WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume calibration equations

  1. Einstein equations with fluctuating volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-07-01

    We develop a simple model to study classical fields on the background of a fluctuating spacetime volume. It is applied to formulate the stochastic Einstein equations with a perfect-fluid source. We investigate the particular case of a stochastic Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show that the resulting field equations can lead to solutions which avoid the initial big bang singularity. By interpreting the fluctuations as the result of the presence of a quantum spacetime, we conclude that classical singularities can be avoided even within a stochastic model that include quantum effects in a very simple manner.

  2. BUNDLE ADJUSTMENTS CCD CAMERA CALIBRATION BASED ON COLLINEARITY EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changying; Yu Zhijing; Che Rensheng; Ye Dong; Huang Qingcheng; Yang Dingning

    2004-01-01

    The solid template CCD camera calibration method of bundle adjustments based on collinearity equation is presented considering the characteristics of space large-dimension on-line measurement. In the method, a more comprehensive camera model is adopted which is based on the pinhole model extended with distortions corrections. In the process of calibration, calibration precision is improved by imaging at different locations in the whole measurement space, multi-imaging at the same location and bundle adjustments optimization. The calibration experiment proves that the calibration method is able to fulfill calibration requirement of CCD camera applied to vision measurement.

  3. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleza, M.; Vargas, M.; Kashina, S.; Huerta, M. R.; Delgadillo, I.; Moreno, G.

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration.

  4. Stochastic Einstein equations with fluctuating volume

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We develop a simple model to study classical fields on the background of a fluctuating spacetime volume. It is applied to formulate the stochastic Einstein equations with a perfect-fluid source. We investigate the particular case of a stochastic Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show that the resulting field equations can lead to solutions which avoid the initial big bang singularity. By interpreting the fluctuations as the result of the presence of a quantum spacetime, we conclude that classical singularities can be avoided even within a stochastic model that include quantum effects in a very simple manner.

  5. Structure and Calibration of Constitutive Equations for Granular Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The form of incremental constitutive equations for granular soils is discussed for the triaxial configuration. The classical elasto-plastic approach and the semi-empirical model are discussed on the basis of constitutive relations determined directly from experimental data. First, the general structure of elasto-plastic constitutive equations is presented. Then, the structure of semiempirical constitutive equations is described, and a method of calibrating the model is presented. This calibration method is based on a single experiment, performed in the triaxial apparatus, which also involves a partial verification of the model, on an atypical stress path. The model is shown to give reasonable predictions. An important feature of the semi-empirical incremental model is the definition of loading and unloading, which is different from that assumed in elasto-plasticity. This definition distinguishes between spherical and deviatoric loading/unloading. The definition of deviatoric loading/unloading has been subject to some criticism. It was therefore discussed and clarified in this paper on the basis of the experiment presented.

  6. Another look at volume self-calibration: calibration and self-calibration within a pinhole model of Scheimpflug cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornic, Philippe; Illoul, Cédric; Cheminet, Adam; Le Besnerais, Guy; Champagnat, Frédéric; Le Sant, Yves; Leclaire, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    We address calibration and self-calibration of tomographic PIV experiments within a pinhole model of cameras. A complete and explicit pinhole model of a camera equipped with a 2-tilt angles Scheimpflug adapter is presented. It is then used in a calibration procedure based on a freely moving calibration plate. While the resulting calibrations are accurate enough for Tomo-PIV, we confirm, through a simple experiment, that they are not stable in time, and illustrate how the pinhole framework can be used to provide a quantitative evaluation of geometrical drifts in the setup. We propose an original self-calibration method based on global optimization of the extrinsic parameters of the pinhole model. These methods are successfully applied to the tomographic PIV of an air jet experiment. An unexpected by-product of our work is to show that volume self-calibration induces a change in the world frame coordinates. Provided the calibration drift is small, as generally observed in PIV, the bias on the estimated velocity field is negligible but the absolute location cannot be accurately recovered using standard calibration data.

  7. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O' Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  8. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  9. The Differential Equation Algorithm for General Deformed Swept Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪国平; 华宣积; 孙家广

    2000-01-01

    The differential equation approach for characterizing swept volume boundaries is extended to include objects experiencing deformation. For deformed swept volume, it is found that the structure and algorithm of sweep-envelope differential equation (SEDE) are similar between the deformed and the rigid swept volumes. The efficiency of SEDE approach for deformed swept volume is proved with an example.

  10. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    6 pages, 2 figures, 18 references. Published in proceedings of Colloque EDP-Normandie held at Caen (France), on 28 & 29 October 2010. Other author papers can be dowloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh/; Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the m...

  11. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the method to bidirectional nonlinear, dispersive wave propagation in one space dimension. Special emphasis is given to important nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves interactions.

  12. Volume transport and generalized hydrodynamic equations for monatomic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the effects of volume transport on the generalized hydrodynamic equations for a pure simple fluid are examined from the standpoint of statistical mechanics and, in particular, kinetic theory of fluids. First, we derive the generalized hydrodynamic equations, namely, the constitutive equations for the stress tensor and heat flux for a single-component monatomic fluid, from the generalized Boltzmann equation in the presence of volume transport. Then their linear steady-state solutions are derived and examined with regard to the effects of volume transport on them. The generalized hydrodynamic equations and linear constitutive relations obtained for nonconserved variables make it possible to assess Brenner's proposition [Physica A 349, 11 (2005); Physica A 349, 60 (2005)] for volume transport and attendant mass and volume velocities as well as the effects of volume transport on the Newtonian law of viscosity, compression/dilatation (bulk viscosity) phenomena, and Fourier's law of heat conduction. On the basis of study made, it is concluded that the notion of volume transport is sufficiently significant to retain in irreversible thermodynamics of fluids and fluid mechanics.

  13. Finite Volume Multilevel Approximation of the Shallow Water Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur BOUSQUET; Martine MARION; Roger TEMAM

    2013-01-01

    The authors consider a simple transport equation in one-dimensional space and the linearized shallow water equations in two-dimensional space,and describe and implement a multilevel finite-volume discretization in the context of the utilization of the incremental unknowns.The numerical stability of the method is proved in both cases.

  14. Existence of Solution of the Pullback Equation Involving Volume Forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saugata Bandyopadhyay

    2011-08-01

    Let $\\subset\\mathbb{R}^n$ be a smooth, bounded domain. We study the existence and regularity of diffeomorphisms of satisfying the volume form equation $$^*(g)=f,\\quad\\text{in}\\, $$ where $f,g\\in C^{m,}(\\overline{};^n)$ are given positive volume forms.

  15. Solving hyperbolic equations with finite volume methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez-Cendón, M Elena

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used in numerous applications and by a broad multidisciplinary scientific community. The book communicates this important tool to students, researchers in training and academics involved in the training of students in different science and technology fields. The selection of content is based on the author’s experience giving PhD and master courses in different universities. In the book the introduction of new concepts and numerical methods go together with simple exercises, examples and applications that contribute to reinforce them. In addition, some of them involve the execution of MATLAB codes. The author promotes an understanding of common terminology with a balance between mathematical rigor and physical intuition that characterizes the origin of the methods. This book aims to be a first contact with finite volume methods. Once readers have studied it, they will be able to follow more specific bibliographical references and use commercial programs or open source software withi...

  16. Calibration Experiments for a Computer Vision Oyster Volume Estimation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G. Andy; Kerns, G. Jay; Lee, D. J.; Stanek, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    Calibration is a technique that is commonly used in science and engineering research that requires calibrating measurement tools for obtaining more accurate measurements. It is an important technique in various industries. In many situations, calibration is an application of linear regression, and is a good topic to be included when explaining and…

  17. Calibration Experiments for a Computer Vision Oyster Volume Estimation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G. Andy; Kerns, G. Jay; Lee, D. J.; Stanek, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    Calibration is a technique that is commonly used in science and engineering research that requires calibrating measurement tools for obtaining more accurate measurements. It is an important technique in various industries. In many situations, calibration is an application of linear regression, and is a good topic to be included when explaining and…

  18. Simple and accurate empirical absolute volume calibration of a multi-sensor fringe projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Qudeisat, Mohammad; AlSa`d, Mohammed; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Ammous, Marwan M. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper suggests a novel absolute empirical calibration method for a multi-sensor fringe projection system. The optical setup of the projector-camera sensor can be arbitrary. The term absolute calibration here means that the centre of the three dimensional coordinates in the resultant calibrated volume coincides with a preset centre to the three-dimensional real-world coordinate system. The use of a zero-phase fringe marking spot is proposed to increase depth calibration accuracy, where the spot centre is determined with sub-pixel accuracy. Also, a new method is proposed for transversal calibration. Depth and transversal calibration methods have been tested using both single sensor and three-sensor fringe projection systems. The standard deviation of the error produced by this system is 0.25 mm. The calibrated volume produced by this method is 400 mm×400 mm×140 mm.

  19. Evaluating a non-destructive method for calibrating tree biomass equations derived from tree branching architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacFarlane, D.W.; Kuyah, S.; Mulia, R.; Dietz, J.; Muthuri, C.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional branch analysis (FBA) is a promising non-destructive alternative to the standard destructive method of tree biomass equation development. In FBA, a theoretical model of tree branching architecture is calibrated with measurements of tree stems and branches to estimate the coefficients of t

  20. The Effect of Small Calibration Sample Sizes on TOEFL IRT-Based Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. Linda; And Others

    This study compared the performance of the LOGIST and BILOG computer programs on item response theory (IRT) based scaling and equating for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) using real and simulated data and two calibration structures. Applications of IRT for the TOEFL program are based on the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model.…

  1. Rainfall/runoff simulation with 2D full shallow water equations: Sensitivity analysis and calibration of infiltration parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pato, Javier; Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; García-Navarro, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    One of the most difficult issues in the development of hydrologic models is to find a rigorous source of data and specific parameters to a given problem, on a given location that enable reliable calibration. In this paper, a distributed and physically based model (2D Shallow Water Equations) is used for surface flow and runoff calculations in combination with two infiltration laws (Horton and Green-Ampt) for estimating infiltration in a watershed. This technique offers the capability of assigning a local and time-dependent infiltration rate to each computational cell depending on the available surface water, soil type or vegetation. We investigate how the calibration of parameters is affected by transient distributed Shallow Water model and the complexity of the problem. In the first part of this work, we calibrate the infiltration parameters for both Horton and Green-Ampt models under flat ponded soil conditions. Then, by means of synthetic test cases, we perform a space-distributed sensitivity analysis in order to show that this calibration can be significantly affected by the introduction of topography or rainfall. In the second part, parameter calibration for a real catchment is addressed by comparing the numerical simulations with two different sets of experimental data, corresponding to very different events in terms of the rainfall volume. We show that the initial conditions of the catchment and the rainfall pattern have a special relevance in the quality of the adjustment. Hence, it is shown that the topography of the catchment and the storm characteristics affect the calibration of infiltration parameters.

  2. Calibration of the 7—Equation Transition Model for High Reynolds Flows at Low Mach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia, S.; Leble, V.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The numerical simulation of flows over large-scale wind turbine blades without considering the transition from laminar to fully turbulent flow may result in incorrect estimates of the blade loads and performance. Thanks to its relative simplicity and promising results, the Local-Correlation based Transition Modelling concept represents a valid way to include transitional effects into practical CFD simulations. However, the model involves coefficients that need tuning. In this paper, the γ—equation transition model is assessed and calibrated, for a wide range of Reynolds numbers at low Mach, as needed for wind turbine applications. An aerofoil is used to evaluate the original model and calibrate it; while a large scale wind turbine blade is employed to show that the calibrated model can lead to reliable solutions for complex three-dimensional flows. The calibrated model shows promising results for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows, even if cross-flow instabilities are neglected.

  3. Calibration of the Z-R equation for a polarimetric radar located in Sabancuy, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe Paredes-Victoria, Pedro; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall estimation using weather radar has been the keystone in several hydrometeorological applications (Bringi & Chandrasekar, 2001) such as flood forecasting and water balance analysis. Additionally, in large spatiotemporal scales, an integrated network of weather radars provide an invaluable quantity of measured data to be applied to regional studies (Kitchen et al., 1994; Westrick et al., 1999). However, each radar must be individually analysed because the characteristics of calibration and local issues are unique and, therefore require further research (Krajewski and Smith, 1991). For instance, the rainfall rate R and the radar reflectivity Z are represented for the total number of a finite number of drops in a volume of scan and it has been demonstrated that these variables can be expressed into a nonlinear representation Z-R (Marshall & Palmer, 1948) and this relationship is unique and depends on the study region and the type of precipitation. In this study we used data from the Sabancuy-radar located in Campeche, Mexico (Latitude +18.9724, Longitude -91.1726) to estimate rainfall distributions into the convective contour in the Gulf of Mexico. This area counts with a long history of tropical storms and hurricanes which produce extreme rainfall causing flood events and important socioeconomic damages into this region. Therefore, the weather radar calibration and Z-R relationship was achieved applying current methodologies (e.g. Probability Matching Method, PMM) and using raingauges in two different temporal scales (daily and each 10 minutes). Thus, rainfall estimations using weather radar can be used to quantitative evaluate the accuracy of parametrizations of atmospheric models and also the results are particularly useful for error analysis in hydrometeorological modelling (Smith et al., 1975; Sun & Crook., 1997). Finally, a better estimation of rainfall in time and space (and forecasting: in short and long term) is a valuable source of information (Jones

  4. Left ventricular volume measurement in mice by conductance catheter: evaluation and optimization of calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Møller; Kristiansen, Steen B; Ringgaard, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    . The dual-frequency method for estimation of parallel conductance failed to produce V(CC) that correlated with V(MRI). We conclude that selection of the calibration procedure for the CC has significant implications for the accuracy and precision of volume estimation and pressure-volume loop...

  5. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James

    2017-09-01

    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  6. 40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by EPA for both PDP (Positive Displacement Pump) and CFV (Critical Flow Venturi) are outlined below... establish the flow rate of the constant volume sampler pump. All the parameters related to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters related to a flowmeter which is connected in series with the...

  7. PERTURBATION FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSION INTEGRAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhi; YANG Guowei

    2004-01-01

    A perturbation finite volume (PFV) method for the convective-diffusion integral equation is developed in this paper. The PFV scheme is an upwind and mixed scheme using any higher-order interpolation and second-order integration approximations, with the least nodes similar to the standard three-point schemes, that is, the number of the nodes needed is equal to unity plus the face-number of the control volume. For instance, in the two-dimensional (2-D) case, only four nodes for the triangle grids and five nodes for the Cartesian grids are utilized, respectively. The PFV scheme is applied on a number of 1-D linear and nonlinear problems, 2-D and 3-D flow model equations. Comparing with other standard three-point schemes, the PFV scheme has much smaller numerical diffusion than the first-order upwind scheme (UDS). Its numerical accuracies are also higher than the second-order central scheme (CDS), the power-law scheme (PLS) and QUICK scheme.

  8. High resolution finite volume scheme for the quantum hydrodynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Tien; Yeh, Jia-Yi; Chen, Jiun-Yeu

    2009-03-01

    The theory of quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) helps nanotechnology engineers to understand the physical effect of quantum forces. Although the governing equations of quantum fluid dynamics and classical fluid mechanics have the same form, there are two numerical simulation problems must be solved in QFD. The first is that the quantum potential term becomes singular and causes a divergence in the numerical simulation when the probability density is very small and close to zero. The second is that the unitarity in the time evolution of the quantum wave packet is significant. Accurate numerical evaluations are critical to the simulations of the flow fields that are generated by various quantum fluid systems. A finite volume scheme is developed herein to solve the quantum hydrodynamic equations of motion, which significantly improve the accuracy and stability of this method. The QFD equation is numerically implemented within the Eulerian method. A third-order modified Osher-Chakravarthy (MOC) upwind-centered finite volume scheme was constructed for conservation law to evaluate the convective terms, and a second-order central finite volume scheme was used to map the quantum potential field. An explicit Runge-Kutta method is used to perform the time integration to achieve fast convergence of the proposed scheme. In order to meet the numerical result can conform to the physical phenomenon and avoid numerical divergence happening due to extremely low probability density, the minimum value setting of probability density must exceed zero and smaller than certain value. The optimal value was found in the proposed numerical approach to maintain a converging numerical simulation when the minimum probability density is 10 -5 to 10 -12. The normalization of the wave packet remains close to unity through a long numerical simulation and the deviations from 1.0 is about 10 -4. To check the QFD finite difference numerical computations, one- and two-dimensional particle motions were

  9. New finite volume methods for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes; Nouvelles methodes de volumes finis pour approcher des equations aux derivees partielles sur des maillages quelconques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermeline, F

    2008-12-15

    This dissertation presents some new methods of finite volume type for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes. The main idea lies in solving twice the problem to be dealt with. One addresses the elliptic equations with variable (anisotropic, antisymmetric, discontinuous) coefficients, the parabolic linear or non linear equations (heat equation, radiative diffusion, magnetic diffusion with Hall effect), the wave type equations (Maxwell, acoustics), the elasticity and Stokes'equations. Numerous numerical experiments show the good behaviour of this type of method. (author)

  10. Nuclear equation of state and finite nucleon volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rożynek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    It is shown how the Equation of State (EoS) depends on nucleon properties inside Nuclear Matter (NM). We propose to benefit from the concept of enthalpy in order to include volume corrections to the nucleon rest energy, which are proportional to pressure and absent in a standard Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) with point-like nucleons. As a result, the nucleon mass can decrease inside NM, making the model nonlinear and the EoS softer. The course of the EoS in our RMF model agrees with a semi-empirical estimate and is close to the results obtained from extensive DBHF calculations with a Bonn A potential, which produce an EoS stiff enough to describe neutron star properties (mass--radius constraint), especially the masses of PSR J1614_2230 and PSR J0348_0432, known as the most massive ($\\sim 2 M_\\odot$) neutron stars. The presented model has proper saturation properties, including a good value of compressibility.

  11. Employing an Incentive Spirometer to Calibrate Tidal Volumes Estimated from a Smartphone Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Bersain A; Reljin, Natasa; Kong, Youngsun; Nam, Yunyoung; Ha, Sangho; Chon, Ki H

    2016-03-18

    A smartphone-based tidal volume (V(T)) estimator was recently introduced by our research group, where an Android application provides a chest movement signal whose peak-to-peak amplitude is highly correlated with reference V(T) measured by a spirometer. We found a Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) of 14.998% ± 5.171% (mean ± SD) when the smartphone measures were calibrated using spirometer data. However, the availability of a spirometer device for calibration is not realistic outside clinical or research environments. In order to be used by the general population on a daily basis, a simple calibration procedure not relying on specialized devices is required. In this study, we propose taking advantage of the linear correlation between smartphone measurements and V(T) to obtain a calibration model using information computed while the subject breathes through a commercially-available incentive spirometer (IS). Experiments were performed on twelve (N = 12) healthy subjects. In addition to corroborating findings from our previous study using a spirometer for calibration, we found that the calibration procedure using an IS resulted in a fixed bias of -0.051 L and a RMSE of 0.189 ± 0.074 L corresponding to 18.559% ± 6.579% when normalized. Although it has a small underestimation and slightly increased error, the proposed calibration procedure using an IS has the advantages of being simple, fast, and affordable. This study supports the feasibility of developing a portable smartphone-based breathing status monitor that provides information about breathing depth, in addition to the more commonly estimated respiratory rate, on a daily basis.

  12. In situ calibrated defocusing PTV for wall-bounded measurement volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, T.; Hain, R.; Kähler, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    In many situations, 3D velocity measurements in thin (∼1 mm) but wide (∼100  ×  100 mm2) flow channels is an important task. To resolve the in-plane and out-of-plane velocity gradients properly, a precise calibration is required, since 3D measurement approaches rely strongly on the accuracy of the calibration procedure. It is likely that calibration targets do not fit domains with small depths, due to their size. Furthermore, in fields where such measurements are of interest, the accessibility of the measurement volume is often limited or even impossible. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper introduces an in situ calibrated defocusing particle tracking velocimetry approach for wall-bounded measurement domains with depths in the low millimeter range. The calibration function for the particle depth location is directly derived from the particle image geometries and their displacements between two frames. Employing only a single camera, this defocusing approach is capable of measuring the air flow between two parallel glass plates at a distance of 1 mm with an average uncertainty of 2.43% for each track, relative to the maximum velocity. A tomographic particle tracking velocimetry measurement, serving as a benchmark for the single camera technique, reaches an average uncertainty of 1.59%. Altogether, with its straightforward set-up and without requiring a calibration target, this in situ calibrated defocusing approach opens new areas of application for optical flow velocimetry. In particular, for measurement domains with small optical windows and a lack of accessibility.

  13. Employing an Incentive Spirometer to Calibrate Tidal Volumes Estimated from a Smartphone Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersain A. Reyes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A smartphone-based tidal volume (VT estimator was recently introduced by our research group, where an Android application provides a chest movement signal whose peak-to-peak amplitude is highly correlated with reference VT measured by a spirometer. We found a Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE of 14.998% ± 5.171% (mean ± SD when the smartphone measures were calibrated using spirometer data. However, the availability of a spirometer device for calibration is not realistic outside clinical or research environments. In order to be used by the general population on a daily basis, a simple calibration procedure not relying on specialized devices is required. In this study, we propose taking advantage of the linear correlation between smartphone measurements and VT to obtain a calibration model using information computed while the subject breathes through a commercially-available incentive spirometer (IS. Experiments were performed on twelve (N = 12 healthy subjects. In addition to corroborating findings from our previous study using a spirometer for calibration, we found that the calibration procedure using an IS resulted in a fixed bias of −0.051 L and a RMSE of 0.189 ± 0.074 L corresponding to 18.559% ± 6.579% when normalized. Although it has a small underestimation and slightly increased error, the proposed calibration procedure using an IS has the advantages of being simple, fast, and affordable. This study supports the feasibility of developing a portable smartphone-based breathing status monitor that provides information about breathing depth, in addition to the more commonly estimated respiratory rate, on a daily basis.

  14. Volume calibration for nuclear materials control: ANSI N15.19-1989 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebetrau, A.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since the last IAEA International Safeguards Symposium, a revised standard for volume calibration methodology was issued in the United States. Because the new standard reflects the advent of high-precision volume measurement technology, it is significantly different from the earlier standard which it supersedes. The new standard outlines a unified data standardization model that applies to process tanks equipped with differential pressure measurement systems for determining liquid content. At the heart of the model is an algorithm to determine liquid height from pressure measurements that accounts for the major factors affecting the accuracy of those measurements. The standardization model also contains algorithms that adjust data from volumetric and gravimetric provers to a standard set of reference conditions. A key component of the standardization model is an algorithm to take account of temperature-induced dimensional changes in the tank. Improved methods for the statistical treatment of calibration data have also appeared since the last Safeguards Symposium. A statistical method of alignment has been introduced that employs a least-squares criterion to determine ``optimal`` alignment factors. More importantly, a statistical model has been proposed that yields plausible estimates of the variance of height and volume measurements when significant run-to-run differences are present in the calibration data. The new standardization model and statistical methods described here are being implemented in a portable, user-friendly software program for use by IAEA inspectors and statisticians. Perhaps these methods will eventually find their way into appropriate international standards.

  15. TIME-DOMAIN VOLUME INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR TRANSIENT SCATTERING FROM INHOMOGENEOUS OBJECTS-2D TM CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianguo; Fan Ruyu

    2001-01-01

    This letter proposes a time-domain volume integral equation based method for analyzing the transient scattering from a 2D inhomogeneous cylinder by involking the volume equivalence principle for the transverse magnetic case. This integral equation is solved by using an MOT scheme. Numerical results obtained using this method agree very well with those obtained using the FDTD method.

  16. TIME-DOMAIN VOLUME INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR TRANSIENT SCATTERING FROM INHOMOGENEOUS OBJECTS-2D TE CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianguo; Fan Ruyu

    2001-01-01

    This letter proposes a time-domain volume integral equation based method for analyzing the transient scattering from a 2D inhomogeneous cylinder by involking the volume equivalence principle for the transverse electric case. This integral equation is solved by using an MOT scheme. Numerical results obtained using this method agree very well with those obtained using the FDTD method.

  17. Assessment of target volume doses in radiotherapy based on the standard and measured calibration curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Fallah Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In radiation treatments, estimation of the dose distribution in the target volume is one of the main components of the treatment planning procedure. To estimate the dose distribution, the information of electron densities is necessary. The standard curves determined by computed tomography (CT scanner that may be different from that of other oncology centers. In this study, the changes of dose calculation due to the different calibration curves (HU-ρel were investigated. Materials and Methods: Dose values were calculated based on the standard calibration curve that was predefined for the treatment planning system (TPS. The calibration curve was also extracted from the CT images of the phantom, and dose values were calculated based on this curve. The percentage errors of the calculated values were determined. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analyses of the mean differences were performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for both of the calibration curves. Results and Discussion: The results show no significant difference for both of the measured and standard calibration curves (HU-ρel in 6, 15, and 18 MeV energies. In Wilcoxon ranked sum nonparametric test for independent samples with P < 0.05, the equality of monitor units for both of the curves to transfer 200 cGy doses to reference points was resulted. The percentage errors of the calculated values were lower than 2% and 1.5% in 6 and 15 MeV, respectively. Conclusion: From the results, it could be concluded that the standard calibration curve could be used in TPS dose calculation accurately.

  18. Theory of excluded volume equation of state: higher approximations and new generation of equations of state for entire density range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, Anatoly I

    2004-07-22

    A novel theory of an equation of state based on excluded volume and formulated in two preceding papers for gases and gaseous mixtures is extended to the entire density range by considering higher (beginning from the third) approximations of the theory. The algorithm of constructing higher approximations is elaborated. Equations of state are deduced using the requirement of maximum simplicity and contain a single free parameter to be chosen by reason of convenience or simplicity or to be used as a fitting parameter with respect to the computer simulation database. In this way, precise equations of state are derived for the hard-sphere fluid in the entire density range. On the side, the theory reproduces most known earlier equations of state for hard spheres and determines their place in the hierarchy of approximations. Equations of state for van der Waals fluids are also presented, and their critical parameters are estimated.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Model for The Volume-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method, based on discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, is presented for solving the volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. With a modified equilibrium distribution and an additional forcing term, the volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered from the lattice Boltzmann equation in the limit of small Mach number by the Chapman-Enskog analysis and Taylor expansion. Due to its advantages such as explicit solver and inherent parallelism, the method appears to be more competitive with traditional numerical techniques. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model can accurately reproduce both the linear and nonlinear drag effects of porosity in the fluid flow through porous media.

  20. Spectral (Finite) Volume Method for One Dimensional Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Consider a mesh of unstructured triangular cells. Each cell is called a Spectral Volume (SV), denoted by Si, which is further partitioned into subcells named Control Volumes (CVs), indicated by C(sub i,j). To represent the solution as a polynomial of degree m in two dimensions (2D) we need N = (m+1)(m+2)/2 pieces of independent information, or degrees of freedom (DOFs). The DOFs in a SV method are the volume-averaged mean variables at the N CVs. For example, to build a quadratic reconstruction in 2D, we need at least (2+1)(3+1)/2 = 6 DOFs. There are numerous ways of partitioning a SV, and not every partition is admissible in the sense that the partition may not be capable of producing a degree m polynomial. Once N mean solutions in the CVs of a SV are given, a unique polynomial reconstruction can be obtained.

  1. Derivation of a volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, R.; Espinosa P, G. [UAM-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Morales S, Jaime B. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)]. e-mail: rvr@xanum.uam.mx

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical analysis of the problem of neutron motion in a nuclear reactor, where large variations on neutron cross sections normally preclude the use of the classical neutron diffusion equation. A volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation is derived which includes correction terms to diffusion and nuclear reaction effects. A method is presented to determine closure-relationships for the volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation (e.g., effective neutron diffusivity). In order to describe the distribution of neutrons in a highly heterogeneous configuration, it was necessary to extend the classical neutron diffusion equation. Thus, the volume averaged diffusion equation include two corrections factor: the first correction is related with the absorption process of the neutron and the second correction is a contribution to the neutron diffusion, both parameters are related to neutron effects on the interface of a heterogeneous configuration. (Author)

  2. Function spaces and partial differential equations volume 2 : contemporary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This is a book written primarily for graduate students and early researchers in the fields of Analysis and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Coverage of the material is essentially self-contained, extensive and novel with great attention to details and rigour.

  3. Function spaces and partial differential equations 2 volume set

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This is a book written primarily for graduate students and early researchers in the fields of Analysis and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Coverage of the material is essentially self-contained, extensive and novel with great attention to details and rigour.

  4. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  5. Generalized functions, volume 3 theory of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gel′fand, I M

    2016-01-01

    The first systematic theory of generalized functions (also known as distributions) was created in the early 1950s, although some aspects were developed much earlier, most notably in the definition of the Green's function in mathematics and in the work of Paul Dirac on quantum electrodynamics in physics. The six-volume collection, Generalized Functions, written by I. M. Gel′fand and co-authors and published in Russian between 1958 and 1966, gives an introduction to generalized functions and presents various applications to analysis, PDE, stochastic processes, and representation theory. In Volum

  6. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulati...

  7. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulation...

  8. Power-Budget Equations and Calibration Factors for Fish Abundance Estimation Using Scientific Echo Sounder and Sonar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Lunde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic methods used in fish abundance estimation constitute a key part of the analytic assessment that makes the basis for abundance estimation of marine resources. The methods rely on power-budget equations and calibrated systems. Different formulations of power-budget equations and calibration factors have been proposed for use in scientific echo sounder and sonar systems. There are unresolved questions and apparent inconsistencies in prior literature related to this field. A generic (instrument independent and unifying theory is presented that attempts to explain the different power-budget and calibration factor formulations proposed and used in prior literature, and how these are mutually related. Deviations and apparent inconsistencies in this literature appear to be explained and corrected. This also includes different (instrument specific formulations employed in important modern scientific echo sounder systems, and their relationship to the generic theory of abundance estimation. Prior literature is extended to provide more complete power-budget equations for fish abundance estimation and species identification, by accounting for echo integration, electrical termination, and the full range of electrical and acoustical echo sounder parameters. The expressions provide a consistent theoretical basis for improved understanding of conventional methods and instruments used today, also enabling improved sensitivity and error analyses, and correction possibilities.

  9. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    OpenAIRE

    Medvidová, Maria Lukáčová -; Noelle, Sebastian; Kraft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensio...

  10. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Kraft, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of the multidime...

  11. NLT and extrapolated DLT:3-D cinematography alternatives for enlarging the volume of calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R N; McLean, S P

    1995-10-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the direct linear transformation (DLT) and non-linear transformation (NLT) methods of 3-D cinematography/videography. A comparison of standard DLT, extrapolated DLT, and NLT calibrations showed the standard (non-extrapolated) DLT to be the most accurate, especially when a large number of control points (40-60) were used. The NLT was more accurate than the extrapolated DLT when the level of extrapolation exceeded 100%. The results indicated that when possible one should use the DLT with a control object, sufficiently large as to encompass the entire activity being studied. However, in situations where the activity volume exceeds the size of one's DLT control object, the NLT method should be considered.

  12. A Derivation of the Nonlocal Volume-Averaged Equations for Two-Phase Flow Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a detailed derivation of the general transport equations for two-phase systems using a method based on nonlocal volume averaging is presented. The local volume averaging equations are commonly applied in nuclear reactor system for optimal design and safe operation. Unfortunately, these equations are limited to length-scale restriction and according with the theory of the averaging volume method, these fail in transition of the flow patterns and boundaries between two-phase flow and solid, which produce rapid changes in the physical properties and void fraction. The non-local volume averaging equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow; for instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail.

