfaces is used to find all rational solutions (r, s, t) in the function field Q(m, n) of the pair of equations r(r + 1)/2 = ms(s + 1)/2 r(r + 1)/2 = nt(t + 1)/2. It turns out that infinitely many solutions exist. Several examples will be

  14. ROC Curve Analysis in the Presence of Imperfect Reference Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peizhou; Wu, Hao; Yu, Tianwei

    2017-06-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is an important tool for the evaluation and comparison of predictive models when the outcome is binary. If the class membership of the outcomes are known, ROC can be constructed for a model, and the ROC with greater area under the curve (AUC) indicates better performance. However in practice, imperfect reference standards often exist, in which class membership of every data point are not fully determined. This situation is especially prevalent in high-throughput biomedical data because obtaining perfect reference standards for all data points is either too costly or technically impractical. To construct ROC curves for these data, the common practice is to either ignore the uncertainties in references, or remove data points with high uncertainties. Such approaches may cause bias to the ROC curves and generate misleading results in method evaluation. Here we present a framework to incorporate membership uncertainties into the construction of ROC curve, termed the expected ROC or "eROC" curve. We develop an efficient procedure for the estimation of eROC curve. The advantages of using eROC are demonstrated using simulated and real data.

  15. Spitzer Space Telescope Mid-IR Light Curves of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Marley, Mark S.; Gizis, John E.; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 microns and 0.6 mag at 4.5 microns. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 microns) and W2 (4.6 microns) from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010-2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler/K2 in the visible (amplitude approximately 0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude approximately 0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune's atmosphere than for K2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune's atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 micron filters.

  16. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-06-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I.

  17. The Influence of the Annual Number of Storms on the Derivation of the Flood Frequency Curve through Event-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sordo-Ward

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the question of how to select the minimum set of storms that should be simulated each year in order to estimate an accurate flood frequency curve for return periods ranging between 1 and 1000 years. The Manzanares basin (Spain was used as a study case. A continuous 100,000-year hourly rainfall series was generated using the stochastic spatial–temporal model RanSimV3. Individual storms were extracted from the series by applying the exponential method. For each year, the extracted storms were transformed into hydrographs by applying an hourly time-step semi-distributed event-based rainfall–runoff model, and the maximum peak flow per year was determined to generate the reference flood frequency curve. Then, different flood frequency curves were obtained considering the N storms with maximum rainfall depth per year, with 1 ≤ N ≤ total number of storms. Main results show that: (a the degree of alignment between the calculated flood frequency curves and the reference flood frequency curve depends on the return period considered, increasing the accuracy for higher return periods; (b for the analyzed case studies, the flood frequency curve for medium and high return period (50 ≤ return period ≤ 1000 years can be estimated with a difference lower than 3% (compared to the reference flood frequency curve by considering the three storms with the maximum total rainfall depth each year; (c when considering only the greatest storm of the year, for return periods higher than 10 years, the difference for the estimation of the flood frequency curve is lower than 10%; and (d when considering the three greatest storms each year, for return periods higher than 100 years, the probability of achieving simultaneously a hydrograph with the annual maximum peak flow and the maximum volume is 94%.

  18. Model Lengkung Bentuk Batang (Taper Curve Pohon Jati (Tectona Grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronggo Sadono

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Model of Taper Curve of Teak Stem (Tectona grandis Detailed information on tree volume for fancy wood, such as teak, is important to estimate its financial value. Therefore, a method of estimating stem volume in portion wise is developed. The objective of this study was to apply a parabolic taper curve in various tree strata. Data of stem diameter at any relative height were collected from selected felled-tree samples according to stem quality both in the state and community forests by section wise measurement. Regression analysis was applied to estimate parameter and to test the suitability level of the parabolic taper model. The results showed that parabolic taper model could be used to describe the stem curve of clear bole stem in state forest and the stem curve up to tree height with minimum diameter of ca. 10 cm. In the state forest, the parabolic taper model was fit to medium and large diameter classes or in the intermediate and dominant strata. For small diameter class or in suppressed stratum, the model was not sufficiently fit. On the other hand, the parabolic taper model was fit to all samples from community forests because the samples comprised the stem of best quality from the stand. The parabolic taper model was suitable to apply on high quality stems which were characterized with healthy, cylindrical, and straight stem, high clear bole, and straight grain.

  19. Photometric Observations and Light Curve Analysis of BL Eridani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonyong Han

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present light curves of a short period binary system BL Eridani. The light curves were observed with {it VRI} filters by a 50cm wide field robotic telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO, equipped with a 2K CCD camera, which was developed by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI, and Yonsei University Observatory (YUO. The photometric observations were made on 6 nights by automatic operation mode and remote observation mode at SSO and KASI in Korea, respectively. We obtained new {it VRI} CCD light curves and new 5 times of minima, and analyzed the light curves with the Wilson & Deviney (1971 binary 2005 version and derived the new photometric solutions. The mass ratio q = 0.48 in this study shows different value with earlier investigators. According to the model analysis, it is considered that the BL Eri system is currently undergoing contact stage of the two binary components, rather than near-contact stage.

  20. Creep curve modelling of a conventionally cast nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupinc, V.; Maldini, M. [CNR - IENI, Milan (Italy); Poggio, E.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Constant load creep tests on Rene 80, a nickel base superalloy for gas turbine blade application, were run in the temperature interval 800-950 C with applied stresses producing rupture times up to 1000 h. Creep curves are generally dominated by a long accelerating/tertiary creep that follows a relatively small decelerating/primary creep. No steady state stage has been observed. Analysis of the creep curves has shown that a single damage parameter can describe the long accelerating/tertiary state in the explored temperature range. The damage appears to be dependent on the accumulated creep strain and, as a first approximation, independent on the applied stress and temperature. The whole creep curve, primary and tertiary stages, has been modelled by a simple set of coupled differential equations obtained using the formalism of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The proposed set of equations has an analytical solution, strain vs. time, for creep curves at constant temperature and stress. (orig.)

  1. Kummer surfaces associated with Seiberg-Witten curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendier, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    By carrying out a rational transformation on the base curve C of the Seiberg-Witten curve for N=2 supersymmetric pure SU(2)-gauge theory, we obtain a family of Jacobian elliptic K3 surfaces of Picard rank 17. The isogeny relating the Seiberg-Witten curve for pure SU(2)-gauge theory to the one for SU(2)-gauge theory with Nf=2 massless hypermultiplets extends to define a Nikulin involution on each K3 surface in the family. We show that the desingularization of the quotient of the K3 surface by the involution is isomorphic to a Kummer surface of the Jacobian variety of a curve of genus two. We then derive a relation between the Yukawa coupling associated with the elliptic K3 surface and the Yukawa coupling of pure SU(2)-gauge theory.

  2. Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame for Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenyurt, Süleyman; Altun, Yasin; Cevahir, Ceyda

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigated special Smarandache curves belonging to Sabban frame drawn on the surface of the sphere by Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve. We created Sabban frame belonging to this curve. It was explained Smarandache curves position vector is consisted by Sabban vectors belonging to this curve. Then, we calculated geodesic curvatures of this Smarandache curves. Found results were expressed depending on the Mannheim curve.

  3. Heat capacities and asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves for benzonitrile + alkanes and dimethyl carbonate + alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meijun; Lei, Yuntao; Yin, Tianxiang; Chen, Zhiyun; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo

    2011-11-24

    The critical behavior of isobaric heat capacities per unit volume for a series of critical binary solutions {benzonitrile + octane, or dodecane, or hexadecane} and {dimethyl carbonate + nonane, or decane, or dodecane} were studied. The corresponding exponent was obtained to be in consistent with the 3D-Ising value. The amplitudes in one-phase and two-phase regions were deduced, which were used to test some critical amplitude ratios. Analysis of the dependence of the effective critical exponent of the heat capacity on the temperature indicated a critical crossover from the 3D-Ising to the mean-field for all the studied systems. It was found that the heat capacity does play an important role for describing the asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves by the complete scaling theory. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribet, K A; Takahashi, S

    1997-10-14

    Fix an isogeny class of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements A of have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes--i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X(0)D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A [symbol; see text] A in for which one has a nonconstant map piD : X(0)D(N/D) --> A whose pullback A --> Pic0(X(0)D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of piD is an integer deltaD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class A). We investigate the behavior of deltaD as D varies.

  5. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  6. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Erdmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887 and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required for obtaining an EFV curve. Any commercial simulator able to model petroleum can be used for the simulation (HYSYS and CHEMCAD simulators were used here. Several types of petroleum and fractions were experimentally analysed for evaluating the proposed method; this data was then put into a process si-mulator (according to the proposed method to estimate the corresponding EFV curves. HYSYS- and CHEMCAD-estimated curves were compared to those produced by two traditional estimation methods (Edmister’s and Maswell’s methods. Simulation-estimated curves were close to average Edmister and Maxwell curves in all cases. The propo-sed method has several advantages; it avoids the need for experimentally obtaining an EFV curve, it does not de-pend on the type of experimental curve used to fit the model and it enables estimating several pressures by using just one experimental curve as data.

  7. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Erdmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887 and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required for obtaining an EFV curve. Any commercial simulator able to model petroleum can be used for the simulation (HYSYS and CHEMCAD simulators were used here. Several types of petroleum and fractions were experimentally analysed for evaluating the proposed method; this data was then put into a process si-mulator (according to the proposed method to estimate the corresponding EFV curves. HYSYS- and CHEMCAD-estimated curves were compared to those produced by two traditional estimation methods (Edmister’s and Maswell’s methods. Simulation-estimated curves were close to average Edmister and Maxwell curves in all cases. The propo-sed method has several advantages; it avoids the need for experimentally obtaining an EFV curve, it does not de-pend on the type of experimental curve used to fit the model and it enables estimating several pressures by using just one experimental curve as data.

  8. Learning Curve of Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ersagun Arslan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer (PrC is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the second most common malignancy in men. Currently, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP has become a popular treatment for localised PrC treatment worldwide. We aimed to assess the learning curve of RARP in our institution. Methods: A total of 391 patients who underwent RARP in our clinic between February 2009 and April 2013 were included in the study. We retrospectively evaluated patient data that were recorded prospectively. The demographic, perioperative, postoperative functional, and oncological results of six surgeons’ patient groups (n=72, n=110, n=103, n=38, n=36, and n=32 and three consecutive series formed by dividing the patient groups of the three surgeons with the highest volume of cases were analysed. Results: There was no significant difference between patient groups with regard to age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score, number of previously performed operations, prostate-specific antigen levels, clinical stage, biopsy pathology, pathological stage, positive surgical margin (PSM rate, biochemical recurrence (BCR rate, potency, and continence rate at postoperative Month 12. When we assessed the three consecutive series of the three highest-volume surgeons we found that, over time, operation time (OT decreased significantly (p0.05, and median IIEF score at 12 months improved significantly (p0.05, and median IIEF score at 12 months improved significantly (p=0.01 in the series of Surgeon 2; OT decreased significantly (p0.05 for both in the series of Surgeon 3. The overall complication rate was 11.7% and 34% of these complications were major ones. The overall blood transfusion rate was 2%. The overall PSM rate was 20.4% (9.3% for pT2 tumours and 44% for pT3 tumours. The overall rate of BCR was 9.4%. Conclusion: In

  9. Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

  10. Reconfigurable Double-Curved Mould

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Christian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    , double curved surfaces like facades or walls, where the curvature of each element is relatively small in comparison to the overall shape. In the proposed dynamic mould system, where only a set of points is defined, a stiff membrane interpolates the surface between points. To function as a surface...... suitable for casting concrete or other substances against without the need for further manual treatment, the membrane should be durable and maintain a perfectly smooth and non-porous surface as well. A membrane with these properties has been developed for this project, and it is the core of the dynamic...

  11. General investigations of curved surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gauss, Karl Friedrich; Morehead, James

    2005-01-01

    Gauss's theory of surfaces is among the purely mathematical achievements inspired by ideas that arose in connection with surveys of the surface of the earth. Long regarded as a masterpiece in content and form, this work features one of the author's most original contributions to mathematics--the discovery that Gauss termed the ""Theorema Egregium."" It consists of his penetrating definition of the concept of surface curvature and the theorem that the ""Gauss curvature"" is invariant under arbitrary isometric deformation of a curved surface. The profound effects of these concepts were soon gene

  12. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  13. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. The second part studies the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. This new edition provides many advancements, including more figures and exercises, and-as a new feature-a good number of so

  14. The calculations of Jordan curves trajectory of the robot movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Bozek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of the moving mechanism on a trajectory described by a planar differentiable curve is challenging. The difficulty arises in compliance with high-precision movement. The new method of calculation based on the intrinsic properties of the plane is proposed. The method is based on mathematical linguistics and relational algebra. First, these disciplines are applied to analyze the intrinsic properties of the Euclidean plane. Calculation of classic and new methods for moving point for the flat rod is shown for comparison. Analytical formulas for Jordan curves can be obtained in some cases. The experiments in the areas of geometric modeling and control of a robot are listed briefly. The analytic solution was obtained by nontraditional methods not only for centrally symmetric conic sections but also for Jordan curves.

  15. New symmetry of intended curved reaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Elizabeth B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement regularities are inherently present in automated goal-directed motions of the primate's arm system. They can provide important signatures of intentional behaviours driven by sensory-motor strategies, but it remains unknown if during motor learning new regularities can be uncovered despite high variability in the temporal dynamics of the hand motions. Methods We investigated the conservation and violation of new movement regularity obtained from the hand motions traced by two untrained monkeys as they learned to reach outwardly towards spatial targets while avoiding obstacles in the dark. The regularity pertains to the transformation from postural to hand paths that aim at visual goals. Results In length-minimizing curves the area enclosed between the Euclidean straight line and the curve up to its point of maximum curvature is 1/2 of the total area. Similar trend is found if one examines the perimeter. This new movement regularity remained robust to striking changes in arm dynamics that gave rise to changes in the speed of the reach, to changes in the hand path curvature, and to changes in the arm's postural paths. The area and perimeter ratios characterizing the regularity co-varied across repeats of randomly presented targets whenever the transformation from posture to hand paths was compliant with the intended goals. To interpret this conservation and the cases in which the regularity was violated and recovered, we provide a geometric model that characterizes arm-to-hand and hand-to-arm motion paths as length minimizing curves (geodesics in a non-Euclidean space. Whenever the transformation from one space to the other is distance-metric preserving (isometric the two symmetric ratios co-vary. Otherwise, the symmetric ratios and their co-variation are violated. As predicted by the model we found empirical evidence for the violation of this movement regularity whenever the intended goals mismatched the actions. This

  16. Be the Volume: A Classroom Activity to Visualize Volume Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on activity can help multivariable calculus students visualize surfaces and understand volume estimation. This activity can be extended to include the concepts of Fubini's Theorem and the visualization of the curves resulting from cross-sections of the surface. This activity uses students as pillars and a sheet or tablecloth for the…

  17. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  18. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  19. Infrared camera based on a curved retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Delphine; Fendler, Manuel; Berger, Frédéric; Cloix, Baptiste; Pornin, Cyrille; Baier, Nicolas; Druart, Guillaume; Primot, Jérôme; le Coarer, Etienne

    2012-02-15

    Design of miniature and light cameras requires an optical design breakthrough to achieve good optical performance. Solutions inspired by animals' eyes are the most promising. The curvature of the retina offers several advantages, such as uniform intensity and no field curvature, but this feature is not used. The work presented here is a solution to spherically bend monolithic IR detectors. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, a higher fill factor is obtained and the device fabrication process is not modified. We made an IR eye camera with a single lens and a curved IR bolometer. Images captured are well resolved and have good contrast, and the modulation transfer function shows better quality when comparing with planar systems.

  20. Forced convective heat transfer in curved diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity characteristics of the flows in two curved diffusers of rectangular cross section with C and S-shaped centerlines are presented and related to measurements of wall heat transfer coefficients along the heated flat walls of the ducts. The velocity results were obtained by laser-Doppler anemometry in a water tunnel and the heat transfer results by liquid crystal thermography in a wind tunnel. The thermographic technique allowed the rapid and inexpensive measurement of wall heat transfer coefficients along flat walls of arbitrary boundary shapes with an accuracy of about 5 percent. The results show that an increase in secondary flow velocities near the heated wall causes an increase in the local wall heat transfer coefficient, and quantify the variation for maximum secondary-flow velocities in a range from 1.5 to 17 percent of the bulk flow velocity.

  1. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  2. An analysis on the environmental Kuznets curve of Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zijian; Peng, Yue; Zhao, Yue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper based on the environmental and economic data of Chengdu from 2005 to 2014, the measurement models were established to analyze 3 kinds of environmental flow indicators and 4 kinds of environmental stock indicators to obtain their EKC evolution trajectories and characters. The results show that the relationship curve between the discharge of SO2 from industry and the GDP per capita is a positive U shape, just as the curve between discharge of COD from industry and the GDP per person. The relationship curve between the dust discharge from industry and the GDP per capita is an inverted N shape. In the central of the urban the relationship curve between the concentration of SO2 in the air and the GDP per person is a positive U shape. The relationship curves between the concentration of NO2 in the air and the GDP per person, between the concentration of the particulate matters and the GDP per person, and between the concentration of the fallen dusts and the GDP per person are fluctuating. So the EKC curves of the 7 kinds of environmental indicators are not accord with inverted U shape feature. In the development of this urban the environmental problems can’t be resolved only by economic growth. The discharge of industrial pollutants should be controlled to improve the atmospheric environmental quality and reduce the environmental risks.

  3. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves and ...

  4. Estimation of growth curve parameters in Konya Merino sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of Quadratic, Cubic, Gompertz and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Konya Merino lambs obtained by using monthly records of live weight from birth to 480 days of age. The models were evaluated according to determination coefficient (R2), mean square ...

  5. Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero-Valdés, Carlos [Departamento de Matemáticas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, México, D.F 4871, México (Mexico); Herrera-Guzmán, Rafael [Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas (CIMAT), Guanajuato, Gto, México (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a generalized Fick-Jacob's equation obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal directions of an arbitrary curve on the plane.

  6. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First...

  7. Smarandache Curves In Terms of Sabban Frame of Fixed Pole Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Şenyurt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve interms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

  8. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  9. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  10. Extracting information from S-curves of language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Gerlach, Martin; Miotto, José M; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2014-12-06

    It is well accepted that adoption of innovations are described by S-curves (slow start, accelerating period and slow end). In this paper, we analyse how much information on the dynamics of innovation spreading can be obtained from a quantitative description of S-curves. We focus on the adoption of linguistic innovations for which detailed databases of written texts from the last 200 years allow for an unprecedented statistical precision. Combining data analysis with simulations of simple models (e.g. the Bass dynamics on complex networks), we identify signatures of endogenous and exogenous factors in the S-curves of adoption. We propose a measure to quantify the strength of these factors and three different methods to estimate it from S-curves. We obtain cases in which the exogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of German orthographic reforms and of one irregular verb) and cases in which endogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of conventions for romanization of Russian names and in the regularization of most studied verbs). These results show that the shape of S-curve is not universal and contains information on the adoption mechanism. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Microstructure based simulations for prediction of flow curves and selection of process parameters for inter-critical annealing in DP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, M. J.; Farivar, H.; Prahl, U.; Phanikumar, G.

    2017-04-01

    Dual phase steels are versatile advanced high strength steels that are being used for sheet metal applications in automotive industry. It also has the potential for application in bulk components like gear. The inter-critical annealing in dual phase steels is one of the crucial steps that determine the mechanical properties of the material. Selection of the process parameters for inter-critical annealing, in particular, the inter-critical annealing temperature and time is important as it plays a major role in determining the volume fractions of ferrite and martensite, which in turn determines the mechanical properties. Selection of these process parameters to obtain a particular required mechanical property requires large number of experimental trials. Simulation of microstructure evolution and virtual compression/tensile testing can help in reducing the number of such experimental trials. In the present work, phase field modeling implemented in the commercial software Micress® is used to predict the microstructure evolution during inter-critical annealing. Virtual compression tests are performed on the simulated microstructure using finite element method implemented in the commercial software, to obtain the effective flow curve of the macroscopic material. The flow curves obtained by simulation are experimentally validated with physical simulation in Gleeble® and compared with that obtained using linear rule of mixture. The methodology could be used in determining the inter-critical annealing process parameters required for achieving a particular flow curve.

  12. The wrapper: a surface optimization algorithm that preserves highly curved areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueziec, Andre P.; Dean, David

    1994-09-01

    Software to construct polygonal models of anatomical structures embedded as isosurfaces in 3D medical images has been available since the mid 1970s. Such models are used for visualization, simulation, measurements (single and multi-modality image registration), and statistics. When working with standard MR- or CT-scans, the surface obtained can contain several million triangles. These models contain data an order of magnitude larger than that which can be efficiently handled by current workstations or transmitted through networks. These algorithms generally ignore efficient combinations that would produce fewer, well shaped triangles. An efficient algorithm must not create a larger data structure than present in the raw data. Recently, much research has been done on the simplification and optimization of surfaces ([Moore and Warren, 1991]); [Schroeder et al., 1992]; [Turk, 1992]; [Hoppe et al., 1993]; [Kalvin and Taylor, 1994]). All of these algorithms satisfy two criteria, consistency and accuracy, to some degree. Consistent simplification occurs via predictable patterns. Accuracy is measured in terms of fidelity to the original surface, and is a prerequisite for collecting reliable measurements from the simplified surface. We describe the 'Wrapper' algorithm that simplifies triangulated surfaces while preserving the same topological characteristics. We employ the same simplification operation in all cases. However, simplification is restricted but not forbidden in high curvature areas. This hierarchy of operations results in homogeneous triangle aspect and size. Images undergoing compression ratios between 10 and 20:1 are visually identical to full resolution images. More importantly, the metric accuracy of the simplified surfaces appears to be unimpaired. Measurements based upon 'ridge curves; (sensu [Cutting et al., 1993]) extracted on polygonal models were recently introduced [Ayache et al., 1993]. We compared ridge curves digitized from full resolution

  13. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribet, Kenneth A.; Takahashi, Shuzo

    1997-01-01

    Fix an isogeny class 𝒜 of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements of 𝒜 have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes—i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X0D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A ∈ 𝒜 for which one has a nonconstant map πD : X0D(N/D) → A whose pullback A → Pic0(X0D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of πD is an integer δD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class 𝒜). We investigate the behavior of δD as D varies. PMID:11607751

  14. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  15. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Gayawan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  16. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  17. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  18. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  19. Legendre Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, Roland; Top, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    We show that every elliptic curve over a finite field of odd characteristic whose number of rational points is divisible by 4 is isogenous to an elliptic curve in Legendre form, with the sole exception of a minimal respectively maximal elliptic curve. We also collect some results concerning the

  20. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a

  1. Establishment and validation of a dose-effect curve for {gamma}-rays by cytogenetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquinero, Joan F.; Caballin, Maria Rosa [Unitat d`Antropologia, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, Leonardo; Ribas, Montserrat [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular i Fisiologia, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Miro, Rosa [Institut de Biologia Fondamental `Vicent Villar Palasi`, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Egozcue, Josep [Servei d`Oncologia, Hospital de la Santa Crue i Sant Pau, Universitat Autonome de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-01-01

    A dose-effect curve obtained by analysis of dicentric chromosomes after irradiation of peripheral blood samples, from one donor, at 11 different doses of {gamma}-rays is presented. For the elaboration of this curve, more than 18,000 first division metaphases have been analyzed. The results fit very well to the linear-quadratic model. To validate the curve, samples from six individuals (three controls and three occupationally exposed persons) were irradiated at 2 Gy. The results obtained, when compared with the curve, showed that in all cases the 95% confidence interval included the 2 Gy dose, with estimated dose ranges from 1.82 to 2.19 Gy.

  2. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimy Young

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reported for the first time are receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves constructed to describe the performance of a sorbent-coated disk, planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME unit for non-contact sampling of a variety of volatiles. The PSPME is coupled to ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs for the detection of volatile chemical markers associated with the presence of smokeless powders, model systems of explosives containing diphenylamine (DPA, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and nitroglycerin (NG as the target analytes. The performance of the PSPME-IMS was compared with the widely accepted solid-phase microextraction (SPME, coupled to a GC-MS. A set of optimized sampling conditions for different volume containers (1–45 L with various sample amounts of explosives, were studied in replicates (n = 30 to determine the true positive rates (TPR and false positive detection rates (FPR for the different scenarios. These studies were obtained in order to construct the ROC curves for two IMS instruments (a bench-top and field-portable system and a bench top GC-MS system in low and high clutter environments. Both static and dynamic PSPME sampling were studied in which 10–500 mg quantities of smokeless powders were detected within 10 min of static sampling and 1 min of dynamic sampling.

  3. Simulated Air Launch Environment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Variable time steps may be used in !he step forward integration. A Prony series curve fit is used on the master relaxation modulus curve to obtain the...represented by an nth term exponential series which is obtained by fit - ing a Prony series to the relaxation modulus curve. In addition it is necessary to...metal pins pushed into the propellant surface. The clip gage, with holes drilled in the tabs, is then fitted in place onto the pins and small amounts

  4. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  5. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yading; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. In order to track the fuzzy liver-chestwall and liver-heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors' automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm(3), whereas it was 1719 cm(3) for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors' results also clearly demonstrated that the application of tracking the fuzzy

  6. Curved DNA: design, synthesis, and circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulanovsky, L.; Bodner, M.; Trifonov, E.N.; Choder, M.

    1986-02-01

    Curved DNA molecules and unusually small circles have been obtained by ligation of synthetic 21-base precursors. The ligation resulted in the formation of double-stranded oligo(precursor)s possessing a strong 10.5-base-pair (bp) periodicity of the runs of adenines. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the ligation products showed two distinct families of spots: (i) noncircular oligo(precursor)s of 21 to 231 bp (1- to 11-mers) and (ii) four circles from 105 to 168 bp (eluted and analyzed by denaturing gel electrophoresis). The noncircular oligomers exhibited anomalously slow migration, as if they were as much as three times longer than they actually are. The amount of circular products peaked sharply at approx. = 126 bp, near which size the circles have been estimated to be nonconstrained both torsionally and in terms of bending. The nonconstrained circularization provides a technique for the direct measurement of the inherent curvature of DNA in solution. From the size of the circles, an estimate of 8.7 is obtained for the absolute value of the AA x TT wedge angle (roll and tilt combined).

  7. D-Branes in Curved Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreevy, John Austen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-07-06

    This thesis is a study of D-branes in string compactifications. In this context, D-branes are relevant as an important component of the nonperturbative spectrum, as an incisive probe of these backgrounds, and as a natural stringy tool for localizing gauge interactions. In the first part of the thesis, we discuss half-BPS D-branes in compactifications of type II string theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds. The results we describe for these objects are pertinent both in their role as stringy brane-worlds, and in their role as solitonic objects. In particular, we determine couplings of these branes to the moduli determining the closed-string geometry, both perturbatively and non-perturbatively in the worldsheet expansion. We provide a local model for transitions in moduli space where the BPS spectrum jumps, and discuss the extension of mirror symmetry between Calabi-Yau manifolds to the case when D-branes are present. The next section is an interlude which provides some applications of D-branes to other curved backgrounds of string theory. In particular, we discuss a surprising phenomenon in which fundamental strings moving through background Ramond-Ramond fields dissolve into large spherical D3-branes. This mechanism is used to explain a previously-mysterious fact discovered via the AdS-CFT correspondence. Next, we make a connection between type IIA string vacua of the type discussed in the first section and M-theory compactifications on manifolds of G{sub 2} holonomy. Finally we discuss constructions of string vacua which do not have large radius limits. In the final part of the thesis, we develop techniques for studying the worldsheets of open strings ending on the curved D-branes studied in the first section. More precisely, we formulate a large class of massive two-dimensional gauge theories coupled to boundary matter, which flow in the infrared to the relevant boundary conformal field theories. Along with many other applications, these techniques are used to describe

  8. Determination of the human spine curve based on laser triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredoš, Primož; Čelan, Dušan; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2015-02-05

    The main objective of the present method was to automatically obtain a spatial curve of the thoracic and lumbar spine based on a 3D shape measurement of a human torso with developed scoliosis. Manual determination of the spine curve, which was based on palpation of the thoracic and lumbar spinous processes, was found to be an appropriate way to validate the method. Therefore a new, noninvasive, optical 3D method for human torso evaluation in medical practice is introduced. Twenty-four patients with confirmed clinical diagnosis of scoliosis were scanned using a specially developed 3D laser profilometer. The measuring principle of the system is based on laser triangulation with one-laser-plane illumination. The measurement took approximately 10 seconds at 700 mm of the longitudinal translation along the back. The single point measurement accuracy was 0.1 mm. Computer analysis of the measured surface returned two 3D curves. The first curve was determined by manual marking (manual curve), and the second was determined by detecting surface curvature extremes (automatic curve). The manual and automatic curve comparison was given as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) for each patient. The intra-operator study involved assessing 20 successive measurements of the same person, and the inter-operator study involved assessing measurements from 8 operators. The results obtained for the 24 patients showed that the typical RMSD between the manual and automatic curve was 5.0 mm in the frontal plane and 1.0 mm in the sagittal plane, which is a good result compared with palpatory accuracy (9.8 mm). The intra-operator repeatability of the presented method in the frontal and sagittal planes was 0.45 mm and 0.06 mm, respectively. The inter-operator repeatability assessment shows that that the presented method is invariant to the operator of the computer program with the presented method. The main novelty of the presented paper is the development of a new, non-contact method

  9. Method for estimating spin-spin interactions from magnetization curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ryo; Hukushima, Koji

    2017-02-01

    We develop a method to estimate the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian from the observed magnetization curve by machine learning based on Bayesian inference. In our method, plausible spin-spin interactions are determined by maximizing the posterior distribution, which is the conditional probability of the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian for a given magnetization curve with observation noise. The conditional probability is obtained with the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations combined with an exchange Monte Carlo method. The efficiency of our method is tested using synthetic magnetization curve data, and the results show that spin-spin interactions are estimated with a high accuracy. In particular, the relevant terms of the spin-spin interactions are successfully selected from the redundant interaction candidates by the l1 regularization in the prior distribution.

  10. Fast decoding of codes from algebraic plane curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd

    1992-01-01

    Improvement to an earlier decoding algorithm for codes from algebraic geometry is presented. For codes from an arbitrary regular plane curve the authors correct up to d*/2-m2 /8+m/4-9/8 errors, where d* is the designed distance of the code and m is the degree of the curve. The complexity of finding...... the error locator is O(n7/3 ), where n is the length of the code. For codes from Hermitian curves the complexity of finding the error values, given the error locator, is O(n2), and the same complexity can be obtained in the general case if only d*/2-m2/2 errors are corrected...

  11. Simulation of titration curves indicated with two indicator electrodes (biamperometry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, P; Peter, B; Stark, C

    1996-09-01

    A rigorous method to simulate titration curves with indication using two indicator electrodes (biamperometry) is presented. Computer simulations can be carried out for reversible as well as for irreversible systems. The different parameters like the area of the individual electrodes, applied potential difference, heterogeneous rate constant, and the kinetic parameter alpha were varied and investigated as to their influence upon the shape of the titration curves. The theoretically derived effects match with the effects obtained by experiment. Considering the effects described here, it is possible to tailor the shape of the titration curve by the experimental conditions for specific applications in order to get an optimum shape at the end point of the titration.

  12. Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-03-01

    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by Deutsch.

  13. Intelligence, genes, and success scientists respond to the bell curve

    CERN Document Server

    Fienberg, Stephen; Resnick, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    This is author-approved bcc. If it is too long, delete the last sentence in each of the biographies. THE BELL CURVE by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, a best selling book published in 1994, set off a hailstorm of controversy about the relationships among IQ, genetics, and various social outcomes, including welfare dependency, crime, and earnings. Much of the public reaction to the book was polemical and did not focus on the details of the science and in particular on the validity of the statistical arguments that underlie the books's conclusions. A detailed understanding of the arguments in THE BELL CURVE requires knowledge about (i) statistical models for genetic heritability, (ii) factor analysis, especially as it has been applied to the analysis of IQ tests, (iii) logistic regression and multiple regression analyses,and (iv) causal modelling and alternative statistical frameworks for making inference from longitudinal data. In this volume a group of statisticians and social scientists have assembled...

  14. IMPA-ICTP School on Moduli of Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciliberto, Ciro; Esteves, Eduardo; Melo, Margarida; Voisin, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Providing a timely description of the present state of the art of moduli spaces of curves and their geometry, this volume is written in a way which will make it extremely useful both for young people who want to approach this important field, and also for established researchers, who will find references, problems, original expositions, new viewpoints, etc. The book collects the lecture notes of a number of leading algebraic geometers and in particular specialists in the field of moduli spaces of curves and their geometry. This is an important subject in algebraic geometry and complex analysis which has seen spectacular developments in recent decades, with important applications to other parts of mathematics such as birational geometry and enumerative geometry, and to other sciences, including physics.  The themes treated are classical but with a constant look to modern developments (see Cascini, Debarre, Farkas, and Sernesi's contributions), and include very new material, such as Bridgeland stability (see M...

  15. Comparison Of Selected Pedotransfer Functions For The Determination Of Soil Water Retention Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Kupec Michal; Stradiot Peter; Rehák Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Soil water retention curves were measured using a sandbox and the pressure plate extractor method on undisturbed soil samples from the Borská Lowland. The basic soil properties (e.g. soil texture, dry bulk density) of the samples were determined. The soil water retention curve was described using the van Genuchten model (Van Genuchten, 1980). The parameters of the model were obtained using the RETC program (Van Genuchten et al., 1991). For the determination of the soil water retention curve p...