  13. Using structural equation modeling to construct calibration equations relating PM2.5 mass concentration samplers to the federal reference method sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilonick, Richard A.; Connell, Daniel P.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Rager, Judith R.; Xue, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to remove systematic bias among fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentration measurements made by different types of samplers used in the Pittsburgh Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (PARIES). PARIES is a retrospective epidemiology study that aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the associations between air quality and human health effects in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, region from 1999 to 2008. Calibration was needed in order to minimize the amount of systematic error in PM2.5 exposure estimation as a result of including data from 97 different PM2.5 samplers at 47 monitoring sites. Ordinary regression often has been used for calibrating air quality measurements from pairs of measurement devices; however, this is only appropriate when one of the two devices (the "independent" variable) is free from random error, which is rarely the case. A group of methods known as "errors-in-variables" (e.g., Deming regression, reduced major axis regression) has been developed to handle calibration between two devices when both are subject to random error, but these methods require information on the relative sizes of the random errors for each device, which typically cannot be obtained from the observed data. When data from more than two devices (or repeats of the same device) are available, the additional information is not used to inform the calibration. A more general approach that often has been overlooked is the use of a measurement error structural equation model (SEM) that allows the simultaneous comparison of three or more devices (or repeats). The theoretical underpinnings of all of these approaches to calibration are described, and the pros and cons of each are discussed. In particular, it is shown that both ordinary regression (when used for calibration) and Deming regression are particular examples of SEMs but with substantial deficiencies. To illustrate the use of SEMs, the 7865 daily average PM2.5 mass

  14. Semi-Empirical Calibration of the Integral Equation Model for Co-Polarized L-Band Backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Baghdadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to extend the semi-empirical calibration of the backscattering Integral Equation Model (IEM initially proposed for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data at C- and X-bands to SAR data at L-band. A large dataset of radar signal and in situ measurements (soil moisture and surface roughness over bare soil surfaces were used. This dataset was collected over numerous agricultural study sites in France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany and Italy using various SAR sensors (AIRSAR, SIR-C, JERS-1, PALSAR-1, ESAR. Results showed slightly better simulations with exponential autocorrelation function than with Gaussian function and with HH than with VV. Using the exponential autocorrelation function, the mean difference between experimental data and Integral Equation Model (IEM simulations is +0.4 dB in HH and −1.2 dB in VV with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE about 3.5 dB. In order to improve the modeling results of the IEM for a better use in the inversion of SAR data, a semi-empirical calibration of the IEM was performed at L-band in replacing the correlation length derived from field experiments by a fitting parameter. Better agreement was observed between the backscattering coefficient provided by the SAR and that simulated by the calibrated version of the IEM (RMSE about 2.2 dB.

  15. RESOLVE Survey Photometry and Volume-limited Calibration of the Photometric Gas Fractions Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Eckert, Kathleen D; Stark, David V; Moffett, Amanda J; Norris, Mark A; Snyder, Elaine M; Hoversten, Erik A

    2015-01-01

    We present custom-processed UV, optical, and near-IR photometry for the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass within two subvolumes of the nearby universe (RESOLVE-A and -B), complete down to baryonic mass ~10^9.1-9.3 Msun. In contrast to standard pipeline photometry (e.g., SDSS), our photometry uses optimal background subtraction, avoids suppressing color gradients, and includes systematic errors. With these improvements, we measure brighter magnitudes, larger radii, bluer colors, and a real increase in scatter around the red sequence. Combining stellar masses from our photometry with the RESOLVE-A HI mass census, we create volume-limited calibrations of the photometric gas fractions (PGF) technique, which predicts gas-to-stellar mass ratios (G/S) from galaxy colors and optional additional parameters. We analyze G/S-color residuals vs. potential third parameters, finding that axial ratio is the best independent and physically meaningful third parameter. We define a "modi...

  16. Adaptive Finite Volume Method for the Shallow Water Equations on Triangular Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudi Mungkasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical entropy production (NEP scheme for two-dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured triangular grids. We implement NEP as the error indicator for adaptive mesh refinement or coarsening in solving the shallow water equations using a finite volume method. Numerical simulations show that NEP is successful to be a refinement/coarsening indicator in the adaptive mesh finite volume method, as the method refines the mesh or grids around nonsmooth regions and coarsens them around smooth regions.

  17. Two-Level Stabilized Finite Volume Methods for Stationary Navier-Stokes Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two algorithms of two-level methods for resolving the nonlinearity in the stabilized finite volume approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the equilibrium flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid. A macroelement condition is introduced for constructing the local stabilized finite volume element formulation. Moreover the two-level methods consist of solving a small nonlinear system on the coarse mesh and then solving a linear system on the fine mesh. The error analysis shows that the two-level stabilized finite volume element method provides an approximate solution with the convergence rate of the same order as the usual stabilized finite volume element solution solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a fine mesh for a related choice of mesh widths.

  18. Energy-preserving finite volume element method for the improved Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanxiang; Zhang, Zhiyue; Zhang, Xinhua; Zhu, Quanyong

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we design an energy-preserving finite volume element scheme for solving the initial boundary problems of the improved Boussinesq equation. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed numerical schemes can conserve the energy and mass. Numerical experiments are performed to illustrate the efficiency of the scheme and theoretical analysis. While the results demonstrate that the proposed finite volume element scheme is second-order accuracy in space and time. Moreover, the new scheme can conserve mass and energy.

  19. Reference Equations for Static Lung Volumes and TLCO from a Population Sample in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailopoulos, Pavlos; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Spyratos, Dionisios; Argyropoulou-Pataka, Paraskevi; Sichletidis, Lazaros

    2015-02-14

    Background: The most commonly used reference equations for the measurement of static lung volumes/capacities and transfer factor of the lung for CO (TLCO) are based on studies around 30-40 years old with significant limitations. Objectives: Our aim was to (1) develop reference equations for static lung volumes and TLCO using the current American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines, and (2) compare the equations derived with those most commonly used. Methods: Healthy Caucasian subjects (234 males and 233 females) aged 18-91 years were recruited. All of them were healthy never smokers with a normal chest X-ray. Static lung volumes and TLCO were measured with a single-breath technique according to the latest guidelines. Results: Curvilinear regression prediction equations derived from the present study were compared with those that are most commonly used. Our reference equations in accordance with the latest studies show lower values for all static lung volume parameters and TLCO as well as a different way of deviation of those parameters (i.e. declining with age total lung capacity, TLCO age decline in both sex and functional residual capacity age rise in males). Conclusions: We suggest that old reference values of static lung volumes and TLCO should be updated, and our perception of deviation of some spirometric parameters should be revised. Our new reference curvilinear equations derived according to the latest guidelines could contribute to the updating by respiratory societies of old existing reference values and result in a better estimation of the lung function of contemporary populations with similar Caucasian characteristics. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. An Electric Field Volume Integral Equation Approach to Simulate Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Remis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an electric field volume integral equation approach to simulate surface plasmon propagation along metal/dielectric interfaces. Metallic objects embedded in homogeneous dielectric media are considered. Starting point is a so-called weak-form of the electric field integral equation. This form is discretized on a uniform tensor-product grid resulting in a system matrix whose action on a vector can be computed via the fast Fourier transform. The GMRES iterative solver is used to solve the discretized set of equations and numerical examples, illustrating surface plasmon propagation, are presented. The convergence rate of GMRES is discussed in terms of the spectrum of the system matrix and through numerical experiments we show how the eigenvalues of the discretized volume scattering operator are related to plasmon propagation and the medium parameters of a metallic object.

  1. Stability of Semi-implicit Finite Volume Scheme for Level Set Like Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Kwang-il; Son Yong-chol

    2015-01-01

    We study numerical methods for level set like equations arising in im-age processing and curve evolution problems. Semi-implicit finite volume-element type schemes are constructed for the general level set like equation (image selective smoothing model) given by Alvarez et al. (Alvarez L, Lions P L, Morel J M. Image selective smoothing and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion II. SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 1992, 29: 845–866). Through the reasonable semi-implicit discretization in time and co-volume method for space approximation, we give finite volume schemes, unconditionally stable in L∞ and W 1,2 (W 1,1) sense in isotropic (anisotropic) diffu-sion domain.

  2. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, M.; Noelle, S.; Kraft, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensional hyperbolic systems, such that all of the infinitely many directions of wave propagation are taken into account explicitly. We derive a well-balanced approximation of the integral equations and prove that the FVEG scheme is well-balanced for the stationary steady states as well as for the steady jets in the rotational frame. Several numerical experiments for stationary and quasi-stationary states as well as for steady jets confirm the reliability of the well-balanced FVEG scheme.

  3. An explicit finite volume element method for solving characteristic level set equation on triangular grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sutthisak Phongthanapanich; Pramote Dechaumphai

    2011-01-01

    Level set methods are widely used for predicting evolutions of complex free surface topologies,such as the crystal and crack growth,bubbles and droplets deformation,spilling and breaking waves,and two-phase flow phenomena.This paper presents a characteristic level set equation which is derived from the two-dimensional level set equation by using the characteristic-based scheme.An explicit finite volume element method is developed to discretize the equation on triangular grids.Several examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method for calculating interface evolutions in time.The proposed level set method is also coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase immiscible incompressible flow analysis with surface tension.The Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem is used to test and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. A critical review and database of biomass and volume allometric equation for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, H.; Siddique, M. R. H.; Akhter, M.

    2016-08-01

    Estimations of biomass, volume and carbon stock are important in the decision making process for the sustainable management of a forest. These estimations can be conducted by using available allometric equations of biomass and volume. Present study aims to: i. develop a compilation with verified allometric equations of biomass, volume, and carbon for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh, ii. find out the gaps and scope for further development of allometric equations for different trees and shrubs of Bangladesh. Key stakeholders (government departments, research organizations, academic institutions, and potential individual researchers) were identified considering their involvement in use and development of allometric equations. A list of documents containing allometric equations was prepared from secondary sources. The documents were collected, examined, and sorted to avoid repetition, yielding 50 documents. These equations were tested through a quality control scheme involving operational verification, conceptual verification, applicability, and statistical credibility. A total of 517 allometric equations for 80 species of trees, shrubs, palm, and bamboo were recorded. In addition, 222 allometric equations for 39 species were validated through the quality control scheme. Among the verified equations, 20%, 12% and 62% of equations were for green-biomass, oven-dried biomass, and volume respectively and 4 tree species contributed 37% of the total verified equations. Five gaps have been pinpointed for the existing allometric equations of Bangladesh: a. little work on allometric equation of common tree and shrub species, b. most of the works were concentrated on certain species, c. very little proportion of allometric equations for biomass estimation, d. no allometric equation for belowground biomass and carbon estimation, and d. lower proportion of valid allometric equations. It is recommended that site and species specific allometric equations should be developed and

  5. Transient analysis of scattering from ferromagnetic objects using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2016-11-02

    An explicit marching on-in-time scheme for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on ferromagnetic scatterers is described. The proposed method solves a coupled system of time domain magnetic field volume integral and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations. The unknown fluxes and fields are discretized using full and half Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson functions in space and bandlimited temporal interpolation functions in time. The coupled system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and integrated in time using a PE(CE)m type linear multistep method to obtain the unknown expansion coefficients. Numerical results demonstrating the stability and accuracy of the proposed scheme are presented.

  6. Solution of volume-surface integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    is applied to transform the VSIE into a system of linear equations. The higher-order MoM provides significant reduction in the number of unknowns in comparison with standard MoM formulations using low-order basis functions, such as RWG functions. Due to the orthogonal nature of the higher-order Legendre......The problem of electromagnetic scattering by composite metallic and dielectric objects is solved using the coupled volume-surface integral equation (VSIE). The method of moments (MoM) based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order curvilinear geometrical elements...

  7. ON THE FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT VERSION OF RITZ-VOLTERRA PROJECTION AND APPLICATIONS TO RELATED EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Zhang; Yan-ping Lin; Robert J.Tait

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general error analysis framework for the finite volume element (FVE) approximation to the Ritz-Volterra projection, the Sobolev equations and parabolic integro-differential equations. The main idea in our paper is to consider the FVE methods as perturbations of standard finite element methods which enables us to derive the optimal L2 and H1 norm error estimates, and the L∞ and W1∞ norm error estimates by means of the time dependent Green functions. Our disc ussions also include elliptic and parabolic problems as the special cases.

  8. Time-Domain Volume Integral Equation for TM-Case Scattering from Nonlinear Penetrable Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; Eric Michielssen

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the time-domainvolume integral equation (TDVIE) method to analyzescattering from nonlinear penetrable objects, whichare illuminated by the transverse magnetic (TM) in-cident pulse. The time-domain volume integral equa-tion is formulated in terms of two-dimensional (2D)Green's function, and solved by using the march-on-in time (MOT) technique. Some numerical results aregiven to validate this method, and comparisons aremade with the results obtained by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  9. Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign Sensor Calibration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302 Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law ...calibration exercises were conducted. The first exercise examined the MSA-Phase I dynamic sensors (ultrasonic anemometers); the second assessed the MSA...Phase I thermodynamic sensors (barometers, thermometers, hygrometers, and pyranometers). This report documents the results of a detailed calibration

  10. Fast Near-Field Calculation for Volume Integral Equations for Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density....... Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the near-field calculation in comparison to a straightforward numerical evaluation of the ra-diation integral since...

  11. Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin Methods for the Shallow Water Equations with Dry Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollermann, Andreas; Noelle, Sebastian; Medvidová, Maria Lukáčová -

    2015-01-01

    We present a new Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin (FVEG) scheme for the solution of the shallow water equations (SWE) with the bottom topography as a source term. Our new scheme will be based on the FVEG methods presented in (Luk\\'a\\v{c}ov\\'a, Noelle and Kraft, J. Comp. Phys. 221, 2007), but adds the possibility to handle dry boundaries. The most important aspect is to preserve the positivity of the water height. We present a general approach to ensure this for arbitrary finite volume schemes...

  12. Indication of BOLD-specific venous flow-volume changes from precisely controlled hyperoxic vs. hypercapnic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Clarisse I; Pike, G Bruce

    2012-04-01

    Deriving cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals involves a flow-volume parameter (α), reflecting total cerebral blood volume changes, and a calibration constant (M). Traditionally, the former is assumed a fixed value and the latter is measured under alterations in fixed inspired fractional concentrations of carbon dioxide. We recently reported on reductions in M-variability via precise control of end-tidal pressures of both hypercapnic (HC) and hyperoxic (HO) gases. In light of these findings, our aim was to apply the improved calibration alternatives to neuronal activation, making use of their distinct vasoactive natures to evaluate the α-value. Nine healthy volunteers were imaged at 3 T while simultaneously measuring BOLD and arterial spin-labeling signals during controlled, graded, HC, and HO, followed by visual (VC) and sensorimotor cortices (SMC) activation. On the basis of low M- and CMRO(2)-variability, the comparison of these calibration alternatives accurately highlighted a reduced venous flow-volume relationship (α=0.16±0.02, with α(VC)=0.12±0.04, and α(SMC)=0.20±0.02), as appropriate for BOLD modeling.

  13. Two-dimensional ultrasound measurement of thyroid gland volume: a new equation with higher correlation with 3-D ultrasound measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Michael; Yung, Dennis M C; Ho, Karen K L

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new two-dimensional (2-D) ultrasound thyroid volume estimation equation using three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound as the standard of reference, and to compare the thyroid volume estimation accuracy of the new equation with three previously reported equations. 2-D and 3-D ultrasound examinations of the thyroid gland were performed in 150 subjects with normal serum thyrotropin (TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels (63 men and 87 women, age range: 17 to 71 y). In each subject, the volume of both thyroid lobes was measured by 3-D ultrasound. On 2-D ultrasound, the craniocaudal (CC), lateromedial (LM) and anteroposterior (AP) dimensions of the thyroid lobes were measured. The equation was derived by correlating the volume of the thyroid lobes measured with 3-D ultrasound and the product of the three dimensions measured with 2-D ultrasound using linear regression analysis, in 75 subjects without thyroid nodule. The accuracy of thyroid volume estimation of the new equation and the three previously reported equations was evaluated and compared in another 75 subjects (without thyroid nodule, n = 30; with thyroid nodule, n = 45). It is suggested that volume of thyroid lobe may be estimated as: volume of thyroid lobe = 0.38.(CC.LM.AP) + 1.76. Result showed that the new equation (16.9% to 36.1%) had a significantly smaller thyroid volume estimation error than the previously reported equations (20.8% to 54.9%) (p thyroid volume estimation error when thyroid glands with nodules were examined (p thyroid volume equation, 2-D ultrasound can be a useful alternative in thyroid volume measurement when 3-D ultrasound is not available.

  14. A posteriori error estimates for finite volume approximations of elliptic equations on general surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Lili; Tian, Li; Wang, Desheng

    2008-10-31

    In this paper, we present a residual-based a posteriori error estimate for the finite volume discretization of steady convection– diffusion–reaction equations defined on surfaces in R3, which are often implicitly represented as level sets of smooth functions. Reliability and efficiency of the proposed a posteriori error estimator are rigorously proved. Numerical experiments are also conducted to verify the theoretical results and demonstrate the robustness of the error estimator.

  15. High-Order Spectral Volume Method for 2D Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Laiping; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Spectral Volume (SV) method is extended to the 2D Euler equations. The focus of this paper is to study the performance of the SV method on multidimensional non-linear systems. Implementation details including total variation diminishing (TVD) and total variation bounded (TVB) limiters are presented. Solutions with both smooth features and discontinuities are utilized to demonstrate the overall capability of the SV method.

  16. Third order finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for two-dimensional wave equation system

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Warnecke, Gerald; Zahaykah, Yousef

    2003-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the derivation and analysis of third order finite volume evolution Galerkin schemes for the two-dimensional wave equation system. To achieve this the first order approximate evolution operator is considered. A recovery stage is carried out at each level to generate a piecewise polynomial approximation from the piecewise constants, to feed into the calculation of the fluxes. We estimate the truncation error and give numerical examples to demonstrate the higher order...

  17. Finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for three-dimensional wave equation system

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Warnecke, Gerald; Zahaykah, Yousef

    2004-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the derivation of finite volume evolution Galerkin schemes for three-dimensional wave equation system. The aim is to construct methods which take into account all of the infinitely many directions of propagation of bicharacteristics. The idea is to evolve the initial function using the characteristic cone and then to project onto a finite element space. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the multidimensional behaviour of the solutio...

  18. User's manual for MODCAL: Bounding surface soil plasticity model calibration and prediction code, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennatale, J. S.; Herrmann, L. R.; Defalias, Y. F.

    1983-02-01

    In order to reduce the complexity of the model calibration process, a computer-aided automated procedure has been developed and tested. The computer code employs a Quasi-Newton optimization strategy to locate that set of parameter values which minimizes the discrepancy between the model predictions and the experimental observations included in the calibration data base. Through application to a number of real soils, the automated procedure has been found to be an efficient, reliable and economical means of accomplishing model calibration. Although the code was developed specifically for use with the Bounding Surface plasticity model, it can readily be adapted to other constitutive formulations. Since the code greatly reduces the dependence of calibration success on user expertise, it significantly increases the accessibility and usefulness of sophisticated material models to the general engineering community.

  19. 容积法体积管自动检定装置%Volumetric method volume tube automatic calibration device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兵

    2014-01-01

    Using standard metal gauge, four-way commutator, PC, PLC as the main hardware, Kingview software development platform, The building Volumetric method volume tube automatic calibration device. According to the verification regulation requirements, To control the flow valve, Device automatically read standard gauge of metal volume value, The automatic temperature and pressure values collected, Automatically calculate the volume tube basic volume, standard error, repeatability, accuracy and repeatability. Realize the visual operation interface, save the test data, print calibration certificate, the notice of verification results, etc.%利用标准金属量器、四通换向器、计算机、PLC 为主要硬件,组态王软件为开发平台,构建容积法体积管自动检定装置。根据检定规程要求,控制流量阀,装置自动读取标准金属量器的容积值、自动采集温度、压力值,自动计算出体积管基本体积、标准误差、重复性、准确度、复现性。实现可视的操作界面、保存检定数据、打印检定证书、检定结果通知书等功能。

  20. Calibration of the Pooled Cohort Equations for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nancy R; Ridker, Paul M

    2016-12-06

    The latest guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association, released in fall 2013, provide a long-anticipated update to the recommendations of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). The guidelines incorporate a new risk score for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that includes stroke as well as coronary heart disease. After publication, the new pooled cohort equations (PCEs) were evaluated in 15 studies from the United States and Europe, most of which used cohorts that were more contemporary than those used in developing the guidelines. In almost all of these external validation cohorts, the PCEs overestimated the observed risk. This narrative review provides an update of the published reports, an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of these validation efforts, and a discussion of possible reasons for the discrepancies. These issues may be useful in a recalibration process designed to better match predicted and observed risks relevant for current clinical practice.

  1. Smooth reference equations for slow vital capacity and flow-volume curve indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, F; Bottai, M; Viegi, G; Di Pede, F; Carrozzi, L; Baldacci, S; Pedreschi, M; Giuntini, C

    2000-03-01

    We derived reference values for slow vital capacity (VC) and flow-volume curve indexes (FVC, FEV(1), and flows) from the 1,185 tracings provided by 1,039 "normal" subjects who participated in one or both cross-sectional surveys of the Po River Delta study in 1980-1982 and in 1988-1991. Definition of "normal" was based on negative answers to questions on respiratory symptoms/diseases or recent infections, current/past tobacco smoking, and work exposure to noxious agents. Reference equations were derived separately by sex as linear regressions of body mass index (BMI = weight/height(2)), BMI-squared, height, height-squared, and age. Age entered all the models by natural cubic splines using two break points, except for the ratios FEV(1)/VC and FEV(1)/FVC. Random effects models were applied to adjust for the potential intrasubject correlation. BMI, along with height and age, appeared to be an important predictor, which was significantly associated with VC, FEV(1), FVC, FEV(1)/FVC, and PEF in both sexes, and with FEV(1)/VC and FEF(25-75) in females. Natural cubic splines provided smooth reference equation curves (no "jumps" or "angled points") over the entire age span, differently from the conventional reference equations. Thus, we recommend the use of smooth continuous equations for predicting lung function indexes, along with the inclusion of BMI in the equations.

  2. Numerical treatment of wave breaking on unstructured finite volume approximations for extended Boussinesq-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazolea, M.; Delis, A. I.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    A new methodology is presented to handle wave breaking over complex bathymetries in extended two-dimensional Boussinesq-type (BT) models which are solved by an unstructured well-balanced finite volume (FV) scheme. The numerical model solves the 2D extended BT equations proposed by Nwogu (1993), recast in conservation law form with a hyperbolic flux identical to that of the Non-linear Shallow Water (NSW) equations. Certain criteria, along with their proper implementation, are established to characterize breaking waves. Once breaking waves are recognized, we switch locally in the computational domain from the BT to NSW equations by suppressing the dispersive terms in the vicinity of the wave fronts. Thus, the shock-capturing features of the FV scheme enable an intrinsic representation of the breaking waves, which are handled as shocks by the NSW equations. An additional methodology is presented on how to perform a stable switching between the BT and NSW equations within the unstructured FV framework. Extensive validations are presented, demonstrating the performance of the proposed wave breaking treatment, along with some comparisons with other well-established wave breaking mechanisms that have been proposed for BT models.

  3. Use of a theoretical equation of state to interpret time-dependent free volume in polymer glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curro, J.G.; Lagasse, R.R.; Simha, R.

    1981-10-01

    Many physical properties of polymer glasses change spontaneously during isothermal aging by a process commonly modeled as collapse of free volume. The model has not been verified rigorously because free volume cannot be unambiguously measured. In the present investigation we tentatively identify the free-volume fraction with the fraction of empty sites in the equation of state of Simha and Somcynsky. With this theory, volume recovery measurements can be analyzed to yield directly the time-dependent, free-volume fraction. Using this approach, recent volume measurements on poly(methyl methacrylate) are analyzed. The resulting free-volume fractions are then used in the Doolittle equation to predict the shift in stress relaxation curves at 23 /sup 0/C. These predicted shift factors agree with the experimental measurements of Cizmecioglu et al. In addition, it is shown that previous assumptions concerning temperature dependence of free volume are inconsistent with the theory.

  4. Use of a theoretical equation of state to interpret time-dependent free volume in polymer glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curro, J. G.; Lagasse, R. R.; Simha, R.

    1981-10-01

    Many physical properties of polymer glasses change spontaneously during isothermal aging by a process commonly modeled as collapse of free volume. The model has not been verified rigorously because free volume cannot be unambiguously measured. In the present investigation we tentatively identify the free-volume fraction with the fraction of empty sites in the equation of state of Simha and Somcynsky. With this theory, volume recovery measurements can be analyzed to yield directly the time-dependent, free-volume fraction. Using this approach, recent volume measurements on poly(methyl methacrylate) are analyzed. The resulting free-volume fractions are then used in the Doolittle equation to predict the shift in stress relaxation curves at 23 °C. These predicted shift factors agree with the experimental measurements of Cizmecioglu et al. In addition, it is shown that previous assumptions concerning temperature dependence of free volume are inconsistent with the theory.

  5. Instantaneous equations for multiphase flow in porous media without length-scale restrictions using a non-local averaging volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto, E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.m [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Apartado Postal 55-535, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework to obtain a new formulation for multiphase flow conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, based on the non-local form of the averaged volume conservation equations. The simplification of the local averaging volume of the conservation equations to obtain practical equations is subject to the following length-scale restrictions: d << l << L, where d is the characteristic length of the dispersed phases, l is the characteristic length of the averaging volume, and L is the characteristic length of the physical system. If the foregoing inequality does not hold, or if the scale of the problem of interest is of the order of l, the averaging technique and therefore, the macroscopic theories of multiphase flow should be modified in order to include appropriate considerations and terms in the corresponding equations. In these cases the local form of the averaged volume conservation equations are not appropriate to describe the multiphase system. As an example of the conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, the natural circulation boiling water reactor was consider to study the non-local effects on the thermal-hydraulic core performance during steady-state and transient behaviors, and the results were compared with the classic local averaging volume conservation equations.

  6. Application of Quasi-Heat-Pulse Solutions for Luikov’s Equations of Heat and Moisture Transfer for Calibrating and Utilizing Thermal Properties Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago the Laplace transform solutions of Luikov’s differential equations were presented for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in porous hydroscopic orthotropic materials for the boundary condition of a gradual heat pulse applied to both surfaces of a flat slab. This paper presents calibration methods and data for the K-tester 637 (Lasercomp),...

  7. Pressure-volume-temperature and excess molar volume prediction of amorphous and crystallizable polymer blends by equation of state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fakhri Yousefi; Hajir Karimi; Maryam Gomar

    2015-01-01

    In this work the statistical mechanical equation of state was developed for volumetric properties of crystal ine and amorphous polymer blends. The Ihm–Song–Mason equations of state (ISMEOS) based on temperature and density at melting point (Tm andρm) as scaling constants were developed for crystalline polymers such as poly(propylene glycol)+poly(ethylene glycol)-200 (PPG+PEG-200), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-300 (PEGME-350)+PEG-200 and PEGME-350+PEG-600. Furthermore, for amorphous polymer blends con-taining poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)+polystyrene (PS) and PS+poly(vinylmethylether) (PVME), the density and surface tension at glass transition (ρg andγg) were used for estimation of second Virial coefficient. The calculation of second Virial coefficients (B2), effective van der Waals co-volume (b) and correction factor (α) was required for judgment about applicability of this model. The obtained results by ISMEOS for crys-talline and amorphous polymer blends were in good agreement with the experimental data with absolute aver-age deviations of 0.84%and 1.04%, respectively.

  8. A self-calibrating telemetry system for measurement of ventricular pressure-volume relations in conscious, freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru; Zheng, Can; Kashihara, Koji; Sato, Takayuki; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2004-12-01

    Using Bluetooth wireless technology, we developed an implantable telemetry system for measurement of the left ventricular pressure-volume relation in conscious, freely moving rats. The telemetry system consisted of a pressure-conductance catheter (1.8-Fr) connected to a small (14-g) fully implantable signal transmitter. To make the system fully telemetric, calibrations such as blood resistivity and parallel conductance were also conducted telemetrically. To estimate blood resistivity, we used four electrodes arranged 0.2 mm apart on the pressure-conductance catheter. To estimate parallel conductance, we used a dual-frequency method. We examined the accuracy of calibrations, stroke volume (SV) measurements, and the reproducibility of the telemetry. The blood resistivity estimated telemetrically agreed with that measured using an ex vivo cuvette method (y=1.09x - 11.9, r2= 0.88, n=10). Parallel conductance estimated by the dual-frequency (2 and 20 kHz) method correlated well with that measured by a conventional saline injection method (y=1.59x - 1.77, r2= 0.87, n=13). The telemetric SV closely correlated with the flowmetric SV during inferior vena cava occlusions (y=0.96x + 7.5, r2=0.96, n=4). In six conscious rats, differences between the repeated telemetries on different days (3 days apart on average) were reasonably small: 13% for end-diastolic volume, 20% for end-systolic volume, 28% for end-diastolic pressure, and 6% for end-systolic pressure. We conclude that the developed telemetry system enables us to estimate the pressure-volume relation with reasonable accuracy and reproducibility in conscious, untethered rats.

  9. equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhi Liu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a class of high order delay partial differential equations. Employing high order delay differential inequalities, several oscillation criteria are established for such equations subject to two different boundary conditions. Two examples are also given.

  10. Parallel, explicit, and PWTD-enhanced time domain volume integral equation solver

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs) are useful for analyzing transient scattering from inhomogeneous dielectric objects in applications as varied as photonics, optoelectronics, and bioelectromagnetics. TDVIEs typically are solved by implicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) schemes [N. T. Gres et al., Radio Sci., 36, 379-386, 2001], requiring the solution of a system of equations at each and every time step. To reduce the computational cost associated with such schemes, [A. Al-Jarro et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 60, 5203-5215, 2012] introduced an explicit MOT-TDVIE method that uses a predictor-corrector technique to stably update field values throughout the scatterer. By leveraging memory-efficient nodal spatial discretization and scalable parallelization schemes [A. Al-Jarro et al., in 28th Int. Rev. Progress Appl. Computat. Electromagn., 2012], this solver has been successfully applied to the analysis of scattering phenomena involving 0.5 million spatial unknowns. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. An efficient explicit marching on in time solver for magnetic field volume integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-07-25

    An efficient explicit marching on in time (MOT) scheme for solving the magnetic field volume integral equation is proposed. The MOT system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and is integrated in time using a PE(CE)m multistep scheme. At each time step, a system with a Gram matrix is solved for the predicted/corrected field expansion coefficients. Depending on the type of spatial testing scheme Gram matrix is sparse or consists of blocks with only diagonal entries regardless of the time step size. Consequently, the resulting MOT scheme is more efficient than its implicit counterparts, which call for inversion of fuller matrix system at lower frequencies. Numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and stability of the proposed MOT scheme, are presented.

  12. Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-16

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.

  13. Alternating Direction Finite Volume Element Methods for Three-Dimensional Parabolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongke

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents alternating direction finite volume element methods for three-dimensional parabolic partial differential equations and gives four computational schemes, one is analogous to Douglas finite difference scheme with second-order splitting error, the other two schemes have third-order splitting error, and the last one is an extended LOD scheme. The L2 norm and H1 semi-norm error estimates are obtained for the first scheme and second one, respectively. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the methods.

  14. Explicit solution of the time domain volume integral equation using a stable predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain volume integral equation is presented. The proposed method achieves its stability by employing, at each time step, a corrector scheme, which updates/corrects fields computed by the explicit predictor scheme. The proposedmethod is computationally more efficient when compared to the existing filtering techniques used for the stabilization of explicit MOT schemes. Numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method maintains its stability even when applied to the analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions with electrically large structures meshed using approximately half a million discretization elements.

  15. A HIGH RESOLUTION FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A high-resolution finite volume numerical method for solving the shallow water equations is developed in this paper. In order to extend finite difference TVD scheme to finite volume method, a new geometry and topology of control bodies is defined by considering the corresponding relationships between nodes and elements. This solver is implemented on arbitrary quadrilateral meshes and their satellite elements, and based on a second-order hybrid type of TVD scheme in space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta method in time discretization. Then it is used to deal with two typical dam-break problems and very satisfactory results are obtained comparied with other numerical solutions. It can be considered as an efficient implement for the computation of shallow water problems, especially concerning those having discontinuities, subcritical and supercritical flows and complex geometries.