  16. Growth Curve and Structural Equation Modeling : Topics from the Indian Statistical Institute

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some recent trends in GCM research on different subject areas, both theoretical and applied. This includes tools and possibilities for further work through new techniques and modification of existing ones. A growth curve is an empirical model of the evolution of a quantity over time. Growth curves in longitudinal studies are used in disciplines including biology, statistics, population studies, economics, biological sciences, sociology, nano-biotechnology, and fluid mechanics. The volume includes original studies, theoretical findings and case studies from a wide range of applied work. This volume builds on presentations from a GCM workshop held at the Indian Statistical Institute, Giridih, January 18-19, 2014. This book follows the volume Advances in Growth Curve Models, published by Springer in 2013. The results have meaningful application in health care, prediction of crop yield, child nutrition, poverty measurements, estimation of growth rate, and other research areas.

  17. Analysis and Optimization of Box Girder Bridges in Curved Planform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Mohan Rao, B. D. V.; Ramana Rao, N. V.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with the free vibration analysis and optimization of box girder bridges with curved planform. The finite element analysis of a box girder bridge is carried out and then optimized using ANSYS. The objectives of this paper are (i) minimization of volume subjected to the constraint that the fundamental frequency should be greater than the initial value and (ii) maximization of fundamental frequency with a constraint that total volume of the structure should remain constant. The shape of a box girder bridge is optimized and the results are validated by comparing it with a benchmark problem. The mode shapes of the initial and optimum solutions are also presented. The structural optimization variables used in Case-1 are the design variables (length variables, thickness variables), state variables (fundamental frequency), and the objective function (minimization of volume). The structural optimization variables used in Case-2 are the design variables (length variables, thickness variables), state variables (volume), and the objective function (maximization of fundamental frequency). In Case-1, the volume of the structure has been minimized by 56.4 % and in Case-2, the fundamental frequency of the structure has been increased by 141.9 %, which shows a better performance of the proposed methodology.

  18. Vehicle Optimal Velocity Curves for Minimum-Time Maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xia Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A problem in vehicle minimum-time maneuver is the assumption that a vehicle passes through a given path in a minimal amount of time without deviating from the boundary of the given path. Vehicle handling inverse dynamics provides a new perspective to solve such problem. Based on inverse dynamics, this paper transformed the problem of optimal vehicle velocity for minimum-time maneuver into that of optimal control with the objective function of minimum time. The path for minimum vehicle travel time and the optimal control model were established. The optimal velocity curves for three types of paths, namely, monotonically increasing path, monotonically decreasing path, and constant radius path, were analyzed. On this basis, the optimal velocity curves were solved for two kinds of concrete paths: a path of decreasing curvature radius followed by a path of increasing curvature radius and another path of increasing curvature radius followed by a path of decreasing curvature radius. Nine cases of possible optimal velocity curves were acquired. The optimal velocity curve of the given path, that is, a parabola followed by a semicircle, was obtained. Optimal velocity curves can be used as reference for vehicle minimum-time maneuver, which is an important issue for driver safety in fast-moving vehicles.

  19. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated “trial-and-error” protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  20. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Dong, ZhiBao; Han, FengQing

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR) model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated "trial-and-error" protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves) are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  1. Theoretical study on the dispersion curves of Lamb waves in piezoelectric-semiconductor sandwich plates GaAs-FGPM-AlAs: Legendre polynomial series expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the propagation of the Lamb waves in the GaAs-FGPM-AlAs sandwich plate is studied. Based on the orthogonal function, Legendre polynomial series expansion is applied along the thickness direction to obtain the Lamb dispersion curves. The convergence and accuracy of this polynomial method are discussed. In addition, the influences of the volume fraction p and thickness hFGPM of the FGPM middle layer on the Lamb dispersion curves are developed. The numerical results also show differences between the characteristics of Lamb dispersion curves in the sandwich plate for various gradient coefficients of the FGPM middle layer. In fact, if the volume fraction p increases the phase velocity will increases and the number of modes will decreases at a given frequency range. All the developments performed in this paper were implemented in Matlab software. The corresponding results presented in this work may have important applications in several industry areas and developing novel acoustic devices such as sensors, electromechanical transducers, actuators and filters.

  2. Forces in the complex octonion curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to extend major equations in the electromagnetic and gravitational theories from the flat space into the complex octonion curved space. Maxwell applied simultaneously the quaternion analysis and vector terminology to describe the electromagnetic theory. It inspires subsequent scholars to study the electromagnetic and gravitational theories with the complex quaternions/octonions. Furthermore Einstein was the first to depict the gravitational theory by means of tensor analysis and curved four-space-time. Nowadays some scholars investigate the electromagnetic and gravitational properties making use of the complex quaternion/octonion curved space. From the orthogonality of two complex quaternions, it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex quaternion curved space, describing the gravitational properties in the complex quaternion curved space. Further it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex octonion curved space by means of the orthogonality of two comp...

  3. Comparison of four mathematical models to analyze indicator-dilution curves in the coronary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Judith; Vink, Hans; Van Teeffelen, Jurgen W G E

    2011-12-01

    While several models have proven to result in accurate estimations when measuring cardiac output using indicator dilution, the mono-exponential model has primarily been chosen for deriving coronary blood/plasma volume. In this study, we compared four models to derive coronary plasma volume using indicator dilution; the mono-exponential, power-law, gamma-variate, and local density random walk (LDRW) model. In anesthetized goats (N = 14), we determined the distribution volume of high molecular weight (2,000 kDa) dextrans. A bolus injection (1.0 ml, 0.65 mg/ml) was given intracoronary and coronary venous blood samples were taken every 0.5-1.0 s; outflow curves were analyzed using the four aforementioned models. Measurements were done at baseline and during adenosine infusion. Absolute coronary plasma volume estimates varied by ~25% between models, while the relative volume increase during adenosine infusion was similar for all models. The gamma-variate, LDRW, and mono-exponential model resulted in volumes corresponding with literature, whereas the power-model seemed to overestimate the coronary plasma volume. The gamma-variate and LDRW model appear to be suitable alternative models to the mono-exponential model to analyze coronary indicator-dilution curves, particularly since these models are minimally influenced by outliers and do not depend on data of the descending slope of the curve only.

  4. Probabilistic Lane Estimation using Basis Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Albert S.; Teller, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Lane estimation for autonomous driving can be formulated as a curve estimation problem, where local sensor data provides partial and noisy observations of spatial curves. The number of curves to estimate may be initially unknown and many of the observations may be outliers or false detections (due e.g. to to tree shadows or lens flare). The challenges lie in detecting lanes when and where they exist, and updating lane estimates as new observations are made. This paper ...

  5. Efficient detection of symmetries polynomially parametrized curves

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar Arribas, Juan Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    We present efficient algorithms for detecting central and mirror symmetry for the case of algebraic curves defined by means of polynomial parametrizations. The algorithms are based on an algebraic relationship between proper parametrizations of a same curve, which leads to a triangular polynomial system that can be solved in a very fast way; in particular, curves parametrized by polynomials of serious degrees/coefficients can be analyzed in a few seconds. In our analysis we provide a good num...

  6. Clod-o-meter: A New Method for the Calculation of Shrinkage/Swelling Curves for Soil Clods by Integrating an Open Source Software Solution and Digital Imagery Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing the shrinkage and swelling dynamics of swelling soils is fundamental to the understanding of soil cracking and moisture movement within the vadose zone. The shrinkage and swelling curves relate the change in the soil’s specific volume (volume of soil/mass of solids) to the change in the soil’s moisture content. Current methods determine clod volume by dipping saran-coated clods in water or by relying on expensive equipment and proprietary software (such as using laser scanners to measure the sample in three dimensions). We propose an alternative method for determining the volume of a soil clod, which is both low-cost and utilizes completely free and open-source software. To measure the volume, the clod is placed on a stand and imaged from multiple angles using a digital camera. The images are then combined using the free Microsoft program, Photosynth, to create a 3-dimensional point cloud (a three-dimensional set of vertices, representing the outer surface of the object). This point cloud is then edited using the open source program Meshlab to remove outliers and create a Poisson surface mesh. Finally, an Octave code is used to calculate the relative volume of the 3-dimensional surface. To obtain the actual volume of the clod, the relative volume needs to be calibrated using an object within the same 3D image with known dimensions and volume. For this analysis we used the soil clod holder (a cylinder painted with bright, random patterns) as the calibration object to be able to calculate the real volume of the clod from the relative volume obtained by Octave. The clods were kept at room temperature under small temperature and humidity fluctuations to ensure slow and uniform shrinkage. This procedure was repeated at multiple moisture contents (clod weight was recorded immediately prior to each image session). To verify the final volume calculation from the image processing, the clod was dipped in saran resin and placed into a water-filled graduated

  7. Collisions in Fast Generation of Ideal Classes and Points on Hyperelliptic and Elliptic Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja; Shparlinski, Igor

    2005-01-01

    Koblitz curves have been proposed to quickly generate random ideal classes and points on hyperelliptic and elliptic curves. To obtain a further speed-up a different way of generating these random elements has recently been proposed. In this paper we give an upper bound on the number of collisions...

  8. Extracting Salient Curves from Images: An Analysis of the Saliency Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Combining Eqs. 17-19, we obtain that e = 1 e2 2 + e 2 r2: (20) If we now compare the saliency of the element, e, to that of the circle c = r 2...connections and actually beat the circle, is more likely to occur for longer curves. Suppose a curve connects to a circle C such that the total squared

  9. Sieving for rational points on hyperelliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Siksek, Samir

    2001-01-01

    We give a new and efficient method of sieving for rational points\\ud on hyperelliptic curves. This method is often successful in proving that a\\ud given hyperelliptic curve, suspected to have no rational points, does in fact\\ud have no rational points; we have often found this to be the case even when our\\ud curve has points over all localizations Qp. We illustrate the practicality of the\\ud method with some examples of hyperelliptic curves of genus 1.

  10. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  11. Algebraic curves and one-dimensional fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Fedor

    2002-01-01

    Algebraic curves have many special properties that make their study particularly rewarding. As a result, curves provide a natural introduction to algebraic geometry. In this book, the authors also bring out aspects of curves that are unique to them and emphasize connections with algebra. This text covers the essential topics in the geometry of algebraic curves, such as line and vector bundles, the Riemann-Roch Theorem, divisors, coherent sheaves, and zeroth and first cohomology groups. The authors make a point of using concrete examples and explicit methods to ensure that the style is clear an

  12. A Probabilistic Framework for Curve Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between the distributi......In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between...

  13. On enumeration of Hilbert-like curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrek, Jan; Y Grosberg, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We present an analytical method to explicitly enumerate all self-similar space-filling curves similar to Hilbert curve, and find their number grows with length L as {{Z}L}∼ {{1.35699}L}. This presents a first step in the exact characterization of the crumpled globule ensemble relevant for dense topologically constrained polymer matter and DNA folding. Moreover, this result gives a stringent lower bound on the number of Hamiltonian walks on a simple cubic lattice. Additionally, we compute the exact number of crumpled curves with arbitrary endpoints, and the closed crumpled curves on a 4× 4× 4 cube.

  14. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  15. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  16. Vibrational Analysis of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube on a Pasternak Elastic Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I.; Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, Amin

    2012-01-01

    . By utilizing He’s Energy Balance Method (HEBM), the relationships of the nonlinear amplitude and frequency were expressed for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The amplitude frequency response curves of the nonlinear free vibration were obtained for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube embedded......Continuum mechanics and an elastic beam model were employed in the nonlinear force vibrational analysis of an embedded, curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The analysis considered the effects of the curvature or waviness and midplane stretching of the nanotube on the nonlinear frequency...

  17. Algebraic arctic curves in the domain-wall six-vertex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomo, F [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Noferini, V [Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 5, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Pronko, A G, E-mail: colomo@fi.infn.it, E-mail: noferini@mail.dm.unipi.it, E-mail: agp@pdmi.ras.ru [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-05-13

    The arctic curve, i.e. the spatial curve separating ordered (or 'frozen') and disordered (or 'temperate) regions, of the six-vertex model with domain-wall boundary conditions is discussed for the root-of-unity vertex weights. In these cases, the curve is described by algebraic equations which can be worked out explicitly from the parametric solution for this curve. Some interesting examples are discussed in detail. The upper bound on the maximal degree of the equation in a generic root-of-unity case is obtained.

  18. Open string T-duality in a weakly curved background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovic, Ljubica [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-12-15

    We consider a theory of an open string moving in a weakly curved background, composed of a constant metric and a linearly coordinate dependent Kalb-Ramond field with an infinitesimal field strength. We find its T-dual using the generalized Buscher procedure developed for the closed string moving in a weakly curved background, and the fact that solving the boundary conditions, the open string theory transforms to the effective closed string theory. So, T-dualizing the effective theory along all effective directions we obtain its T-dual theory and resume the open string theory which has such an effective theory. In this way we obtain the open string theory T-dual. (orig.)

  19. Tachyon Condensation on the Elliptic Curve

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, S; Lerche, Wolfgang; Warner, Nicholas P

    2007-01-01

    We use the framework of matrix factorizations to study topological B-type D-branes on the cubic curve. Specifically, we elucidate how the brane RR charges are encoded in the matrix factors, by analyzing their structure in terms of sections of vector bundles in conjunction with equivariant R-symmetry. One particular advantage of matrix factorizations is that explicit moduli dependence is built in, thus giving us full control over the open-string moduli space. It allows one to study phenomena like discontinuous jumps of the cohomology over the moduli space, as well as formation of bound states at threshold. One interesting aspect is that certain gauge symmetries inherent to the matrix formulation lead to a non-trivial global structure of the moduli space. We also investigate topological tachyon condensation, which enables us to construct, in a systematic fashion, higher-dimensional matrix factorizations out of smaller ones; this amounts to obtaining branes with higher RR charges as composites of ones with minim...

  20. Method for obtaining Chromosomes Method for obtaining Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogart James P.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.

  1. Estimation of the growth curve parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Nagulu, Banoth; Satyanarayana , Y.; Srinivasa, Rao P.; Gopal, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Growth is one of the most important characteristics of cultured species. The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of linear, log linear, polynomial, exponential and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Macrobrachium rosenbergii obtained by using weekly records of live weight, total length, head length, claw length, and last segment length from 20 to 192 days of age. The models were evaluated according to the coefficient of determination (R2), and error sum off square (ES...

  2. Certain exponential sums and random walks on elliptic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja; Shparlinski, Igor

    2005-01-01

    For a given elliptic curve E, we obtain an upper bound on the discrepancy of sets of multiples z_sG where z_s runs through a sequenc Z=(z_1, \\ldots ,z_T) such that k= z_1,..., kz_T is a permutation of z_1,...,z_T, both sequences taken modulo t, for sufficiently many distinct modulo t values of k....

  3. Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoying Rong; Dewei Qi; Guowei He; Jun Yong Zhu; Tim Scott

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity are simulated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The results of migration and rotation of the curved fiber at different Reynolds numbers are reported. The results show that the rotation and migration processes are sensitive to the curvature of the fiber.

  4. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve functions of Iranian primiparous Holsteins. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The suitability of seven mathematical models (with three, four and five parameters) for describing the 305-day milk yield lactation curve of Holstein cows, were examined in this ...

  5. Spectral Curves of Operators with Elliptic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chris Eilbeck

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer-algebra aided method is carried out, for determining geometric objects associated to differential operators that satisfy the elliptic ansatz. This results in examples of Lamé curves with double reduction and in the explicit reduction of the theta function of a Halphen curve.

  6. Sibling curves of polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in papers [2, 3] as a novel way to visualize the zeros of complex valued functions. In this paper, we continue the work done in those papers by focusing solely on polynomials. We proceed to prove that the number of sibling curves of a polynomial is the degree of the polynomial. Keywords: ...

  7. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  8. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  9. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...

  10. Modular curves, Arakelov theory, algorithmic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Pieter Jan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about arithmetic, analytic and algorithmic aspects of modular curves and modular forms. The arithmetic and analytic aspects are linked by the viewpoint that modular curves are examples of arithmetic surfaces. Therefore, Arakelov theory (intersection theory on arithmetic surfaces)

  11. Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cardoulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ  n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.

  12. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  13. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this section, various types of families of algebraic curves are considered. Equations of these curves are written either in Cartesian coordinates (x, y) or in terms of plane polar coordinates (r, θ). In some cases, para- metric equations are also considered. 3.1 Astroid. In Cartesian coordinates, the equation of an astroid (Fig-.

  15. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  16. N-Covers of hyperelliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, N.; Flynn, E. V.

    2003-05-01

    For a hyperelliptic curve {ax C} of genus g with a divisor class of order n = g + 1, we shall consider an associated covering collection of curves {ax D}_delta, each of genus g(2) . We describe, up to isogeny, the Jacobian of each {ax D}_delta via a map from {ax D}_delta to {ax C}, and two independent maps from {ax D}_delta to a curve of genus g(g-1)/2. For some curves, this allows covering techniques that depend on arithmetic data of number fields of smaller degree than standard 2-coverings; we illustrate this by using 3-coverings to find all {Bbb Q}-rational points on a curve of genus 2 for which 2-covering techniques would be impractical.

  17. "Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, M.; Biswal, B.