  16. A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner for coupled surface-volume electric field integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2010-08-01

    A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well-posed even when applied to densely discretized volumes, a classically formulated S-EFIE operator is ill-posed when applied to densely discretized surfaces. This renders the discretized coupled S-EFIE and V-EFIE system ill-conditioned, and its iterative solution inefficient or even impossible. The proposed scheme regularizes the coupled set of S-EFIE and V-EFIE using a Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP)-based technique. The resulting scheme enables the efficient analysis of electromagnetic interactions with composite structures containing fine/subwavelength geometric features. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  17. Comparison of estimates of hardwood bole volume using importance sampling, the centroid method, and some taper equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Michael L. Spangler; John E. Baumgras

    2002-01-01

    Various taper systems and the centroid method were compared to unbiased volume estimates made by importance sampling for 720 hardwood trees selected throughout the state of West Virginia. Only the centroid method consistently gave volumes estimates that did not differ significantly from those made by importance sampling, although some taper equations did well for most...

  18. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  19. Adaptive finite-volume WENO schemes on dynamically redistributed grids for compressible Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Harshavardhana S.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2016-08-01

    A high-order adaptive finite-volume method is presented for simulating inviscid compressible flows on time-dependent redistributed grids. The method achieves dynamic adaptation through a combination of time-dependent mesh node clustering in regions characterized by strong solution gradients and an optimal selection of the order of accuracy and the associated reconstruction stencil in a conservative finite-volume framework. This combined approach maximizes spatial resolution in discontinuous regions that require low-order approximations for oscillation-free shock capturing. Over smooth regions, high-order discretization through finite-volume WENO schemes minimizes numerical dissipation and provides excellent resolution of intricate flow features. The method including the moving mesh equations and the compressible flow solver is formulated entirely on a transformed time-independent computational domain discretized using a simple uniform Cartesian mesh. Approximations for the metric terms that enforce discrete geometric conservation law while preserving the fourth-order accuracy of the two-point Gaussian quadrature rule are developed. Spurious Cartesian grid induced shock instabilities such as carbuncles that feature in a local one-dimensional contact capturing treatment along the cell face normals are effectively eliminated through upwind flux calculation using a rotated Hartex-Lax-van Leer contact resolving (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver for the Euler equations in generalized coordinates. Numerical experiments with the fifth and ninth-order WENO reconstructions at the two-point Gaussian quadrature nodes, over a range of challenging test cases, indicate that the redistributed mesh effectively adapts to the dynamic flow gradients thereby improving the solution accuracy substantially even when the initial starting mesh is non-adaptive. The high adaptivity combined with the fifth and especially the ninth-order WENO reconstruction allows remarkably sharp capture of

  20. Mesh locking effects in the finite volume solution of 2-D anisotropic diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, Gianmarco; Putti, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic diffusion equations require special techniques to overcome or reduce the mesh locking phenomenon. We present a finite volume scheme that tries to approximate with the best possible accuracy the quantities that are of importance in discretizing anisotropic fluxes. In particular, we discuss the crucial role of accurate evaluations of the tangential components of the gradient acting tangentially to the control volume boundaries, that are called into play by anisotropic diffusion tensors. To obtain the sought characteristics from the proposed finite volume method, we employ a second-order accurate reconstruction scheme which is used to evaluate both normal and tangential cell-interface gradients. The experimental results on a number of different meshes show that the scheme maintains optimal convergence rates in both L2 and H1 norms except for the benchmark test considering full Neumann boundary conditions on non-uniform grids. In such a case, a severe locking effect is experienced and documented. However, within the range of practical values of the anisotropy ratio, the scheme is robust and efficient. We postulate and verify experimentally the existence of a quadratic relationship between the anisotropy ratio and the mesh size parameter that guarantees optimal and sub-optimal convergence rates.

  1. A spatial discretization of the MHD equations based on the finite volume - spectral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Takahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-05-01

    Based on the finite volume - spectral method, we present new discretization formulae for the spatial differential operators in the full system of the compressible MHD equations. In this approach, the cell-centered finite volume method is adopted in a bounded plane (poloidal plane), while the spectral method is applied to the differential with respect to the periodic direction perpendicular to the poloidal plane (toroidal direction). Here, an unstructured grid system composed of the arbitrary triangular elements is utilized for constructing the cell-centered finite volume method. In order to maintain the divergence free constraint of the magnetic field numerically, only the poloidal component of the rotation is defined at three edges of the triangular element. This poloidal component is evaluated under the assumption that the toroidal component of the operated vector times the radius, RA{sub {phi}}, is linearly distributed in the element. The present method will be applied to the nonlinear MHD dynamics in an realistic torus geometry without the numerical singularities. (author)

  2. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  3. AN UNSTRUCTURED FINITE-VOLUME ALGORITHM FOR NONLINEAR TWO-DIMENSIOAL SHALLOW WATER EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-li; GENG Yan-fen; JIN Sheng

    2005-01-01

    An unstructured finite-volume numerical algorithm was presented for solution of the two-dimensional shallow water equations, based on triangular or arbitrary quadrilateral meshes. The Roe type approximate Riemann solver was used to the system. A second-order TVD scheme with the van Leer limiter was used in the space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta approach was used in the time discretization. An upwind, as opposed to a pointwise, treatment of the slope source terms was adopted and the semi-implicit treatment was used for the friction source terms. Verification for two-dimension dam-break problems are carried out by comparing the present results with others and very good agreement is shown.

  4. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2014-07-06

    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  5. Combining EEG and MEG for the reconstruction of epileptic activity using a calibrated realistic volume conductor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Aydin

    Full Text Available To increase the reliability for the non-invasive determination of the irritative zone in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis, we introduce here a new experimental and methodological source analysis pipeline that combines the complementary information in EEG and MEG, and apply it to data from a patient, suffering from refractory focal epilepsy. Skull conductivity parameters in a six compartment finite element head model with brain anisotropy, constructed from individual MRI data, are estimated in a calibration procedure using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP and field (SEF data. These data are measured in a single run before acquisition of further runs of spontaneous epileptic activity. Our results show that even for single interictal spikes, volume conduction effects dominate over noise and need to be taken into account for accurate source analysis. While cerebrospinal fluid and brain anisotropy influence both modalities, only EEG is sensitive to skull conductivity and conductivity calibration significantly reduces the difference in especially depth localization of both modalities, emphasizing its importance for combining EEG and MEG source analysis. On the other hand, localization differences which are due to the distinct sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG persist. In case of a moderate error in skull conductivity, combined source analysis results can still profit from the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG to accurately determine location, orientation and strength of the underlying sources. On the other side, significant errors in skull modeling are reflected in EEG reconstruction errors and could reduce the goodness of fit to combined datasets. For combined EEG and MEG source analysis, we therefore recommend calibrating skull conductivity using additionally acquired SEP/SEF data.

  6. Bymixer provides on-line calibration of measurement of CO2 volume exhaled per breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, P H; Serina, E R

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of CO2 volume exhaled per breath (VCO2.br) can be determined during anesthesia by the multiplication and integration of tidal flow (V) and PCO2. During side-stream capnometry, PCO2 must be advanced in time by transport delay (TD), the time to suction gas through the sampling tube. During ventilation, TD can vary due to sample line connection internal volume or flow rate changes. To determine correct TD and measure accurate VCO2.br during actual ventilation. TD can be iteratively adjusted (TDADJ) until VCO2-br/tidal volume equals PCO2 measured in a mixed expired gas collection (PECO2) (J Appl. Physiol. 72:2029-2035, 1992). However. PECO2 is difficult to measure during anesthesia because CO2 is absorbed in the circle circuit. Accordingly, we implemented a bypass flow-mixing chamber device (bymixer) that was interposed in the expiration limb of the circle circuit and accurately measured PECO2 over a wide range of conditions of ventilation of a test lung-metabolic chamber (regression slope = 1.01: R2 = 0.99). The bymixer response (time constant) varied from 18.1 +/- 0.03 sec (12.5 l/min ventilation) to 66.7 +/- 0.9 sec (2.5 l/min). Bymixer PECO2 was used to correctly determine TDADJ (without interrupting respiration) to enable accurate measurement of VCO2.br over widely changing expiratory flow patterns.

  7. Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.

  8. Asymptotic preserving IMEX finite volume schemes for low Mach number Euler equations with gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispen, Georgij; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, Mária; Yelash, Leonid

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we will present and analyze a new class of the IMEX finite volume schemes for the Euler equations with a gravity source term. We will in particular concentrate on a singular limit of weakly compressible flows when the Mach number M ≪ 1. In order to efficiently resolve slow dynamics we split the whole nonlinear system in a stiff linear part governing the acoustic and gravity waves and a non-stiff nonlinear part that models nonlinear advection effects. For time discretization we use a special class of the so-called globally stiffly accurate IMEX schemes and approximate the stiff linear operator implicitly and the non-stiff nonlinear operator explicitly. For spatial discretization the finite volume approximation is used with the central and Rusanov/Lax-Friedrichs numerical fluxes for the linear and nonlinear subsystem, respectively. In the case of a constant background potential temperature we prove theoretically that the method is asymptotically consistent and asymptotically stable uniformly with respect to small Mach number. We also analyze experimentally convergence rates in the singular limit when the Mach number tends to zero.

  9. Generalized source Finite Volume Method for radiative transfer equation in participating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xu, Chuan-Long; Wang, Shi-Min

    2017-03-01

    Temperature monitoring is very important in a combustion system. In recent years, non-intrusive temperature reconstruction has been explored intensively on the basis of calculating arbitrary directional radiative intensities. In this paper, a new method named Generalized Source Finite Volume Method (GSFVM) was proposed. It was based on radiative transfer equation and Finite Volume Method (FVM). This method can be used to calculate arbitrary directional radiative intensities and is proven to be accurate and efficient. To verify the performance of this method, six test cases of 1D, 2D, and 3D radiative transfer problems were investigated. The numerical results show that the efficiency of this method is close to the radial basis function interpolation method, but the accuracy and stability is higher than that of the interpolation method. The accuracy of the GSFVM is similar to that of the Backward Monte Carlo (BMC) algorithm, while the time required by the GSFVM is much shorter than that of the BMC algorithm. Therefore, the GSFVM can be used in temperature reconstruction and improvement on the accuracy of the FVM.

  10. Body composition in Nepalese children using isotope dilution: the production of ethnic-specific calibration equations and an exploration of methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delan Devakumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations.Objectives. (1 To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7–9 years. (2 To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy.Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced.Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R2 93%. The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42. Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution.Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution.

  11. Global calibration of Hargreaves equation and its applicability in China%Hargreaves公式的全局校正及适用性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆芳; 杨大文; 王银堂; 杨汉波

    2011-01-01

    As one of the simplest empirical methods for positional evapotranspiration (ET0) calculation, it is still lack of systemic evaluation for Hargreaves equation's computational accuracy and applicability evaluation in different climatic regions.In this paper, the Hargreaves equation is calibrated using the global optimization algorithm SCE-UA (Shuffled Complex Evolution method developed at University of Arizona).The value of ET0 calculated by the Penman-Monteith equation is used as the benchmark.The global calibration is done using a monthly time step at 105 climate stations distributed over the continental China as well as on Hainan Island.The regional distribution of the calibrated parameters is analyzed and influencing factors on the parameters are investigated.The applicability of the calibrated Hargreaves equation in seven different climatic regions is synthetically evaluated for the long-term consistency and the seasonal consistency.The influencing factors on the accuracy of the calibrated Hargreaves equation are investigated using the method of correlation analysis.Results show that globally calibrated parameter values of the Hargreaves equation using SCE-UA are essentially different from that recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.However, the accuracy of the equation is highly promoted and the calibrated parameters at the 105 stations exhibit a certain regional regularity and may vary with annual precipitation and temperature.At almost all the stations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Northwest and Southwest China, the calibrated Hargreaves equation is applicable all year round.In contrast, poor calculation of ET0 is found in all seasons in South China.The calibrated Hargreaves equation is only valid during summer and autumn seasons over Northeast and North China and the Xinjiang Autonomous Region.Generally, the disability in calculating the aerodynamic component of ET0 is the main source of errors causing computational

  12. A Time Marching Scheme for Solving Volume Integral Equations on Nonlinear Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-07

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are oftentimes solved using marchingon-in-time (MOT) schemes. Unlike finite difference and finite element schemes, MOT-TDVIE solvers require discretization of only the scatterers, do not call for artificial absorbing boundary conditions, and are more robust to numerical phase dispersion. On the other hand, their computational cost is high, they suffer from late-time instabilities, and their implicit nature makes incorporation of nonlinear constitutive relations more difficult. Development of plane-wave time-domain (PWTD) and FFT-based schemes has significantly reduced the computational cost of the MOT-TDVIE solvers. Additionally, latetime instability problem has been alleviated for all practical purposes with the development of accurate integration schemes and specially designed temporal basis functions. Addressing the third challenge is the topic of this presentation. I will talk about an explicit MOT scheme developed for solving the TDVIE on scatterers with nonlinear material properties. The proposed scheme separately discretizes the TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between electric field intensity and flux density. The unknown field intensity and flux density are expanded using half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson (SWG) basis functions in space and polynomial temporal interpolators in time. The resulting coupled system of the discretized TDVIE and constitutive relation is integrated in time using an explicit P E(CE) m scheme to yield the unknown expansion coefficients. Explicitness of time marching allows for straightforward incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function evaluation on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. Consequently, the resulting MOT scheme does not call for a Newton-like nonlinear solver. Numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability

  13. FIA's volume-to-biomass conversion method (CRM) generally underestimates biomass in comparison to published equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. C. Chojnacky

    2012-01-01

    An update of the Jenkins et al. (2003) biomass estimation equations for North American tree species resulted in 35 generalized equations developed from published equations. These 35 equations, which predict aboveground biomass of individual species grouped according to a taxa classification (based on genus or family and sometimes specific gravity), generally predicted...

  14. HIGH ACCURACY FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD FOR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同科

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a high accuracy finite volume element method is presented for two-point boundary value problem of second order ordinary differential equation, which differs fromthe high order generalized difference methods. It is proved that the method has optimal order er-ror estimate O(h3) in H1 norm. Finally, two examples show that the method is effective.

  15. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  16. Parallel PWTD-Accelerated Explicit Solution of the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2016-03-25

    A parallel plane-wave time-domain (PWTD)-accelerated explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) is presented. The proposed scheme leverages pulse functions and Lagrange polynomials to spatially and temporally discretize the electric flux density induced throughout the scatterers, and a finite difference scheme to compute the electric fields from the Hertz electric vector potentials radiated by the flux density. The flux density is explicitly updated during time marching by a predictor-corrector (PC) scheme and the vector potentials are efficiently computed by a scalar PWTD scheme. The memory requirement and computational complexity of the resulting explicit PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver scale as ( log ) s s O N N and ( ) s t O N N , respectively. Here, s N is the number of spatial basis functions and t N is the number of time steps. A scalable parallelization of the proposed MOT scheme on distributed- memory CPU clusters is described. The efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of the resulting (parallelized) PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver are demonstrated via its application to the analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on canonical and real-life scatterers represented with up to 25 million spatial discretization elements.

  17. Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    , and more precisely, the electro-dynamic equivalent of peak aortic reduced average blood acceleration (PARABA, d/dtmax/R, s-2. As necessary for stroke volume calculation, dZ/dtmax/Z0 must undergo square root transformation to yield an ohmic mean flow velocity equivalent. To compute SV, the square root of the dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent ([dZ/dtmax/Z0]0.5, s-1 is multiplied by a volume of electrically participating thoracic tissue (VEPT, mL and left ventricular ejection time (TLVE, s. To find the bulk volume of the thoracic contents (i.e. VEPT, established methods implement exponential functions of measured thoracic length (L(cmn or height-based thoracic length equivalents (0.01×%H(cmn. The new method conceptualizes VEPT as the intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV, mL, which is approximated through allometric equivalents of body mass (aMb. In contrast to the classical two-element parallel conduction model, the new method comprises a three-compartment model, which incorporates excess extra-vascular lung water (EVLW as a component of both Z0 and VEPT. To fully appreciate the evolution and analytical justification for impedance-derived SV equations, a review of the basics of pulsatile blood flow is in order.

  18. Estimate of the truncation error of a finite volume discretisation of the Navier-Stokes equations on colocated grids

    CERN Document Server

    Syrakos, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for the calculation of the truncation error of finite volume discretisations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on colocated grids. The truncation error is estimated by restricting the solution obtained on a given grid to a coarser grid and calculating the image of the discrete Navier-Stokes operator of the coarse grid on the restricted velocity and pressure field. The proposed methodology is not a new concept but its application to colocated finite volume discretisations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is made possible by the introduction of a variant of the momentum interpolation technique for mass fluxes where the pressure-part of the mass fluxes is not dependent on the coefficients of the linearised momentum equations. The theory presented is supported by a number of numerical experiments. The methodology is developed for two-dimensional flows, but extension to three-dimensional cases should not pose problems.

  19. A novel equation and nomogram including body weight for estimating prostate volumes in men with biopsy-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasukazu Nakanishi; Iwao Fukui; Kazunori Kihara; Hitoshi Masuda; Satoru Kawakami; Mizuaki Sakura; Yasuhisa Fujii; Kazutaka Saito; Fumitaka Koga; Masaya Ito; Junji Yonese

    2012-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements,e.g.,body weight (BW),body mass index (BMI),as well as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and percent-free PSA (%fPSA) have been shown to have positive correlations with total prostate volume (TPV).We developed an equation and nomegram for estimating TPV,incorporating these predictors in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).A total of 1852 men,including 1113 at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) Hospital as a training set and 739 at Cancer Institute Hospital (CIH) as a validation set,with PSA levels of up to 20 ng ml-1,who underwent extended prostate biopsy and were proved to have BPH,were enrolled in this study.We developed an equation for continuously coded TPV and a logistic regression-based nomngram for estimating a TPV greater than 40 ml.Predictive accuracy and performance characteristics were assessed using an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and calibration plots.The final linear regression model indicated age,PSA,%fPSA and BW as independent predictors of continuously coded TPV.For predictions in the training set,the multiple correlation coefficient was increased from 0.38 for PSA alone to 0.60 in the final model.We developed a novel nomogram incorporating age,PSA,%fPSA and BW for estimating TPV greater than 40 ml.External validation confirmed its predictive accuracy,with AUC value of 0.764.Calibration plots showed good agreement between predicted probability and observed proportion.In conclusion,TPV can be easily estimated using these four independent predictors.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF THE REDLICH-KWONG EQUATION OF STATE BY MODIFICATION OF CO-VOLUME PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cubic equations of state are widely used in phase-equilibrium calculations because of their simplicity and accuracy. Most equations of states are not accurate enough for predicting density of liquid and dense gas. A modification on the Redlich-Kwong (RK equation of state is developed. Parameter b is modified by introducing a new parameter,b, which is a function of molecular weight and temperature. The modification gives a significant improvement over the original RK equation for predicting density. For 6538 data points of 27 compounds, the proposed equation gives only 2.8% of average absolute deviation (AAD, while the original RK and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations give 11.4% and 11.7%, respectively. The proposed modification improves the performance of the RK equation for predicting vapor pressure as well. For 2829 data points of 94 compounds, the proposed modification lowers the AAD of the RK equation from 1460% down to 30.8%. It is comparable to the famous SRK equation, which give 5.8% of AAD. The advantage of the proposed equation is that it uses only critical pressure and temperature as other equations of states do, and molecular weight, which is easily calculated. Another advantage is that the proposed equation simpler than the SRK equation of state.

  1. Monte Carlo solution of the volume-integral equation of electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, J.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Electromagnetic scattering is often the main physical process to be understood when interpreting the observations of asteroids, comets, and meteors. Modeling the scattering faces still many problems, and one needs to assess several different cases: multiple scattering and shadowing by the rough surface, multiple scattering inside a surface element, and single scattering by a small object. Our specific goal is to extend the electromagnetic techniques to larger and more complicated objects, and derive approximations taking into account the most important effects of waves. Here we experiment with Monte Carlo techniques: can they provide something new to solving the scattering problems? The electromagnetic wave equation in the presence of a scatterer of volume V and refractive index m, with an incident wave EE_0, including boundary conditions and the scattering condition at infinity, can be presented in the form of an integral equation EE(rr)(1+suski(rr) Q(ρ))-int_{V-V_ρ}ddrr' GG(rr-rr')suski(rr')EE(rr') =EE_0, where suski(rr)=m(rr)^2-1, Q(ρ)=-1/3+{cal O}(ρ^2)+{O'}(m^2ρ^2), {O}, and {O'} are some second- and higher-order corrections for the finite-size volume V_ρ of radius ρ around the singularity and GG is the dyadic Green's function of the form GG(RR)={exp(im kR)}/{4π R}[unittensor(1+{im}/{R}-{1}/{R^2})-RRRR(1+{3im}/{R}-{3}/{R^2})]. In general, this is solved by extending the internal field in terms of some simple basis functions, e.g., plane or spherical waves or a cubic grid, approximating the integrals in a clever way, and determining the goodness of the solution somehow, e.g., moments or least square. Whatever the choice, the solution usually converges nicely towards a correct enough solution when the scatterer is small and simple, and diverges when the scatterer becomes too complicated. With certain methods, one can reach larger scatterers faster, but the memory and CPU needs can be huge. Until today, all successful solutions are based on more or less

  2. Multiple Scattering Using Parallel Volume Integral Equation Method: Interaction of SH Waves with Multiple Multilayered Anisotropic Elliptical Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungki Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel volume integral equation method (PVIEM is applied for the analysis of elastic wave scattering problems in an unbounded isotropic solid containing multiple multilayered anisotropic elliptical inclusions. This recently developed numerical method does not require the use of Green’s function for the multilayered anisotropic inclusions; only Green’s function for the unbounded isotropic matrix is needed. This method can also be applied to solve general two- and three-dimensional elastodynamic problems involving inhomogeneous and/or multilayered anisotropic inclusions whose shape and number are arbitrary. A detailed analysis of the SH wave scattering is presented for multiple triple-layered orthotropic elliptical inclusions. Numerical results are presented for the displacement fields at the interfaces for square and hexagonal packing arrays of triple-layered elliptical inclusions in a broad frequency range of practical interest. It is necessary to use standard parallel programming, such as MPI (message passing interface, to speed up computation in the volume integral equation method (VIEM. Parallel volume integral equation method as a pioneer of numerical analysis enables us to investigate the effects of single/multiple scattering, fiber packing type, fiber volume fraction, single/multiple layer(s, multilayer’s shape and geometry, isotropy/anisotropy, and softness/hardness of the multiple multilayered anisotropic elliptical inclusions on displacements at the interfaces of the inclusions.

  3. Hybrid Multiscale Finite Volume Method for Advection-Diffusion Equations Subject to Heterogeneous Reactive Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas-Solano, David A.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2016-10-13

    We present a hybrid scheme for the coupling of macro and microscale continuum models for reactive contaminant transport in fractured and porous media. The transport model considered is the advection-dispersion equation, subject to linear heterogeneous reactive boundary conditions. The Multiscale Finite Volume method (MsFV) is employed to define an approximation to the microscale concentration field defined in terms of macroscopic or \\emph{global} degrees of freedom, together with local interpolator and corrector functions capturing microscopic spatial variability. The macroscopic mass balance relations for the MsFV global degrees of freedom are coupled with the macroscopic model, resulting in a global problem for the simultaneous time-stepping of all macroscopic degrees of freedom throughout the domain. In order to perform the hybrid coupling, the micro and macroscale models are applied over overlapping subdomains of the simulation domain, with the overlap denoted as the handshake subdomain $\\Omega^{hs}$, over which continuity of concentration and transport fluxes between models is enforced. Continuity of concentration is enforced by posing a restriction relation between models over $\\Omega^{hs}$. Continuity of fluxes is enforced by prolongating the macroscopic model fluxes across the boundary of $\\Omega^{hs}$ to microscopic resolution. The microscopic interpolator and corrector functions are solutions to local microscopic advection-diffusion problems decoupled from the global degrees of freedom and from each other by virtue of the MsFV decoupling ansatz. The error introduced by the decoupling ansatz is reduced iteratively by the preconditioned GMRES algorithm, with the hybrid MsFV operator serving as the preconditioner.

  4. A bronchoscopic navigation system using bronchoscope center calibration for accurate registration of electromagnetic tracker and CT volume without markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiongbiao, E-mail: xiongbiao.luo@gmail.com [Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Various bronchoscopic navigation systems are developed for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung and bronchus cancers. To construct electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy systems, registration of preoperative images and an electromagnetic tracker must be performed. This paper proposes a new marker-free registration method, which uses the centerlines of the bronchial tree and the center of a bronchoscope tip where an electromagnetic sensor is attached, to align preoperative images and electromagnetic tracker systems. Methods: The chest computed tomography (CT) volume (preoperative images) was segmented to extract the bronchial centerlines. An electromagnetic sensor was fixed at the bronchoscope tip surface. A model was designed and printed using a 3D printer to calibrate the relationship between the fixed sensor and the bronchoscope tip center. For each sensor measurement that includes sensor position and orientation information, its corresponding bronchoscope tip center position was calculated. By minimizing the distance between each bronchoscope tip center position and the bronchial centerlines, the spatial alignment of the electromagnetic tracker system and the CT volume was determined. After obtaining the spatial alignment, an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was established to real-timely track or locate a bronchoscope inside the bronchial tree during bronchoscopic examinations. Results: The electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was validated on a dynamic bronchial phantom that can simulate respiratory motion with a breath rate range of 0–10 min{sup −1}. The fiducial and target registration errors of this navigation system were evaluated. The average fiducial registration error was reduced from 8.7 to 6.6 mm. The average target registration error, which indicates all tracked or navigated bronchoscope position accuracy, was much reduced from 6.8 to 4.5 mm compared to previous registration methods. Conclusions: An

  5. The influence of the local volume fluctuations on the equation-of-state of hot and dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, David; Fisher, Dima; Barshalom, Avraham; Oreg, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Generally, equation-of-state (EOS) of hot and dense plasmas is computed under the assumption that there is a constant volume available to every ion/atom in the plasma. In the present paper we combined two recently developed models to evaluate the influence of local density fluctuations around the ions on the corresponding EOS. The first of these is the so-called Ion Ellipsoid Model (IEM). IEM assumes that the local volume of the ion is a 3-dimensional ellipsoidal enclosure. Full description of the model is given in Ref. [1]. From IEM semi-empirical formulas were derived for the ions volume distribution function [1] for 0INFERNO models to calculate opacities and EOS on the same footing. We will describe the model and present preliminary results indicating the effect of the volume fluctuations around the ions on EOS results.

  6. Integral equations and boundary-element solution for static potential in a general piece-wise homogeneous volume conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, Matti

    2016-11-01

    Boundary element methods (BEM) are used for forward computation of bioelectromagnetic fields in multi-compartment volume conductor models. Most BEM approaches assume that each compartment is in contact with at most one external compartment. In this work, I present a general surface integral equation and BEM discretization that remove this limitation and allow BEM modeling of general piecewise-homogeneous medium. The new integral equation allows positioning of field points at junctioned boundary of more than two compartments, enabling the use of linear collocation BEM in such a complex geometry. A modular BEM implementation is presented for linear collocation and Galerkin approaches, starting from the standard formulation. The approach and resulting solver are verified in four ways, including comparisons of volume and surface potentials to those obtained using the finite element method (FEM), and the effect of a hole in skull on electroencephalographic scalp potentials is demonstrated.

  7. A conservative finite volume method for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined nested Cartesian grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifounakis, Adamandios; Lee, Sangseung; You, Donghyun

    2016-12-01

    A second-order-accurate finite-volume method is developed for the solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined nested Cartesian grids. Numerical accuracy and stability on locally refined nested Cartesian grids are achieved using a finite-volume discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on higher-order conservation principles - i.e., in addition to mass and momentum conservation, kinetic energy conservation in the inviscid limit is used to guide the selection of the discrete operators and solution algorithms. Hanging nodes at the interface are virtually slanted to improve the pressure-velocity projection, while the other parts of the grid maintain an orthogonal Cartesian grid topology. The present method is straight-forward to implement and shows superior conservation of mass, momentum, and kinetic energy compared to the conventional methods employing interpolation at the interface between coarse and fine grids.

  8. Pressure--volume--temperature properties of perfluorocyclobutane: equations of state, virial coefficients, and intermolecular potential energy functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douslin, D.R.; Moore, R.T.; Waddington, G.

    1959-11-01

    Studies of the pressure-volume-temperature properties of perfluorocyclobutane, in the ranges 3-394 atm and 30-350/sup 0/, yielded values of gas compressibility, critical constants, vapor pressure and orthobaric liquid and vapor densities. The results were correlated by the Beattie Bridgeman, Benedict Webb Rubin, and Martin-Hou equations of state and by the Stockmayer and the Kihara intermolecular potential energy functions. The merits of the several correlational methods are discussed.

  9. Constraining the supersaturation density equation of state from core-collapse supernova simulations - Excluded volume extension of the baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this article the role of the supersaturation density equation of state (EOS) is explored in simulations of failed core-collapse supernova explosions. Therefore the nuclear EOS is extended via a one-parameter excluded volume description for baryons, taking into account their finite and increasing volume with increasing density in excess of saturation density. Parameters are selected such that the resulting supernova EOS represent extreme cases, with high pressure variations at supersaturation density which feature extreme stiff and soft EOS variants of the reference case, i.e. without excluded volume corrections. Unlike in the interior of neutron stars with central densities in excess of several times saturation density, central densities of core-collapse supernovae reach only slightly above saturation density. Hence, the impact of the supersaturation density EOS on the supernova dynamics as well as the neutrino signal is found to be negligible. It is mainly determined from the low- and intermediate-density...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF A CENTRAL DIFFERENCE FINITE VOLUME SCHEME FOR MODELING OF CAVITATING FLOWS USING PRECONDITIONED MULTIPHASE EULER EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJRANFAR Kazem; FATTAH-HESARY Kasra

    2011-01-01

    A numerical treatment for the prediction of cavitating flows is presented and assessed.The algorithm uses the preconditioned multiphase Euler equations with appropriate mass transfer terms.A central difference finite volume scheme with suitable dissipation terms to account for density jumps across the cavity interface is shown to yield an effective method for solving the multiphase Euler equations.The Euler equations are utilized herein for the cavitation modeling, because some certain characteristics of cavitating flows can be obtained using the solution of this system of equations with relative low computational effort.In addition, the Euler equations are appropriate for the assessment of the numerical method used, because of the sensitivity of the solution to the numerical instabilities.For this reason, a sensitivity study is conducted to evaluate the effects of various parameters, such as numerical dissipation coefficients and grid size, on the accuracy and performance of the solution.The computations are performed for steady cavitating flows around the NACA 0012 and NACA 66 (MOD) hydrofoils and also an axisymmetric hemispherical fore-body under different conditions and the results are compared with the available numerical and experimental data.The solution procedure presented is shown to be accurate and efficient for predicting steady sheet- and super-cavitation for 2D/axisymmetric geometries.

  11. Cálculo do volume na equação de van der Waals pelo método de cardano Volume calculation in van der Waals equation by the cardano method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson H. T. Lemes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions of a cubic equation with real coefficients are established using the Cardano method. The method is first applied to simple third order equation. Calculation of volume in the van der Waals equation of state is afterwards established. These results are exemplified to calculate the volumes below and above critical temperatures. Analytical and numerical values for the compressibility factor are presented as a function of the pressure. As a final example, coexistence volumes in the liquid-vapor equilibrium are calculated. The Cardano approach is very simple to apply, requiring only elementary operations, indicating an attractive method to be used in teaching elementary thermodynamics.

  12. A Finite Volume Backward Euler Difference Method for Nonlinear Parabolic Integral-differential Equation%非线性抛物型积分-微分方程的向后Euler差分有限体积元方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 王强

    2009-01-01

    The Finite volume backward Euler difference method is established to discuss two-dimensional parabolic integro-differential equations.These results are new for finite volume element methods for parabolic integro-differential equations.

  13. Integral equations and boundary-element solution for static potential in a general piece-wise homogeneous volume conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Stenroos, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Boundary element methods (BEM) are used for forward computation of bioelectromagnetic fields in multi-compartment volume conductor models. Most BEM approaches assume that each compartment is in contact with at most one external compartment. In this work, I present a general surface integral equation and BEM discretization that remove this limitation and allow BEM modeling of general piecewise-homogeneous medium. The new integral equation allows positioning of field points at junctioned boundary of more than two compartments, enabling the use of linear collocation BEM in such a complex geometry. A modular BEM implementation is presented for linear collocation and Galerkin approaches, starting from standard formulation. The approach and resulting solver are verified in three ways, including comparison to finite element method (FEM). In a two-compartment split-sphere model with two spaced monopoles, the results obtained with high-resolution FEM and the BEMs were almost identical (relative difference < 0.003).

  14. Second order finite volume scheme for Maxwell's equations with discontinuous electromagnetic properties on unstructured meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismagilov, Timur Z., E-mail: ismagilov@academ.org

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a second order finite volume scheme for numerical solution of Maxwell's equations with discontinuous dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability on unstructured meshes. The scheme is based on Godunov scheme and employs approaches of Van Leer and Lax–Wendroff to increase the order of approximation. To keep the second order of approximation near dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability discontinuities a novel technique for gradient calculation and limitation is applied near discontinuities. Results of test computations for problems with linear and curvilinear discontinuities confirm second order of approximation. The scheme was applied to modelling propagation of electromagnetic waves inside photonic crystal waveguides with a bend.

  15. Constraining the supersaturation density equation of state from core-collapse supernova simulations? Excluded volume extension of the baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Tobias [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    In this article the role of the supersaturation density equation of state (EOS) is explored in simulations of failed core-collapse supernova explosions. Therefore the nuclear EOS is extended via a one-parameter excluded-volume description for baryons, taking into account their finite and increasing volume with increasing density in excess of saturation density. Parameters are selected such that the resulting supernova EOS represent extreme cases, with high pressure variations at supersaturation density which feature extreme stiff and soft EOS variants of the reference case, i.e. without excluded-volume corrections. Unlike in the interior of neutron stars with central densities in excess of several times saturation density, central densities of core-collapse supernovae reach only slightly above saturation density. Hence, the impact of the supersaturation density EOS on the supernova dynamics as well as the neutrino signal is found to be negligible. It is mainly determined from the low- and intermediate-density domain, which is left unmodified within this generalized excluded volume approach. (orig.)

  16. Recent trends in operator theory and partial differential equations the Roland Duduchava anniversary volume

    CERN Document Server

    Natroshvili, David; Shargorodsky, Eugene; Wendland, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to the eminent Georgian mathematician Roland Duduchava on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It presents recent results on Toeplitz, Wiener-Hopf, and pseudodifferential operators, boundary value problems, operator theory, approximation theory, and reflects the broad spectrum of Roland Duduchava's research. The book is addressed to a wide audience of pure and applied mathematicians.

  17. Nonlinear Hyperbolic Equations - Theory, Computation Methods, and Applications. Volume 24. Note on Numerical Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    smooth parts of the flow; randomness is a feature of the method (for details about RCM see Refs. 2-7). Randomness is not an important issue in homo ...equation C1) then we obtain inequalities for quadratic form ST G . A+S ( -G-A- 0 0 ecc --- 3S < eA + . Substituting GA4 . by S T C-G-A-)S in the first

  18. Comparison of combined-field and electric-field volume integral equations for modelling double-negative metematerial antennas and scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Two volume integral equation formulations for modelling magneto-dielectric objects are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The first is the combined-field integral equation (CFVIE), in which the unknown quantities are both the electric and magnetic fields, while the second...... is the electric-field integral equation (EFVIE) with a single unknown quantity - the electric field. A resonant double-negative metamaterial spherical shell is analysed as an example....

  19. Comparison of combined-field and electric-field volume integral equations for modelling double-negative metematerial antennas and scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Two volume integral equation formulations for modelling magneto-dielectric objects are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The first is the combined-field integral equation (CFVIE), in which the unknown quantities are both the electric and magnetic fields, while the second...... is the electric-field integral equation (EFVIE) with a single unknown quantity - the electric field. A resonant double-negative metamaterial spherical shell is analysed as an example....

  20. Comparison study of some finite volume and finite element methods for the shallow water equations with bottom topography and friction terms

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Teschke, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    We present a comparison of two discretization methods for the shallow water equations, namely the finite volume method and the finite element scheme. A reliable model for practical interests includes terms modelling the bottom topography as well as the friction effects. The resulting equations belong to the class of systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations of first order with zero order source terms, the so-called balance laws. In order to approximate correctly steady equilibrium ...

  1. Conventional versus pre-balanced forms of the shallow-water equations solved using finite-volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinhua; Xie, Shengbai

    2016-05-01

    In the existing literature, various forms of governing equations have been proposed to solve the shallow-water equations (SWEs). Recently, attention has been dedicated to the so-called "pre-balanced" form, because finite-volume schemes that are designed on this basis satisfy the well-balanced property. In this study, we theoretically investigate the relationship between numerical schemes devised using approximate Riemann solvers in the framework of finite-volume methods for solving the conventional form of the SWEs and its "pre-balanced" variant. We find that the numerical schemes for solving these two forms of the SWEs turn out to be identical when some widely employed upwind or centered approximate Riemann solvers are adopted for the numerical flux evaluations, such as the HLL (Harten, Lax, and van Leer), HLLC (HLL solver with restoring the contact surface), FORCE (first-order centered), and SLIC (slope limited centered) schemes. Some numerical experiments are performed, which verify the validity of the result of our theoretical analysis. The theoretical and numerical results suggest that the "pre-balanced" SWEs variant is not superior to the conventional one for solving the SWEs using approximate Riemann solvers.

  2. FINITE VOLUME NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR PARABOLIC EQUATION WITH ROBIN BOUNDARY CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Cui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, finite volume method on unstructured meshes is studied for a parabolic convection-diffusion problem on an open bounded set of Rd (d = 2 or 3) with Robin boundary condition. Upwinding approximations are adapted to treat both the convection term and Robin boundary condition. By directly getting start from the formulation of the finite volume scheme, numerical analysis is done. By using several discrete functional analysis techniques such as summation by parts, discrete norm inequality, et al, the stability and error estimates on the approximate solution are established, existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution and the 1st order temporal norm and L2 and H1 spacial norm convergence properties are obtained.

  3. An upscaled two-equation model of transport in porous media through unsteady-state closure of volume averaged formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaynikov, S.; Porta, G.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.

    2012-04-01

    We focus on a theoretical analysis of nonreactive solute transport in porous media through the volume averaging technique. Darcy-scale transport models based on continuum formulations typically include large scale dispersive processes which are embedded in a pore-scale advection diffusion equation through a Fickian analogy. This formulation has been extensively questioned in the literature due to its inability to depict observed solute breakthrough curves in diverse settings, ranging from the laboratory to the field scales. The heterogeneity of the pore-scale velocity field is one of the key sources of uncertainties giving rise to anomalous (non-Fickian) dispersion in macro-scale porous systems. Some of the models which are employed to interpret observed non-Fickian solute behavior make use of a continuum formulation of the porous system which assumes a two-region description and includes a bimodal velocity distribution. A first class of these models comprises the so-called ''mobile-immobile'' conceptualization, where convective and dispersive transport mechanisms are considered to dominate within a high velocity region (mobile zone), while convective effects are neglected in a low velocity region (immobile zone). The mass exchange between these two regions is assumed to be controlled by a diffusive process and is macroscopically described by a first-order kinetic. An extension of these ideas is the two equation ''mobile-mobile'' model, where both transport mechanisms are taken into account in each region and a first-order mass exchange between regions is employed. Here, we provide an analytical derivation of two region "mobile-mobile" meso-scale models through a rigorous upscaling of the pore-scale advection diffusion equation. Among the available upscaling methodologies, we employ the Volume Averaging technique. In this approach, the heterogeneous porous medium is supposed to be pseudo-periodic, and can be represented through a (spatially) periodic unit cell

  4. A two-step finite volume method to discretize heterogeneous and anisotropic pressure equation on general grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Al Kobaisi, Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    A novel Two-Step cell-centered Finite Volume Method (TSFVM) is developed in this work to discretize the heterogeneous and anisotropic pressure equation on triangular and quadrilateral grids in 2D and hexahedral and tetrahedral grids in 3D. Physical properties such as permeability and porosity are piece-wise constant on each grid cell. In the first step, the Galerkin Finite Element Method (FEM) is utilized to compute pressure solutions at all cell vertices. In the second step, pressure values at cell vertices are used to derive continuous two-point flux stencils for cell faces. Mass conservation equations are then written for each cell to obtain a system of linear equations that can be solved for pressure at cell centers. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out to test the performance of our TSFVM. In particular, we compare TSFVM with the classical Multipoint Flux Approximation (MPFA-O) method as well as a more recently developed MPFA method with full pressure support called enhanced MPFA (eMPFA). The results show that the TSFVM compares well with eMPFA for challenging test cases for which MPFA-O breaks down. Specifically, and as a significant step forward, our TSFVM is quite robust for challenging problems involving heterogeneous and highly anisotropic permeability tensors when both MPFA-O and eMPFA suffer from unphysical oscillations. Finally, the numerical convergence study demonstrates that TSFVM has comparable convergence behavior to MPFA-O method for both homogeneous and discontinuous permeability fields.

  5. A TVD-WAF-based hybrid finite volume and finite difference scheme for nonlinearly dispersive wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total variation diminishing-weighted average flux (TVD-WAF-based hybrid numerical scheme for the enhanced version of nonlinearly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations was developed. The one-dimensional governing equations were rewritten in the conservative form and then discretized on a uniform grid. The finite volume method was used to discretize the flux term while the remaining terms were approximated with the finite difference method. The second-order TVD-WAF method was employed in conjunction with the Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL Riemann solver to calculate the numerical flux, and the variables at the cell interface for the local Riemann problem were reconstructed via the fourth-order monotone upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL. The time marching scheme based on the third-order TVD Runge-Kutta method was used to obtain numerical solutions. The model was validated through a series of numerical tests, in which wave breaking and a moving shoreline were treated. The good agreement between the computed results, documented analytical solutions, and experimental data demonstrates the correct discretization of the governing equations and high accuracy of the proposed scheme, and also conforms the advantages of the proposed shock-capturing scheme for the enhanced version of the Boussinesq model, including the convenience in the treatment of wave breaking and moving shorelines and without the need for a numerical filter.

  6. An explicit marching on-in-time solver for the time domain volume magnetic field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2014-07-01

    Transient scattering from inhomogeneous dielectric objects can be modeled using time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are oftentimes solved using marching on-in-time (MOT) techniques. Classical MOT-TDVIE solvers expand the field induced on the scatterer using local spatio-temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation in space and time yields a system of equations that is solved by time marching. Depending on the type of the basis and testing functions and the time step, the time marching scheme can be implicit (N. T. Gres, et al., Radio Sci., 36(3), 379-386, 2001) or explicit (A. Al-Jarro, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 60(11), 5203-5214, 2012). Implicit MOT schemes are known to be more stable and accurate. However, under low-frequency excitation, i.e., when the time step size is large, they call for inversion of a full matrix system at very time step.

  7. 'Dip-sticks' calibration handles self-attenuation and coincidence effects in large-volume gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolterbeek, H T

    2000-01-01

    Routine gamma-spectrometric analyses of samples with low-level activities (e.g. food, water, environmental and industrial samples) are often performed in large samples, placed close to the detector. In these geometries, detection sensitivity is improved but large errors are introduced due to self-attenuation and coincidence summing. Current approaches to these problems comprise computational methods and spiked standard materials. However, the first are often regarded as too complex for practical routine use, the latter never fully match real samples. In the present study, we introduce a dip-sticks calibration as a fast and easy practical solution to this quantification problem in a routine analytical setting. In the proposed set-up, calibrations are performed within the sample itself, thus making it a broadly accessible matching-reference approach, which is principally usable for all sample matrices.

  8. Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations. Volume 3: Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations are presented. The space-shuttle mission includes three relatively distinct guidance phases which are discussed; atmospheric boost, which is characterized by an adaptive guidance law; extra-atmospheric activities; and re-entry activities, where aerodynamic surfaces are the principal effectors. Guidance tasks include pre-maneuver targeting and powered flight guidance, where powered flight is defined to include the application of aerodynamic forces as well as thruster forces. A flow chart which follows guidance activities throughout the mission from the pre-launch phase through touchdown is presented. The main guidance programs and subroutines used in each phase of a typical rendezvous mission are listed. Detailed software requirements are also presented.

  9. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2014-07-01

    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using band-limited but two-sided (non-causal) temporal interpolation functions and an extrapolation scheme to cast the time marching into a causal form. The extrapolation scheme is designed to be highly accurate for oscillating and exponentially decaying fields, hence it accurately captures the physical behavior of the resonant modes that are excited inside the dielectric scatterer. Numerical results demonstrate that the resulting MOT scheme maintains its stability as the number of resonant modes increases with the contrast of the scatterer.

  10. The role of mass balance equations in growth mechanics illustrated in surface and volume dissolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A

    2011-01-01

    Growth mechanics problems require the solution of mass balance equations that include supply terms and account for mass exchanges among constituents of a mixture. Though growth may often be accompanied by a variety of concomitant phenomena that increase modeling complexity, such as solid matrix deformation, evolving traction-free configurations, cell division, and active cell contraction, it is important to distinguish these accompanying phenomena from the fundamental growth process that consists of deposition or removal of mass from the solid matrix. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a canonical problem of growth, namely, dissolution of a rigid solid matrix in a solvent. This problem illustrates a case of negative growth (loss of mass) of the solid in a mixture framework that includes three species, a solid, a solvent, and a solute, where the solute is the product of the solid dissolution. By analyzing both volumetric and surface dissolutions, the two fundamental modes of growth are investigated within the unified framework of mixture theory.

  11. Difference in kinematics and kinetics between high- and low-velocity resistance loading equated by volume: implications for hypertrophy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Ikhwan; Cronin, John B; Nosaka, Ken K

    2012-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that a high load is necessary for muscle hypertrophy, it is possible that a low load with a high velocity results in greater kinematics and kinetics than does a high load with a slow velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine if 2 training loads (35 and 70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) equated by volume, differed in terms of their session kinematic and kinetic characteristics. Twelve subjects were recruited in this acute randomized within-subject crossover design study. Two bouts of a half-squat exercise were performed 1 week apart, one with high load-low velocity (HLLV = 3 sets of 12 reps at 70% 1RM) and the other with low-load high-velocity (LLHV = 6 sets of 12 reps at 35% 1RM). Time under tension (TUT), average force, peak force (PF), average power (AP), peak power (PP), work (TW), and total impulse (TI) were calculated and compared between loads for the eccentric and concentric phases. For average eccentric and concentric single repetition values, significantly (p eccentric and concentric TUT, PF, AP, PP, and TW. The only variable that was significantly greater for the HLLV protocol than for the LLHV protocol was TI (∼20-24%). From these results, it seems that the LLHV protocol may offer an equal if not better training stimulus for muscular adaptation than the HLLV protocol, because of the greater time under tension, power, force, and work output when the total volume of the exercise is equated.

  12. User’s Manual for MODCAL - Bounding Surface Soil Plasticity Model Calibration and Prediction Code. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    RSDL , JCOD) C C THIS SUBROUTINE PERFORMS A SINGLE-ELEMENT, C INCREMENTAL...16X,’N’,5X,’EPS-1’,9X,’Q’,9X,’P’,91,’U’, -** 5X,’E-VOL’/16X,’-’,5(5X ...-..1) 920 FORMAT(12X,15,5F10.2) C C INDIVIDUAL TEST LOOP C RSDL =O. 0 WTST=O...615 CONTINUE C C COMPUTE RESIDUALS IF MODEL CALIBRATION IS REQUIRED C ITSTzL 1 * IF(JCOD.EQ.1) Go TO 620 CALL RSDUAL(NJITST, RTST) RSDL

  13. Syringe shape and positioning relative to efficiency volume inside dose calibrators and its role in nuclear medicine quality assurance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.A.M. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: a.miranda@portugalmail.pt; Carrasco, M.F. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Lencart, J. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, A.L. [Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    A careful analysis of geometry and source positioning influence in the activity measurement outcome of a nuclear medicine dose calibrator is presented for {sup 99m}Tc. The implementation of a quasi-point source apparent activity curve measurement is proposed for an accurate correction of the activity inside several syringes, and compared with a theoretical geometric efficiency model. Additionally, new geometrical parameters are proposed to test and verify the correct positioning of the syringes as part of acceptance testing and quality control procedures.

  14. A finite volume upwind scheme for the solution of the linear advection diffusion equation with sharp gradients in multiple dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrot-Nico, Fabiola; Brissaud, François; Guinot, Vincent

    2007-09-01

    A finite volume upwind numerical scheme for the solution of the linear advection equation in multiple dimensions on Cartesian grids is presented. The small-stencil, Modified Discontinuous Profile Method (MDPM) uses a sub-cell piecewise constant reconstruction and additional information at the cell interfaces, rather than a spatial extension of the stencil as in usual methods. This paper presents the MDPM profile reconstruction method in one dimension and its generalization and algorithm to two- and three-dimensional problems. The method is extended to the advection-diffusion equation in multiple dimensions. The MDPM is tested against the MUSCL scheme on two- and three-dimensional test cases. It is shown to give high-quality results for sharp gradients problems, although some scattering appears. For smooth gradients, extreme values are best preserved with the MDPM than with the MUSCL scheme, while the MDPM does not maintain the smoothness of the original shape as well as the MUSCL scheme. However the MDPM is proved to be more efficient on coarse grids in terms of error and CPU time, while on fine grids the MUSCL scheme provides a better accuracy at a lower CPU.

  15. Tree Climbing Techniques and Volume Equations for Eschweilera (Matá-Matá, a Hyperdominant Genus in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno O. Gimenez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Eschweilera genus has great ecological and economic importance due to its wide abundance in the Amazon basin. One potential use for the Eschweilera genus is in forest management, where just a few trees are removed per hectare. In order to improve the forest management in the Amazon, this study assessed two critical issues: volume equations fitted for a single genus and the development of a non-destructive method using climbing techniques. The equipment used to measure the sample trees included: climbing rope, ascenders, descenders, and carabiners. To carry out the objectives of this study, 64 trees with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 10 cm were selected and measured in ZF-2 Tropical Forestry Station near the city of Manaus, Brazil. Four single input models with DBH and four dual input models with DBH and merchantable height (H were tested. The Husch model (V = a × DBHb presented the best performance (R2 = 0.97. This model does not require the merchantable height, which is an important advantage, because of the difficulty in measuring this variable in tropical forests. When the merchantable height data are collected using accurate methods, the Schumacher and Hall model (V = a × DBHb × Hc is the most appropriated. Tree climbing techniques with the use of ropes, as a non-destructive method, is a good alternative to measure the merchantable height, the diameter along the stem, and also estimate the tree volume (m3 of the Eschweilera genus in the Amazon basin.

  16. Calculation of difference in heat capacities at constant pressure and constant volume with the aid of the empirical Nernst and Lindemann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontev, K. L.

    1981-07-01

    An expression is obtained for heat capacity differences of materials at a constant pressure and volume, on the basis of the rigorous thermodynamic equation (Kittel, 1976), and by using the Grueneisen law (Kikoin and Kikoin, 1976) of constancy of the ratio of the cubic expansion coefficient to the molar heat capacity. Conditions are determined, where the empirical Nernst and Lindemann (Filippov, 1967) equation is regarded as rigorous.

  17. Final report on BIPM/CIPM key comparison CCM.FF-K4.2.2011: Volume comparison at 100 µL—Calibration of micropipettes (piston pipettes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Arias, Roberto; Jintao, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Five fixed micropipettes of 100 µl were tested by eight different National Metrology Institutes from different Regional Metrology Organizations between July 2011 and June 2012. The micropipettes had a stable volume, during the whole comparison, with a maximum standard deviation of 0.06 µl. After a careful analysis of the original results it was decided to make corrections to the standard atmospheric pressure in order to compare results under the same calibration conditions. These corrections led to a decrease of variability within the laboratories. It was also decided to include the stability of the standard and the method variability, determined by the pilot laboratory, in the uncertainty budget of each laboratory. The corrected results (volume and uncertainty) are consistent and overlap with the key comparison reference values for the micropipettes 354828Z, 354853Z and 354864Z. For the other two micropipettes only one result is not consistent with the reference value. Most results also overlap with those of the other laboratories di,j pressure condition and temperature (for example 101.325 kPa and 20 ºC) and this information should be stated in the calibration certificate of the micropipette. Also the standard uncertainty of the method variability and reproducibility values should always be included in the uncertainty budget (around 0.1%) to lead to more realistic uncertainty values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Hill's equation

    CERN Document Server

    Magnus, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    The hundreds of applications of Hill's equation in engineering and physics range from mechanics and astronomy to electric circuits, electric conductivity of metals, and the theory of the cyclotron. New applications are continually being discovered and theoretical advances made since Liapounoff established the equation's fundamental importance for stability problems in 1907. Brief but thorough, this volume offers engineers and mathematicians a complete orientation to the subject.""Hill's equation"" connotes the class of homogeneous, linear, second order differential equations with real, period

  19. Study of pressure-volume relationships and higher derivatives of bulk modulus based on generalized equations of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwah, S.S. [Department of Physics, Rishi Galav College, Morena, 476001 MP (India); Shrivastava, H.C. [Department of Physics, S.M.S. Government Model Science P.G. College, Gwalior, 474001 MP (India)]. E-mail: hcs2050@yahoo.com; Singh, K.S. [Department of Physics, R.B.S. College, Agra, UP (India)

    2007-01-15

    We have generalized the pressure-volume (P-V) relationships using simple polynomial and logarithmic expansions so as to make them consistent with the infinite pressure extrapolation according to the model of Stacey. The formulations are used to evaluate P-V relationships and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus upto third order (K', K'' and K''') for the earth core material taking input parameters based on the seismological data. The results based on the equations of state (EOS) generalized in the present study are found to yield good agreement with the Stacey EOS. The generalized logarithmic EOS due to Poirier and Tarantola deviates substantially from the seismic values for P, K and K'. The generalized Rydberg EOS gives almost identical results with the Birch-Murnaghan third-order EOS. Both of them yield deviations from the seismic data, which are in opposite direction as compared to those found from the generalized Poirier-Tarantola logarithmic EOS.

  20. Multi-GPU-based acceleration of the explicit time domain volume integral equation solver using MPI-OpenACC

    KAUST Repository

    Feki, Saber

    2013-07-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based time-domain volume integral equation (TDVIE) solver has recently been developed for characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies (A. Al-Jarro et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 60, no. 11, 2012). The solver discretizes the spatio-temporal convolutions of the source fields with the background medium\\'s Green function using nodal discretization in space and linear interpolation in time. The Green tensor, which involves second order spatial and temporal derivatives, is computed using finite differences on the temporal and spatial grid. A predictor-corrector algorithm is used to maintain the stability of the MOT scheme. The simplicity of the discretization scheme permits the computation of the discretized spatio-temporal convolutions on the fly during time marching; no \\'interaction\\' matrices are pre-computed or stored resulting in a memory efficient scheme. As a result, most often the applicability of this solver to the characterization of wave interactions on electrically large structures is limited by the computation time but not the memory. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  2. Final report on the EURAMET.M.FF-K4.2.2014 volume comparison at 100 μL—calibration of micropipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Matus, Michael; Metaxiotou, Zoe; Tudor, Maria; Lenard, Elzbieta; Buker, Oliver; Wennergren, Per; Piluri, Erinda; Miteva, Mariana; Vicarova, Martina; Vospĕlová, Alena; Turnsek, Urska; Micic, Ljiljana; Grue, Lise-Lote; Mihailovic, Mirjana; Sarevska, Anastazija

    2017-01-01

    During the EURAMET TC-F meeting of 2014 and following the finalization of CCM.FF-K4.2.2011 comparison, it was agreed to start a Regional Key Comparison (KC) on volume measurements using two 100 μL micropipettes (piston pipettes) allowing the participating laboratories to assess the agreement of their results and uncertainties. Two 100 μL micropipettes were tested by 15 participants. One participant was not a member or associate member of the BIPM and was be removed from this report. The comparison started in July 2015 and ended in March 2016. The Volume and Flow Laboratory of the Portuguese Institute for Quality (IPQ) was the pilot laboratory and performed the initial and final measurements of the micropipettes. The micropipettes showed a stable volume during the whole comparison, which was confirmed by the results from the pilot laboratory. The original results of all participant NMIs were corrected to the standard atmospheric pressure in order to compare results under the same calibration conditions, and the contribution of the 'process-related handling contribution' was added to the uncertainty budget of each participant. In general the declared CMCs are in accordance with the KCDB. For the micropipette 354828Z, two laboratories had inconsistent results. For micropipette 354853Z, three laboratories had inconsistent results. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Distributed Radio Interferometric Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2015-01-01

    Increasing data volumes delivered by a new generation of radio interferometers require computationally efficient and robust calibration algorithms. In this paper, we propose distributed calibration as a way of improving both computational cost as well as robustness in calibration. We exploit the data parallelism across frequency that is inherent in radio astronomical observations that are recorded as multiple channels at different frequencies. Moreover, we also exploit the smoothness of the variation of calibration parameters across frequency. Data parallelism enables us to distribute the computing load across a network of compute agents. Smoothness in frequency enables us reformulate calibration as a consensus optimization problem. With this formulation, we enable flow of information between compute agents calibrating data at different frequencies, without actually passing the data, and thereby improving robustness. We present simulation results to show the feasibility as well as the advantages of distribute...

  4. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p < 0.05) and protein (β = 0.127, SE = 0.06, p < 0.05) compared to participants consuming a low percentage of meals at home. In the calibration equations combining FFQ, 4DFR, 24HR with age, body mass index, race, and the psychosocial and diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables

  5. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Tinker, Lesley F; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; McCann, Susan E; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Curb, J David; Prentice, Ross L

    2013-05-16

    The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p < 0.05) and protein (β = 0.127, SE = 0.06, p < 0.05) compared to participants consuming a low percentage of meals at home. In the calibration equations combining FFQ, 4DFR, 24HR with age, body mass index, race, and the psychosocial and diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p

  6. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  7. A computer program to generate equations of motion matrices, L217 (EOM). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, R. I.; Clemmons, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The equations of motion program L217 formulates the matrix coefficients for a set of second order linear differential equations that describe the motion of an airplane relative to its level equilibrium flight condition. Aerodynamic data from FLEXSTAB or Doublet Lattice (L216) programs can be used to derive the equations for quasi-steady or full unsteady aerodynamics. The data manipulation and the matrix coefficient formulation are described.

  8. High-order finite-volume solutions of the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Qinghai

    2017-09-01

    We propose high-order finite-volume schemes for numerically solving the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. Although the original motivation comes from a mathematical model of blood clotting, the nonlinear boundary conditions may also apply to other scientific problems. The main contribution of this work is a generic algorithm for generating third-order, fourth-order, and even higher-order explicit ghost-filling formulas to enforce nonlinear Robin boundary conditions in multiple dimensions. Under the framework of finite volume methods, this appears to be the first algorithm of its kind. Numerical experiments on boundary value problems show that the proposed fourth-order formula can be much more accurate and efficient than a simple second-order formula. Furthermore, the proposed ghost-filling formulas may also be useful for solving other partial differential equations.

  9. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User`s Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  10. Radiative transfer equation for predicting light propagation in biological media: comparison of a modified finite volume method, the Monte Carlo technique, and an exact analytical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    We examine the accuracy of a modified finite volume method compared to analytical and Monte Carlo solutions for solving the radiative transfer equation. The model is used for predicting light propagation within a two-dimensional absorbing and highly forward-scattering medium such as biological tissue subjected to a collimated light beam. Numerical simulations for the spatially resolved reflectance and transmittance are presented considering refractive index mismatch with Fresnel reflection at the interface, homogeneous and two-layered media. Time-dependent as well as steady-state cases are considered. In the steady state, it is found that the modified finite volume method is in good agreement with the other two methods. The relative differences between the solutions are found to decrease with spatial mesh refinement applied for the modified finite volume method obtaining method is used for the time semi-discretization of the radiative transfer equation. An agreement among the modified finite volume method, Runge-Kutta method, and Monte Carlo solutions are shown, but with relative differences higher than in the steady state.

  11. Laboratory Performance of Five Selected Soil Moisture Sensors Applying Factory and Own Calibration Equations for Two Soil Media of Different Bulk Density and Salinity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Svatopluk; Báťková, Kamila; Legese, Wossenu Lemma

    2016-11-15

    Non-destructive soil water content determination is a fundamental component for many agricultural and environmental applications. The accuracy and costs of the sensors define the measurement scheme and the ability to fit the natural heterogeneous conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate five commercially available and relatively cheap sensors usually grouped with impedance and FDR sensors. ThetaProbe ML2x (impedance) and ECH₂O EC-10, ECH₂O EC-20, ECH₂O EC-5, and ECH₂O TE (all FDR) were tested on silica sand and loess of defined characteristics under controlled laboratory conditions. The calibrations were carried out in nine consecutive soil water contents from dry to saturated conditions (pure water and saline water). The gravimetric method was used as a reference method for the statistical evaluation (ANOVA with significance level 0.05). Generally, the results showed that our own calibrations led to more accurate soil moisture estimates. Variance component analysis arranged the factors contributing to the total variation as follows: calibration (contributed 42%), sensor type (contributed 29%), material (contributed 18%), and dry bulk density (contributed 11%). All the tested sensors performed very well within the whole range of water content, especially the sensors ECH₂O EC-5 and ECH₂O TE, which also performed surprisingly well in saline conditions.

  12. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop entitled Hydrodynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions and QCD Equation of State (Volume 88)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsch,F.; Kharzeev, D.; Molnar, K.; Petreczky, P.; Teaney, D.

    2008-04-21

    The interpretation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies with thermal concepts is largely based on the relative success of ideal (nondissipative) hydrodynamics. This approach can describe basic observables at RHIC, such as particle spectra and momentum anisotropies, fairly well. On the other hand, recent theoretical efforts indicate that dissipation can play a significant role. Ideally viscous hydrodynamic simulations would extract, if not only the equation of state, but also transport coefficients from RHIC data. There has been a lot of progress with solving relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. There are already large uncertainties in ideal hydrodynamics calculations, e.g., uncertainties associated with initial conditions, freezeout, and the simplified equations of state typically utilized. One of the most sensitive observables to the equation of state is the baryon momentum anisotropy, which is also affected by freezeout assumptions. Up-to-date results from lattice quantum chromodynamics on the transition temperature and equation of state with realistic quark masses are currently available. However, these have not yet been incorporated into the hydrodynamic calculations. Therefore, the RBRC workshop 'Hydrodynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions and QCD Equation of State' aimed at getting a better understanding of the theoretical frameworks for dissipation and near-equilibrium dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. The topics discussed during the workshop included techniques to solve the dynamical equations and examine the role of initial conditions and decoupling, as well as the role of the equation of state and transport coefficients in current simulations.

  13. Level 2 processing for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: derivation and validation of temperature and trace gas volume mixing ratios from calibrated dynamics mode spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA is an airborne infrared limb imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 High Altitude LOng Range (HALO research aircraft during the Transport And Composition in the upper Troposphere/lowermost Stratosphere (TACTS and Earth System Model Validation (ESMVAL campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature and trace gas (H2O, O3, HNO3 volume mixing ratios from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra that are spectrally sampled every 0.625 cm−1. A total of 26 integrated spectral windows are employed in a joint fit to retrieve seven targets using consecutively a fast and an accurate tabulated radiative transfer model. Typical diagnostic quantities are provided including effects of uncertainties in the calibration and horizontal resolution along the line of sight. Simultaneous in situ observations by the Basic Halo Measurement and Sensor System (BAHAMAS, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH, an ozone detector named Fairo, and the Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AIMS allow a validation of retrieved values for three flights in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere region spanning polar and sub-tropical latitudes. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas data, and discrepancies can to a large extent be attributed to differences in the probed air masses caused by different sampling characteristics of the instruments. This 1-D processing of GLORIA dynamics mode spectra provides the basis for future tomographic inversions from circular and linear flight paths to better understand selected dynamical processes of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere.