    2011-12-01

    The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

  18. Flow and Heat Transfer in a Newtonian Nanoliquid due to a Curved Stretching Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddheshwar, Pradeep Ganapathi; Nerolu, Meenakshi; Pažanin, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Flow of a Newtonian nanoliquid due to a curved stretching sheet and heat transfer in it is studied. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients by using a similarity transformation. The flow characteristics are studied using plots of flow velocity components and the skin-friction coefficient as a function of suction-injection parameter, curvature, and volume fraction. Prescribed surface temperature and prescribed surface heat flux are considered for studying the temperature distribution in the flow. The thermophysical properties of 20 nanoliquids are considered in the investigation by modeling them through the use of phenomenological laws and mixture theory. The results of the corresponding problem involving a plane stretching sheet is obtained as a particular case of those obtained in the present paper. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are evaluated and it is observed that skin friction coefficient decreases with concentration of nanoparticles in the absence as well as presence of suction where as Nusselt number increases with increase in concentration of nanoparticles in a dilute range.

  19. Image-derived input function obtained in a 3TMR-brainPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, N.A. da [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Lisbon (Portugal); Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine - 4, Juelich (Germany); Herzog, H., E-mail: h.herzog@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine - 4, Juelich (Germany); Weirich, C.; Tellmann, L.; Rota Kops, E. [Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine - 4, Juelich (Germany); Hautzel, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty at Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Almeida, P. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-02-21

    Aim: The combination of a high-resolution MR-compatible BrainPET insert operated within a 3 T MAGNETOM Trio MR scanner is an excellent tool for obtaining an image derived input function (IDIF), due to simultaneous imaging. In this work, we explore the possibility of obtaining an IDIF from volumes of interest (VOI) defined over the carotid arteries (CAs) using the MR data. Material and methods: FDG data from three patients without brain disorders were included. VOIs were drawn bilaterally over the CAs on a MPRAGE image using a 50% isocontour (MR50VOI). CA PET/MR co-registration was examined based on an individual and combined CA co-registration. After that, to estimate the IDIF, the MR50VOI average (IDIF-A), four hottest pixels per plane (IDIF-4H) and four hottest pixels in VOI (IDIF-4V) were considered. A model-based correction for residual partial volume effects involving venous blood samples was applied, from which partial volume (PV) and spillover (SP) coefficients were estimated. Additionally, a theoretical PV coefficient (PVt) was calculated based on MR50VOI. Results: The results show an excellent co-registration between the MR and PET, with an area under the curve ratio between both co-registration methods of 1.00±0.04. A good agreement between PV and PVt was found for IDIF-A, with PV of 0.39±0.06 and PVt 0.40±0.03, and for IDIF-4H, with PV of 0.47±0.05 and PVt 0.47±0.03. The SPs were 0.20±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for IDIF-A and IDIF-4H, respectively. Conclusion: The integration of a high resolution BrainPET in an MR scanner allows to obtain an IDIF from an MR-based VOI. This must be corrected for a residual partial volume effect.

  20. Computational system to estimate formation permeabilities and output curves of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Sara L.; Uribe, Daniel; Montoya, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    Geothermal Inflow Performance Relationships (GIPR) numerically obtained may be used to estimate formation permeability at the geothermal well feed zone, by superimposition of the well inflow curve with different GIPR curves (geothermal inflow type-curves). Each type-curve reflects behavior which depends on the formation properties. The methodology does not require field measurement of the well inflow curve. The complete well inflow curve is obtained from a single wellhead or bottomhole measurement of mass flowrate ( W), flowing pressure ( P) and specific enthalpy ( h), ( W, P, h) 0, and from the static pressure at the well feed zone ( Ps), by using two geothermal inflow performance dimensionless reference curves, one for mass productivity and another for thermal productivity. In order to facilitate the permeability diagnostic by means of this methodology, a computation system was developed which is described in this work. The system makes it possible to superimpose the geothermal well inflow curve on different geothermal inflow type-curves and then to select the best possible fit. Type-curves integrated to the system covering the temperature range 200-350°C in 25°C increments and Corey and linear relative permeabilities were considered. The system also allows estimation of the output curves associated with the well inflow curve by considering each calculated point of the well inflow curve as the input of a geothermal well flow simulator. The computation system shows instantaneously the estimated mass output curve (mass deliverability curve) for the well under analysis and the corresponding thermal power and specific enthalpy output curves. When it is required to validate the methodology for a particular well, the ( W, P, h) 0 data may be from a previous discharge test and then the system will display the estimated output curves comparing them with all the field data of the corresponding discharge test. It is expected that this system can be considered as a

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION INTERMEDIATE OBTAINED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    selectivity is the ratio of the rate constant of the reaction of carbocation with an externally added nucleophile, (nu, aniline) to that of the rate constant of the water. Our intention was to obtain a carbocation with high selectivity, so that one can pave a path for the synthesis of Schiff's base by the reaction of the carbocation ...

  2. The first light curve analysis of eclipsing binary NR Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Poro, A.

    2015-05-01

    New observations of the eclipsing binary system NR Cam were carried out using a CCD in B, V, and R filters and new times of light minimum and new ephemeris were obtained. The B, V, and R light curves were analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system. These results show that NR Cam is an overcontact binary and that both components are Main Sequence stars. The O'Connell effect on NR Cam was studied and some variations in spot parameters were obtained over the different years.

  3. Psychophysical tuning curves for very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Moore, Brian C.J.; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2010-01-01

    low frequencies, psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were obtained for centre frequencies of 31.5, 40, and 50 Hz. An equal-loudness-level contour was also obtained using closely spaced frequencies. This was used as a rough estimate of the shape of the individual middle-ear transfer function...... in the frequency range below 100 Hz. Preliminary results on 1 subject are described. The PTCs showed distinct irregularities around the signal frequency, which may reflect the influence of beats. However, the overall shapes of the PTCs were broad, indicating that frequency selectivity at low frequencies...

  4. Psychophysical tuning curves for very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Moore, Brian C.J.; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of problems produced by low-frequency noise requires information about frequency selectivity in the low-frequency range. However, there are few data on frequency selectivity for centre frequencies below 100 Hz. To estimate the characteristics of auditory tuning for very...... low frequencies, psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were obtained for centre frequencies of 31.5, 40, and 50 Hz. An equal-loudness-level contour was also obtained using closely spaced frequencies. This was used as a rough estimate of the shape of the individual middle-ear transfer function...

  5. Ferguson curve model and morphological smoothing of ruled surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Antony T.

    2001-11-01

    This work studies the generation of a ruled surface from scattered data, which can be obtained by a shape- from - X procedure or can be an experimental output. The ruled surface is generated by the so- called Ferguson Curve Model. This model is an interpolation technique based on parametric cubic polynomials, and thus guaranteeing continuity of the curvature in each point of the initial set. We show how morphological operations - esp. openings and closings can be used to obtain good smoothness of the surface in practice. An application to robot motion planning is presented.

  6. Estimation of Typhoon Wind Hazard Curves for Nuclear Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The intensity of such typhoons, which can influence the Korean Peninsula, is on an increasing trend owing to a rapid change of climate of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Therefore, nuclear facilities should be prepared against future super-typhoons. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that a new NPP should be designed to endure the design-basis hurricane wind speeds corresponding to an annual exceedance frequency of 10{sup -7} (return period of 10 million years). A typical technique used to estimate typhoon wind speeds is based on a sampling of the key parameters of typhoon wind models from the distribution functions fitting statistical distributions to the observation data. Thus, the estimated wind speeds for long return periods include an unavoidable uncertainty owing to a limited observation. This study estimates the typhoon wind speeds for nuclear sites using a Monte Carlo simulation, and derives wind hazard curves using a logic-tree framework to reduce the epistemic uncertainty. Typhoon wind speeds were estimated for different return periods through a Monte-Carlo simulation using the typhoon observation data, and the wind hazard curves were derived using a logic-tree framework for three nuclear sites. The hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds were obtained. The mean hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds can be used for the design and risk assessment of an NPP.

  7. NEW ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION CURVES FOR INTERSTELLAR DUST IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Gordon, Karl D.; Bohlin, R. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Massa, Derck L.; Wolff, Michael J. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Fitzpatrick, Edward L., E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: bohlin@stsci.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu, E-mail: bianchi@jhu.edu, E-mail: mjwolff@spacescience.org, E-mail: edward.fitzpatrick@villanova.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    New low-resolution UV spectra of a sample of reddened OB stars in M31 were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/STIS to study the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction and the nature of the underlying dust grain populations. Extinction curves were constructed for four reddened sightlines in M31 paired with closely matching stellar atmosphere models. The new curves have a much higher signal-to-noise ratio than previous studies. Direct measurements of N(H i) were made using the Lyα absorption lines enabling gas-to-dust ratios to be calculated. The sightlines have a range in galactocentric distance of 5–14 kpc and represent dust from regions of different metallicities and gas-to-dust ratios. The metallicities sampled range from solar to 1.5 solar. The measured curves show similarity to those seen in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Maximum Entropy Method was used to investigate the dust composition and size distribution for the sightlines observed in this program, finding that the extinction curves can be produced with the available carbon and silicon abundances if the metallicity is super-solar.

  8. Power curve measurement with a nacelle mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Courtney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    is tested. A pulsed lidar prototype, measuring horizontally, was installed on the nacelle of a multi-megawatt wind turbine. A met mast with a top-mounted cup anemometer standing at two rotor diameters in front of the turbine was used as a reference. After a data-filtering step, the comparison of the 10 min...... mean wind speed measured by the lidar to that measured by the cup anemometer showed a deviation of about 1.4% on average. The power curve measured with the lidar was very similar to that measured with the cup anemometer although the lidar power curve was slightly distorted because of the deviation...... the wind measured by the mast. Finally, the lidar is never in the wake of the turbine under test contrary to the cup anemometer; therefore, the wind sector usable for power curve measurement was larger than the sector for which the cup anemometer was not disturbed by any obstacle. The power curve obtained...

  9. Pump function curve shape for a model lymphatic vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, C D; Macaskill, C; Moore, J E

    2016-07-01

    The transport capacity of a contractile segment of lymphatic vessel is defined by its pump function curve relating mean flow-rate and adverse pressure difference. Numerous system characteristics affect curve shape and the magnitude of the generated flow-rates and pressures. Some cannot be varied experimentally, but their separate and interacting effects can be systematically revealed numerically. This paper explores variations in the rate of change of active tension and the form of the relation between active tension and muscle length, factors not known from experiment to functional precision. Whether the pump function curve bends toward or away from the origin depends partly on the curvature of the passive pressure-diameter relation near zero transmural pressure, but rather more on the form of the relation between active tension and muscle length. A pump function curve bending away from the origin defines a well-performing pump by maximum steady output power. This behaviour is favoured by a length/active-tension relationship which sustains tension at smaller lengths. Such a relationship also favours high peak mechanical efficiency, defined as output power divided by the input power obtained from the lymphangion diameter changes and active-tension time-course. The results highlight the need to pin down experimentally the form of the length/active-tension relationship. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decay heat curve evaluation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, M.; Doda, K.; Ida, T.; Hashidura, H.; Oka, M.; Yasu, N.

    1981-03-01

    Fission-product decay energy release rates were measured for fast neutron fissions of U-235, Pu-239, U-238, Th-232 and natural uranium for gamma-ray, and U-235 and Pu-239 for beta-ray. Gamma-ray energy spectra were measured using a NaI scintillation detector and beta ray energy spectra were obtained using a plastic scintillation detector combined with a transmission type proportional counter to eliminate gamma-ray effects. The measuremens were made covering times following irradiations from 19 to 24,000 seconds. The spectra data were integrated to provide total energy release rates as a function of time after fission. The present data of beta ray energy release rates are preliminary due to current carrying out of the data analyses. Typical uncertainties in the present data are approximately 5 percent (1 sigma) except for Th-232, and approximately 8 percent for Th-232. The present results were compared with the results of summation calculations using the TASAKA, ENDF/B-IV and JNDC decay data files.

  11. Experimental determination of pure rotary stability derivatives using curved and rolling flow wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutze, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    The technique of using a curved and rolling flow wind tunnel to extract pure rotary stability derivatives is presented. Descriptions of the curved flow and the rolling flow test sections of the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel are given including methods for obtaining the proper velocity profiles and correcting the data acquired. Results of testing current fighter configurations in this facility are presented with particular attention given to comparing pure rotary derivatives with combined rotary and unsteady derivatives obtained by standard oscillation tests. Also the effect of curved and rolling flow on lateral static stability derivatives is examined.

  12. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  13. Venous return curve and its application to assessment of the effect of cardiovascular drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Kenshi; Gotoh, Kohshi; Yagi, Yasuo (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to obtain a venous return curve, occlusion plethysmography with radionuclide was performed in the forearm of 24 patients with various heart diseases. Radionuclide angiocardiography was performed and during the equilibrium phase the region of interest was created over the forearm for repeated venous occlusions. Specific compliance in the vein of the forearm was obtained by drawing the radionuclide count-venous pressure curve from changes in venous pressure and radioactivity of the forearm. Compliance of human systemic veins was then obtained based on some hypotheses. Mean systemic pressure (Pms) was estimated. In addition, right auricular pressure and cardiac output were obtained for drawing part of the venous return curve. In a study of the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the venous return curve, Pms was found to be significantly decreased by the administration of nitroglycerin. Furthermore, systemic venous return curve moved to the leftward. In contrast, nifedipine did not have any influence on Pms in Class I of cardiovascular function; and systemic venous return curve moved clockwise by the administration of the drug. In the case of Class II or III, nifedipine caused the systemic venous return curve to move clockwise with decreasing Pms. (N.K.).

  14. True stress–strain curves of cold worked stainless steel over a large range of strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaya, Masayuki, E-mail: kamaya@inss.co.jp; Kawakubo, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    True stress–strain curves for cold worked stainless steel were obtained over a range of strains that included a large strain exceeding the strain for the tensile strength (post-necking strain). A specified testing method was used to obtain the stress–strain curves in air at room temperature. The testing method employed the digital image correlation (DIC) technique and iterative finite element analyses (FEA) and was referred to as IFD (Iteration FEA procedure based on DIC measurement) method. Although hourglass type specimens have been previously used for the IFD method, in this study, plate specimens with a parallel gage section were used to obtain accurate yield and tensile strengths together with the stress–strain curves. The stress–strain curves including the post-necking strain were successfully obtained by the IFD method, and it was shown that the stress–strain curves for different degrees of cold work collapsed onto a single curve when the offset strain was considered. It was also shown that the Swift type constitutive equation gave good regression for the true stress–strain curves including the post-necking strain regardless of the degree of cold work, although the Ramberg–Osgood type constitutive equation showed poor fit. In the regression for the Swift type constitutive equation, the constant for power law could be assumed to be n{sub S} = 0.5.

  15. True stress-strain curves of cold worked stainless steel over a large range of strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Kawakubo, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    True stress-strain curves for cold worked stainless steel were obtained over a range of strains that included a large strain exceeding the strain for the tensile strength (post-necking strain). A specified testing method was used to obtain the stress-strain curves in air at room temperature. The testing method employed the digital image correlation (DIC) technique and iterative finite element analyses (FEA) and was referred to as IFD (Iteration FEA procedure based on DIC measurement) method. Although hourglass type specimens have been previously used for the IFD method, in this study, plate specimens with a parallel gage section were used to obtain accurate yield and tensile strengths together with the stress-strain curves. The stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain were successfully obtained by the IFD method, and it was shown that the stress-strain curves for different degrees of cold work collapsed onto a single curve when the offset strain was considered. It was also shown that the Swift type constitutive equation gave good regression for the true stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain regardless of the degree of cold work, although the Ramberg-Osgood type constitutive equation showed poor fit. In the regression for the Swift type constitutive equation, the constant for power law could be assumed to be nS = 0.5.

  16. Constructing a proton titration curve from ion-step measurements, applied to a membrane with adsorbed protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Bosch, Coen; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    A new measuring method is described for obtaining a proton titration curve. The curve is obtained from a microporous composite membrane, consisting of polystyrene beads in an agarose matrix, with lysozyme molecules adsorbed to the bead surface. The membrane is incorporated into a sensor system by

  17. A Height–Diameter Curve for Longleaf Pine Plantations in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Leduc; Jeffery Goelz

    2009-01-01

    Tree height is a critical component of a complete growth-and-yield model because it is one of the primary components used in volume calculation. To develop an equation to predict total height from dbh for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations in the West Gulf region, many different sigmoidal curve forms, weighting functions, and ways of...

  18. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...... administrative micro data we find that the elasticity of the wage-setting curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with an university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase...

  19. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  20. Magnetization curve modelling of soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, I, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bertalan L. street 7., Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the so called hyperbolic model of magnetization. The model was modified and it was applied for nine different soft magnetic alloys. The tested samples were electro-technical steels (FeSi alloys) and a permalloy (FeNi alloy) with strongly different magnetic properties. Among them there are top, medium and definitely poor quality soft magnetic materials as well. Their minor hysteresis loops and normal magnetization curves were measured by alternating current measurement. The hyperbolic model of magnetization was applied for the experimental normal magnetization curves. It was proved that the applied model is excellent for describing mathematically the experimental magnetization curves.

  1. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods. The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results. A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2≥0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results reveal that the replacement of a word or several words by detailed or nondetailed emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones.

  2. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montés-Micó, Robert; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2 ≥ 0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones. PMID:29082040

  3. On the characterization of flowering curves using Gaussian mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proïa, Frédéric; Pernet, Alix; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Clotault, Jérémy

    2016-08-07

    In this paper, we develop a statistical methodology applied to the characterization of flowering curves using Gaussian mixture models. Our study relies on a set of rosebushes flowering data, and Gaussian mixture models are mainly used to quantify the reblooming properties of each one. In this regard, we also suggest our own selection criterion to take into account the lack of symmetry of most of the flowering curves. Three classes are created on the basis of a principal component analysis conducted on a set of reblooming indicators, and a subclassification is made using a longitudinal k-means algorithm which also highlights the role played by the precocity of the flowering. In this way, we obtain an overview of the correlations between the features we decided to retain on each curve. In particular, results suggest the lack of correlation between reblooming and flowering precocity. The pertinent indicators obtained in this study will be a first step towards the comprehension of the environmental and genetic control of these biological processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  5. Aluminized fiberglass insulation conforms to curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Layers of fiber glass with outer reflective films of vacuum-deposited aluminum or other reflective metal, provide thermal insulation which conforms to curved surfaces. This insulation has good potential for cryogenic systems.

  6. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  7. Modeling Type IIn Supernova Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Janie; Roming, Peter; Fryer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present near-by Type IIn supernovae observed with Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Based on the diversity of optical light curve properties, this Type II subclass is commonly referred to as heterogeneous. At the time of discovery, our IIn sample is ~ 2 magnitudes brighter at ultraviolet wavelengths than at optical wavelengths, and ultraviolet brightness decays faster than the optical brightness. We use a semi-analytical supernova (SN) model to better understand our IIn observations, and focus on matching specific observed light curves features, i.e peak luminosity and decay rate. The SN models are used to study the effects of initial SN conditions on early light curves, and to show the extent of the "uniqueness" problem in SN light curves. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from members of the Swift UVOT team, the NASA astrophysics archival data analysis program, and the NASA Swift guest investigator program.

  8. Projective curves, hyperplane sections and associated webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Ballico

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An integral and non-degenerate curve $C\\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ is said to be ordinary (Gruson, Hantout and Lehmann if if the general hyperplane section $H\\cap C$ of $H$ is of maximal rank in $H$. Let $g'(r,d$ be the maximal integer such that for every $g\\in \\{0,\\dots ,g'(r,d\\}$ there is a smooth ordinary curve $C\\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ with degree $d$ and genus $g$. Here we discuss the relevance of old papers to get a lower bound for $g'(r,d$. We prove that arithmetically Gorenstein curves $C \\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ are ordinary only if either $r=2$ or $d =r+1$ and $\\omega _C \\cong \\mathcal {O}_C$. We prove that general low genus curves are ordinary.

  9. Quaternion orders, quadratic forms, and Shimura curves

    CERN Document Server

    Alsina, Montserrat

    2004-01-01

    Shimura curves are a far-reaching generalization of the classical modular curves. They lie at the crossroads of many areas, including complex analysis, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. The text provides an introduction to the subject from a theoretic and algorithmic perspective. The main topics covered in it are Shimura curves defined over the rational number field, the construction of their fundamental domains, and the determination of their complex multiplication points. The study of complex multiplication points in Shimura curves leads to the study of families of binary quadratic forms with algebraic coefficients and to their classification by arithmetic Fuchsian groups. In this regard, the authors develop a theory full of new possibilities which parallels Gauss' theory on the classification of binary quadratic forms with integral coefficients by the action of the modular group. Each topic covered in the book begins with a theoretical discussion followed by carefully worked...

  10. KAIT Fermi AGN Light-Curve Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page shows the light curves of a total of 163 AGNs that are monitored by KAIT with average cadence of 3 days. These are unfiltered observations; in...

  11. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  12. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  13. Improvement to the Huff Curve for Design Storms and Urban Flooding Simulations in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilin Pan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The storm hyetograph is critical in drainage design since it determines the peak flooding volume in a catchment and the corresponding drainage capacity demand for a return period. This study firstly compares the common design storms such as the Chicago, Huff, and Triangular curves employed to represent the storm hyetographs in the metropolitan area of Guangzhou using minute-interval rainfall data during 2008–2012. These common design storms cannot satisfactorily represent the storm hyetographs in sub-tropic areas of Guangzhou. The normalized time of peak rainfall is at 33 ± 5% for all storms in the Tianhe and Panyu districts, and most storms (84% are in the 1st and 2nd quartiles. The Huff curves are further improved by separately describing the rising and falling limbs instead of classifying all storms into four quartiles. The optimal time intervals are 1–5 min for deriving a practical urban design storm, especially for short-duration and intense storms in Guangzhou. Compared to the 71 observed storm hyetographs, the Improved Huff curves have smaller RMSE and higher NSE values (6.43, 0.66 than those of the original Huff (6.62, 0.63, Triangular (7.38, 0.55, and Chicago (7.57, 0.54 curves. The mean relative difference of peak flooding volume simulated with SWMM using the Improved Huff curve as the input is only 2%, −6%, and 8% of those simulated by observed rainfall at the three catchments, respectively. In contrast, those simulated by the original Huff (−12%, −43%, −16%, Triangular (−22%, −62%, −38%, and Chicago curves (−17%, −19%, −21% are much smaller and greatly underestimate the peak flooding volume. The Improved Huff curve has great potential in storm water management such as flooding risk mapping and drainage facility design, after further validation.

  14. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  15. Liquefaction Probability Curves for Surficial Geologic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Liquefaction probability curves that predict the probability of surface manifestations of earthquake-induced liquefaction are developed for 14 different surficial geologic deposits. The geologic units include alluvial fan, beach ridge, river delta, eolian dune, point bar, floodbasin, natural river levee, abandoned river channel, deep-water lake, lagoonal, sandy artificial fill, and valley train deposits. Probability is conditioned on earthquake magnitude and peak ground acceleration. Curves are developed for water table depths of 1.5 and 5.0 m. Probabilities were derived from complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) that were computed from 935 cone penetration tests. Most of the curves can be fit with a 3-parameter logistic function, which facilitates computations of probability. For natural deposits with a water table at 1.5 m depth and subjected to an M7.5 earthquake with a PGA = 0.25 g, probabilities range from 0.5 for fluvial point bar, barrier island beach ridge, and deltaic deposits. Retrospective predictions of liquefaction during historical earthquakes based on the curves compare favorably to post-earthquake observations. We also have used the curves to assign ranges of liquefaction probabilities to the susceptibility categories proposed by Youd and Perkins (1978) for different geologic deposits. For the earthquake loading and conditions described above, probabilities range from 0-0.08 for low, 0.09-0.30 for moderate, 0.31-0.62 for high, to 0.63-1.00 for very high susceptibility. Liquefaction probability curves have two primary practical applications. First, the curves can be combined with seismic source characterizations to transform surficial geologic maps into probabilistic liquefaction hazard maps. Geographic specific curves are clearly desirable, but in the absence of such information, generic liquefaction probability curves provide a first approximation of liquefaction hazard. Such maps are useful both

  16. Evolution of the extinction curves in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Asano, Ryosuke S.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nozawa, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of extinction curves in galaxies based on our evolution model of grain size distribution. In this model, we considered various processes: dust formation by SNe II and AGB stars, dust destruction by SN shocks in the ISM, metal accretion onto the surface of grains (referred to as grain growth), shattering and coagulation. We find that the extinction curve is flat in the earliest stage of galaxy evolution. As the galaxy is enriched with dust, shattering becomes effec...

  17. Harmonic algebraic curves and noncrossing partitions

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jeremy; Savitt, David; Singer, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by Gauss's first proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, we study the topology of harmonic algebraic curves. By the maximum principle, a harmonic curve has no bounded components; its topology is determined by the combinatorial data of a noncrossing matching. Similarly, every complex polynomial gives rise to a related combinatorial object that we call a basketball, consisting of a pair of noncrossing matchings satisfying one additional constraint. We prove that every noncrossing...

  18. Gain Estimation of Doubly Curved Reflector Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Schejbal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple formula of approximate gain estimation is verified for the doubly curved reflector antenna. Numerical simulations using physical optics and experimental results of the shaped-beam doubly curved reflector antenna are compared with the simple approximation of gain. That approximation could be very valuable for system engineers to accurately estimate antenna gain and coverage pattern and perform EMC calculations (estimations of interferences and susceptibilities even for the operation and out of operation frequency bands of shapedbeam antenna.

  19. Mental Effort and Safety in Curved Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Entzinger, Jorg Onno; Uemura, Tsuneharu; Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Curved approach procedures are implemented around the world. Although typically flown by the autopilot, human pilots need the situational awareness and skills to take over control in rare-event cases to ensure flight safety. We try to understand the pilot’s cognitive models and differences in required (mental) effort between conventional straight-in approaches and curved approaches. We developed various methods to visualize pilots’ control efforts during manual flight, show their capabilities...

  20. Capability curve analysis of photovoltaic generation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The present article assesses the study of the PV generator capability curves for use in large scale photovoltaic power plants (LS-PVPPs). For this purpose, the article focuses on three main aspects: (i) the modelling of the main components of the PV generator, (ii) the operational limits analysis of the PV array together with the inverter, and (iii) the capability curve analysis considering variable solar irradiance and temperature. To validate this study a PVPP of 1 MW is designed, modelled ...

  1. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  2. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G

    2015-11-03

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5.

  3. Turbine blade profile design method based on Bezier curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, R. A.; Tishchenko, V. A.; Gribin, V. G.; Gavrilov, I. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the technique of two-dimensional parametric blade profile design is presented. Bezier curves are used to create the profile geometry. The main feature of the proposed method is an adaptive approach of curve fitting to given geometric conditions. Calculation of the profile shape is produced by multi-dimensional minimization method with a number of restrictions imposed on the blade geometry.The proposed method has been used to describe parametric geometry of known blade profile. Then the baseline geometry was modified by varying some parameters of the blade. The numerical calculation of obtained designs has been carried out. The results of calculations have shown the efficiency of chosen approach.

  4. Are safe results obtained when the PC-SAFT equation of state is applied to ordinary pure chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Privat, Romain; Gani, Rafiqul; Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2010-01-01

    different fluid-fluid coexistence lines (the vapour pressure-curve and an additional liquid-liquid equilibrium curve) and two critical points for a same pure component, which is obviously physically inconsistent. In addition to n-alkanes, nearly sixty very common pure components (branched alkanes...... demonstrate that in case of pure fluids, the PC-SAFT equation may exhibit up to five different volume-roots whereas cubic equations give at the most three volume-roots (and yet, only one or two volume roots have real significance). The consequence of this strongly atypical behaviour is the existence of two...

  5. The learning curve of laparoscopic holecystectomy in general surgery resident training: old age of the patient may be a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Valentina; Bindi, Marco; Rivelli, Matteo; Cumbo, Jacopo; Solej, Mario; Enrico, Stefano; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A well-designed learning curve is essential for the acquisition of laparoscopic skills: but, are there risk factors that can derail the surgical method? From a review of the current literature on the learning curve in laparoscopic surgery, we identified learning curve components in video laparoscopic cholecystectomy; we suggest a learning curve model that can be applied to assess the progress of general surgical residents as they learn and master the stages of video laparoscopic cholecystectomy regardless of type of patient. Electronic databases were interrogated to better define the terms “surgeon”, “specialized surgeon”, and “specialist surgeon”; we surveyed the literature on surgical residency programs outside Italy to identify learning curve components, influential factors, the importance of tutoring, and the role of reference centers in residency education in surgery. From the definition of acceptable error, self-efficacy, and error classification, we devised a learning curve model that may be applied to training surgical residents in video laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Based on the criteria culled from the literature, the three surgeon categories (general, specialized, and specialist) are distinguished by years of experience, case volume, and error rate; the patients were distinguished for years and characteristics. The training model was constructed as a series of key learning steps in video laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Potential errors were identified and the difficulty of each step was graded using operation-specific characteristics. On completion of each procedure, error checklist scores on procedure-specific performance are tallied to track the learning curve and obtain performance indices of measurement that chart the trainee’s progress. Conclusions. The concept of the learning curve in general surgery is disputed. The use of learning steps may enable the resident surgical trainee to acquire video laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  6. Stenting for curved lesions using a novel curved balloon: Preliminary experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hideshi; Higaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Fujii, Takanari; Fujimoto, Kazuto

    2015-08-01

    Stenting may be a compelling approach to dilating curved lesions in congenital heart diseases. However, balloon-expandable stents, which are commonly used for congenital heart diseases, are usually deployed in a straight orientation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of stenting with a novel curved balloon considered to provide better conformability to the curved-angled lesion. In vitro experiments: A Palmaz Genesis(®) stent (Johnson & Johnson, Cordis Co, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) mounted on the Goku(®) curve (Tokai Medical Co. Nagoya, Japan) was dilated in vitro to observe directly the behavior of the stent and balloon assembly during expansion. Animal experiment: A short Express(®) Vascular SD (Boston Scientific Co, Marlborough, MA, USA) stent and a long Express(®) Vascular LD stent (Boston Scientific) mounted on the curved balloon were deployed in the curved vessel of a pig to observe the effect of stenting in vivo. In vitro experiments: Although the stent was dilated in a curved fashion, stent and balloon assembly also rotated conjointly during expansion of its curved portion. In the primary stenting of the short stent, the stent was dilated with rotation of the curved portion. The excised stent conformed to the curved vessel. As the long stent could not be negotiated across the mid-portion with the balloon in expansion when it started curving, the mid-portion of the stent failed to expand fully. Furthermore, the balloon, which became entangled with the stent strut, could not be retrieved even after complete deflation. This novel curved balloon catheter might be used for implantation of the short stent in a curved lesion; however, it should not be used for primary stenting of the long stent. Post-dilation to conform the stent to the angled vessel would be safer than primary stenting irrespective of stent length. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the Correlation between Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Compensatory Curves and their Influence on Dentoskeletal Morphology-An In vitro CBCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Suresh; Kumar, A Nanda; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Krishnan, P Hari; Kumar, M Senthil; Sabapathy, R Senkutvan; Kumar, V Vijay

    2017-08-01

    To date, many orthodontist corrects malocclusion based on patients aesthetic concern and fails to correct the compensatory curves. This scenario is due to less insight on understanding relationship of compensatory curves and its correlation in treatment prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the curve of Spee, curve of Monson and curve of Wilson, their influence on dentoskeletal morphology and their contribution to occlusal stability. This study included 104 non-orthodontic models. The study casts were subdivided into two groups, Group-I consist 52 non- orthodontic models with Class-I molar relationship and Group-II consist of 52 non- orthodontic models with Class-II molar relationship. Curve of Spee was measured with digital vernier caliper, curve of Monson estimated using specially made sphere (7″inch, 8″ inch and 9″inch) and curve of Wilson was evaluated using Cone Beam Computed Technology (CBCT). Mean value for curve of Spee obtained for Group I and Group II is 1.844 mm and 3.188 mm. For curve of Monson, the mean value obtained for Group I and Group-II is 7.65 inches and 7.40 inches. The mean degree obtained for the curve of Wilson for Group I and Group-II is 12.05 and 16.49. The result showed positive correlation between curve of Spee and curve of Wilson and no correlation between curve of Monson and curve of Wilson and no correlation between curve of Spee and curve of Monson. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis from the study confirmed these results. The results showed positive correlation between curve of spee and curve of Wilson. The data found in this study can be applied clinically for Class I and Class II malocclusion patients on diagnosis and treatment planning.