  14. 40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the flow meter has been calibrated with such a restriction. (e) PDP calibration. Calibrate a positive-displacement pump (PDP) to determine a flow-versus-PDP speed equation that accounts for flow leakage...

  15. A mathematical model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) aircraft simulation. Volume 2: Model equations and base aircraft data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Equations incorporated in a VATOL six degree of freedom off-line digital simulation program and data for the Vought SF-121 VATOL aircraft concept which served as the baseline for the development of this program are presented. The equations and data are intended to facilitate the development of a piloted VATOL simulation. The equation presentation format is to state the equations which define a particular model segment. Listings of constants required to quantify the model segment, input variables required to exercise the model segment, and output variables required by other model segments are included. In several instances a series of input or output variables are followed by a section number in parentheses which identifies the model segment of origination or termination of those variables.

  16. Calibration uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration unce...

  17. Numerical Solution and Algorithm Analysis for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Dynamic Multiblock Grids. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AS A RELAXATION SCHEME Consider solving Equation (61) using the Gauss- Seidel method . In Equation (61) D is a block diagonal matrix, M+ is a block...zero, the Gauss- Seidel method is D 1’m + 1.m =-Rn+1.mDX1 - [-* Xi- Im+I. (66) After completing this forward pass the Xl-m are known, and a backward

  18. Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  19. DebrisInterMixing-2.3: a finite volume solver for three-dimensional debris-flow simulations with two calibration parameters - Part 1: Model description

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, Albrecht; Turowski, Jens M.; McArdell, Brian W.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we present a three-dimensional fluid dynamic solver that simulates debris flows as a mixture of two fluids (a Coulomb viscoplastic model of the gravel mixed with a Herschel-Bulkley representation of the fine material suspension) in combination with an additional unmixed phase representing the air and the free surface. We link all rheological parameters to the material composition, i.e., to water content, clay content, and mineral composition, content of sand and gravel, and the gravel's friction angle; the user must specify only two free model parameters. The volume-of-fluid (VoF) approach is used to combine the mixed phase and the air phase into a single cell-averaged Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow, based on code adapted from standard solvers of the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. This effectively single-phase mixture VoF method saves computational costs compared to the more sophisticated drag-force-based multiphase models. Thus, complex three-dimensional flow structures can be simulated while accounting for the pressure- and shear-rate-dependent rheology.

  20. The Importance of psychological constructs for training volume and performance improvement. A structural equation model for youth speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; De Roos, Ilse; Torenbeek, Marjolein; Fokkema, Tryntsje; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the importance of self-regulated learning, motivation, and goal orientation for training volume and performance improvement, 63 talented Dutch speed skaters (n=35 male; n=28 female) aged 11 to 22 completed the Self-Regulation of Learning-Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS; Toering et al.,

  1. The Importance of psychological constructs for training volume and performance improvement. A structural equation model for youth speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; De Roos, Ilse; Torenbeek, Marjolein; Fokkema, Tryntsje; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the importance of self-regulated learning, motivation, and goal orientation for training volume and performance improvement, 63 talented Dutch speed skaters (n=35 male; n=28 female) aged 11 to 22 completed the Self-Regulation of Learning-Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS; Toering et al., 201

  2. The Importance of psychological constructs for training volume and performance improvement. A structural equation model for youth speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; De Roos, Ilse; Torenbeek, Marjolein; Fokkema, Tryntsje; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the importance of self-regulated learning, motivation, and goal orientation for training volume and performance improvement, 63 talented Dutch speed skaters (n=35 male; n=28 female) aged 11 to 22 completed the Self-Regulation of Learning-Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS; Toering et al., 201

  3. Study of calibration equations of {sup 137}Cs methodology for soil erosion determination; Estudo de equacoes de calibracao para metodologia do {sup 137}Cs de determinacao da erosao de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Elias Antunes dos

    2001-02-01

    Using the method of {sup 137} Cs and gamma-ray spectrometry, soil samples of two plots erosion were studied at Londrina city. the soil class studied was a dystrophic dark red soil (LRd), with erosion indexes measured by Agronomic Institute of Parana State (IAPAR) using a conventional method, since 1976. Through the percentage reduction of {sup 137} Cs related to the reference site, the soil losses were calculated using the proportional, mass balance and profile distribution models. Making the correlation between the {sup 137} Cs concentrations and the erosion measured by IAPAR, two calibration equations were obtained and applied to the data set measured in the basin of the Unda river and compared to those models in the literature. As reference region, was chosen a natural forest located close to the plots. The average inventory of {sup 137} Cs was 555{+-} 16 Bq.m{sup -2}. The inventories of the erosion plots varied from 112 to 136 Bq.m{sup -2} for samples collected until 30 cm depth. The erosion rates estimated by the models varied from 64 to 85 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} for the proportional and profile distribution models, respectively, and 137 to 165 ton.ha{sup -1} for the mass balance model, while the measured erosion obtained by IAPAR was 86 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}. From the two calibration equations obtained, the one that take into account the {sup 137} Cs distribution with the soil profile was that showed the best consistence with the erosion rated for the basin of the Unda river (same soil class) in the range from 4 to 48 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, while the proportional and profile distribution models applied rates from 7 to 45 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} and 6 to 69 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  4. A Stable Marching on-in-time Scheme for Solving the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation on High-contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-05

    A time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) solver is proposed for characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast dielectric scatterers. The TD-EFVIE is discretized using the Schaubert- Wilton-Glisson (SWG) and approximate prolate spherical wave (APSW) functions in space and time, respectively. The resulting system of equations can not be solved by a straightforward application of the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme since the two-sided APSW interpolation functions require the knowledge of unknown “future” field samples during time marching. Causality of the MOT scheme is restored using an extrapolation technique that predicts the future samples from known “past” ones. Unlike the extrapolation techniques developed for MOT schemes that are used in solving time domain surface integral equations, this scheme trains the extrapolation coefficients using samples of exponentials with exponents on the complex frequency plane. This increases the stability of the MOT-TD-EFVIE solver significantly, since the temporal behavior of decaying and oscillating electromagnetic modes induced inside the scatterers is very accurately taken into account by this new extrapolation scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed MOT solver maintains its stability even when applied to analyzing wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers.

  5. Calibração regional e local da equação de Hargreaves para estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência Regional and local calibration of Hargreaves equation for estimating reference evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Simões Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    estimating ETo, and demands only maximum and minimum temperature data. However, this equation requires local calibration. This paper examines the potential of using the Hargreaves equation adjusted to estimate the ETo in Goiás State. For this, the Hargreaves empiric parameters, HC (empirical Hargreaves coefficient and HE (empirical Hargreaves exponent, were adjusted considering two procedures, local adjustment (HGL - Hargreaves local adjustment and regional adjustment (HGR - Hargreaves regional adjustment. For HGL, the adjustment of empiric parameters was done for each weather station. For HGR, the adjustment of empiric parameters was done considering the data set of all weather stations. The Hargreaves equation adjusted by both processes, local and regional, showed values of 17.95 and 21.93% for ERQM respectively, considering the full range of climatic data. The Hargreaves equation adjusted by both processes is an option to estimate the daily values of ETo in Goiás State where there are available data limitation.

  6. Final Report - High-Order Spectral Volume Method for the Navier-Stokes Equations On Unstructured Tetrahedral Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z J

    2012-12-06

    The overriding objective for this project is to develop an efficient and accurate method for capturing strong discontinuities and fine smooth flow structures of disparate length scales with unstructured grids, and demonstrate its potentials for problems relevant to DOE. More specifically, we plan to achieve the following objectives: 1. Extend the SV method to three dimensions, and develop a fourth-order accurate SV scheme for tetrahedral grids. Optimize the SV partition by minimizing a form of the Lebesgue constant. Verify the order of accuracy using the scalar conservation laws with an analytical solution; 2. Extend the SV method to Navier-Stokes equations for the simulation of viscous flow problems. Two promising approaches to compute the viscous fluxes will be tested and analyzed; 3. Parallelize the 3D viscous SV flow solver using domain decomposition and message passing. Optimize the cache performance of the flow solver by designing data structures minimizing data access times; 4. Demonstrate the SV method with a wide range of flow problems including both discontinuities and complex smooth structures. The objectives remain the same as those outlines in the original proposal. We anticipate no technical obstacles in meeting these objectives.

  7. Radio Interferometric Calibration Using a Riemannian Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2013-01-01

    In order to cope with the increased data volumes generated by modern radio interferometers such as LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) or SKA (Square Kilometre Array), fast and efficient calibration algorithms are essential. Traditional radio interferometric calibration is performed using nonlinear optimization techniques such as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in Euclidean space. In this paper, we reformulate radio interferometric calibration as a nonlinear optimization problem on a Riemannian manifold. The reformulated calibration problem is solved using the Riemannian trust-region method. We show that calibration on a Riemannian manifold has faster convergence with reduced computational cost compared to conventional calibration in Euclidean space.

  8. A hybrid pressure-density-based Mach uniform algorithm for 2D Euler equations on unstructured grids by using multi-moment finite volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Deng, Xi; Sun, Ziyao; Xiao, Feng

    2017-04-01

    We propose a novel Mach-uniform numerical model for 2D Euler equations on unstructured grids by using multi-moment finite volume method. The model integrates two key components newly developed to solve compressible flows on unstructured grids with improved accuracy and robustness. A new variant of AUSM scheme, so-called AUSM+-pcp (AUSM+ with pressure-correction projection), has been devised including a pressure-correction projection to the AUSM+ flux splitting, which maintains the exact numerical conservativeness and works well for all Mach numbers. A novel 3th-order, non-oscillatory and less-dissipative reconstruction has been proposed by introducing a multi-dimensional limiting and a BVD (boundary variation diminishing) treatment to the VPM (volume integrated average (VIA) and point value (PV) based multi-moment) reconstruction. The resulting reconstruction scheme, the limited VPM-BVD formulation, is able to resolve both smooth and non-smooth solutions with high fidelity. Benchmark tests have been used to verify the present model. The numerical results substantiate the present model as an accurate and robust unstructured-grid formulation for flows of all Mach numbers.

  9. Tidal volume (TV) post-process obtained with electrical impedance tomography on a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Use of adjust equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleza, Marco; Anton, Daniel; Casan, Pere; Riu, Pere

    2010-04-01

    Equations used to estimate ventilation out of EIT images, validated on healthy volunteers show a significant bias and a larger variance when were applied on a COPD patients group. The differences in estimation values were found to be highly correlated with anthropometric parameters. Two groups of 13 and 4 COPD male patients (FEV1/FVC= 80%) were used in this study. We have measured different anthropometric parameters like age, weight, height and skinfolds. The EIT system (TIE4sys) and a pneumotach were simultaneously connected to monitor tidal volume. The main anthropometric parameters values of 13 COPD patients were: age: 67±9 years, height: 1.65±0.05 m, weight: 72±11 kg, BMI: 26.4±3.3 and the subscapular skinfold thickness was 23±9mm. The mean tidal volume estimated with TIE4sys and the pneumotach were: 0.580±0.212 L and 0.774±0.173 L r = 0.861 (pskinfold.

  10. Finite volume approximation of the three-dimensional flow equation in axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous media based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-09-01

    In this work the problem of flow in three-dimensional, axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous medium domain is investigated numerically. For this system, it is natural to use cylindrical coordinate system, which is useful in describing phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis. This can happen in porous media, for example, in the vicinity of production/injection wells. The basic feature of this system is the fact that the flux component (volume flow rate per unit area) in the radial direction is changing because of the continuous change of the area. In this case, variables change rapidly closer to the axis of symmetry and this requires the mesh to be denser. In this work, we generalize a methodology that allows coarser mesh to be used and yet yields accurate results. This method is based on constructing local analytical solution in each cell in the radial direction and moves the derivatives in the other directions to the source term. A new expression for the harmonic mean of the hydraulic conductivity in the radial direction is developed. Apparently, this approach conforms to the analytical solution for uni-directional flows in radial direction in homogeneous porous media. For the case when the porous medium is heterogeneous or the boundary conditions is more complex, comparing with the mesh-independent solution, this approach requires only coarser mesh to arrive at this solution while the traditional methods require more denser mesh. Comparisons for different hydraulic conductivity scenarios and boundary conditions have also been introduced. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 5; The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Slater, Philip N.; Holmes, Alan W.

    1999-01-01

    The solar radiation-based calibration (SRBC) of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) was performed on 1 November 1993. Measurements were made outdoors in the courtyard of the instrument manufacturer. SeaWiFS viewed the solar irradiance reflected from the sensor's diffuser in the same manner as viewed on orbit. The calibration included measurements using a solar radiometer designed to determine the transmittances of principal atmospheric constituents. The primary uncertainties in the outdoor measurements are the transmission of the atmosphere and the reflectance of the diffuser. Their combined uncertainty is about 5 or 6%. The SRBC also requires knowledge of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum. Four solar models are used. When averaged over the responses of the SeaWiFS bands, the irradiance models agree at the 3.6% level, with the greatest difference for SeaWiFS band 8. The calibration coefficients from the SRBC are lower than those from the laboratory calibration of the instrument in 1997. For a representative solar model, the ratios of the SRBC coefficients to laboratory values average 0.962 with a standard deviation of 0.012. The greatest relative difference is 0.946 for band 8. These values are within the estimated uncertainties of the calibration measurements. For the transfer-to-orbit experiment, the measurements in the manufacturer's courtyard are used to predict the digital counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit (August 1, 1997). This experiment requires an estimate of the relative change in the diffuser response for the period between the launch of the instrument and its first solar measurements on orbit (September 9, 1997). In relative terms, the counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit averaged 1.3% higher than predicted, with a standard deviation of 1.2% and a greatest difference of 2.4% or band 7. The estimated uncertainty for the transfer-to-orbit experiment is about 3 or 4%.

  12. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  13. A Highly Stable Marching-on-in-Time Volume Integral Equation Solver for Analyzing Transient Wave Interactions on High-Contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-06

    Time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers represent an attractive alternative to finite difference (FDTD) and finite element (FEM) schemes for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions on composite scatterers. Current induced on a scatterer, in response to a transient incident field, generates a scattered field. First, the scattered field is expressed as a spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function of the background medium. Then, a TDIE is obtained by enforcing boundary conditions and/or fundamental field relations. TDIEs are often solved for the unknown current using marching on-in-time (MOT) schemes. MOT-TDIE solvers expand the current using local spatio-temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDIE and testing the resulting equation in space and time yields a lower triangular system of equations (termed MOT system), which can be solved by marching in time for the coefficients of the current expansion. Stability of the MOT scheme often depends on how accurately the spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function is discretized. In this work, band-limited prolate-based interpolation functions are used as temporal bases in expanding the current and discretizing the spatio-temporal convolution. Unfortunately, these functions are two sided, i.e., they require ”future” current samples for interpolation, resulting in a non-causal MOT system. To alleviate the effect of non-causality and restore the ability to march in time, an extrapolation scheme can be used to estimate the future values of the currents from their past values. Here, an accurate, stable and band-limited extrapolation scheme is developed for this purpose. This extrapolation scheme uses complex exponents, rather than commonly used harmonics, so that propagating and decaying mode fields inside the dielectric scatterers are accurately modeled. The resulting MOT scheme is applied to solving the time domain volume integral equation (VIE

  14. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  15. LOFAR facet calibration

    CERN Document Server

    van Weeren, R J; Hardcastle, M J; Shimwell, T W; Rafferty, D A; Sabater, J; Heald, G; Sridhar, S S; Dijkema, T J; Brunetti, G; Brüggen, M; Andrade-Santos, F; Ogrean, G A; Röttgering, H J A; Dawson, W A; Forman, W R; de Gasperin, F; Jones, C; Miley, G K; Rudnick, L; Sarazin, C L; Bonafede, A; Best, P N; Bîrzan, L; Cassano, R; Chyży, K T; Croston, J H; Ensslin, T; Ferrari, C; Hoeft, M; Horellou, C; Jarvis, M J; Kraft, R P; Mevius, M; Intema, H T; Murray, S S; Orrú, E; Pizzo, R; Simionescu, A; Stroe, A; van der Tol, S; White, G J

    2016-01-01

    LOFAR, the Low-Frequency Array, is a powerful new radio telescope operating between 10 and 240 MHz. LOFAR allows detailed sensitive high-resolution studies of the low-frequency radio sky. At the same time LOFAR also provides excellent short baseline coverage to map diffuse extended emission. However, producing high-quality deep images is challenging due to the presence of direction dependent calibration errors, caused by imperfect knowledge of the station beam shapes and the ionosphere. Furthermore, the large data volume and presence of station clock errors present additional difficulties. In this paper we present a new calibration scheme, which we name facet calibration, to obtain deep high-resolution LOFAR High Band Antenna images using the Dutch part of the array. This scheme solves and corrects the direction dependent errors in a number of facets that cover the observed field of view. Facet calibration provides close to thermal noise limited images for a typical 8 hr observing run at $\\sim$ 5arcsec resolu...

  16. A volume-of-fluid formulation for the study of co-flowing fluids governed by the Hele-Shaw equations

    CERN Document Server

    Afkhami, Shahriar

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational framework to address the flow of two immiscible viscous liquids which co-flow into a shallow rectangular container at one side, and flow out into a holding container at the opposite side. Assumptions based on the shallow depth of the domain are used to reduce the governing equations to one of Hele-Shaw type. The distinctive feature of the numerical method is the accurate modeling of the capillary effects. A continuum approach coupled with a volume-of-fluid formulation for computing the interface motion and for modeling the interfacial tension in Hele-Shaw flows is formulated and implemented. The interface is reconstructed with a height-function algorithm. The combination of these algorithms is a novel development for the investigation of Hele-Shaw flows. The order of accuracy and convergence properties of the method are discussed with benchmark simulations. A microfluidic flow of a ribbon of fluid which co-flows with a second liquid is simulated. We show that for small capillary num...

  17. Terminology of ranging measurements and DSS calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarek, T. A.; Otoshi, T. Y.

    1976-01-01

    A set of basic terminology related to deep space ranging measurements is proposed. Calibration equations are derived for the dish-mounted zero delay device method for 26-m antenna systems and the translator method for 64-m antenna systems.

  18. Open problems in CEM: Porting an explicit time-domain volume-integral- equation solver on GPUs with OpenACC

    KAUST Repository

    Ergül, Özgür

    2014-04-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are gradually becoming mainstream in high-performance computing, as their capabilities for enhancing performance of a large spectrum of scientific applications to many fold when compared to multi-core CPUs have been clearly identified and proven. In this paper, implementation and performance-tuning details for porting an explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based time-domain volume-integral-equation (TDVIE) solver onto GPUs are described in detail. To this end, a high-level approach, utilizing the OpenACC directive-based parallel programming model, is used to minimize two often-faced challenges in GPU programming: developer productivity and code portability. The MOT-TDVIE solver code, originally developed for CPUs, is annotated with compiler directives to port it to GPUs in a fashion similar to how OpenMP targets multi-core CPUs. In contrast to CUDA and OpenCL, where significant modifications to CPU-based codes are required, this high-level approach therefore requires minimal changes to the codes. In this work, we make use of two available OpenACC compilers, CAPS and PGI. Our experience reveals that different annotations of the code are required for each of the compilers, due to different interpretations of the fairly new standard by the compiler developers. Both versions of the OpenACC accelerated code achieved significant performance improvements, with up to 30× speedup against the sequential CPU code using recent hardware technology. Moreover, we demonstrated that the GPU-accelerated fully explicit MOT-TDVIE solver leveraged energy-consumption gains of the order of 3× against its CPU counterpart. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Signal inference with unknown response: calibration uncertainty renormalized estimator

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Sebastian; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco; Böhm, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The calibration of a measurement device is crucial for every scientific experiment, where a signal has to be inferred from data. We present CURE, the calibration uncertainty renormalized estimator, to reconstruct a signal and simultaneously the instrument's calibration from the same data without knowing the exact calibration, but its covariance structure. The idea of CURE is starting with an assumed calibration to successively include more and more portions of calibration uncertainty into the signal inference equations and to absorb the resulting corrections into renormalized signal (and calibration) solutions. Thereby, the signal inference and calibration problem turns into solving a single system of ordinary differential equations and can be identified with common resummation techniques used in field theories. We verify CURE by applying it to a simplistic toy example and compare it against existent self-calibration schemes, Wiener filter solutions, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. We conclude that the...

  20. Geometry of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Khovanskiĭ, A; Vassiliev, V

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains articles written by V. I. Arnold's colleagues on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The articles are mostly devoted to various aspects of geometry of differential equations and relations to global analysis and Hamiltonian mechanics.

  1. Revision, calibration, and application of the volume method to evaluate the geothermal potential of some recent volcanic areas of Latium, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doveri, Marco; Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella [Institute of Geosciences and Georesources, CNR, Area della Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Marini, Luigi [Laboratory of Geochemistry, Dip.Te.Ris., University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Institute of Geosciences and Georesources, CNR, Area della Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The volume method is used to evaluate the productive potential of unexploited and minimally exploited geothermal fields. The distribution of P{sub CO2} in shallow groundwaters delimits the geothermal fields. This approach is substantiated by the good correspondence between zones of high CO{sub 2} flux, and the areal extension of explored geothermal systems of high enthalpy (Monte Amiata and Latera), medium enthalpy (Torre Alfina) and low enthalpy (Viterbo). Based on the data available for geothermal fields either under exploitation or investigated by long-term production tests, a specific productivity of 40 t h{sup -1} km{sup -3} is assumed. The total potential productivity for the recent volcanic areas of Latium is about 28 x 10{sup 3} t h{sup -1}, with 75% from low-enthalpy geothermal fields, 17% from medium-enthalpy systems, and 8% from high-enthalpy reservoirs. The total extractable thermal power is estimated to be 2220-2920 MW, 49-53% from low-enthalpy geothermal fields, 28-32% from medium-enthalpy systems, and 19-20% from high-enthalpy reservoirs. (author)

  2. Calibration of absolute radial dimension of measurement for cylindrical coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zexiang; Wang, Guixia; Zhao, Huiying; Li, Bin

    2010-08-01

    According to the definitions of the diameters in the new generation Geometrical Product Specifications(GPS), the evaluation models of least square diameter, minimum circumscribed diameter, maximum inscribed diameter, area diameter, circumference diameter and volume diameter are built on the cylindrical coordinate system for the section measuring path, the element measuring path and the bird-cage measuring path in this paper. A cylindrical coordinate measuring machine for the measurement of the diameters above is introduced. Based on the external standard cylinder with super high precision, a relative calibration method for the measurement of the radial size is promoted. The influence of several special cases of the installation of the cylinder on the calibrating results is analyzed, and the calibrating equation related to the special cases is given.

  3. Equações de volume para Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, determinadas para a depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Equations for Eucalyptus dunnii maiden volume determination on the central depression of State Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado para definir equações de volume total com casca e comercial sem casca para Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, na idade de 6,5 anos, implantado em espaçamento 3 x 2m. Foram cubadas, pelo método de Smaliam, 80 árvores distribuídas em classe diamétrica e de forma proporcional em quatro hortos florestais. As equações de volume total com casca e comercial sem casca foram determinadas através do procedimento "stepwise" de regressão, de forma independente, para cada local e, posteriormente, foi estudada a possibilidade de agrupamento destas equações em um modelo único. A análise de covariância aplicada aos dados indicou a possibilidade do emprego de uma única equação para estimar o volume da espécie em toda a região. Selecionou-se pelo alto coeficiente de determinação e baixo erro padrão da estimativa a equação log v = - 9,06566 + 0,93016 . log(d² h para o volume total com casca e log v = -14,14078 + 1,39608 . log(d² h para o volume comercial sem casca. Além disso, não observou-se diferenças na forma do tronco e por conseqüência no volume das árvores nos quatro locais estudados.This study has been carried out to define total bulk volume equations for Eucalyptus dunni Maiden, 6.5 years old, lined up along a 3 by 2 meter-spaced planted setting. These equations were supposed to both trees with and without bark. Eighty trees were cubed by Smalian's method distributed according to diameter classes and following a proportional way, over four forest sites. Equations were determinated through stepwise regression procedure, following an independent process for each site. A second step was evaluate the possiblility of these equations to be reduced into a single one. The covariance analysis applied to data showed the possibility of using an unique one equation to estimate the tree bulk volume to the region. Two equations were selected: one to calculate the total volume of trees with bark and another to determine the

  4. Calibration of the SNO+ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneira, J.; Falk, E.; Leming, E.; Peeters, S.; SNO+ collaboration.

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the SNO+ experiment is to perform a low-background and high-isotope-mass search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, employing 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator loaded with tellurium, in its initial phase at 0.5% by mass for a total mass of 1330 kg of 130Te. The SNO+ physics program includes also measurements of geo- and reactor neutrinos, supernova and solar neutrinos. Calibrations are an essential component of the SNO+ data-taking and analysis plan. The achievement of the physics goals requires both an extensive and regular calibration. This serves several goals: the measurement of several detector parameters, the validation of the simulation model and the constraint of systematic uncertainties on the reconstruction and particle identification algorithms. SNO+ faces stringent radiopurity requirements which, in turn, largely determine the materials selection, sealing and overall design of both the sources and deployment systems. In fact, to avoid frequent access to the inner volume of the detector, several permanent optical calibration systems have been developed and installed outside that volume. At the same time, the calibration source internal deployment system was re-designed as a fully sealed system, with more stringent material selection, but following the same working principle as the system used in SNO. This poster described the overall SNO+ calibration strategy, discussed the several new and innovative sources, both optical and radioactive, and covered the developments on source deployment systems.

  5. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  6. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina

    2016-05-02

    This poster presents the development, implementation, and operation of the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL) Longwave (LW) system at the Southern Great Plains Radiometric Calibration Facility for the calibration of pyrgeometers that provide traceability to the World Infrared Standard Group.

  7. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina

    2016-05-02

    This poster presents the development, implementation, and operation of the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL) Longwave (LW) system at the Southern Great Plains Radiometric Calibration Facility for the calibration of pyrgeometers that provide traceability to the World Infrared Standard Group.

  8. Stochastic differential equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This text develops the theory of systems of stochastic differential equations, and it presents applications in probability, partial differential equations, and stochastic control problems. Originally published in two volumes, it combines a book of basic theory and selected topics with a book of applications.The first part explores Markov processes and Brownian motion; the stochastic integral and stochastic differential equations; elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations and their relations to stochastic differential equations; the Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem; and asymptotic es

  9. Calibration of sound calibrators: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhomem, T. A. B.; Soares, Z. M. D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of calibration of sound calibrators. Initially, traditional calibration methods are presented. Following, the international standard IEC 60942 is discussed emphasizing parameters, target measurement uncertainty and criteria for conformance to the requirements of the standard. Last, Regional Metrology Organizations comparisons are summarized.

  10. Studies about an Equation of State for Pure Associated Fluids: Temperature Dependent Co-Volume Accounting a Physically Consistent Repulsive Term

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Figueiredo Checoni; Ravagnani, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies related to the development of equations of state (EOS) to represent thermophysical properties of pure compounds are considered as important tools for engineers to design and optimize industrial equipment and processes. Furthermore, these tools also contribute to amplify the researchers’ knowledge related to molecular interaction types, in attempting to predict and correlate both energetic and volumetric effects existing in the compounds. From several equations of state existing, the c...

  11. Intercomparison and calibration of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, A M D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish a working standard for intercomparison and calibration of dose calibrators used in most of nuclear medicine facilities for the determination of the activity of radionuclides administered to patients in specific examinations or therapeutic procedures. A commercial dose calibrator, a set of standard radioactive sources, and syringes, vials and ampoules with radionuclide solutions used in nuclear medicine were utilized in this work. The commercial dose calibrator was calibrated for radionuclide solutions used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as linearity response and variation response with the source volume at a constant source activity concentration were performed. This instrument may be used as a reference system for intercomparison and calibration of other activity meters, as a method of quality control of dose calibrators utilized in nuclear medicine facilities.

  12. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian N

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  13. Spectral emissivity of surface blackbody calibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik

    2007-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of commercial infrared calibrators is compared with measurements of anodized aluminum samples and grooved aluminum surfaces coated with Pyromark. Measurements performed by FTIR spectroscopy in the wavelength interval from 2 to 20 mu m and at temperatures between 5...... in emissivity using similar materials can be reduced to 0.5-1% by optimizing the coating process and the surface geometry. Results are discussed and an equation for calculation of the equivalent blackbody surface temperature from FTIR spectra is presented, including reflected ambient radiation. It is in most...... cases necessary to correct temperature calibration results for calibrators calibrated at 8-14 mu m to obtain absolute accuracies of 0.1-1 degrees C in other spectral regions depending on the temperature. Uncertainties are discussed and equations are given for the correction of measured radiation...

  14. Comparison of fluid neutral models for one-dimensional plasma edge modeling with a finite volume solution of the Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsten, N., E-mail: niels.horsten@kuleuven.be; Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [ITER Organization, route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-15

    We derive fluid neutral approximations for a simplified 1D edge plasma model, suitable to study the neutral behavior close to the target of a nuclear fusion divertor, and compare its solutions to the solution of the corresponding kinetic Boltzmann equation. The plasma is considered as a fixed background extracted from a detached 2D simulation. We show that the Maxwellian equilibrium distribution is already obtained very close to the target, justifying the use of a fluid approximation. We compare three fluid neutral models: (i) a diffusion model; (ii) a pressure-diffusion model (i.e., a combination of a continuity and momentum equation) assuming equal neutral and ion temperatures; and (iii) the pressure-diffusion model coupled to a neutral energy equation taking into account temperature differences between neutrals and ions. Partial reflection of neutrals reaching the boundaries is included in both the kinetic and fluid models. We propose two methods to obtain an incident neutral flux boundary condition for the fluid models: one based on a diffusion approximation and the other assuming a truncated Chapman-Enskog distribution. The pressure-diffusion model predicts the plasma sources very well. The diffusion boundary condition gives slightly better results overall. Although including an energy equation still improves the results, the assumption of equal ion and neutral temperature already gives a very good approximation.

  15. Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M. Y.; Vander Wal, R. L.; Zhou, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute calibration of laser-induced incandescence (LII) is demonstrated via comparison of LII signal intensities with gravimetrically determined soot volume fractions. This calibration technique does not rely upon calculated or measured optical characteristics of soot. The variation of the LII signal with gravimetrically measured soot volume fractions ranging from 0.078 to 1.1 ppm established the linearly of the calibration. With the high spatial and temporal resolution capabilities of laser-induced incandescence (LII), the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the soot field within a gravimetric chimney were characterized. Radial uniformity of the soot volume fraction, f(sub v) was demonstrated with sufficient averaging of the single laser-shot LII images of the soot field thus confirming the validity of the calibration method for imaging applications. As illustration, instantaneous soot volume fractions within a Re = 5000 ethylene/air diffusion flame measured via planar LII were established quantitatively with this calibration.

  16. Trinocular Calibration Method Based on Binocular Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Dan-Dan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the self-occlusion problem in plane-based multi-camera calibration system and expand the measurement range, a tri-camera vision system based on binocular calibration is proposed. The three cameras are grouped into two pairs, while the public camera is taken as the reference to build the global coordinate. By calibration of the measured absolute distance and the true absolute distance, global calibration is realized. The MRE (mean relative error of the global calibration of the two camera pairs in the experiments can be as low as 0.277% and 0.328% respectively. Experiment results show that this method is feasible, simple and effective, and has high precision.