  8. Sediment Curve Uncertainty Estimation Using GLUE and Bootstrap Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aboalhasan fathabadi

    2017-02-01

    3000 times. Sediment rating curves equation was fitted to each sampled suspended sediment and discharge data sets. Using these sediment rating curve and their residual suspended sediment concentration were calculate for test data. Finally using the 2.5 and 97.5 percentile of the B bootstrap realizations, 95% bootstrap prediction intervals were predicted. Results and Discussion: Results showed that Motorkhane and MiyaneTonelShomare 7 stations were best fitted by a sigmoid function and Stor and Glinak stations were best fitted by second order polynomial and liner function, respectively The first 50 of the B bootstrapped curves were plotted for all stations.with respect to these plots implied that bootstrapped curves more scattered whereas observed data were less. The suspended sediment curve parameters estimated more accurately where, the suspended sediments were sampled more, as a result of reduced uncertainty in estimated suspended sediment concentration due to parameter uncertainty. In addition to sampling density bootstrapped curves, uncertainty depends on the curve shape. For GLUE methodology to assess the impact of threshold values on the uncertainty results, threshold values systematically changed from 0.1 to 0.45. Study results showed that 95% confidence intervals are sensitive to the selected threshold values and higher threshold values will result in an increasing 95% confidence interval. However, the highest 95% confidence intervals obtained by GLUE method (when threshold value was set to 0.1 was little than those values obtained by Bootstrap. Conclusions: The uncertainty of sediment rating curves was addressed in this study by considering two different procedures based on the GLUE and bootstrap methods for four stations in Sefidrod watershed.Results showed that nonlinear equation fitted log-transformed values of sediment concentration and discharge better than linear equation. Uncertainty result using GLUE depend on chosen threshold values. As threshold

  9. The friction-free compressibility curve of bentonite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Y.M.; Wu, P.L. [National Central University, Dpt. of Civil Engineering, Taiwan (China); Chuang, W.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China)

    2005-07-01

    lubricant, tow pistons and low aspect ratio and high saturation sample are employed. Because the mechanism of powder compaction and wall friction is very complicate and has not been fully understood, the wall friction of any specific material during compaction is usually investigated through experiments. To better understand the behavior of wall friction, assess its effect on the properties of compacted block, and evaluate the preventing method, high quality measurement of wall friction during compaction and ejection is an important task. The compressibility curves (the plot of the applied force vs. density relation during uniaxial compaction, usually named as compaction curve in the fields of powder metallurgy, it should not be confuse with compaction curve in geotechnical engineering) have been widely used to describe the compaction behavior of powders. The density of block under a specified applied stress can be evaluated by the compressibility curve. The required applied stress for a specified density of compact can also be estimated by compressibility curve. The wall friction is induced between the materials and the wall of compaction mold during the compaction process, so it's hard to obtain the relationship between the actual compaction force and the density of the bentonite block. The compaction force will be over estimated because of wall friction force and changes with differential aspect ratio. This paper presents one method to correct the friction effect and obtain friction-free compressibility curve. Proposed method base on the friction force distribution theory. This friction-free compaction curve can eliminate wall friction force and the effect of geometric. A series compaction test of varies h/d ratio was carried out in this study, and to demonstrate the method obtained friction-free compressibility curve of bentonite block. (authors)

  10. Fast fabrication of curved microlens array using DMD-based lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curved microlens array is the core element of the biologically inspired artificial compound eye. Many existing fabrication processes remain expensive and complicated, which limits a broad range of application of the artificial compound eye. In this paper, we report a fast fabrication method for curved microlens array by using DMD-based maskless lithography. When a three-dimensional (3D target curved profile is projected into a two-dimensional (2D mask, arbitrary curved microlens array can be flexibly and efficiently obtained by utilizing DMD-based lithography. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a curved PDMS microlens array with 90 micro lenslets has been fabricated. The physical and optical characteristics of the fabricated microlens array suggest that this method is potentially suitable for applications in artificial compound eye.

  11. Curved hierarchically micro-micro structured polypropylene surfaces by injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielonen, K.; Suvanto, M.; Pakkanen, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Structural hierarchy of polymer surfaces has been of central interest due to its diverse surface functionalities. However, the research on hierarchically structured polymer surfaces has been focused on planar surfaces even though applications may also be variously curved. This study demonstrates the fabrication of curved rigid polymer surfaces with precisely controlled hierarchical microstructures. The surface structuration was made on an aluminum foil with a microworking robot, and polypropylene replicas were produced by injection molding. Depending on the mold structuration procedure, the curved mold can have either radially or vertically oriented structures. Both convex and concave curvatures were here applied to spherically and cylindrically curved surfaces. A simple structure protection technique was applied to support the structures during mechanical bending of the foil. The planar hierarchically microstructured polypropylene surfaces were characterized to exhibit superhydrophobicity, and similar structures were obtained on the curved surfaces. Introducing the curvature to the hierarchically structured surfaces may further widen the applicability of functionalized polymer surfaces.

  12. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  13. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yading, E-mail: yading.yuan@mssm.edu; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In order to track the fuzzy liver–chestwall and liver–heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors’ automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. Results: The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm{sup 3}, whereas it was 1719 cm{sup 3} for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors’ results also clearly

  14. Critical Factors for Inducing Curved Somatosensory Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Nakano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We are able to make a saccade toward a tactile stimuli to one hand, but trajectories of many saccades curved markedly when the arms were crossed (Groh & Sparks, 2006. However, it remains unknown why some curved and others did not. We therefore examined critical factors for inducing the curved somatosensory saccades. Participants made a saccade as soon as possible from a central fixation point toward a tactile stimulus delivered to one of the two hands, and switched between arms-crossed and arms-uncrossed postures every 6 trials. Trajectories were generally straight when the arms were uncrossed, but all participants made curved saccades when the arms were crossed (12–64%. We found that the probability of curved saccades depended critically on the onset latency: the probability was less than 5% when the latency was larger than 250 ms, but the probability increased up to 70–80% when the onset latency was 160 ms. This relationship was shared across participants. The results suggest that a touch in the arms-crossed posture was always mapped to the wrong hand in the initial phase up to 160 ms, and then remapped to the correct hand during the next 100 ms by some fundamental neural mechanisms shared across participants.

  15. Tuning curves, neuronal variability, and sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Butts

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuning curves are widely used to characterize the responses of sensory neurons to external stimuli, but there is an ongoing debate as to their role in sensory processing. Commonly, it is assumed that a neuron's role is to encode the stimulus at the tuning curve peak, because high firing rates are the neuron's most distinct responses. In contrast, many theoretical and empirical studies have noted that nearby stimuli are most easily discriminated in high-slope regions of the tuning curve. Here, we demonstrate that both intuitions are correct, but that their relative importance depends on the experimental context and the level of variability in the neuronal response. Using three different information-based measures of encoding applied to experimentally measured sensory neurons, we show how the best-encoded stimulus can transition from high-slope to high-firing-rate regions of the tuning curve with increasing noise level. We further show that our results are consistent with recent experimental findings that correlate neuronal sensitivities with perception and behavior. This study illustrates the importance of the noise level in determining the encoding properties of sensory neurons and provides a unified framework for interpreting how the tuning curve and neuronal variability relate to the overall role of the neuron in sensory encoding.

  16. Comparison of power curve monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Philippe; Masson, Christian; Tahan, Antoine; Torres, David; Pelletier, Francis

    2017-11-01

    Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM) of wind turbines (WT). In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.

  17. Comparison of power curve monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambron Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM of wind turbines (WT. In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.

  18. Multiphasic growth curve analysis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, W J; Grossman, M; Michalska, E

    1987-01-01

    Growth curves of mean body weights were compared to those of individual weights when fitted to data of male and female mice using monophasic (logistic) and triphasic growth functions. Goodness-of-fit was determined by residual variances and Durbin-Watson statistics. These criteria suggest that the triphasic function, with smaller and less correlated residuals, describes the data better than the monophasic function. For the triphasic function, residual variances were higher when fitting individual weights than mean weights. Males had higher residual variances than females. Auto-correlation was negligible when fitting individual weights for males and for females. Parameters of the triphasic function were higher when fitting curves of individual weights than curves of mean weights; differences between curves within sex were small. Parameters were similar for males and females, especially in the first phase of growth. Half asymptotic weights for the second and third phases were higher for males than for females. From these results, it should be clear that using a multiphasic function to describe growth curves in mice provides greater insight for understanding the biology of growth.

  19. Galaxy rotation curves with lognormal density distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, John H.

    2015-04-01

    The lognormal distribution represents the probability of finding randomly distributed particles in a micro canonical ensemble with high entropy. To a first approximation, a modified form of this distribution with a truncated termination may represent an isolated galactic disc, and this disc density distribution model was therefore run to give the best fit to the observational rotation curves for 37 representative galaxies. The resultant curves closely matched the observational data for a wide range of velocity profiles and galaxy types with rising, flat or descending curves in agreement with Verheijen's classification of `R', `F' and `D' type curves, and the corresponding theoretical total disc masses could be fitted to a baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Nine of the galaxies were matched to galaxies with previously published masses, suggesting a mean excess dynamic disc mass of dex 0.61 ± 0.26 over the baryonic masses. Although questionable with regard to other measurements of the shape of disc galaxy gravitational potentials, this model can accommodate a scenario in which the gravitational mass distribution, as measured via the rotation curve, is confined to a thin plane without requiring a dark matter halo or the use of modified Newtonian dynamics.

  20. Vertically stratified two-phase flow in a curved channel: Insights from a domain perturbation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S., E-mail: spush@iitm.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2014-07-15

    In this work, we investigate the fully developed flow field of two vertically stratified fluids (one phase flowing above the other) in a curved channel of rectangular cross section. The domain perturbation technique is applied to obtain an analytical solution in the asymptotic limit of low Reynolds numbers and small curvature ratios (the ratio of the width of the channel to its radius of curvature). The accuracy of this solution is verified by comparison with numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations. The flow is characterized by helical vortices within each fluid, which are driven by centrifugal forces. The number of vortices and their direction of circulation varies with the parameters of the system (the volume fraction, viscosity ratio, and Reynolds numbers). We identify nine distinct flow patterns and organize the parameter space into corresponding flow regimes. We show that the fully developed interface between the fluids is not horizontal, in general, but is deformed by normal stresses associated with the circulatory flow. The results are especially significant for flows in microchannels, where the Reynolds numbers are small. The mathematical results in this paper include an analytical solution to two coupled biharmonic partial differential equations; these equations arise in two-phase, two-dimensional Stokes flows.

  1. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  2. The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerbaux, Thierry; Detry, Bruno; Geubel, Andre; Veriter, Claude; Liistro, Giuseppe; Horsmans, Yves; Frans, Albert

    2006-02-01

    To trace the entire oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (ODC) in a cohort of cirrhotic patients in stable condition who were candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Prospective cohort study. A large academic hospital. We traced the entire ODC in whole blood in standard conditions (pH 7.4; PCO2, 40 mm Hg; temperature, 37 degrees C) for 50 cirrhotic candidates for OLT (27 men and 23 women) and 50 age- and height-matched healthy subjects (27 men and 23 women). All subjects were nonsmokers or ex-smokers for at least 5 years. We also measured 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) in RBCs, plasma ions, and arterial blood gases in all subjects according to standard methods. Mixed venous blood was also obtained from the 50 cirrhotic patients. Mean ODC was the same in the two groups. However, for the cirrhotic patients, the dispersion of the PO2 values of oxygen saturation percentage (SO2%) from 20 to 80% was significantly larger (p < 0.01 to p < 0.0001). In the cirrhotic patients, the mean PO2 for half-saturation of hemoglobin (P50) was 7.11 + 0.14 mEq/L chloride (p < 0.001) plus 0.36 mEq/L inorganic phosphate (p < 0.05) plus 0.25 micromol/gram of hemoglobin (gHb) 2,3 DPG (p < 0.00002) in absolute numerical values. Sodium, potassium, and calcium, three plasma ions disturbed in cirrhotic patients, did not contribute to determine the mean P50. In patients with cirrhosis, increased dispersion of PO2 values for a given level of SO2% may be related to four factors: (1) an observed alteration of the enzymes controlling the phosphoglycerate shunt; (2) hypothyroidism, which may affect 7 to 20% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis; (3) the type of ongoing treatment, eg, diuretics and/or propranolol; and (4) plasma ion disturbances. We describe the ODC by three indexes: shape, position, and an index of dispersion of the PO2 values for a given level of SO2%. In addition, when the latter is increased, we suggest that other factors than pH, temperature, carbon dioxide, and

  3. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-11-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal families of a given surface.The classification of minimal families of curves can be reduced to the classification of minimal families which cover weak Del Pezzo surfaces. We classify the minimal families of weak Del Pezzo surfaces and present a table with the number of minimal families of each weak Del Pezzo surface up to Weyl equivalence.As an application of this classification we generalize some results of Schicho. We classify algebraic surfaces that carry a family of conics. We determine the minimal lexicographic degree for the parametrization of a surface that carries at least 2 minimal families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.

    2012-11-18

    A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Analytical modeling of PEM fuel cell i-V curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji, Shaker [College of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2011-02-15

    The performance of a fuel cell is characterized by its i-V curve. In this study, the performance of a bench scale fuel cell stack, run on hydrogen/air, is measured experimentally for different air flow rates and temperatures. The experimental data, obtained from the 40-W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), are used in estimating the parameters of a completely analytical model that describes the i-V curve. The analytical model consists of the three fundamental losses experienced by a fuel cell, namely: activation, ohmic, and concentration losses. The current loss is also considered in the model. While the Tafel constants, ohmic resistance, and the concentration loss constant are estimated through regression, the limiting current density and the current loss are obtained through measurements. The effect of temperature on the fuel cell performance, exchange current density, and current loss is also investigated. Both the exchange current density and the current loss are plotted against temperature on an Arrhenius-like plot and the related parameters are estimated. The theoretical equations derived in the literature, which model fuel cell performance, are found to reasonably fit the obtained experimental data. (author)

  6. The influence of the net rainfall mixed Curve Number – Green Ampt procedure in flood hazard mapping: a case study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Petroselli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A net rainfall estimation procedure, referred to as Curve-Number For Green-Ampt (CN4GA, combining the Soil Conservation Service - Curve Number (SCS-CN method and the Green and Ampt (GA infiltration equation was recently developed, aiming to distribute at subdaily time resolution the information provided by the SCS-CN method. The initial abstraction and the total volume of rainfall provided by the SCS-CN method are used to identify the ponding time and to quantify the hydraulic conductivity parameter of the GA equation, whereas the GA infiltration model distributes the total volume of the rainfall excess provided by the SCS-CN method. In this study we evaluate the proposed procedure with reference to a real case comparing the flood mapping obtained applying the event-based approach for two different net rainfall scenarios: the proposed CN4GA and the common SCS-CN. Results underline that the net rainfall estimation step can affect the final flood mapping result.

  7. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  8. Candidate Binary Trojan and Hilda Asteroids from Rotational Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnett, Sarah M.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph R.; Bauer, James M.; Kramer, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Jovian Trojans (hereafter, Trojans) are asteroids in stable orbits at Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points, and Hilda asteroids are inwards of the Trojans in 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Due to their special dynamical properties, observationally constraining the formation location and dynamical histories of Trojans and HIldas offers key input for giant planet migration models. A fundamental parameter in assessing formation location is the bulk density - with low-density objects associated with an ice-rich formation environment in the outer solar system and high-density objects typically linked to the warmer inner solar system. Bulk density can only be directly measured during a close fly-by or by determining the mutual orbits of binary asteroid systems. With the aim of determining densities for a statistically significant sample of Trojans and Hildas, we are undertaking an observational campaign to confirm and characterize candidate binary asteroids published in Sonnett et al. (2015). These objects were flagged as binary candidates because their large NEOWISE brightness variations imply shapes so elongated that they are not likely explained by a singular equilibrium rubble pile and instead may be two elongated, gravitationally bound asteroids. We are obtaining densely sampled rotational light curves of these possible binaries to search for light curve features diagnostic of binarity and to determine the orbital properties of any confirmed binary systems by modeling the light curve. We compare the We present an update on this follow-up campaign and comment on future steps.

  9. Numerical analysis of heat-curved I-girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Gergess

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat curving is a practical and economical process used by steel fabricators for curving structural steel. In this method, the flange edges of a fabricated straight girder are asymmetrically heated to induce residual curvature on cooling. Available analytical methods for predicting the resulting residual stress, strain and curvature are complex and iterative because of the need to account for material and geometric non-linearity. This paper presents a single-step, non-iterative, numerical procedure for determining the effects of heat-curving on residual stress and strain based on a previously developed simplified analysis. Thermal equilibrium equations for idealized heating profiles are first recast in a general parametric form and then solved numerically for standard heating width and temperature using modern technical computing. The resulting solutions are expressed as polynomial functions to allow the solution space for the residual curvature to be graphically represented. Curvature predictions using this simplified approach are shown to be within 11% of measured values and within 5% of values obtained using more rigorous numerical methods.

  10. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 grade B plate materials. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A 302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in fabricating reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study at Materials Engineering Associates (MEA) on one particular heat of A 302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in numerous tests made on the more recent production materials of A 533 grade B and A 508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the MEA material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A 302 grade B steels or just unique to that one particular plate. Seven heats of modified A 302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A 533 grade B steel were provided to this project by the General Electric Company of San Jose, California. All plates were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550{degrees}F (288{degrees}C). Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, IT, 2T, and 4T). None of the seven heats of modified A 302 grade showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550{degrees}F (82 to 288{degrees}C) produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and mathematical curve fits to the same were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume is a compilation of all data developed.

  12. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy: Ascending the learning curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Michela Giulii; Bellotti, Carlo; Lotti, Marco; Ansaloni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) is a technically demanding procedure and requires a surgical team skilled in both endocrine and endoscopic surgery. The aim of this report is to point out some aspects of the learning curve of the video-assisted thyroid surgery, through the analysis of our preliminary series of procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a period of 8 months, we selected 36 patients for minimally invasive video-assisted surgery of the thyroid. The patients were considered eligible if they presented with a nodule not exceeding 35 mm and total thyroid volume cosmetic outcomes of the series. RESULTS: We performed 36 total thyroidectomy and in one case we performed a consensual parathyroidectomy. The procedure was successfully carried out in 33 out of 36 cases (conversion rate 8.3%). The mean operating time was 109 min (range: 80-241 min) and reached a plateau after 29 MIVAT. Post-operative complications included three transient recurrent nerve palsies and two transient hypocalcemias; no definitive hypoparathyroidism was registered. The cosmetic result was considered excellent by most patients. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in skills and technology allow surgeons to easily reproduce the standard open total thyroidectomy with video-assistance. Although the learning curve represents a time-consuming step, training remains a crucial point in gaining a reasonable confidence with video-assisted surgical technique. PMID:25883451

  13. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules.