  17. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    This three-part treatment of partial differential equations focuses on elliptic and evolution equations. Largely self-contained, it concludes with a series of independent topics directly related to the methods and results of the preceding sections that helps introduce readers to advanced topics for further study. Geared toward graduate and postgraduate students of mathematics, this volume also constitutes a valuable reference for mathematicians and mathematical theorists.Starting with the theory of elliptic equations and the solution of the Dirichlet problem, the text develops the theory of we

  18. The calibration of PIXIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Kogut, Alan; Mirel, Paul; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    The FIRAS instrument demonstrated the use of an external calibrator to compare the sky to an instrumented blackbody. The PIXIE calibrator is improved from -35 dB to -65 dB. Another significant improvement is the ability to insert the calibrator into either input of the FTS. This allows detection and correction of additional errors, reduces the effective calibration noise by a factor of 2, eliminates an entire class of systematics and allows continuous observations. This paper presents the design and use of the PIXIE calibrator.

  19. Reevaluation of compressible-flow Preston tube calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Revised zero-pressure-gradient, adiabatic wall skin-friction-balance data covering a Mach number range from 1.6 to 4.6 led to a reevaluation of existing compressible flow Preston tube calibration equations.

  20. CALIBRATION OF PANORAMIC CAMERAS WITH CODED TARGETS AND A 3D CALIBRATION FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Tommaselli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present results achieved with a 3D terrestrial calibration field, designed for calibrating digital cameras and omnidirectional sensors. This terrestrial calibration field is composed of 139 ARUCO coded targets. Some experiments were performed using a Nikon D3100 digital camera with 8mm Samyang Bower fisheye lens. The camera was calibrated in this terrestrial test field using a conventional bundle adjustment with the Collinearity and mathematical models specially designed for fisheye lenses. The CMC software (Calibration with Multiple Cameras, developed in-house, was used for the calibration trials. This software was modified to use fisheye models to which the Conrady-Brown distortion equations were added. The target identification and image measurements of its four corners were performed automatically with a public software. Several experiments were performed with 16 images and the results were presented and compared. Besides the calibration of fish-eye cameras, the field was designed for calibration of a catadrioptic system and brief informations on the calibration of this unit will be provided in the paper.

  1. Calibration of Geodetic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bajtala

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of metrology and security systems of unification, correctness and standard reproducibilities belong to the preferred requirements of theory and technical practice in geodesy. Requirements on the control and verification of measured instruments and equipments increase and the importance and up-to-date of calibration get into the foreground. Calibration possibilities of length-scales (of electronic rangefinders and angle-scales (of horizontal circles of geodetic instruments. Calibration of electronic rangefinders on the linear comparative baseline in terrain. Primary standard of planar angle – optical traverse and its exploitation for calibration of the horizontal circles of theodolites. The calibration equipment of the Institute of Slovak Metrology in Bratislava. The Calibration process and results from the calibration of horizontal circles of selected geodetic instruments.

  2. 40 CFR 89.324 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... represent good engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best... factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit non-linear equation which... practice. (b) If a methane analyzer is used, the methane analyzer shall be calibrated prior to introduction...

  3. Flux calibration of the Herschel(star)-SPIRE photometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendo, G. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Bock, J. J.; Conversi, L.; Dowell, C. D.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; North, C. E.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pohlen, M.; Polehampton, E. T.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D. L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Spencer, L. D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Valtchanov, I.; Xu, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the procedure used to flux calibrate the three-band submillimetre photometer in the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This includes the equations describing the calibration scheme, a justification for using Neptune as the primary cali

  4. Discovering evolution equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    McKibben, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Most existing books on evolution equations tend either to cover a particular class of equations in too much depth for beginners or focus on a very specific research direction. Thus, the field can be daunting for newcomers to the field who need access to preliminary material and behind-the-scenes detail. Taking an applications-oriented, conversational approach, Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications: Volume 2-Stochastic Equations provides an introductory understanding of stochastic evolution equations. The text begins with hands-on introductions to the essentials of real and stochast

  5. Boundary-volume integral equation numerical modeling for complex near surface%复杂地表边界元-体积元波动方程数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管西竹; 符力耘; 陶毅; 于更新

    2011-01-01

    复杂近地表引起来自深部构造的地震反射信号振幅和相位的异常变化,是影响复杂近地表地区地震资料品质的主要原因.本文采用边界元-体积元方法,通过求解含复杂地表的波动积分方程,来模拟地震波在复杂近地表构造中的传播.其中,边界元法模拟地形起伏和表层地质结构对地震波传播的影响;体积元法模拟起伏地表下非均质低降速层的影响.与其他数值模拟方法比较,其主要优点为几何上精确描述不规则地表界面,实现精确模拟自由表面对地震波的边界散射;显式应用近地表地层界面的连续边界条件,实现半解析的数值模拟;分区处理近地表复杂结构,有效模拟复杂地表下非均匀介质对地震波场的体散射.数值试验结果表明了该方法的实用性和有效性.%Complex near surface causes the anomalous variation of the amplitude and phase of seismic reflection signal from deep structures, and it is the most important factor to degrade the quality of seismic data. In this paper, we use the boundary-volume integral equation technique to simulate the seismic wave propagation in the complex near surface structure by solving the wave propagation equation with complex near surface condition. In the boundary-volume integral equation technique, the boundary element method can simulate irregular surface and geological structure for seismic wave propagation, and the volume element method can simulate the effect of the heterogeneous medium in low subweathered zone for the seismic wave propagation. Compared with other numerical simulation methods, the main advantage of the boundary-volume integral equation technique is its accurate geometric description of irregular surface and interface to simulate the boundary scattering waves by the free surface; it explicitly applies the continuous boundary conditions of the complex near surface to implement the semi-analytical numerical simulation; it

  6. Understanding Secondary Flows in Rivers Using a Combination of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Measurements and a Finite Volume solution to the Navier-Stokes Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak-Cole, E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic processes in rivers are central to issues of river ecosystem health, contaminant transport, and essential to understanding meander dynamics. In particular, large scale secondary flows are often cited as being the driving force behind river bend shape and migration. We seek to understand the fundamental flow patterns in rivers by augmenting field-collected bathymetry and velocity data with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. This approach has successfully been applied to flume studies, but rarely used in a natural setting. Here, complex geometries, lack of data, large woody debris, riprap, and biased measurements all present difficulties. Velocity and bathymetry data were collected over multiple consecutive days on a reach of the Minnesota river in Belle Plaine with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Time averaging and interpolation of velocity vectors along transects reveal coarse scale secondary flow patterns, including an outer bank cell. A mesh was created from bathymetry data for use with the openFOAM C++ library. A hydraulics study is conducted by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip condition free-surface and large eddy simulation turbulence model. Results are compared to field-measured data, and areas affected by downed trees and riprap are identified. We show that modelling at the coarse scale can provide useful information for understanding river hydraulics and predicting sediment transport over large domains.

  7. Roche volume filling and the dissolution of open star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, A.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.; Noel, T.

    2015-08-01

    From direct N-body simulations we find that the dynamical evolution of star clusters is strongly influenced by the Roche volume filling factor. We present a parameter study of the dissolution of open star clusters with different Roche volume filling factors and different particle numbers. We study both Roche volume underfilling and overfilling models and compare with the Roche volume filling case. We find that in the Roche volume overfilling limit of our simulations two-body relaxation is no longer the dominant dissolution mechanism but the changing cluster potential. We call this mechanism ``mass-loss driven dissolution'' in contrast to ``two-body relaxation driven dissolution'' which occurs in the Roche volume underfilling regime. We have measured scaling exponents of the dissolution time with the two-body relaxation time. In this experimental study we find a decreasing scaling exponent with increasing Roche volume filling factor. The evolution of the escaper number in the Roche volume overfilling limit can be described by a log-logistic differential equation. We report the finding of a resonance condition which may play a role for the evolution of star clusters and may be calibrated by the main periodic orbit in the large island of retrograde quasiperiodic orbits in the Poincaré surfaces of section. We also report on the existence of a stability curve which may be of relevance with respect to the structure of star clusters.

  8. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  9. Measurement of binding of basic drugs to acidic phospholipids using surface plasmon resonance and incorporation of the data into mechanistic tissue composition equations to predict steady-state volume of distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Helen; Gardner, Iain; Jones, Hannah M; Davis, John; Rowland, Malcolm

    2011-10-01

    Acidic phospholipid binding plays an important role in determining the tissue distribution of basic drugs. This article describes the use of surface plasmon resonance to measure binding affinity (K(D)) of three basic drugs to phosphatidylserine, a major tissue acidic phospholipid. The data are incorporated into mechanistic tissue composition equations to allow prediction of the steady-state volume of distribution (V(ss)). The prediction accuracy of V(ss) using this approach is compared with the original methodology described by Rodgers et al. (J Pharm Sci 94:1259-1276), in which the binding to acidic phospholipids is calculated from the blood/plasma concentration ratio (BPR). The compounds used in this study [amlodipine, propranolol, and 3-dimethylaminomethyl-4-(4-methylsulfanyl-phenoxy)-benzenesulfonamide (UK-390957)] showed higher affinity binding to phosphatidylserine than to phosphatidylcholine. When the binding affinity to phosphatidylserine was incorporated into mechanistic tissue composition equations, the V(ss) was more accurately predicted for all three compounds by using the surface plasmon resonance measurement than by using the BPR to estimate acidic phospholipid binding affinity. The difference was particularly marked for UK-390957, a sulfonamide that has a high BPR due to binding to carbonic anhydrase. The novel approach described in this article allows the binding affinity of drugs to an acidic phospholipid (phosphatidylserine) to be measured directly and demonstrates the utility of the binding data in the prediction of V(ss).

  10. Structured light system calibration method with optimal fringe angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2014-11-20

    For structured light system calibration, one popular approach is to treat the projector as an inverse camera. This is usually performed by projecting horizontal and vertical sequences of patterns to establish one-to-one mapping between camera points and projector points. However, for a well-designed system, either horizontal or vertical fringe images are not sensitive to depth variation and thus yield inaccurate mapping. As a result, the calibration accuracy is jeopardized if a conventional calibration method is used. To address this limitation, this paper proposes a novel calibration method based on optimal fringe angle determination. Experiments demonstrate that our calibration approach can increase the measurement accuracy up to 38% compared to the conventional calibration method with a calibration volume of 300(H)  mm×250(W)  mm×500(D)  mm.

  11. The Science of Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a broad overview of the many issues involved in calibrating astronomical data, covering the full electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays, and considering both ground-based and space-based missions. These issues include the science drivers for absolute and relative calibration, the physics behind calibration and the mechanisms used to transfer it from the laboratory to an astronomical source, the need for networks of calibrated astronomical standards, and some of the challenges faced by large surveys and missions.

  12. On the accuracy of estimation of basic pharmacokinetic parameters by the traditional noncompartmental equations and the prediction of the steady-state volume of distribution in obese patients based upon data derived from normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2011-06-01

    The steady-state and terminal volumes of distribution, as well as the mean residence time of drug in the body (V(ss), V(β), and MRT) are the common pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the drug plasma concentration-time profile C(p) (t) following intravenous (i.v. bolus or constant rate infusion) drug administration. These calculations are valid for the linear pharmacokinetic system with central elimination (i.e., elimination rate being proportional to drug concentration in plasma). Formally, the assumption of central elimination is not normally met because the rate of drug elimination is proportional to the unbound drug concentration at elimination site, although equilibration between systemic circulation and the site of clearance for majority of small molecule drugs is fast. Thus, the assumption of central elimination is practically quite adequate. It appears reasonable to estimate the extent of possible errors in determination of these pharmacokinetic parameters due to the absence of central elimination. The comparison of V(ss), V(β), and MRT calculated by exact equations and the commonly used ones was made considering a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. It was found that if the drug plasma concentration profile is detected accurately, determination of drug distribution volumes and MRT using the traditional noncompartmental calculations of these parameters from C(p) (t) yields the values very close to that obtained from exact equations. Though in practice, the accurate measurement of C(p) (t), especially its terminal phase, may not always be possible. This is particularly applicable for obtaining the distribution volumes of lipophilic compounds in obese subjects, when the possibility of late terminal phase at low drug concentration is quite likely, specifically for compounds with high clearance. An accurate determination of V(ss) is much needed in clinical practice because it is critical for the proper selection of drug treatment

  13. The Effective Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  14. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  15. Equações de volume para galhos de espécies em diferentes grupos de valor econômico em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista / Selection of mathematical equations to estimate the volume of branches for diferent groups of economic value in an Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi testar equações matemáticas e estimar o volume de galhos para espécies de três grupos de valor econômico em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, situada na região nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi realizada a cubagem rigorosa dos galhos de 287 árvores-amostra. Além dos galhos de cada árvore selecionada, o restante do fuste comercial (resíduo foi considerado na determinação do volume total de galhos. As árvores-amostra selecionadas foram separadas e classificadas em grupos de valor econômico. Dez modelos volumétricos foram testados, sendo que para a seleção do melhor modelo foram analisados o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o coeficiente de variação; os desvios médios relativos, desvio absoluto relativo, o valor ponderado e a distribuição gráfica dos valores residuais. A divisão da floresta em grupos de valor comercial mostrou-se eficiente no ajuste de equações matemáticas. As equações selecionadas para estimar o volume de galhos foram: “1 de Meyer”, para o grupo de baixo valor; a “5 de Spurr”, para o grupo de médio valor, a “2 de Meyer – modificada”, para o grupo de alto valor comercial; e a “equação 3, de Naslund – modificada”, para a floresta.AbstractThe objective of this study was to test mathematical equations, and estimate the volume of branches for groups of three species of economic value in an area of Araucaria Forest, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul. Rigorous scaling of branches of 287 sample trees were performed. Besides considering the branches of each tree selected, the rest of the commercial tree trunks (residue were taken into account for the determination of the total amount of branches. The selected sample trees were separated and classified into groups of economic value. Ten volumetric models were tested. For selecting the best model, the analysis focused on the determination coefficient, the

  16. Electrical Calibration for Calvet Type Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The deyjce construction and working principle of Calvet type heat conductive microcalorimetry are generally ineroduced in this paper. Based on previous work, we design a reactor vessel and its electrical calibration equipment according to our special study systems. The heat constant of our improved microalorimetry is gotten by means of electrical calibration on the basis of Tian's equation. The results gotten by in tegration method are identical with ones gotten by peak method. It shows that our improved device works well enough to develop further studies.``

  17. Theory of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gel'fand, I M

    1967-01-01

    Generalized Functions, Volume 3: Theory of Differential Equations focuses on the application of generalized functions to problems of the theory of partial differential equations.This book discusses the problems of determining uniqueness and correctness classes for solutions of the Cauchy problem for systems with constant coefficients and eigenfunction expansions for self-adjoint differential operators. The topics covered include the bounded operators in spaces of type W, Cauchy problem in a topological vector space, and theorem of the Phragmén-Lindelöf type. The correctness classes for the Cau

  18. Handheld temperature calibrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martella, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    ... you sign on. What are you waiting for? JOFRA ETC Series dry-block calibrators from AMETEK Test & Calibration Instruments, Largo, FL, are small enough to be handheld and feature easy-to-read displays, multiple bore blocks, programmable test setup, RS-232 communications, and software. Two versions are available: the ETC 125A that ranges from -10[degrees]C to 125[d...

  19. OLI Radiometric Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

  20. E-2C Loads Calibration in DFRC Flight Loads Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lawrence S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: a) Safely and efficiently perform structural load tests on NAVAIR E-2C aircraft to calibrate strain gage instrumentation installed by NAVAIR; b) Collect load test data and derive loads equations for use in NAVAIR flight tests; and c) Assist flight test team with use of loads equations measurements at PAX River.

  1. Riccati equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd K. Williams

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we find closed form solutions of some Riccati equations. Attention is restricted to the scalar as opposed to the matrix case. However, the ones considered have important applications to mathematics and the sciences, mostly in the form of the linear second-order ordinary differential equations which are solved herewith.

  2. WFPC2 Polarization Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biretta, J.; McMaster, M.

    1997-12-01

    We derive a detailed calibration for WFPC2 polarization data which is accurate to about 1.5%. We begin by computing polarizer flats, and show how they are applied to data. A physical model for the polarization effects of the WFPC2 optics is then created using Mueller matricies. This model includes corrections for the instrumental polarization (diattenuation and phase retardance) of the pick-off mirror, as well as the high cross-polarization transmission of the polarizer filter. We compare this model against the on-orbit observations of polarization calibrators, and show it predicts relative counts in the different polarizer/aperture settings to 1.5% RMS accuracy. We then show how this model can be used to calibrate GO data, and present two WWW tools which allow observers to easily calibrate their data. Detailed examples are given illustrationg the calibration and display of WFPC2 polarization data. In closing we describe future plans and possible improvements.

  3. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  4. Equation poems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentis, Jeffrey J.

    1996-05-01

    One of the most challenging goals of a physics teacher is to help students see that the equations of physics are connected to each other, and that they logically unfold from a small number of basic ideas. Derivations contain the vital information on this connective structure. In a traditional physics course, there are many problem-solving exercises, but few, if any, derivation exercises. Creating an equation poem is an exercise to help students see the unity of the equations of physics, rather than their diversity. An equation poem is a highly refined and eloquent set of symbolic statements that captures the essence of the derivation of an equation. Such a poetic derivation is uncluttered by the extraneous details that tend to distract a student from understanding the essential physics of the long, formal derivation.

  5. Penetration equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, C.W. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Selected papers on analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Society, American Mathematical

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sūgaku. These papers range over a variety of topics in ordinary and partial differential equations, and in analysis. Many of them are survey papers presenting new results obtained in the last few years. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in analysis and differential equations.

  7. Segment Based Camera Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马颂德; 魏国庆; 等

    1993-01-01

    The basic idea of calibrating a camera system in previous approaches is to determine camera parmeters by using a set of known 3D points as calibration reference.In this paper,we present a method of camera calibration in whih camera parameters are determined by a set of 3D lines.A set of constraints is derived on camea parameters in terms of perspective line mapping.Form these constraints,the same perspective transformation matrix as that for point mapping can be computed linearly.The minimum number of calibration lines is 6.This result generalizes that of Liu,Huang and Faugeras[12] for camera location determination in which at least 8 line correspondences are required for linear computation of camera location.Since line segments in an image can be located easily and more accurately than points,the use of lines as calibration reference tends to ease the computation in inage preprocessing and to improve calibration accuracy.Experimental results on the calibration along with stereo reconstruction are reported.

  8. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  9. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2013-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and diff

  10. Site Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the site calibration carried out at Østerild, during a given period. The site calibration was performed with two Windcube WLS7 (v1) lidars at ten measurements heights. The lidar is not a sensor approved by the current version of the IEC 61400-12-1 [1] and therefore the site...... calibration with lidars does not comply with the standard. However, the measurements are carried out following the guidelines of IEC 61400-12-1 where possible, but with some deviations presented in the following chapters....

  11. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  12. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  13. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  14. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained.

  15. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  16. A Perturbation Approach to Robot Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Robotica 2(4):205-209. 12. Lenarcic, J. 1984. Kinematic Equations of Robot Manipulator. Digital Systems for Industrial Automation 2(2):133-151. - 13. Luh...manipulators. 12th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Paris, France. Bedford: IFS Publications, pp. 469-478. * 15. Mooring, B. W. 1983 (August 7-11). The...Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 147-152. - 25. Whitney, D. E., and Lozinski, C. A. 1984. Industrial Robot Calibration Methods and Results

  17. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report...... presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated...... a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam...

  18. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  19. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  20. SPOTS Calibration Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented using the procedure outlined by the Standardisation Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement to calibrate a digital image correlation system. The process involves comparing the experimental data obtained with the optical measurement system to the theoretical values for a specially designed specimen. The standard states the criteria which must be met in order to achieve successful calibration, in addition to quantifying the measurement uncertainty in the system. The system was evaluated at three different displacement load levels, generating strain ranges from 289 µstrain to 2110 µstrain. At the 289 µstrain range, the calibration uncertainty was found to be 14.1 µstrain, and at the 2110 µstrain range it was found to be 28.9 µstrain. This calibration procedure was performed without painting a speckle pattern on the surface of the metal. Instead, the specimen surface was prepared using different grades of grit paper to produce the desired texture.

  1. Calibrated Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  2. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina; Webb, Craig

    2016-05-02

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the progress on the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations for all shortwave and longwave radiometers that are deployed by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program.

  3. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail.The first of these is a line of sight...

  4. Scanner calibration revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhitkov, Alexander E

    2010-07-01

    Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2.) reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides.

  5. Scanner calibration revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozhitkov Alexander E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2. reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Methods Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. Results We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Conclusions Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides.

  6. TWSTFT Link Calibration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    box calibrator with unknown but constant total delay during a calibration tour Total Delay: The total electrical delay from the antenna phase center...to the UTCp including all the devices/cables that the satellite and clock signals pass through. It numerically equals the sum of all the sub-delays...PTB. To average out the dimnal effects and measurement noise , 5-7 days of continuous measurements is required. 3 Setups at the Lab(k) The setup

  7. Approximation Behooves Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009.......Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....

  8. Energy calibration via correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The main task of an energy calibration is to find a relation between pulse-height values and the corresponding energies. Doing this for each pulse-height channel individually requires an elaborated input spectrum with an excellent counting statistics and a sophisticated data analysis. This work presents an easy to handle energy calibration process which can operate reliably on calibration measurements with low counting statistics. The method uses a parameter based model for the energy calibration and concludes on the optimal parameters of the model by finding the best correlation between the measured pulse-height spectrum and multiple synthetic pulse-height spectra which are constructed with different sets of calibration parameters. A CdTe-based semiconductor detector and the line emissions of an 241 Am source were used to test the performance of the correlation method in terms of systematic calibration errors for different counting statistics. Up to energies of 60 keV systematic errors were measured to be le...

  9. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  10. Multi-Instrument Inter-Calibration (MIIC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Currey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to have confidence in the long-term records of atmospheric and surface properties derived from satellite measurements it is important to know the stability and accuracy of the actual radiance or reflectance measurements. Climate quality measurements require accurate calibration of space-borne instruments. Inter-calibration is the process that ties the calibration of a target instrument to a more accurate, preferably SI-traceable, reference instrument by matching measurements in time, space, wavelength, and view angles. A major challenge for any inter-calibration study is to find and acquire matched samples from within the large data volumes distributed across Earth science data centers. Typically less than 0.1% of the instrument data are required for inter-calibration analysis. Software tools and networking middleware are necessary for intelligent selection and retrieval of matched samples from multiple instruments on separate spacecraft.  This paper discusses the Multi-Instrument Inter-Calibration (MIIC system, a web-based software framework used by the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO Pathfinder mission to simplify the data management mechanics of inter-calibration. MIIC provides three main services: (1 inter-calibration event prediction; (2 data acquisition; and (3 data analysis. The combination of event prediction and powerful server-side functions reduces the data volume required for inter-calibration studies by several orders of magnitude, dramatically reducing network bandwidth and disk storage needs. MIIC provides generic retrospective analysis services capable of sifting through large data volumes of existing instrument data. The MIIC tiered design deployed at large institutional data centers can help international organizations, such as Global Space Based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS, more efficiently acquire matched data from multiple data centers. In this paper we describe the MIIC

  11. The open boundary equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Diederen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new equation describing the hydrodynamics in infinitely long tidal channels (i.e., no reflection under the influence of oceanic forcing. The proposed equation is a simple relationship between partial derivatives of water level and velocity. It is formally derived for a progressive wave in a frictionless, prismatic, tidal channel with a horizontal bed. Assessment of a large number of numerical simulations, where an open boundary condition is posed at a certain distance landward, suggests that it can also be considered accurate in the more natural case of converging estuaries with nonlinear friction and a bed slope. The equation follows from the open boundary condition and is therefore a part of the problem formulation for an infinite tidal channel. This finding provides a practical tool for evaluating tidal wave dynamics, by reconstructing the temporal variation of the velocity based on local observations of the water level, providing a fully local open boundary condition and allowing for local friction calibration.

  12. Joint Gain/Phase and Mutual Coupling Array Calibration Technique with Single Calibrating Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An iterative-based method for joint gain/phase and mutual coupling array calibration is proposed in this paper. It estimates the array gain/phase and mutual coupling coefficients with a set of simultaneous equations formed by using the beam pattern property of the array. Only one calibrating source with known direction is requiblue to obtain the unique estimate. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by simulation results and by experimental data collected with an antenna array operating in high-frequency radio band.

  13. Comparison of different calibration methods suited for calibration problems with many variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and compares different kinds of statistical methods proposed in the literature as suited for solving calibration problems with many variables. These are: principal component regression, partial least-squares, and ridge regression. The statistical techniques themselves do...... not provide robust results in the spirit of calibration equations which can last for long periods. A way of obtaining this property is by smoothing and differentiating the data. These techniques are considered, and it is shown how they fit into the treated description....

  14. Fitting and Calibrating a Multilevel Mixed-Effects Stem Taper Model for Maritime Pine in NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Rodil, Manuel; Castedo-Dorado, Fernando; Cámara-Obregón, Asunción; Diéguez-Aranda, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Stem taper data are usually hierarchical (several measurements per tree, and several trees per plot), making application of a multilevel mixed-effects modelling approach essential. However, correlation between trees in the same plot/stand has often been ignored in previous studies. Fitting and calibration of a variable-exponent stem taper function were conducted using data from 420 trees felled in even-aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in NW Spain. In the fitting step, the tree level explained much more variability than the plot level, and therefore calibration at plot level was omitted. Several stem heights were evaluated for measurement of the additional diameter needed for calibration at tree level. Calibration with an additional diameter measured at between 40 and 60% of total tree height showed the greatest improvement in volume and diameter predictions. If additional diameter measurement is not available, the fixed-effects model fitted by the ordinary least squares technique should be used. Finally, we also evaluated how the expansion of parameters with random effects affects the stem taper prediction, as we consider this a key question when applying the mixed-effects modelling approach to taper equations. The results showed that correlation between random effects should be taken into account when assessing the influence of random effects in stem taper prediction. PMID:26630156

  15. HAWC Timing Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Huentemeyer, Petra; Dingus, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Experiment is a second-generation highsensitivity gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector that builds on the experience and technology of the Milagro observatory. Like Milagro, HAWC utilizes the water Cherenkov technique to measure extensive air showers. Instead of a pond filled with water (as in Milagro) an array of closely packed water tanks is used. The event direction will be reconstructed using the times when the PMTs in each tank are triggered. Therefore, the timing calibration will be crucial for reaching an angular resolution as low as 0.25 degrees.We propose to use a laser calibration system, patterned after the calibration system in Milagro. Like Milagro, the HAWC optical calibration system will use ~1 ns laser light pulses. Unlike Milagro, the PMTs are optically isolated and require their own optical fiber calibration. For HAWC the laser light pulses will be directed through a series of optical fan-outs and fibers to illuminate the PMTs in approximately one half o...

  16. Calibration Under Uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2005-03-01

    This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

  17. TARGETLESS CAMERA CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barazzetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In photogrammetry a camera is considered calibrated if its interior orientation parameters are known. These encompass the principal distance, the principal point position and some Additional Parameters used to model possible systematic errors. The current state of the art for automated camera calibration relies on the use of coded targets to accurately determine the image correspondences. This paper presents a new methodology for the efficient and rigorous photogrammetric calibration of digital cameras which does not require any longer the use of targets. A set of images depicting a scene with a good texture are sufficient for the extraction of natural corresponding image points. These are automatically matched with feature-based approaches and robust estimation techniques. The successive photogrammetric bundle adjustment retrieves the unknown camera parameters and their theoretical accuracies. Examples, considerations and comparisons with real data and different case studies are illustrated to show the potentialities of the proposed methodology.

  18. Calibration Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2006-02-01

    The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

  19. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  20. International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.

  1. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  2. Iterative Magnetometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

  3. Calibration strategies for the LAD instrument on-board LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Pacciani, Luigi; Argan, Andrea; Barret, Didier; Bozzo, Enrico; Feroci, Marco; Fraser, George W; Herder, Jan-Willem den; Pohl, Martin; Schmid, Christian; Tenzer, Chris; Vacchi, Andrea; Walton, Dave; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zane, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The Scientific objectives of the LOFT mission, e.g., the study of the Neutron Star equation of state and of the Strong Gravity, require accurate energy, time and flux calibration for the 500k channels of the SDD detectors, as well as the knowledge of the detector dead-time and of the detector response with respect to the incident angle of the photons. We report here the evaluations made to asses the calibration issues for the LAD instrument. The strategies for both ground and on-board calibrations, including astrophysical observations, show that the goals are achievable within the current technologies.

  4. New in-situ, non-intrusive calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Heather; Adrian, Ronald; Ding, Liuyang; Prestridge, Kathy

    2014-11-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments require precise and accurate camera calibration. Standard techniques make assumptions about hard-to-measure camera parameters (i.e. optical axis angle, distortions, etc.)-reducing the calibration accuracy. Additionally, vibrations and slight movements after calibration may cause significant errors-particularly for tomographic PIV. These problems are exacerbated when a calibration target cannot be placed within the test section. A new PIV camera calibration method has been developed to permit precise calibration without placing a calibration target inside the test section or scanning the target over a volume. The method is capable of correcting for dynamic calibration changes occurring between PIV laser pulses. A transparent calibration plate with fine marks on both sides is positioned on the test section window. Dual-plane mapping makes it possible to determine a mapping function containing both position and angular direction of central rays from particles. From this information, central rays can be traced into the test section with high accuracy. Image distortion by the lens and refraction at various air-glass-liquid interfaces are accounted for, and no information about the position or angle of the camera(s) is required.

  5. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 42; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for the L4_C Beta-Release Data Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima (Editor); Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch Cal/Val Phase of SMAP there are two objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements according to the Cal/Val timeline. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product specifically for the beta release. The beta-release version of the SMAP L4_C algorithms utilizes a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily NEE and component carbon fluxes, particularly vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape FT controls on GPP and Reco (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying freeze/thaw and soil moisture constraints to these processes, 2) documenting primary connections between terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, and 3) improving understanding of terrestrial carbon sink activity in northern ecosystems.

  6. Calibration of line-scan cameras for precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Linghui; Yang, Shourui; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Calibration of line-scan cameras for precision measurement should have large calibration volume and be flexible in the actual measurement field. In this paper, we present a high-precision calibration method. Instead of using a large 3D pattern, we use a small planar pattern and a precalibrated matrix camera to obtain plenty of points with a suitable distribution, which would ensure the precision of the calibration results. The matrix camera removes the necessity of precise adjustment and movement and links the line-scan camera to the world easily, both of which enhance flexibility in the measurement field. The method has been verified by experiments. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method gives a practical solution to calibrate line scan cameras for precision measurement.

  7. Smart Calibration of Excavators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Marie; Døring, Kasper; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Excavators dig holes. But where is the bucket? The purpose of this report is to treat four different problems concerning calibrations of position indicators for excavators in operation at concrete construction sites. All four problems are related to the question of how to determine the precise ge...

  8. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    is suggested to cope with the singular design matrix most often seen in chemometric calibration. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm may be generalized to all convex norms like Sigma/beta (j)/(gamma) where gamma greater than or equal to 1, i.e. a method that continuously varies from ridge regression...

  9. Calibrating Communication Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surges Tatum, Donna

    2016-11-01

    The Many-faceted Rasch measurement model is used in the creation of a diagnostic instrument by which communication competencies can be calibrated, the severity of observers/raters can be determined, the ability of speakers measured, and comparisons made between various groups.

  10. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  11. CALIBRATION OF PHOSWICH DETECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEEGTE, HKW; KOLDENHOF, EE; BOONSTRA, AL; WILSCHUT, HW

    1992-01-01

    Two important aspects for the calibration of phoswich detector arrays have been investigated. It is shown that common gate ADCs can be used: The loss in particle identification due to fluctuations in the gate timing in multi-hit events can be corrected for by a simple procedure using the measured ti

  12. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report...

  13. Entropic calibration revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brody, Dorje C. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.brody@imperial.ac.uk; Buckley, Ian R.C. [Centre for Quantitative Finance, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Constantinou, Irene C. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Meister, Bernhard K. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-11

    The entropic calibration of the risk-neutral density function is effective in recovering the strike dependence of options, but encounters difficulties in determining the relevant greeks. By use of put-call reversal we apply the entropic method to the time reversed economy, which allows us to obtain the spot price dependence of options and the relevant greeks.