  14. An Update on the Depth-Dose Curve of Antiprotons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taasti, Vicki Trier; Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Knudsen, Helge

    we refine the experimental set-up to obtain absolute dose per primary particle, and compare these with simulations. Materials and Methods: Scrutinizing the geometrical setup, we could calculate beam scattering along the antiproton beam, which enables replotting the depth-dose curve as absolute dose...... in water. The experimental results are compared with the Monte Carlo particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A. Contrary to [1], here the full ionization chamber is simulated and the dose is scored in the ionization chamber air gap. Stopping power ratios are determined as well in order to translate...

  15. Three-generation neutrino oscillations in curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Hao, E-mail: yhzhang1994@gmail.com; Li, Xue-Qian, E-mail: lixq@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Three-generation MSW effect in curved spacetime is studied and a brief discussion on the gravitational correction to the neutrino self-energy is given. The modified mixing parameters and corresponding conversion probabilities of neutrinos after traveling through celestial objects of constant densities are obtained. The method to distinguish between the normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy is discussed in this framework. Due to the gravitational redshift of energy, in some extreme situations, the resonance energy of neutrinos might be shifted noticeably and the gravitational effect on the self-energy of neutrino becomes significant at the vicinities of spacetime singularities.

  16. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First O...... Order Reliability Methods in combination with life-cycle cost-optimal inspection and maintenance planning. The methodology is based on preposterior analyses from Bayesian decision theory. An illustrative example is shown....

  17. Circular arc approximation by quartic H-Bézier curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quartic H-Bézier curve is used for the approximation of circular arcs. It has five control points and one positive real free parameter. The four control points are carried out by G^1-approximation constraints and the remaining control point is dividing the line segment joining the second and fourth control points in the ratio 1:2. Optimized value of free parameter α is obtained by minimizing the maximum value of absolute radius error of the recommended approximation scheme. The developed approximation scheme is found considerably better than the existing approximation schemes for these computed values of control points and optimized value of the free parameter.

  18. From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus

  19. Charged particles constrained to a curved surface

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the motion of charged particles constrained to arbitrary two-dimensional curved surfaces but interacting in three-dimensional space via the Coulomb potential. To speed-up the interaction calculations, we use the parallel compute capability of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of todays graphics boards. The particles and the curved surfaces are shown using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL). The paper is intended to give graduate students, who have basic experiences with electrostatics and differential geometry, a deeper understanding in charged particle interactions and a short introduction how to handle a many particle system using parallel computing on a single home computer

  20. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  1. Conformal metamaterial absorber for curved surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Youngsoo; Yoo, Minyeong; Lim, Sungjoon

    2013-10-07

    In this paper, three different unit cells are designed on the basis split-ring-cross resonators, and each unit cell has an absorption rate greater than 90% at incident angles of 0°, 30°, and 45°, respectively. They are non-periodically placed in three different zones on the curved surface. Therefore, the proposed conformal metamaterial absorber can achieve a high absorption rate. The performance of the proposed absorber is compared with that of a metallic curved surface and a conformal metamaterial absorber with the same unit cells.

  2. Space-filling curves for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Baback; Hintz, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Clayton V.

    1991-08-01

    This paper outlines the use of space-filling curves in transform image compression. Specifically, a space-filling Hilbert curve is used for mapping the two-dimensional image into a suitable one-dimensional representation. Compared to simple raster-scans, this topological mapping is spatially non-disruptive and tends to preserve local pixel correlations in the original two-dimensional image. Standard transform coefficient reduction and coding techniques can then be applied to the one-dimensional representation for the purposes of data compression. The advantages of the one-dimensional coding, in terms of computational cost and subjective image quality, are also discussed.

  3. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos-Pinto, M.M.P.; Cadena, M.; Santos, N.; Fernandes, T.S.; Borges, E.; Amaral, A., E-mail: marcelazoo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-10-15

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates. (author)

  4. Do the disc degeneration and osteophyte contribute to the curve rigidity of degenerative scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Bao, Hongda; Yan, Peng; Liu, Shunan; Bao, Mike; Zhu, Zezhang; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong

    2017-03-29

    The factors associated with lateral curve flexibility in degenerative scoliosis have not been well documented. Disc degeneration could result in significant change in stiffness and range of motion in lateral bending films. The osteophytes could be commonly observed in degenerative spine but the relationship between osteophyte formation and curve flexibility remains controversial. The aim of the current study is to clarify if the disc degeneration and osteophyte formation were both associated with curve flexibility of degenerative scoliosis. A total of 85 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The inclusion criteria were as follow: age greater than 45 years, diagnosed as degenerative scoliosis and coronal Cobb angle greater than 20°. Curve flexibility was calculated based on Cobb angle, and range of motion (ROM) was based on disc angle evaluation. Regional disc degeneration score (RDS) was obtained according to Pfirrmann classification and osteophyte formation score (OFS) was based on Nanthan classification. Spearman correlation was performed to analyze the relationship between curve flexibility and RDS as well as OFS. Moderate correlation was found between RDS and curve flexibility with a Spearman coefficient of -0.487 (P = 0.009). Similarly, moderate correlation was observed between curve flexibility and OFS with a Spearman coefficient of -0.429 (P = 0.012). Strong correlation was found between apical ROM and OFS compared to the relationship between curve flexibility and OFS with a Spearman coefficient of -0.627 (P scoliosis patients.

  5. Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy and its Standard Error using Constant Shape Weibull Mixture ROC Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Pundir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curve is a widely used classification technique in Medical Diagnosis which classifies the healthy and diseased individuals on the basis of optimal cut off value of the biomarker. In this article, we have proposed Constant Shape Weibull Mixture ROC (CSWMROC model. The properties of CSWMROC Curve are discussed and expressions for AUC, its variance and confidence interval are derived. The estimates of AUC of CSWMROC curve are obtained using Method of Moments (MOM. Numerical example is considered to support the proposed theory.

  6. Curved Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde equation and N =4 mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Nersessian, Armen; Sutulin, Anton

    2017-11-01

    We propose a generalization of the Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde (WDVV) equation from Rn to an arbitrary Riemannian manifold. Its form is obtained by extending the relation of the WDVV equation with N =4 supersymmetric n -dimensional mechanics from flat to curved space. The resulting "curved WDVV equation" is written in terms of a third-rank Codazzi tensor. For every flat-space WDVV solution subject to a simple constraint, we provide a curved-space solution on any isotropic space, in terms of the rotationally invariant conformal factor of the metric.

  7. Growth curve and development of the internal calli structure of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to elucidate the growth curve of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. calli analyzing their anatomical modifications. A sigmoid aspect of the growth curve of the calli fresh matter was observed, with five different phases (lag, exponential, linear, deceleration and decline. In the lag phase, the highest growth percentage 87%, was observed, which reduced during the evaluation period to 17% in the linear phase. As for the anatomical analyses, cellular multiplications was observed during the lag and exponential phases and increase in cell size during the linear phase, promoting the calli volume growth and the establishment of the globular conformation.

  8. Soil-water retention curve and beginning of monitoring in Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ)

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez, José A.; López, Reynaldo; Kopecky, Lubomir; Landaverde, José

    2011-01-01

    In El Salvador during the rainy season or when major earthquakes occur, the areas covered by the volcanic tephras Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) suffer mass movements, liquefaction and erosion; causing important en- vironmental, social and economic losses. To start the characterization of these unsaturated soils, suction values of a fall unit of TBJ were obtained using pressure plate, centrifuge and filter paper to build a Soil-Water Retention Curve. The use of this curve into finite elements soft...

  9. Economic Transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region: Is It Undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people’s health while also causing economic loss. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the pattern of its environmental and economic development. Panel data in the period 2004–2014 are used to establish an advanced model of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results indicate that the economic growth and environmental pollution of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region do not completely meet the Environment Kuznets Curve assumptions. The discharge volume of industrial wastewater and economic growth reflect a wave-type relation. The sulfur dioxide discharge volume and economic growth reflect a U-shaped relation; the generated volume of industrial solid wastes and economic growth reflect a reversed N-shaped relation, which is in accordance with the Environmental Kuznets Curve characteristics at the second inflection point. The variables added value of the secondary industry, population size and raw coal consumption volume have a significant positive influence on the discharge of various environmental pollutants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The analysis provides policy recommendations for the government to develop regional economic and environmental protection policies.

  10. Spectral curves of surface reflectance in some Antarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupi, A.; Tomasi, C.; Orsini, A.; Cacciari, A.; Vitale, V.; Georgiadis, T. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Institute of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Casacchia, R.; Salvatori, R. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Salvi, S. [National Institute of Geophysics, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Rome (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Four surface reflectance models of solar radiation were determined by examining several sets of field measurements taken for clear-sky conditions at various sites in Antarctica. Each model consists of the mean spectral curve of surface reflectance in the 0.25-2.7 {mu}m wavelength range and of the dependence curve of total abedo on the solar elevation angle h, within the range from 5{sup 0} to 55{sup 0}. The TNB (Terra Nova Bay) model refers to a rocky terrain where granites are predominant; the NIS (Nansen Ice Sheet) model to a glacier surface made uneven by sastrugi and streaked by irregular fractures; the HAP (High Altitude Plateau) model to a flat ice surface covered by fresh snow and scored by light sastrugi; and the RIS (Ross Ice Shelf) model to an area covered by the sea ice pack presenting many discontinuities in the reflectance features, due to melt water lakes, puddles, refrozen ice and snow pots. The reflectance curve obtained for the TNB model presents gradually increasing values as wavelength increases through the visible spectral range and almost constant values at infrared wavelengths, giving a total albedo value equal to 0.264 at = 30{sup 0}, which increases by about 80% through the lower range of h and decreases by 12% through the upper range. The reflectance curves of the NIS, HAP and RIS models are all peaked at visible wavelengths and exhibit decreasing values throughout the infrared spectral range, giving values of total albedo equal to 0.464, 0.738 and 0.426 at h 30{sup 0}, respectively. These values were estimated to increase by 8-14% as h decreases from 30{sup 0} to 5{sup 0} and to decrease by 2-4% only as h increases from 30{sup 0} to 55{sup 0}.

  11. Water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    .... The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation...

  12. Discrete groups, Mumford curves and Theta functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der

    1992-01-01

    A discrete group Γ given over some complete non archimedean valued field defines a curve X. The theta functions for Γ provide an analytic construction for the Jacobian variety of X. A theory of theta functions is developed with the help of currents on trees and graphs and the cohomology for Γ. In

  13. Growth curves for girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelli, Fabio; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Antonio, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro; Barbeta, Camila Justino de Oliveira; de Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273) girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915). Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

  14. Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bertapelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273 girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915. Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

  15. Developing laminar flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    As an intermediate step between earlier investigations on fully developed laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectancular wet cross-section and the mathematical modeling of turbulent flow in river bends, a mathematical model of developing laminar flow in such channels is investigated. The

  16. Focus on Physics: The Delightful Catenary Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2017-01-01

    When teaching how "tension" and "compression" relate to geometrical structures such as bridges, arches, and domes, The author shows a picture of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, completed in the 14th century, and presents a lesson on using the curve called a catenary to explain how he teaches about tension and compression…

  17. Simulation of experimental breakthrough curves using multiprocess ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we have studied the behaviour of reactive solute trans- port through stratified porous medium under the influence of multi-process non- equilibrium transport model. Various experiments were carried out in the laboratory and the experimental breakthrough curves were observed at spatially placed sam ...

  18. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Describing lactation in mammals using a lactation curve aims to provide a concise summary of the pattern of milk yield and valuable information about the biological and economic efficiency of the animal or herd under consideration. A total of 106 581 monthly test-day milk records collected from 12 677 Tehran.

  19. The environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to analyze evidence of an environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution in the developing and developed countries. The study was conducted based on a panel data set of 54 countries – that were categorized into six groups of “developed countries”, “developing countries”, “developed ...

  20. Phonon dispersion curves of CsCN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the ...

  1. Tropical count of curves on abelian varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, Lars Halvard; Rose, Simon Charles Florian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the problem of counting tropical genus g curves ing-dimensional tropical abelian varieties. We do this by studyingmaps from principally polarized tropical abelian varieties into afixed abelian variety. For g = 2, 3, we prove that the tropical countmatches the count provided in [Göt98...

  2. Remote sensing used for power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...

  3. Principal G-bundles on nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    If Y is reducible these notions depend on parameters a = (a1,...,aI ). The study of G-bundles on Y is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles [U1] to generalized parabolic principal G-bundles (called GPGs in short) on the curve C and using the correspondence between them and principal ...

  4. Measuring Systematic Error with Curve Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupright, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic errors are often unavoidable in the introductory physics laboratory. As has been demonstrated in many papers in this journal, such errors can present a fundamental problem for data analysis, particularly when comparing the data to a given model. In this paper I give three examples in which my students use popular curve-fitting software…

  5. Affine LIBOR Models with Multiple Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grbac, Zorana; Papapantoleon, Antonis; Schoenmakers, John

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a multiple curve framework that combines tractable dynamics and semianalytic pricing formulas with positive interest rates and basis spreads. Negative rates and positive spreads can also be accommodated in this framework. The dynamics of overnight indexed swap and LIBOR rates...

  6. ATLAS detector records its first curved muon

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet. This was an important test of the chambers in their final configurations, and marked the first triggering and measurement of curved cosmic ray muons in ATLAS.

  7. Characteristic Classes for Curves of Genus One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taelman, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compute the cohomology of the stackM1 over C with coefficients in Z[12 ], and in low degrees with coefficients in Z. Cohomology classes onM1 give rise to characteristic classes, cohomological invariants of families of curves of genus one. We prove a number of vanishing results for those

  8. The characteristic numbers of quartic plane curves

    OpenAIRE

    Vakil, Ravi

    1998-01-01

    The characteristic numbers of smooth plane quartics are computed using intersection theory on a component of the moduli space of stable maps. This completes the verification of Zeuthen's prediction of characteristic numbers of smooth plane curves. A short sketch of a computation of the characteristic numbers of plane cubics is also given as an illustration.

  9. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  10. Designing the Alluvial Riverbeds in Curved Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macura, Viliam; Škrinár, Andrej; Štefunková, Zuzana; Muchová, Zlatica; Majorošová, Martina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the method of determining the shape of the riverbed in curves of the watercourse, which is based on the method of Ikeda (1975) developed for a slightly curved path in sandy riverbed. Regulated rivers have essentially slightly and smoothly curved paths; therefore, this methodology provides the appropriate basis for river restoration. Based on the research in the experimental reach of the Holeška Brook and several alluvial mountain streams the methodology was adjusted. The method also takes into account other important characteristics of bottom material - the shape and orientation of the particles, settling velocity and drag coefficients. Thus, the method is mainly meant for the natural sand-gravel material, which is heterogeneous and the particle shape of the bottom material is very different from spherical. The calculation of the river channel in the curved path provides the basis for the design of optimal habitat, but also for the design of foundations of armouring of the bankside of the channel. The input data is adapted to the conditions of design practice.

  11. Meromorphic connections on vector bundles over curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Descartes,. 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France. *Correspond author. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; heu@math.unistra.fr. MS received 17 July 2013; revised 20 October 2013. Abstract. We give a criterion for filtered vector bundles over curves to admit a ...

  12. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  13. Is the Water Heating Curve as Described?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

  14. Direct volume estimation without segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.

    2015-03-01

    Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.

  15. Load curves of industrial consumers: aggregation with other loads; Curvas de carga de consumidores industriais - agregacao com outras cargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolari, Ronaldo Pedro; Jardini, Jose Antonio

    1996-07-01

    This work presents a methodology for load curves of industrial consumers, considering voltages up to 13.8 kV and inclusive. Initially, load curves representing the most significant activities were obtained, by performing a research of the industrial consumers from a survey of consumers and the respective month basis electric power consumption. The analysis similarity among the curves of various activities was conducted without using of any appropriated software, in accordance with the results obtained from the study of the commercial area. A computer program was developed for the determination of the expected loading in primary transformers and feeders, from representative curves and the month basis consumption of the consumers connected to those systems, considering the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The test of the proposed methodology, for evaluation of loading of transformers and feeders, was performed by comparing the obtained curves with the measurements conducted by the electric power utilities in a transformer and a feeder.