  14. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  15. Fine Tuning the CJ Detonation Speed of a High Explosive products Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-12

    For high explosive (HE) simulations, inaccuracies of a per cent or two in the detonation wave speed can result from not suficiently resolving the reaction zone width or from small inaccuracies in calibrating the products equation of state (EOS) or from variation of HE lots. More accurate detonation speeds can be obtained by ne tuning the equation of state to compensate. Here we show that two simple EOS transformations can be used to adjust the CJ detonation speed by a couple of per cent with minimal effect on the CJ release isentrope. The two transformations are (1) a shift in the energy origin and (2) a linear scaling of the speci c volume. The effectiveness of the transformations is demonstrated with simulations of the cylinder test for PBX 9502 starting with a products EOS for which the CJ detonation speed is 1 per cent too low.

  16. A Measuring System for Well Logging Attitude and a Method of Sensor Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°.

  17. A measuring system for well logging attitude and a method of sensor calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yangdong; Wang, Mijian; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Biao

    2014-05-23

    This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°.

  18. Marine X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis, and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is allimportant that the radar data is well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...... estimates. This paper presents some of the challenges in small marine X-band radar calibration by comparing three calibration procedures for assessing the relationship between radar and rain gauge data. Validation shows similar results for precipitation volumes but more diverse results on peak rain...

  19. Marine X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis, and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is allimportant that the radar data is well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...... estimates. This paper presents some of the challenges in small marine X-band radar calibration by comparing three calibration procedures for assessing the relationship between radar and rain gauge data. Validation shows similar results for precipitation volumes but more diverse results on peak rain...

  20. Equations for estimating timber volume in the region of the River Basin of Ituxi, Lábrea, Amazon, Brazil Equações para estimativa de volume de madeira para a região da bacia do Rio Ituxi, Lábrea, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Thaines

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    To quantify the stock of commercial timber in forests demands efficient methods, making possible to estimate efficiently and accurately the present and future timber volume. The aim of this work was to  adjust the mathematical models used to estimate timber volume, allowing the determination of the timber potential of a region with greater accuracy and lower cost. The study was conducted at Lábrea, State of  Amazonas, Brazil in an area of 6,000 ha, inserted in the Project Forest Management Seringal Iracema II. The forest is predominantly dense with emergent trees, also with the occurrence of open forest with bamboo and palms. For the process of adjusting the models to estimate the volume of commercial timber, 141 trees of commercial species were cubed by Smalian method. The equations developed for the Forest Management Project Seringal Iracema II are valid for diameters between 50 cm and 140 cm and for forests with similar structure; to standing trees due to its simplicity and accuracy, the best equation was Kopezki-Gehrardt (V = - 0.6870 + 0.00103 d²; for felling trees or for studies of biomass and carbon stock, the equation indicated is Schumacher-Hall (LnV = -9.5452 + 2.12837 Ln (d + 0.72209Ln (h.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.64.283

    A necessidade de quantificação do estoque de matéria-prima florestal, em floresta nativa, conduz para a busca de métodos eficientes de estimativa do volume de madeira, que possibilitem quantificar o estoque presente e futuro de maneira eficiente e precisa. O objetivo desse trabalho foi ajustar modelos matemáticos, para estimativa de volume comercial de madeira, permitindo a determinação do potencial madeireiro de uma região, com maior precisão e menor custo. O estudo foi realizado no Município de Lábrea, AM, em uma área de 6 mil ha, inserida no Projeto de Manejo Florestal Seringal Iracema II. A floresta é predominantemente densa com árvores emergentes, também com ocorrência de Foresta

  1. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    2007-01-01

    A field calibration method and results are described along with the experience gained with the method. The cup anemometers to be calibrated are mounted in a row on a 10-m high rig and calibrated in the free wind against a reference cup anemometer. The method has been reported [1] to improve...... the statistical bias on the data relative to calibrations carried out in a wind tunnel. The methodology is sufficiently accurate for calibration of cup anemometers used for wind resource assessments and provides a simple, reliable and cost-effective solution to cup anemometer calibration, especially suited...

  2. Mercury Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  3. Evaluation of several calibration procedures for a portable soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlandson, Tracy L.; Berg, Aaron A.; Bullock, Paul R.; Ojo, E. RoTimi; McNairn, Heather; Wiseman, Grant; Cosh, Michael H.

    2013-08-01

    The calibration and validation of remotely sensed soil moisture products relies upon an accurate source of ground truth data. The primary method of providing this ground truth is to conduct intensive field campaigns with manual surface soil moisture sampling measurements, which utilize gravimetric sampling, soil moisture probes, or both, to estimate the volumetric soil water content. Soil moisture probes eliminate the need for labor-intensive gravimetric sampling. To ensure the accuracy of these probes, several studies have determined these probes need various degrees of localized calibration. This study examines six possible calibration techniques using data collected during a field campaign conducted in 2012, with soil moisture samples being collected over 55 fields in southern Manitoba, as part of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12). The use of a general equation, applied to all collected data, resulted in the largest error regardless of whether a linear or third order polynomial relationship was established for the calibration of the soil moisture probes. Calibration equations based on soil texture or vegetation land cover reduced the error; however, the individual calibration equations established for each field in the study had the lowest error of all the calibration techniques. Although average bias was low for all of the calibration techniques, the use of the general equation to calibrate individual fields resulted in high biases for some fields.

  4. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Francesco Giacomo

    1957-01-01

    This classic text on integral equations by the late Professor F. G. Tricomi, of the Mathematics Faculty of the University of Turin, Italy, presents an authoritative, well-written treatment of the subject at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. To render the book accessible to as wide an audience as possible, the author has kept the mathematical knowledge required on the part of the reader to a minimum; a solid foundation in differential and integral calculus, together with some knowledge of the theory of functions is sufficient. The book is divided into four chapters, with two useful

  5. A New Perturbed Hard-Sphere Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new equation of state based on hard-sphere perturbed theory was developed. This equation combined the CS repulsive term and Guo-Du attractive term. Parameters of 38 substances were estimated, the pressure-volume-temperature properties were calculated and compared with two other equations. The results show that this equation is more accurate.

  6. Method of biodosimeter calibration for orbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladislav, Petrov

    coefficients is described in detail in the report. Eventually a calibration relation was obtained. It can be presented by the equation f = 3.98 D, where D is a dose in Gy. The calibration straight line crosses zero, because it was assumed that without exposure the chromosomal aberration frequency is equal to zero. It is necessary to note that for a parabolic form of the dose-effect relation for the monoenergetic protons we obtained a lineal calibration curve for the ISS orbit.

  7. Selected papers on analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal, Sugaku. The papers range over a variety of topics, including nonlinear partial differential equations, C^*-algebras, and Schrödinger operators.

  8. Stochastic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Pao-Liu

    2014-01-01

    Preliminaries Introduction Some Examples Brownian Motions and Martingales Stochastic Integrals Stochastic Differential Equations of Itô Type Lévy Processes and Stochastic IntegralsStochastic Differential Equations of Lévy Type Comments Scalar Equations of First Order Introduction Generalized Itô's Formula Linear Stochastic Equations Quasilinear Equations General Remarks Stochastic Parabolic Equations Introduction Preliminaries Solution of Stochastic Heat EquationLinear Equations with Additive Noise Some Regularity Properties Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Equations Parabolic Equations with Grad

  9. The Calibration Reference Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a software architecture and implementation for using rules to determine which calibration files are appropriate for calibrating a given observation. This new system, the Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS), replaces what had been previously used for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) calibration pipelines, the Calibration Database System (CDBS). CRDS will be used for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) calibration pipelines, and is currently being used for HST calibration pipelines. CRDS can be easily generalized for use in similar applications that need a rules-based system for selecting the appropriate item for a given dataset; we give some examples of such generalizations that will likely be used for JWST. The core functionality of the Calibration Reference Data System is available under an Open Source license. CRDS is briefly contrasted with a sampling of other similar systems used at other observatories.

  10. Lidar calibration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.; Streicher, J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of atmospheric aerosol diffusion experiments combined with lidar detection was conducted to evaluate and calibrate an existing retrieval algorithm for aerosol backscatter lidar systems. The calibration experiments made use of two (almost) identical mini-lidar systems for aerosol cloud...... detection to test the reproducibility and uncertainty of lidars. Lidar data were obtained from both single-ended and double-ended Lidar configurations. A backstop was introduced in one of the experiments and a new method was developed where information obtained from the backstop can be used in the inversion...... algorithm. Independent in-situ aerosol plume concentrations were obtained from a simultaneous tracer gas experiment with SF6, and comparisons with the two lidars were made. The study shows that the reproducibility of the lidars is within 15%, including measurements from both sides of a plume...

  11. HIRDLS monochromator calibration equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Barnett, John J.; Djotni, Karim; Whitney, John G.; Bracken, Justain N.; Wolfenden, Roger; Row, Frederick; Palmer, Christopher W. P.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Gray, Peter F.; Hammond, Geoffory

    2003-11-01

    A specially designed and built monochromator was developed for the spectral calibration of the HIRDLS instrument. The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) is a precision infra-red remote sensing instrument with very tight requirements on the knowledge of the response to received radiation. A high performance, vacuum compatible monochromator, was developed with a wavelength range from 4 to 20 microns to encompass that of the HIRDLS instrument. The monochromator is integrated into a collimating system which is shared with a set of tiny broad band sources used for independent spatial response measurements (reported elsewhere). This paper describes the design and implementation of the monochromator and the performance obtained during the period of calibration of the HIRDLS instrument at Oxford University in 2002.

  12. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  13. Calibration Facilities for NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, T.S.

    2000-06-15

    The calibration facilities will be dynamic and will change to meet the needs of experiments. Small sources, such as the Manson Source should be available to everyone at any time. Carrying out experiments at Omega is providing ample opportunity for practice in pre-shot preparation. Hopefully, the needs that are demonstrated in these experiments will assure the development of (or keep in service) facilities at each of the laboratories that will be essential for in-house preparation for experiments at NIF.

  14. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  15. Astrid-2 SSC ASUMagnetic Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    Report of the inter calibration between the starcamera and the fluxgate magnetometer onboard the ASTRID-2 satellite. This calibration was performed in the night between the 15. and 16. May 1997 at the Lovö magnetic observatory.......Report of the inter calibration between the starcamera and the fluxgate magnetometer onboard the ASTRID-2 satellite. This calibration was performed in the night between the 15. and 16. May 1997 at the Lovö magnetic observatory....

  16. Maxwell's equations and their consequences elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W 0

    2013-01-01

    Elementary Electromagnetic Theory Volume 3: Maxwell's Equations and their Consequences is the third of three volumes that intend to cover electromagnetism and its potential theory. The third volume considers the implications of Maxwell's equations, such as electromagnetic radiation in simple cases, and its relation between Maxwell's equation and the Lorenz transformation. Included in this volume are chapters 11-14, which contain an in-depth discussion of the following topics: Electromagnetic Waves The Lorentz Invariance of Maxwell's Equation Radiation Motion of Charged Particles Intended

  17. Calibration of Underwater Sound Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R.S. Sastry

    1983-07-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of calibration of underwater sound transducers for farfield, near-field and closed environment conditions are reviewed in this paper .The design of acoustic calibration tank is mentioned. The facilities available at Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, Cochin for calibration of transducers are also listed.

  18. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities; Metodos de calibracao e de intercomparacao de calibradores de dose utilizados em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-07-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  19. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

  20. Internet-based calibration of a multifunction calibrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-04-17

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  1. Quality of the neutron probe calibration curve; Qualidade da curva de calibracao da sonda de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libardi, Paulo Leonel; Moraes, Sergio Oliveira [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Fisica e Meteorologia. E-mail: pllibardi@mandi.esalq.usp.br; somoraes@mandi.esalq.usp.br

    1997-07-01

    An experiment of neutron probe calibration has been performed, involving various volume size samples and collected at various distances from the access tubes. The experiment aimed to give some answers to questions such as suitable sample physical volume, always use of the same volume and sample distance from the neutron probe access tube.

  2. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line... range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data... requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Proceed as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for...

  3. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line... range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within these limits shall be used to determine concentration. (d) The initial and periodic...

  4. A Rapid Calibration Technique for Scanning Line-Structured Laser Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel procedure to calibrate the scanning line-structured laser sensor is presented. A drone composed of two orthogonal planes is designed, with the result that camera parameters and light-plane equation parameters is achieved simultaneously.

  5. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  6. Self-Calibrating Pressure Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A self-calibrating pressure transducer is disclosed. The device uses an embedded zirconia membrane which pumps a determined quantity of oxygen into the device. The associated pressure can be determined, and thus, the transducer pressure readings can be calibrated. The zirconia membrane obtains oxygen .from the surrounding environment when possible. Otherwise, an oxygen reservoir or other source is utilized. In another embodiment, a reversible fuel cell assembly is used to pump oxygen and hydrogen into the system. Since a known amount of gas is pumped across the cell, the pressure produced can be determined, and thus, the device can be calibrated. An isolation valve system is used to allow the device to be calibrated in situ. Calibration is optionally automated so that calibration can be continuously monitored. The device is preferably a fully integrated MEMS device. Since the device can be calibrated without removing it from the process, reductions in costs and down time are realized.

  7. CALIBRATED HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezar Gülbaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantityand water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphicstructure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on theother hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total SuspendedSolid (TSS. Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas isobserved which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome thesediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and inwatersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID is a BestManagement Practice (BMP which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planningand engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff inorder to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includestechniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over imperviousurban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS isinvestigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlidere Watershedwhich is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamicmodel was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm WaterManagement Model (EPA SWMM. For model calibration and validation, we set up arain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. Andthen, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales andpermeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutantbuildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects ofLID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlidere Watershed.

  8. Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.

  9. ALTEA: The instrument calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaconte, V. [INFN and University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Physics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: livio.narici@roma2.infn.it; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; Di Fino, L.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A. [INFN and University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Physics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Sannita, W.G. [DISM, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Department of Psychiatry, SUNY, Stoony Brook, NY (United States); Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; Rantucci, E.; Scrimaglio, R.; Segreto, E. [Department of Physics, University and INFN, L' Aquila (Italy); Schardt, D. [GSI/Biophysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary project aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts' brain functions, as the anomalous perception of light flashes first reported during Apollo missions. The ALTEA space facility includes a 6-silicon telescopes particle detector, and is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006. In this paper, the detector calibration at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI Darmstadt will be presented and compared to the Geant 3 Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the results of a neural network analysis that was used for ion discrimination on fragmentation data will also be presented.

  10. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  11. A graphical method to evaluate spectral preprocessing in multivariate regression calibrations: example with Savitzky-Golay filters and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Reeves, James B

    2010-01-01

    In multivariate regression analysis of spectroscopy data, spectral preprocessing is often performed to reduce unwanted background information (offsets, sloped baselines) or accentuate absorption features in intrinsically overlapping bands. These procedures, also known as pretreatments, are commonly smoothing operations or derivatives. While such operations are often useful in reducing the number of latent variables of the actual decomposition and lowering residual error, they also run the risk of misleading the practitioner into accepting calibration equations that are poorly adapted to samples outside of the calibration. The current study developed a graphical method to examine this effect on partial least squares (PLS) regression calibrations of near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectra of ground wheat meal with two analytes, protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDS) volume (an indicator of the quantity of the gluten proteins that contribute to strong doughs). These two properties were chosen because of their differing abilities to be modeled by NIR spectroscopy: excellent for protein content, fair for SDS sedimentation volume. To further demonstrate the potential pitfalls of preprocessing, an artificial component, a randomly generated value, was included in PLS regression trials. Savitzky-Golay (digital filter) smoothing, first-derivative, and second-derivative preprocess functions (5 to 25 centrally symmetric convolution points, derived from quadratic polynomials) were applied to PLS calibrations of 1 to 15 factors. The results demonstrated the danger of an over reliance on preprocessing when (1) the number of samples used in a multivariate calibration is low (method has application to the evaluation of other preprocess functions and various types of spectroscopy data.

  12. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  13. Effects of switch leakages upon Nimbus-7 SMMR calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Seung T.

    1988-01-01

    A calibration model for the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) is studied. This model not only removes major drawbacks of the current calibration model but also helps in the understanding of the performance degradation of the aging instrument. The current Nimbus 7 SMMR calibration algorithm was derived without considering the interference effect between the two orthogonally polarized signals merging at a ferrite polarization selector switch. The resulting calibrated brightness temperatures, considered as a function of scan angle, are not symmetric around scan angle = 0. However, neither the origin of the asymmetry nor the manner in which the two orthogonal components are mixed has been fully understood. The new calibration model proposed incorporates all the leakage factors associated with the ferrite switches along the signal paths. The resulting calibration equations clarify how the orthogonal components of surface brightness are coupled at radiometers. As a consequence, the origin of the asymmetry is clearly identified and explained. In addition, the feasibility of absolute calibration using in-orbit data is discussed.

  14. Handbook of differential equations stationary partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chipot, Michel

    2006-01-01

    This handbook is volume III in a series devoted to stationary partial differential quations. Similarly as volumes I and II, it is a collection of self contained state-of-the-art surveys written by well known experts in the field. The topics covered by this handbook include singular and higher order equations, problems near critically, problems with anisotropic nonlinearities, dam problem, T-convergence and Schauder-type estimates. These surveys will be useful for both beginners and experts and speed up the progress of corresponding (rapidly developing and fascinating) areas of mathematics. Ke

  15. Calibration of Super-Kamiokande Using an Electron Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Y; Ichihara, E; Inoue, K; Ishihara, K; Ishino, H; Itow, Y; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kasuga, S; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Koshio, Y; Martens, K; Miura, M; Nakayama, S; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Halverson, P G; Hsu, J; Kropp, W R; Price, L R; Reines, F; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Flanagan, J W; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Stenger, V J; Takemori, D; Ishii, T; Kanzaki, J; Kobayashi, T; Mine, S; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakai, A; Sakuda, M; Sasaki, O; Echigo, S; Kohama, M; Suzuki, A T; Haines, T J; Blaufuss, E; Kim, B K; Sanford, R; Svoboda, R; Chen, M L; Conner, Z; Goodman, J A; Sullivan, G W; Hill, J; Jung, C K; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Viren, B; Yanagisawa, C; Doki, W; Miyano, K; Okazawa, H; Saji, C; Takahata, M; Nagashima, Y; Takita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Etoh, M; Fujita, K; Hasegawa, A; Hasegawa, T; Hatakeyama, S; Iwamoto, T; Koga, M; Maruyama, T; Ogawa, H; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Tsushima, F; Koshiba, M; Nemoto, M; Nishijima, K; Futagami, T; Hayato, Y; Kanaya, Y; Kaneyuki, K; Watanabe, Y; Kielczewska, D; Doyle, R A; George, J S; Stachyra, A L; Wai, L L; Wilkes, R J; Young, K K; Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    In order to calibrate the Super-Kamiokande experiment for solar neutrino measurements, a linear accelerator (LINAC) for electrons was installed at the detector. LINAC data were taken at various positions in the detector volume, tracking the detector response in the variables relevant to solar neutrino analysis. In particular, the absolute energy scale is now known with less than 1 percent uncertainty.

  16. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, R. A.; Islamy, M. R. F.; Munir, M. M.; Latief, H.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM.

  17. Effects of High Volume MOSFET Usage on Dosimetry in Pediatric CT, Pediatric Lens of the Eye Dose Reduction Using Siemens Care kV, & Designing Quality Assurance of a Cesium Calibration Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron Kenneth

    Project 1: Effects of High Volume MOSFET Usage on Dosimetry in Pediatric CT: Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine if using large numbers of Metal-Oxide-Semiconducting-Field-Effect Transistors, MOSFETs, effects the results of dosimetry studies done with pediatric phantoms due to the attenuation properties of the MOSFETs. The two primary focuses of the study were first to experimentally determine the degree to which high numbers of MOSFET detectors attenuate an X-ray beam of Computed Tomography (CT) quality and second, to experimentally verify the effect that the large number of MOSFETs have on dose in a pediatric phantom undergoing a routine CT examination. Materials and Methods: A Precision X-Ray X-Rad 320 set to 120kVp with an effective half value layer of 7.30mm aluminum was used in concert with a tissue equivalent block phantom and several used MOSFET cables to determine the attenuation properties of the MOSFET cables by measuring the dose (via a 0.18cc ion chamber) given to a point in the center of the phantom in a 0.5 min exposure with a variety of MOSFET arrangements. After the attenuating properties of the cables were known, a GE Discovery 750 CT scanner was employed using a routine chest CT protocol in concert with a 10-year-old Atom Dosimetry Phantom and MOSFET dosimeters in 5 different locations in and on the phantom (upper left lung (ULL), upper right lung (URL), lower left lung (LLL), lower right lung (LRL), and the center of the chest to represent skin dose). Twenty-eight used MOSFET cables were arranged and taped on the chest of the phantom to cover 30% of the circumference of the phantom (19.2 cm). Scans using tube current modulation and not using tube current modulation were taken at 30, 20, 10, and 0% circumference coverage and 28 MOSFETs bundled and laid to the side of the phantom. The dose to the various MOSFET locations in and on the chest were calculated and the image quality was accessed in several of these situations by

  18. Space environment's effect on MODIS calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, J. L.; Wenny, B. N.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, X.

    2010-09-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer flies on board the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua in a sun-synchronous orbit that crosses the equator at 10:30 AM and 2:30 PM, respectively, at a low earth orbit (LEO) altitude of 705 km. Terra was launched on December 18,1999 and Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002. As the MODIS instruments on board these satellites continue to operate beyond the design lifetime of six years, the cumulative effect of the space environment on MODIS and its calibration is of increasing importance. There are several aspects of the space environment that impact both the top of atmosphere (TOA) calibration and, therefore, the final science products of MODIS. The south Atlantic anomaly (SAA), spacecraft drag, extreme radiative and thermal environment, and the presence of orbital debris have the potential to significantly impact both MODIS and the spacecraft, either directly or indirectly, possibly resulting in data loss. Efforts from the Terra and Aqua Flight Operations Teams (FOT), the MODIS Instrument Operations Team (IOT), and the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) prevent or minimize external impact on the TOA calibrated data. This paper discusses specific effects of the space environment on MODIS and how they are minimized.

  19. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  20. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  1. Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pantoja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.

  2. Optical Tweezer Assembly and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An Optical Tweezer, as the name implies, is a useful tool for precision manipulation of micro and nano scale objects. Using the principle of electromagnetic radiation pressure, an optical tweezer employs a tightly focused laser beam to trap and position objects of various shapes and sizes. These devices can trap micrometer and nanometer sized objects. An exciting possibility for optical tweezers is its future potential to manipulate and assemble micro and nano sized sensors. A typical optical tweezer makes use of the following components: laser, mirrors, lenses, a high quality microscope, stage, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, TV monitor and Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). The laser wavelength employed is typically in the visible or infrared spectrum. The laser beam is directed via mirrors and lenses into the microscope. It is then tightly focused by a high magnification, high numerical aperture microscope objective into the sample slide, which is mounted on a translating stage. The sample slide contains a sealed, small volume of fluid that the objects are suspended in. The most common objects trapped by optical tweezers are dielectric spheres. When trapped, a sphere will literally snap into and center itself in the laser beam. The PSD s are mounted in such a way to receive the backscatter after the beam has passed through the trap. PSD s used with the Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) technique provide highly precise data. Most optical tweezers employ lasers with power levels ranging from 10 to 100 miliwatts. Typical forces exerted on trapped objects are in the pico-newton range. When PSDs are employed, object movement can be resolved on a nanometer scale in a time range of milliseconds. Such accuracy, however, can only by utilized by calibrating the optical tweezer. Fortunately, an optical tweezer can be modeled accurately as a simple spring. This allows Hook s Law to be used. My goal this summer at NASA Glenn Research Center is the assembly and

  3. Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

  4. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  5. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  6. Novel calibration algorithm for a three-axis strapdown magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan Xia; Li, Xi Sheng; Zhang, Xiao Juan; Feng, Yi Bo

    2014-05-14

    A complete error calibration model with 12 independent parameters is established by analyzing the three-axis magnetometer error mechanism. The said model conforms to an ellipsoid restriction, the parameters of the ellipsoid equation are estimated, and the ellipsoid coefficient matrix is derived. However, the calibration matrix cannot be determined completely, as there are fewer ellipsoid parameters than calibration model parameters. Mathematically, the calibration matrix derived from the ellipsoid coefficient matrix by a different matrix decomposition method is not unique, and there exists an unknown rotation matrix R between them. This paper puts forward a constant intersection angle method (angles between the geomagnetic field and gravitational field are fixed) to estimate R. The Tikhonov method is adopted to solve the problem that rounding errors or other errors may seriously affect the calculation results of R when the condition number of the matrix is very large. The geomagnetic field vector and heading error are further corrected by R. The constant intersection angle method is convenient and practical, as it is free from any additional calibration procedure or coordinate transformation. In addition, the simulation experiment indicates that the heading error declines from ±1° calibrated by classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.2° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method, and the signal-to-noise ratio is 50 dB. The actual experiment exhibits that the heading error is further corrected from ±0.8° calibrated by the classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.3° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method.

  7. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three, while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view.

  8. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  9. RX130 Robot Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugal, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

  10. SURF Model Calibration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.

  11. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  12. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G.; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    An outdoor calibration facility for cup anemometers, where the signals from 10 anemometers of which at least one is a reference can be can be recorded simultaneously, has been established. The results are discussed with special emphasis on the statisticalsignificance of the calibration expressions....... It is concluded that the method has the advantage that many anemometers can be calibrated accurately with a minimum of work and cost. The obvious disadvantage is that the calibration of a set of anemometersmay take more than one month in order to have wind speeds covering a sufficiently large magnitude range...

  13. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  14. A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-10

    This report documents the new PG calibration regression equation. These calibration equations incorporate new data that have become available since revision 1 of “A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis” was issued [3] The calibration equations are based on a weighted least squares (WLS) approach for the regression. The WLS method gives each data point its proper amount of influence over the parameter estimates. This gives two big advantages, more precise parameter estimates and better and more defensible estimates of uncertainties. The WLS approach makes sense both statistically and experimentally because the variances increase with concentration, and there are physical reasons that the higher measurements are less reliable and should be less influential. The new magnesium calibration includes a correction for sodium and separate calibration equation for items with and without chlorine. These additional calibration equations allow for better predictions and smaller uncertainties for sodium in materials with and without chlorine. Chlorine and sodium have separate equations for RICH materials. Again, these equations give better predictions and smaller uncertainties chlorine and sodium for RICH materials.

  15. Sonar equations for planetary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2016-08-01

    The set of formulations commonly known as "the sonar equations" have for many decades been used to quantify the performance of sonar systems in terms of their ability to detect and localize objects submerged in seawater. The efficacy of the sonar equations, with individual terms evaluated in decibels, is well established in Earth's oceans. The sonar equations have been used in the past for missions to other planets and moons in the solar system, for which they are shown to be less suitable. While it would be preferable to undertake high-fidelity acoustical calculations to support planning, execution, and interpretation of acoustic data from planetary probes, to avoid possible errors for planned missions to such extraterrestrial bodies in future, doing so requires awareness of the pitfalls pointed out in this paper. There is a need to reexamine the assumptions, practices, and calibrations that work well for Earth to ensure that the sonar equations can be accurately applied in combination with the decibel to extraterrestrial scenarios. Examples are given for icy oceans such as exist on Europa and Ganymede, Titan's hydrocarbon lakes, and for the gaseous atmospheres of (for example) Jupiter and Venus.

  16. Handbook of structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Rick H

    2012-01-01

    The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, inclu

  17. Revisiting Runoff Model Calibration: Airborne Snow Observatory Results Allow Improved Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Deterministic snow accumulation and ablation simulation models are widely used by runoff managers throughout the world to predict runoff quantities and timing. Model fitting is typically based on matching modeled runoff volumes and timing with observed flow time series at a few points in the basin. In recent decades, sparse networks of point measurements of the mountain snowpacks have been available to compare with modeled snowpack, but the comparability of results from a snow sensor or course to model polygons of 5 to 50 sq. km is suspect. However, snowpack extent, depth, and derived snow water equivalent have been produced by the NASA/JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) mission for spring of 20013 and 2014 in the Tuolumne River basin above Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. These high-resolution snowpack data have exposed the weakness in a model calibration based on runoff alone. The U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) calibration that was based on 30-years of inflow to Hetch Hetchy produces reasonable inflow results, but modeled spatial snowpack location and water quantity diverged significantly from the weekly measurements made by ASO during the two ablation seasons. The reason is that the PRMS model has many flow paths, storages, and water transfer equations, and a calibrated outflow time series can be right for many wrong reasons. The addition of a detailed knowledge of snow extent and water content constrains the model so that it is a better representation of the actual watershed hydrology. The mechanics of recalibrating PRMS to the ASO measurements will be described, and comparisons in observed versus modeled flow for both a small subbasin and the entire Hetch Hetchy basin will be shown. The recalibrated model provided a bitter fit to the snowmelt recession, a key factor for water managers as they balance declining inflows with demand for power generation and ecosystem releases during the final months of snow melt runoff.

  18. Hypersingular integral equations and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lifanov, IK; Vainikko, MGM

    2003-01-01

    A number of new methods for solving singular and hypersingular integral equations have emerged in recent years. This volume presents some of these new methods along with classical exact, approximate, and numerical methods. The authors explore the analysis of hypersingular integral equations based on the theory of pseudodifferential operators and consider one-, two- and multi-dimensional integral equations. The text also presents the discrete closed vortex frame method and some other numerical methods for solving hypersingular integral equations. The treatment includes applications to problems in areas such as aerodynamics, elasticity, diffraction, and heat and mass transfer.

  19. Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhlin, Solomon Grigorievich; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations presents the results of the theory of multidimensional singular integrals and of equations containing such integrals. Emphasis is on singular integrals taken over Euclidean space or in the closed manifold of Liapounov and equations containing such integrals. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of some theorems on linear equations in Banach spaces, followed by a discussion on the simplest properties of multidimensional singular integrals. Subsequent chapters deal with compounding of singular integrals

  20. Statistical Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Mathieu; Sorensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The seventh volume in the SemStat series, Statistical Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations presents current research trends and recent developments in statistical methods for stochastic differential equations. Written to be accessible to both new students and seasoned researchers, each self-contained chapter starts with introductions to the topic at hand and builds gradually towards discussing recent research. The book covers Wiener-driven equations as well as stochastic differential equations with jumps, including continuous-time ARMA processes and COGARCH processes. It presents a sp

  1. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ben-yu

    1987-01-01

    These Proceedings of the first Chinese Conference on Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations covers topics such as difference methods, finite element methods, spectral methods, splitting methods, parallel algorithm etc., their theoretical foundation and applications to engineering. Numerical methods both for boundary value problems of elliptic equations and for initial-boundary value problems of evolution equations, such as hyperbolic systems and parabolic equations, are involved. The 16 papers of this volume present recent or new unpublished results and provide a good overview of current research being done in this field in China.

  2. Evaluation of piecewise polynomial equations for two types of thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Chen, Chiachung

    2013-12-12

    Thermocouples are the most frequently used sensors for temperature measurement because of their wide applicability, long-term stability and high reliability. However, one of the major utilization problems is the linearization of the transfer relation between temperature and output voltage of thermocouples. The linear calibration equation and its modules could be improved by using regression analysis to help solve this problem. In this study, two types of thermocouple and five temperature ranges were selected to evaluate the fitting agreement of different-order polynomial equations. Two quantitative criteria, the average of the absolute error values |e|(ave) and the standard deviation of calibration equation e(std), were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of these calibrations equations. The optimal order of polynomial equations differed with the temperature range. The accuracy and precision of the calibration equation could be improved significantly with an adequate higher degree polynomial equation. The technique could be applied with hardware modules to serve as an intelligent sensor for temperature measurement.