  16. Visualizing Nonlinear Narratives with Story Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Wook; Bach, Benjamin; Im, Hyejin; Schriber, Sasha; Gross, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present story curves, a visualization technique for exploring and communicating nonlinear narratives in movies. A nonlinear narrative is a storytelling device that portrays events of a story out of chronological order, e.g., in reverse order or going back and forth between past and future events. Many acclaimed movies employ unique narrative patterns which in turn have inspired other movies and contributed to the broader analysis of narrative patterns in movies. However, understanding and communicating nonlinear narratives is a difficult task due to complex temporal disruptions in the order of events as well as no explicit records specifying the actual temporal order of the underlying story. Story curves visualize the nonlinear narrative of a movie by showing the order in which events are told in the movie and comparing them to their actual chronological order, resulting in possibly meandering visual patterns in the curve. We also present Story Explorer, an interactive tool that visualizes a story curve together with complementary information such as characters and settings. Story Explorer further provides a script curation interface that allows users to specify the chronological order of events in movies. We used Story Explorer to analyze 10 popular nonlinear movies and describe the spectrum of narrative patterns that we discovered, including some novel patterns not previously described in the literature. Feedback from experts highlights potential use cases in screenplay writing and analysis, education and film production. A controlled user study shows that users with no expertise are able to understand visual patterns of nonlinear narratives using story curves.

  17. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  18. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE AND GDP /JIPP CURVE/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kaneva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.

  19. NormaCurve: a SuperCurve-based method that simultaneously quantifies and normalizes reverse phase protein array data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Troncale

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Reverse phase protein array (RPPA is a powerful dot-blot technology that allows studying protein expression levels as well as post-translational modifications in a large number of samples simultaneously. Yet, correct interpretation of RPPA data has remained a major challenge for its broad-scale application and its translation into clinical research. Satisfying quantification tools are available to assess a relative protein expression level from a serial dilution curve. However, appropriate tools allowing the normalization of the data for external sources of variation are currently missing. RESULTS: Here we propose a new method, called NormaCurve, that allows simultaneous quantification and normalization of RPPA data. For this, we modified the quantification method SuperCurve in order to include normalization for (i background fluorescence, (ii variation in the total amount of spotted protein and (iii spatial bias on the arrays. Using a spike-in design with a purified protein, we test the capacity of different models to properly estimate normalized relative expression levels. The best performing model, NormaCurve, takes into account a negative control array without primary antibody, an array stained with a total protein stain and spatial covariates. We show that this normalization is reproducible and we discuss the number of serial dilutions and the number of replicates that are required to obtain robust data. We thus provide a ready-to-use method for reliable and reproducible normalization of RPPA data, which should facilitate the interpretation and the development of this promising technology. AVAILABILITY: The raw data, the scripts and the normacurve package are available at the following web site: http://microarrays.curie.fr.

  20. Design Optimization for Superconducting Bending Magnets using Pareto Front Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yukihiro; Abe, Mitsushi; Ando, Ryuya

    2017-09-01

    A novel limit design method for superconducting magnets is presented. It is particularly suitable for ion core magnets such as those used in accelerator magnets. In general, a stochastic optimization whose objective functions consist of values, e.g., the magnetic field, experience field of superconducting coils, current density, and multipole field integral, is often used. However, it is well known that the obtained solution strongly depends on the initial one. Furthermore, once the calculation model is fixed, the range of solutions is also fixed, i.e., there are times when it may be impossible to find the global optimum solution even with a lot of parameter sweeps. In this study, we draw the Pareto front curve to obtain the range and infer whether the solution is an optimum one. In addition, the Pareto front curve indicates the neighborhood solution that is substituted for the initial one. After this process a stochastic optimization is implemented with its initial design parameters. To confirm the validity, we designed a superconducting bending magnet, and it showed that this method works well.

  1. Part 5: Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and Area under the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple diagnostic tools are used by emergency physicians,every day. In addition, new tools are evaluated to obtainmore accurate methods and reduce time or cost of conventionalones. In the previous parts of this educationalseries, we described diagnostic performance characteristicsof diagnostic tests including sensitivity, specificity, positiveand negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Thereceiver operating characteristics (ROC curve is a graphicalpresentation of screening characteristics. ROC curve is usedto determine the best cutoff point and compare two or moretests or observers by measuring the area under the curve(AUC. In this part of our educational series, we explain ROCcurve and two methods to determine the best cutoff value.

  2. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  3. Influence of peak-broadening and interdetector volume error on size-exclusive chromatographic analysis with dual viscometric-concentration detection using the universal calibration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netopilík, M

    2001-04-27

    The effect of peak-broadening and error in interdetector volume on the local calibration curve and experimental molecular-mass averages obtained by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with dual concentration/viscosity detection, and determination of molecular mass using the universal calibration (UC) method, is theoretically examined using a polymer sample with a molecular-mass distribution (MMD) approximated by the log-normal function. Although peak-broadening is often neglected, its effect on the slope of the local calibration curve and, consequently, on the experimentally obtained values of the weight-to-number average ratio is large. To obtain the right values of these parameters, a numerical correction is usually recommended. While using the UC method, the relationships between the extent of peak broadening, calibration slopes and interdetector volume are complex and can contribute to the occurrence of undiscovered errors. For this reason, an understanding of this problem, using a model, is necessary. The results of the UC method are compared with those obtained using dual-detection with known Mark-Houwink-Kuhn-Sakurada parameters (MHKS method), light-scattering (LS)/concentration detection as well as with the results obtained using conventional calibration. Due to peak-broadening, the slope of a local calibration curve and the weight-to-number average ratio, (Mw/Mn)", obtained using the UC method, increase compared to the theoretical values, whereas they decrease using the MHKS or LS methods. The increase when using the UC method is even larger compared to evaluation using conventional calibration. The effect of the error in interdetector volume on the slopes of local calibrations and the weight-to-number average ratios is opposite in the UC method to that found using the MHKS and LS methods.

  4. Evaluation of the water retention curve of Abidjan Quaternary aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Results: The water retention curve is difficult to measure in situ on large sites like this aquifer. Kovac's modified model to predict the water retention curve is tested. Predicted curves are compared with in situ measurements points. The results show that, overall, the model predicts well the water retention curves.

  5. Dynamic measurement of the height and volume of migrating cells by a novel fluorescence microscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottier, Céline; Gabella, Chiara; Vianay, Benoît; Buscemi, Lara; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B

    2011-11-21

    We propose a new technique to measure the volume of adherent migrating cells. The method is based on a negative staining where a fluorescent, non-cell-permeant dye is added to the extracellular medium. The specimen is observed with a conventional fluorescence microscope in a chamber of uniform height. Given that the fluorescence signal depends on the thickness of the emitting layer, the objects excluding the fluorescent dye (i.e., cells) appear dark, and the decrease of the fluorescent signal with respect to the background is expected to give information about the height and the volume of the object. Using a glass microfabricated pattern with steps of defined heights, we show that the drop in fluorescence intensity is indeed proportional to the height of the step and obtain calibration curves relating fluorescence intensity to height. The technique, termed the fluorescence displacement method, is further validated by comparing our measurements with the ones obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We apply our method to measure the real-time volume dynamics of migrating fish epidermal keratocytes subjected to osmotic stress. The fluorescence displacement technique allows fast and precise monitoring of cell height and volume, thus providing a valuable tool for characterizing the three-dimensional behaviour of migrating cells.

  6. Learning curve in fenestrated and branched grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Mastracci, Tara M

    2017-04-01

    In surgical practice new technologies and techniques require a period of adjustment before the main operator becomes familiar with the new procedure, improving the results and the performances. This period, called learning curve, could be applied into the endovascular aortic treatment. The CUSUM technique had been used to define the learning curve in new procedures and through the literature some studies applied it to demonstrate the improving outcomes in complex endovascular aneurysm repair during increasing experience time. However, in the complex endovascular field this period included also other factors besides the proficiency in the deployment, as the improvement in patient selection and device design, making difficult to determine the level of experience needed to become an expert.

  7. Broadband Approximations for Doubly Curved Reflector Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Schejbal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The broadband approximations for shaped-beam doubly curved reflector antennas with primary feed (rectangular horn producing uniform amplitude and phase aperture distribution are derived and analyzed. They are very valuable for electromagnetic compatibility analyses both from electromagnetic interference and susceptibility point of view, because specialized more accurate methods such as physical optics are only used by antenna designers. To allow quick EMC analyses, typical values, beamwidth changes, sidelobe levels and aperture efficiencies are given for frequency changes approximately up to four times operating frequency. A comparison of approximated and measured patterns of doubly curved reflector antennas shows that the given approximation could be reliably used for analyses of pattern changes due to very broad frequency changes.

  8. Geometry of curves and surfaces with Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Rovenski, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    This concise text on geometry with computer modeling presents some elementary methods for analytical modeling and visualization of curves and surfaces. The author systematically examines such powerful tools as 2-D and 3-D animation of geometric images, transformations, shadows, and colors, and then further studies more complex problems in differential geometry. Well-illustrated with more than 350 figures---reproducible using Maple programs in the book---the work is devoted to three main areas: curves, surfaces, and polyhedra. Pedagogical benefits can be found in the large number of Maple programs, some of which are analogous to C++ programs, including those for splines and fractals. To avoid tedious typing, readers will be able to download many of the programs from the Birkhauser web site. Aimed at a broad audience of students, instructors of mathematics, computer scientists, and engineers who have knowledge of analytical geometry, i.e., method of coordinates, this text will be an excellent classroom resource...

  9. Field Theory on Curved Noncommutative Spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schenkel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We study classical scalar field theories on noncommutative curved spacetimes. Following the approach of Wess et al. [Classical Quantum Gravity 22 (2005, 3511 and Classical Quantum Gravity 23 (2006, 1883], we describe noncommutative spacetimes by using (Abelian Drinfel'd twists and the associated *-products and *-differential geometry. In particular, we allow for position dependent noncommutativity and do not restrict ourselves to the Moyal-Weyl deformation. We construct action functionals for real scalar fields on noncommutative curved spacetimes, and derive the corresponding deformed wave equations. We provide explicit examples of deformed Klein-Gordon operators for noncommutative Minkowski, de Sitter, Schwarzschild and Randall-Sundrum spacetimes, which solve the noncommutative Einstein equations. We study the construction of deformed Green's functions and provide a diagrammatic approach for their perturbative calculation. The leading noncommutative corrections to the Green's functions for our examples are derived.

  10. Point- and curve-based geometric conflation

    KAUST Repository

    López-Vázquez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Geometric conflation is the process undertaken to modify the coordinates of features in dataset A in order to match corresponding ones in dataset B. The overwhelming majority of the literature considers the use of points as features to define the transformation. In this article we present a procedure to consider one-dimensional curves also, which are commonly available as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tracks, routes, coastlines, and so on, in order to define the estimate of the displacements to be applied to each object in A. The procedure involves three steps, including the partial matching of corresponding curves, the computation of some analytical expression, and the addition of a correction term in order to satisfy basic cartographic rules. A numerical example is presented. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  12. Pressure-induced volume phase transition of polyacrylamide gels in acetone-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eiji

    2000-07-01

    Equilibrium swelling curves of ionized polyacrylamide gels immersed in acetone-water mixtures were measured as a function of pressure up to pressures of 300 MPa. The gels, which shrank at atmospheric pressure, underwent an abrupt volume change (pressure-induced volume phase transition) from a shrunken state to a swollen state at the transition pressure. The transition pressure increased with an increase of acetone concentration. The pressure-induced volume phase transition can be interpreted by taking account of the free-energy change ΔVṡP between swollen (hydrated) and shrunken (dehydrated) states. The ΔV represents the difference between the molar volume of water structured around hydrophilic groups of polyacrylamide chains and that of free water in the bulk mixtures. The estimated value of ΔV is -3.3 mL/mol, which qualitatively agrees with that obtained from the experiments of denaturation of proteins. The pressure-induced volume phase transition is generally expected in many hydrogels.

  13. Multi-pulse phase resetting curve

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and systematically study, in terms of phase response curves (PRC), the effect of a dual pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from a linear summation of phase advances from two small perturbations. We derive analytically a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is greater than one. We demonstrate this effect in case of the Stuart-Landau model, and also in v...

  14. Measuring Systematic Error with Curve Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupright, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic errors are often unavoidable in the introductory physics laboratory. As has been demonstrated in many papers in this journal, such errors can present a fundamental problem for data analysis, particularly when comparing the data to a given model.1-3 In this paper I give three examples in which my students use popular curve-fitting software and adjust the theoretical model to account for, and even exploit, the presence of systematic errors in measured data.

  15. Bezier Curve Modeling for Neutrosophic Data Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Tas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophic set concept is defined with membership, non-membership and indeterminacy degrees. This concept is the solution and representation of the problems with various fields. In this paper, a geometric model is introduced for Neutrosophic data problem for the first time. This model is based on neutrosophic sets and neutrosophic relations. Neutrosophic control points are defined according to these points, resulting in neutrosophic Bezier curves.

  16. Growth curve models and statistical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Jian-Xin

    2002-01-01

    Growth-curve models are generalized multivariate analysis-of-variance models. These models are especially useful for investigating growth problems on short times in economics, biology, medical research, and epidemiology. This book systematically introduces the theory of the GCM with particular emphasis on their multivariate statistical diagnostics, which are based mainly on recent developments made by the authors and their collaborators. The authors provide complete proofs of theorems as well as practical data sets and MATLAB code.

  17. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    DEFINITION 2.5. Let C → S be an n-pointed nodal curve over a k-scheme S and let ξ be a principal G- bundle on Cgen. A chart (U, η, ) for ξ is called balanced, if for each ... branches is via multiplication with primitive roots of unity which are inverse to each other. ...... Condition (16) implies that A0 is a block matrix of the form.

  18. High accuracy & long timescale light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical analysis of the optical light curves (LCs for short-period high-mass transiting extrasolar planet systems. Our method considers the primary transit, the secondary eclipse, and the overall phase shape of the LC between the occultations. Phase variations arise from (i reflected and thermally emitted light by the planet, (ii the ellipsoidal shape of the star due to the gravitational pull of the planet, and (iii the Doppler shift of the stellar light as the star orbits the center of mass of the system. Our full model of the out-of-eclipse variations contains information about the planetary mass, orbital eccentricity, the orientation of periastron and the planet's albedo. For a range of hypothetical systems we demonstrate that the ellipsoidal variations (ii. can be large enough to be distinguished from the remaining components and that this effect can be used to constrain the planet's mass. As an example we presend KOI-13b (candidate exoplanet system included in the September 2011 Kepler data release. The Kepler light curve shows both primary and secondary eclipses, as well as significant out-of-eclipse light curve variations. We model the relative contributions from (i thermal emission from the companion, (ii planetary reflected light, (iii doppler beaming, and (iv ellipsoidal variations in the host-star arising from the tidal distortion of the host star by its companion. Our analysis, based on the light curve alone, enables us to constrain the mass of the KOI-13.01 companion to be MC = 8.3 ± 1.25 MJ and thus demonstrates that the transiting companion is a planet. The teqnique is useful for current and future space missions such as Kepler and PLATO.

  19. High accuracy & long timescale light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislis, D.; Hodgkin, S.

    2013-04-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the optical light curves (LCs) for short-period high-mass transiting extrasolar planet systems. Our method considers the primary transit, the secondary eclipse, and the overall phase shape of the LC between the occultations. Phase variations arise from (i) reflected and thermally emitted light by the planet, (ii) the ellipsoidal shape of the star due to the gravitational pull of the planet, and (iii) the Doppler shift of the stellar light as the star orbits the center of mass of the system. Our full model of the out-of-eclipse variations contains information about the planetary mass, orbital eccentricity, the orientation of periastron and the planet's albedo. For a range of hypothetical systems we demonstrate that the ellipsoidal variations (ii.) can be large enough to be distinguished from the remaining components and that this effect can be used to constrain the planet's mass. As an example we presend KOI-13b (candidate exoplanet system) included in the September 2011 Kepler data release. The Kepler light curve shows both primary and secondary eclipses, as well as significant out-of-eclipse light curve variations. We model the relative contributions from (i) thermal emission from the companion, (ii) planetary reflected light, (iii) doppler beaming, and (iv) ellipsoidal variations in the host-star arising from the tidal distortion of the host star by its companion. Our analysis, based on the light curve alone, enables us to constrain the mass of the KOI-13.01 companion to be MC = 8.3 ± 1.25 MJ and thus demonstrates that the transiting companion is a planet. The teqnique is useful for current and future space missions such as Kepler and PLATO.

  20. Revisiting the learning curve (once again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eGlautier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of published work in the field of associative learning seeks to test the adequacy of various theoretical accounts of the learning process using average data. Of course, averaging hides important information, but individual departures from the average are usually designated "error" and largely ignored. However, from the perspective of an individual differences approach, this error is the data of interest; and when associative models are applied to individual learning curves the error is substantial. To some extent individual differences can be reasonably understood in terms of parametric variations of the underlying model. Unfortunately, in many cases, the data cannot be accomodated in this way and the applicability of the underlying model can be called into question. Indeed several authors have proposed alternatives to associative models because of the poor fits between data and associative model. In the current paper a novel associative approach to the analysis of individual learning curves is presented. The Memory Environment Cue Array Model (MECAM is described and applied to two human predictive learning datasets. The MECAM is predicated on the assumption that participants do not parse the trial sequences to which they are exposed into independent episodes as is often assumed when learning curves are modelled. Instead, the MECAM assumes that learning and responding on a trial may also be influenced by the events of the previous trial. Incorporating non-local information the MECAM produced better approximations to individual learning curves than did the Rescorla-Wagner Model (RWM suggesting that further exploration of the approach is warranted.