  3. Evaluation of Piecewise Polynomial Equations for Two Types of Thermocouples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermocouples are the most frequently used sensors for temperature measurement because of their wide applicability, long-term stability and high reliability. However, one of the major utilization problems is the linearization of the transfer relation between temperature and output voltage of thermocouples. The linear calibration equation and its modules could be improved by using regression analysis to help solve this problem. In this study, two types of thermocouple and five temperature ranges were selected to evaluate the fitting agreement of different-order polynomial equations. Two quantitative criteria, the average of the absolute error values |e|ave and the standard deviation of calibration equation estd, were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of these calibrations equations. The optimal order of polynomial equations differed with the temperature range. The accuracy and precision of the calibration equation could be improved significantly with an adequate higher degree polynomial equation. The technique could be applied with hardware modules to serve as an intelligent sensor for temperature measurement.

  4. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Guangyi

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H, diameter at breast height (DBH, and aboveground height (h to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.

  5. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Hao, Xu; de-Miguel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), and aboveground height (h) to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.

  6. A least squares procedure for calculating the calibration constants of a portable gamma-ray spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F B; Carlos, D U; Hiodo, F Y; Strobino, E F

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a least squares procedure for calculating the calibration constants of a portable gamma-ray spectrometer using the general inverse matrix method is presented. The procedure weights the model equations fitting to the calibration data, taking into account the variances in the counting rates and in the radioactive standard concentrations. The application of the described procedure is illustrated by calibrating twice the same gamma-ray spectrometer, with two independent data sets collected approximately 18 months apart in the same calibration facility.

  7. Spatial distributions and transient effects in molecular fluxes for the calibration of thermal desorption spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert Howard

    The measurement of molecular fluxes with a differentially pumped mass spectrometer requires a method by which the mass spectrometer signal can be calibrated against a known molecular flux. This work presents a methodology for producing known molecular fluxes using a flow calibrated effusion source in conjunction with a glass capillary array molecular doser. The effusion source is comprised of a calibrated volume, a spinning rotor pressure gauge, and a positive shutoff capillary leak valve. The efficiency of calculating the spatial flux distribution from the doser was improved by reparameterization of the formalism of Winkler and Yates. This formalism was extended to arbitrarily shaped planar targets using Fourier convolution techniques. The flux distribution from the doser was measured close to the array at 0.635mm and at 1 cm distance. Using the effective diameter of the array as the only fitting parameter for the close data, the model correctly predicts the flux distribution at 1 cm. The loss of molecular flow due to sticking in the doser affects the calibration and, therefore was estimated from the transient response through the doser using a 1-dimensional diffusion model of the transient flow from the capillary valve through the doser. Three cases are considered: a long narrow tube without sticking, with sticking, and with a restricted exit. In each case, the partial differential equation for 1-D diffusion was solved for a step change in the inlet flow with a well-pumped exit. The transient exit flow measured for argon gas fits the non-sticking model accurately. The oxygen response included a non-sticking transient, consistent with the mass adjusted argon transient, and a slowly saturating exponential function. This slow function is not consistent with sticking in the doser tube but may be due to changes in the mass spectrometer multiplier or some other adsorption loss. Finally, the above methodology was used to calibrate the mass spectrometer for oxygen and

  8. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  9. Direct Numerical Simulation of Reionization in Large Cosmological Volumes I: Numerical Methods and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Michael L; So, Geoffrey C; Harkness, Robsert P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an extension of the {\\em Enzo} code to enable the direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneous reionization in large cosmological volumes. By direct we mean all dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties are solved self-consistently on the same mesh, as opposed to a postprocessing approach which coarse-grains the radiative transfer. We do, however, employ a simple subgrid model for star formation, which we calibrate to observations. The numerical method presented is a modification of an earlier method presented in Reynolds et al. Radiation transport is done in the grey flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is solved by implicit time integration split off from the gas energy and ionization equations, which are solved separately. This results in a faster and more robust scheme for cosmological applications compared to the earlier method. The FLD equation is solved using the {\\em hypre} optimally scalable geometric multigrid solver from LLNL. By treating the ionizing radiation as a gri...

  10. Impact of data quality and quantity and the calibration procedure on crop growth model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Sabine J.; Werisch, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Crop growth models are a commonly used tool for impact assessment of climate variability and climate change on crop yields and water use. Process-based crop models rely on algorithms that approximate the main physiological plant processes by a set of equations containing several calibration parameters as well as basic underlying assumptions. It is well recognized that model calibration is essential to improve the accuracy and reliability of model predictions. However, model calibration and validation is often hindered by a limited quantity and quality of available data. Recent studies suggest that crop model parameters can only be derived from field experiments in which plant growth and development processes have been measured. To be able to achieve a reliable prediction of crop growth under irrigation or drought stress, the correct characterization of the whole soil-plant-atmosphere system is essential. In this context is the accurate simulation of crop development, yield and the soil water dynamics plays an important role. In this study we aim to investigate the importance of a site and cultivar-specific model calibration based on experimental data using the SVAT model Daisy. We investigate to which extent different data sets and different parameter estimation procedures affect particularly yield estimates, irrigation water demand and the soil water dynamics. The comprehensive experimental data has been derived from an experiment conducted in Germany where five irrigation regimes were imposed on cabbage. Data collection included continuous measurements of soil tension and soil water content in two plots at three depths, weekly measurements of LAI, plant heights, leaf-N-content, stomatal conductivity, biomass partitioning, rooting depth as well as harvested yields and duration of growing period. Three crop growth calibration strategies were compared: (1) manual calibration based on yield and duration of growing period, (2) manual calibration based on yield

  11. Two Methods for Self Calibration of Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, A.; Moe, D.; Christopherson, J.

    2012-07-01

    Photogrammetric mapping using Commercial of the Shelf (COTS) cameras is becoming more popular. Their popularity is augmented by the increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as a platform for mapping. The mapping precision of these methods can be increased by using a calibrated camera. The USGS/EROS has developed an inexpensive, easy to use method, particularly for calibrating short focal length cameras. The method builds on a self-calibration procedure developed for the USGS EROS Data Center by Pictometry (and augmented by Dr. C.S Fraser), that uses a series of coded targets. These coded targets form different patterns that are imaged from nine different locations with differing camera orientations. A free network solution using collinearity equations is used to determine the calibration parameters. For the smaller focal length COTS cameras, the USGS has developed a procedure that uses a small prototype box that contains these coded targets. The design of the box is discussed, along with best practices for calibration procedure. Results of calibration parameters obtained using the box are compared with the parameters obtained using more established standard procedures.

  12. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  13. Photometric Calibration of the Supernova Legacy Survey Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Regnault, N; Guy, J; Sullivan, M; Cuillandre, J -C; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J

    2009-01-01

    We present the photometric calibration of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) fields. The SNLS aims at measuring the distances to SNe Ia at (0.3calibration of the survey dominates the systematic uncertainty of the key measurement of the survey, namely the dark energy equation of state. The photometric calibration of the SNLS requires obtaining a uniform response across the imager, calibrating the science field stars in each survey band (SDSS-like ugriz bands) with respect to standards with known flux in the same bands, and binding the calibration to the UBVRI Landolt standards used to calibrate the nearby SNe from the literature necessary to produce cosmological constraints. The spatial non-uniformities of the imager photometric response are mapped using dithered observations of dense stellar fields. Photometric zero-points against Landolt standards are obtained. The linearity o...

  14. Tectonic calibrations in molecular dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ullasa KODANDARAMAIAH

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dating techniques require the use of calibrations, which are usually fossil or geological vicariance-based.Fossil calibrations have been criticised because they result only in minimum age estimates. Based on a historical biogeographic perspective, Ⅰ suggest that vicariance-based calibrations are more dangerous. Almost all analytical methods in historical biogeography are strongly biased towards inferring vicariance, hence vicariance identified through such methods is unreliable. Other studies, especially of groups found on Gondwanan fragments, have simply assumed vicariance. Although it was previously believed that vicariance was the predominant mode of speciation, mounting evidence now indicates that speciation by dispersal is common, dominating vicariance in several groups. Moreover, the possibility of speciation having occurred before the said geological event cannot be precluded. Thus, geological calibrations can under- or overestimate times, whereas fossil calibrations always result in minimum estimates. Another major drawback of vicariant calibrations is the problem of circular reasoning when the resulting estimates are used to infer ages of biogeographic events. Ⅰ argue that fossil-based dating is a superior alternative to vicariance, primarily because the strongest assumption in the latter, that speciation was caused by the said geological process, is more often than not the most tenuous. When authors prefer to use a combination of fossil and vicariant calibrations, one suggestion is to report results both with and without inclusion of the geological constraints. Relying solely on vicariant calibrations should be strictly avoided.

  15. UVIS G280 Wavelength Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Wavelength calibration of the UVIS G280 grism will be established using observations of the Wolf Rayet star WR14. Accompanying direct exposures will provide wavelength zeropoints for dispersed exposures. The calibrations will be obtained at the central position of each CCD chip and at the center of the UVIS field. No additional field-dependent variations will be obtained.

  16. Calibrating a large slab vessel: A battle of the bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, I.R. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Safeguards and Security Section

    1993-12-31

    The accurate measurement of volume in slab vessels can be difficult because slab vessels expand--in spite of internal or external supports--as they are filled. One form of bulging is elastic deflection, a gradual expansion of the vessel wall resulting from an increased weight of contained solution. As part of an upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, slab tanks were proposed as accountability measurement vessels. A 1960 liter slab tank prototype was set up for preliminary calibrations. Two series of calibrations were conducted: the first using water, and the second using aluminum nitrate. It was conjectured that the increased weight of aluminum nitrate would cause the vessel walls to deflect more than they did for an equal level of water, resulting in a greater volume. As expected, a significant expansion was observed with the aluminum nitrate, but some of the deflection proved to be permanent rather than elastic. The consequence is that considerably more effort will be required to calibrate slab vessels for uranium accountability. Not only must a calibration curve (or family of curves) be developed giving volume as a function of both liquid level and density, but, if possible, a determination must be made as to when the deflection is no longer temporary.

  17. Nitric Oxide Measurement Study. Volume I. Optical Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-18

    Computation of Doppler Absorption Coefficient The line center absorption coefficient for a Doppler broadened line (ks) is given by Mitchell and Zemansky ...broaden- ing. The theories of pressure broadening are discussed in some detail by Breene (1957), Hindmarsh and Farr (1972), and Mitchell and Zemansky ...collisions, AvL, is given by Mitchell and Zemansky (1971), ZL AvL = (38’ TrC irc where ZL is the collision frequency of a single molecule, c is the velocity

  18. Nitric Oxide Measurement Study: Volume I. Optical Calibration,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Doppler broadened line (k""i) is given by Mitchell and Zemansky (1971), 2 k 2 e Z In 2 _N(n"y" 7 ",1" n") f V’V" j’J" (25)1 Me C(A aV )a1 where e is the...broaden- ing. The theories of pressure broadening are discussed in some detail by Breene (1957), Hindmarsh and Farr (1972), and Mitchell and Zemansky ...collisions, AVL, is given by Mitchell and Zemansky (1971), AvL = L (38) Trc where ZL is the collision frequency of a single molecule, c is the velocity

  19. Precision Measurement and Calibration. Volume 1. Statistical Concepts and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-02-01

    Sons, New York. N.Y.). Shewhart, Walter A. (19t39), Statistical Method frin the Galilei , Galileo (1638), Discorsi e Dirnostrazioni Matema- Viewpoint... Galilei . Galileo (1898). Discorsi e Dimostraziorii Matemnaticlie Shiewhart, Walter A. (1941), (Contribiution of statistics to Initorno a Dine Ninove Scienze...Le Opere i Galileo Galilei the science of engineering, University of Pennsylvania Bi- (Edizione Nazionale) Vill, pp 39-448, Firenze. centennial

  20. Whole-Body Vibration Sensor Calibration Using a Six-Degree of Freedom Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cation

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV is associated with a wide variety of health disorders and as a result WBV levels are frequently assessed. Literature outlining WBV accelerations rarely address the calibration techniques and procedures used for WBV sensors to any depth, nor are any detailed information provided regarding such procedures or sensor calibration ranges. The purpose of this paper is to describe a calibration method for a 6 DOF transducer using a hexapod robot. Also described is a separate motion capture technique used to verify the calibration for acceleration values obtained which were outside the robot calibration range in order to include an acceptable calibration range for WBV environments. The sensor calibrated in this study used linear (Y=mX calibration equations resulting in r2 values greater than 0.97 for maximum and minimum acceleration amplitudes of up to ±8 m/s2 and maximum and minimum velocity amplitudes up to ±100°/s. The motion capture technique verified that the translational calibrations held for accelerations up to ±4 g. Thus, the calibration procedures were shown to calibrate the sensor through the expected range for 6-DOF WBV field measurements for off-road vehicles even when subjected to shocks as a result of high speed travel over rough terrain.

  1. Cobalt source calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvi, H.M.

    1999-12-03

    The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building 774-A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C-067 of Building 773-A. The data from this experiment shows the following: (1) The dose rate of the No.2 cobalt source in Building 774-A measured 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 17, 1999). The dose rate of the Shepherd Model 109 Gamma cobalt source in Building 773-A measured 9.27 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 25, 1999). These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. (2) Two calibration tests in the 774-A source placed the graduated cylinder with the dosimeter solution approximately 1.5 inches off center in the axial direction. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0.92% from 1.083 x 10{sup 5} rad/h to 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h. and (3) A similar test in the cobalt source in 773-A placed the graduated cylinder approximately 2.0 inches off center in the axial direction. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by 10.34% from 1.036 x 10{sup 6} to 9.27 x 10{sup 5}. This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source. In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke (ferrous ammonium sulfate) dosimeter. This solution works well for dose rates to 10{sup 7} rad/h. During irradiation of the Fricke dosimeter solution the Fe{sup 2+} ions ionize to Fe{sup 3+}. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint (not visible to the human eye). To determine the magnitude of the change in Fe ions, one places the solution in an UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. The UV-VIS Spectrophotometer measures the absorbency of the solution. Dividing the absorbency by the total time (in minutes) of exposure yields the dose rate.

  2. Automated calibration of multistatic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderer, Bruce

    2017-03-14

    A method is disclosed for calibrating a multistatic array having a plurality of transmitter and receiver pairs spaced from one another along a predetermined path and relative to a plurality of bin locations, and further being spaced at a fixed distance from a stationary calibration implement. A clock reference pulse may be generated, and each of the transmitters and receivers of each said transmitter/receiver pair turned on at a monotonically increasing time delay interval relative to the clock reference pulse. Ones of the transmitters and receivers may be used such that a previously calibrated transmitter or receiver of a given one of the transmitter/receiver pairs is paired with a subsequently un-calibrated one of the transmitters or receivers of an immediately subsequently positioned transmitter/receiver pair, to calibrate the transmitter or receiver of the immediately subsequent transmitter/receiver pair.

  3. Liquid Krypton Calorimeter Calibration Software

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christina Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of the liquid krypton calorimeter (LKr) of the NA62 experiment is managed by a set of standalone programs, or an online calibration driver. These programs are similar to those used by NA48, but have been updated to utilize classes and translated to C++ while maintaining a common functionality. A set of classes developed to handle communication with hardware was used to develop the three standalone programs as well as the main driver program for online calibration between bursts. The main calibration driver has been designed to respond to run control commands and receive burst data, both transmitted via DIM. In order to facilitate the process of reading in calibration parameters, a serializable class has been introduced, allowing the replacement of standard text files with XML configuration files.

  4. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  5. The Advanced LIGO Photon Calibrators

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, S; Kandhasamy, S; Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Anders, E H; Berliner, J; Betzwieser, J; Daveloza, H P; Cahillane, C; Canete, L; Conley, C; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Kissel, J S; Izumi, K; Mendell, G; Quetschke, V; Rodruck, M; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Schwinberg, P B; Sottile, A; Wade, M; Weinstein, A J; West, M; Savage, R L

    2016-01-01

    The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitaional-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events, and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as Photon Calibrators. These systems, which were completely redesigned for Advanced LIGO, include several significant upgrades that enable them to meet the calibration requirements of second-generation gravitational wave detectors in the new era of gravitational-wave astronomy. We report on the design, implementation, and operation of these Advanced LIGO Photon Calibrators that are currently providing fiducial displacements on the order of $10^{-18}$ m/$\\sqrt{\\textrm{Hz}}$ with accuracy and precision of better ...

  6. The Advanced LIGO photon calibrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Kandhasamy, S.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, T. D.; Anders, E. H.; Berliner, J.; Betzwieser, J.; Cahillane, C.; Canete, L.; Conley, C.; Daveloza, H. P.; De Lillo, N.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Izumi, K.; Kissel, J. S.; Mendell, G.; Quetschke, V.; Rodruck, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Schwinberg, P. B.; Sottile, A.; Wade, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; West, M.; Savage, R. L.

    2016-11-01

    The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as photon calibrators. These systems, which were completely redesigned for Advanced LIGO, include several significant upgrades that enable them to meet the calibration requirements of second-generation gravitational wave detectors in the new era of gravitational-wave astronomy. We report on the design, implementation, and operation of these Advanced LIGO photon calibrators that are currently providing fiducial displacements on the order of 1 0-18m /√{Hz } with accuracy and precision of better than 1%.

  7. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  8. Sub-daily runoff predictions using parameters calibrated on the basis of data with a daily temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. E.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C. Y.; Seibert, J.; Kauffeldt, A.

    2017-07-01

    Concentration times in small and medium-sized basins (∼10-1000 km2) are commonly less than 24 h. Flood-forecasting models are thus required to provide simulations at high temporal resolutions (1 h-6 h), although time-series of input and runoff data with sufficient lengths are often only available at the daily temporal resolution, especially in developing countries. This has led to study the relationships of estimated parameter values at the temporal resolutions where they are needed from the temporal resolutions where they are available. This study presents a methodology to treat empirically model-parameter dependencies on the temporal resolution of data in two small basins using a bucket-type hydrological model, HBV-light, and the generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation approach for selecting its parameters. To avoid artefacts due to the numerical resolution or numerical method of the differential equations within the model, the model was consistently run using modelling time-steps of one-hour regardless of the temporal resolution of the rainfall-runoff data. The distribution of the parameters calibrated at several temporal resolutions in the two basins did not show model-parameter dependencies on the temporal resolution of data and the direct transferability of calibrated parameter sets (e.g., daily) for runoff simulations at other temporal resolutions for which they were not calibrated (e.g., 3 h or 6 h) resulted in a moderate (if any) decrease in model performance, in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe and volume-error efficiencies. The results of this study indicate that if sub-daily forcing data can be secured, flood forecasting in basins with sub-daily concentration times may be possible with model-parameter values calibrated from long time series of daily data. Further studies using more models and basins are required to test the generality of these results.

  9. A calibrated Franklin chimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonta, Igor; Williams, Earle

    1994-05-01

    Benjamin Franklin devised a simple yet intriguing device to measure electrification in the atmosphere during conditions of foul weather. He constructed a system of bells, one of which was attached to a conductor that was suspended vertically above his house. The device is illustrated in a well-known painting of Franklin (Cohen, 1985). The elevated conductor acquired a potential due to the electric field in the atmosphere and caused a brass ball to oscillate between two bells. The purpose of this study is to extend Franklin's idea by constructing a set of 'chimes' which will operate both in fair and in foul weather conditions. In addition, a mathematical relationship will be established between the frequency of oscillation of a metallic sphere in a simplified geometry and the potential on one plate due to the electrification of the atmosphere. Thus it will be possible to calibrate the 'Franklin Chimes' and to obtain a nearly instantaneous measurement of the potential of the elevated conductor in both fair and foul weather conditions.

  10. Challenges in X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is all-important that the radar data well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...... estimates. This paper compares two calibration procedures for a small marine X-band radar by comparing radar data with rain gauge data. Validation shows a very good consensus with regards to precipitation volumes, but more diverse results on peak rain intensities....

  11. New methods applicable for calibration of indicator electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowski, Tadeusz; Pilarski, Bogusław; Ponikvar-Svet, Maja; Asuero, Agustin G; Kukwa, Agata; Młodzianowski, Janusz

    2011-02-15

    The new methods applicable for calibration of indicator electrodes, based on standard addition and standard subtraction methods, are suggested. Some of the methods enable the slope of an indicator electrode and equivalence volume V(eq) to be determined simultaneously from a single set of potentiometric titration data. Some other methods known hitherto were also taken into account. A new model, based on a standard addition method, applicable also in nonlinear range for the ISE slope (S) is suggested, and its applicability was confirmed experimentally in calibration of calcium ISE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  13. Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, John C

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations has seen many new developments. This second edition of the author''s pioneering text is fully revised and updated to acknowledge many of these developments.  It includes a complete treatment of linear multistep methods whilst maintaining its unique and comprehensive emphasis on Runge-Kutta methods and general linear methods. Although the specialist topics are taken to an advanced level, the entry point to the volume as a whole is not especially demanding.  Early chapters provide a wide-ranging introduction to differential equations and difference equations together with a survey of numerical differential equation methods, based on the fundamental Euler method with more sophisticated methods presented as generalizations of Euler. Features of the book includeIntroductory work on differential and difference equations.A comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of solving ordinary differential equations numeri...

  14. Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

    2012-08-15

    Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

  15. Mexican national pyronometer network calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAldes, M.; Villarreal, L.; Estevez, H.; Riveros, D.

    2013-12-01

    In order to take advantage of the solar radiation as an alternate energy source it is necessary to evaluate the spatial and temporal availability. The Mexican National Meterological Service (SMN) has a network with 136 meteorological stations, each coupled with a pyronometer for measuring the global solar radiation. Some of these stations had not been calibrated in several years. The Mexican Department of Energy (SENER) in order to count on a reliable evaluation of the solar resource funded this project to calibrate the SMN pyrometer network and validate the data. The calibration of the 136 pyronometers by the intercomparison method recommended by the World Meterological Organization (WMO) requires lengthy observations and specific environmental conditions such as clear skies and a stable atmosphere, circumstances that determine the site and season of the calibration. The Solar Radiation Section of the Instituto de Geofísica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is a Regional Center of the WMO and is certified to carry out the calibration procedures and emit certificates. We are responsible for the recalibration of the pyronometer network of the SMN. A continuous emission solar simulator with exposed areas with 30cm diameters was acquired to reduce the calibration time and not depend on atmospheric conditions. We present the results of the calibration of 10 thermopile pyronometers and one photovoltaic cell by the intercomparison method with more than 10000 observations each and those obtained with the solar simulator.

  16. Flexible Calibration Method for 3D Laser Scanner System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中东; 王鹏; 李晓慧; 孙长库

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible high-precision calibration method suitable for industrial field was proposed. The complexity of the coordinate transformation was simplified by choosing the camera coordinate system as the unified reference coordinate system. A flexible planar calibration pattern was introduced to the calibration process, which can be arbitrarily placed and from which the known feature points can be extracted to construct other unknown feature points. With the known intrinsic parameters, the laser projector plane equation was fitted by the multi-noncollinear points, which were acquired through the principle of triangulation and the projective invariance of cross ratio. With this method, the strict alignment and multiple times of coordinate transformation can be avoided. Experimental results showed that the arithmetic mean of the root mean square (RMS) error of distance was 0.000 7 mm.

  17. Equações Hipsométricas e Volumétricas para Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima / Hypsometric And Volumetric Equations for Acacia mangium Willd In Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A Acacia mangium é a espécie florestal mais plantada no Estado de Roraima, sendo necessários estudos que visem ao desenvolvimento de sistemas silviculturais adaptados às condições locais. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de selecionar equações de relação hipsométrica e de volume para A. mangium em área de savana no estado de Roraima. Foram utilizadas 701 árvores amostras localizadas em três fazendas e duas regiões. Foram testadas 8 equações hipsométricas e 5 volumétricas. Nas condições estudadas, a equação hipsométrica selecionada apresentou um R2aj = 0,62 e a equação logaritmizada de Spurr se mostrou a mais adequada para estimar a o volume total (R2aj =0,98 e comercial com casca (R2aj =0,58.

  18. Calibrating System for Vacuum Gauges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengJun; YangXiaotian; HaoBinggan; HouShengjun; HuZhenjun

    2003-01-01

    In order to measure the vacuum degree, a lot of vacuum gauges will be used in CSR vacuum system. We bought several types of vacuum gauges. We know that different typos of vacuum gauges or even one type of vacuum gauges have different measure results in same condition, so they must be calibrated. But it seems impossible for us to send so many gauges to the calibrating station outside because of the high price. So the best choice is to build a second class calibrating station for vacuum gauges by ourselves (Fig.l).

  19. Jet energy calibration in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schouten, Doug

    A correct energy calibration for jets is essential to the success of the ATLAS experi- ment. In this thesis I study a method for deriving an in situ jet energy calibration for the ATLAS detector. In particular, I show the applicability of the missing transverse energy projection fraction method. This method is shown to set the correct mean energy for jets. Pileup effects due to the high luminosities at ATLAS are also stud- ied. I study the correlations in lateral distributions of pileup energy, as well as the luminosity dependence of the in situ calibration metho

  20. Sigma-model soliton intersections from exceptional calibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Portugues, R

    2002-01-01

    A first-order `BPS' equation is obtained for 1/8 supersymmetric intersections of soliton-membranes (lumps) of supersymmetric (4+1)-dimensional massless sigma models, and a special non-singular solution is found that preserves 1/4 supersymmetry. For 4-dimensional hyper-K\\"ahler target spaces ($HK_4$) the BPS equation is shown to be the low-energy limit of the equation for a Cayley-calibrated 4-surface in $\\bE^4\\times HK_4$. Similar first-order equations are found for stationary intersections of Q-lump-membranes of the massive sigma model, but now generic solutions preserve either 1/8 supersymmetry or no supersymmetry, depending on the time orientation.

  1. Importância das variáveis altura dominante e altura total em equaçõea hipsométricas e volumétricas Importance of the variables dominant height and total height in hipsometric and volumetric equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Garcia Leite

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido, visando avaliar as seguintes hipóteses: a equações hipsométricas devem ser obtidas por parcela, apenas em função do dap; e b equações volumétricas devem ser locais, em função apenas do dap. Foram utilizados dados de quatro parcelas distribuídas ao acaso em um povoamento de eucalipto de 67,81 ha e de 50 parcelas distribuídas ao acaso em um povoamento de 121,3 ha, da mesma espécie. Em uma análise inicial, a fim de obter valores reais de altura total e de volume sólido, realizou-se uma cubagem rigorosa de todas as árvores das quatro parcelas. Foram utilizados, ainda, dados de 277 árvores cubadas rigorosamente nos povoamentos. Para avaliar a exatidão das estimativas e as hipóteses formuladas, empregou-se o procedimento estatístico proposto por Leite & Oliveira (2002. Com base nos resultados, as hipóteses a e b foram rejeitadas a 1% de probabilidade. Concluiu-se, portanto, que em um inventário florestal a variável Hd deve ser considerada e que as equações volumétricas devem ser regionais.This study was carried out to evaluate the following hypotheses: a hipsometric equations should be obtained by plot, only in function of the dbh and b volumetric equations should be local only in function of the dbh. Data of 4 and 50 plots were randomly distributed in a 67.81 ha and 121.3 ha eucalypt stand, respectively. A rigorous scaling of all the trees in the 4 plots was initially carried out to obtain total height and solid volume. Data of 277 trees rigorously scaled in the stand were also used. The statistical procedure proposed by Leite & Oliveira (2002 was used to evaluate the accuracy of the estimates and hypotheses. Based on the results, hypotheses a and b were rejected at 1% probability. It was concluded that, in a forest inventory, the variable dominant height should be considered and the volumetric equations should be regional.

  2. Calibration of Diamond As a Raman Spectroscopy Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, S.

    2014-12-01

    In high pressures and high temperatures, the equations of state of reference materials, such as gold, platinum, and sodium chloride, have usually been used for the precise determination of the sample pressure. However, it is difficult to use this technique in laboratory-based experiments, because the synchrotron radiation source is often required. Although the fluorescence of ruby has been commonly used as the pressure sensor in previous laboratory-based experiments, it is impracticable at high temperatures. It is known that the first-order Raman mode of diamond anvil has been considered as a strong candidate because its Raman signal is intense and the diamond is always used as the anvil material. It is the purpose of this study to present the dependences of pressure and temperature on the Raman shift at the culet face of the diamond anvil.Gold powder, which was mixed with NaCl powder, was used as the pressure reference. The high-pressure and high-temperature experiments were performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HTDAC). The sample was probed using angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometer system, located at the synchrotron beam line, at the BL10XU of SPring-8. The pressure was determined from the unit cell volume of gold using the equation of state for gold. The pressure and temperature dependences of the Raman shift were investigated [1]. The difference between our and previous studies increased rapidly with increasing pressure at pressures above 50 GPa, which is a fatal uncertainty for the pressure calibration. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is an influence of the stress condition in the sample chamber, because a significant deviatoric stress is accumulated during compression. The stress condition of the DAC experiment on the generated pressure is complicated because of some factors (e.g., the crystallographic orientation, design of the anvil, size of the culet, pressure transmitting medium, gasket material, and

  3. Equação de green-ampt para a infiltração da água no solo aproximações numéricas para explicitação do volume infiltrado Green-ampt equation for water infiltration into soil numerical approximations to the explicit formulation for the accumulated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mercês de Mello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O modelo de infiltração de Green-Ampt (1911, muito utilizado ainda hoje em Hidrologia, não permite explicitar de forma exacta o volume acumulado por infiltração em função do tempo. É neste contexto que se insere o presente estudo ,no qual são propostas duas soluções aproximadas. A primeira equação é original e a segunda resulta de modificações introduzidas numa das equações de Li et al. (1976. Analisaram-se os erros relativos provenientes da aplicação destas equações e apresenta-se um exemplo para melhor concretizar a aplicação destas aproximações numéricas.The Green-Ampt infiltration model (1911, still used in Hydrology nowadays, does not allows to have an exact explicitation of the accumulated infiltration water versus time. The present work tries to solve this problem by presenting two solutions. The first equation is original and the second is the result of some improvements made in one of Li et al equations (1976.The relative errors proceeding from these equation were discussed and one example is presented in order to concretize these numerical applications.

  4. Vacuum gage calibration system for 10 to the minus 8th power to 10 torr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R.

    1969-01-01

    Calibration system consists of a gas source, a source pressure gage, source volume, transfer volume and test chamber, plus appropriate piping, valves and vacuum source. It has been modified to cover as broad a range as possible while still providing accuracy and convenience.

  5. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-23

    The DART II is a data acquisition system that can be used with air pollution monitoring equipment. This volume contains appendices that deal with the following topics: adjustment and calibration procedures (power supply adjustment procedure, ADC calibration procedure, analog multiplexer calibration procedure); mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets (microprocessor, asynchronous receiver/transmitter, analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic processing unit, 5-volt power supply, +- 15-volt power supply, 24-volt power supply, floppy disk formater/controller, random access static memory); ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction set, octal listing; and cable lists. (RR)

  6. Radio Astronomical Polarimetry and Point-Source Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, W.

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical framework is presented for use in the experimental determination of the polarimetric response of observatory instrumentation. Elementary principles of linear algebra are applied to model the full matrix description of the polarization measurement equation by least-squares estimation of nonlinear, scalar parameters. The formalism is applied to calibrate the center element of the Parkes Multibeam receiver using observations of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715 and the radio galaxy 3C 218 (Hydra A).

  7. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    Second volume of a highly regarded two-volume set, fully usable on its own, examines physical systems that can usefully be modeled by equations of the first order. Examples are drawn from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book begins with a consideration of pairs of quasilinear hyperbolic equations of the first order and goes on to explore multicomponent chromatography, complications of counter-current moving-bed adsorbers, the adiabatic adsorption column, and chemical reaction in countercurrent reactors. Exercises appear at the end of most sections. Accessible to any

  8. Generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosinger, EE

    1987-01-01

    During the last few years, several fairly systematic nonlinear theories of generalized solutions of rather arbitrary nonlinear partial differential equations have emerged. The aim of this volume is to offer the reader a sufficiently detailed introduction to two of these recent nonlinear theories which have so far contributed most to the study of generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, bringing the reader to the level of ongoing research.The essence of the two nonlinear theories presented in this volume is the observation that much of the mathematics concernin

  9. Automatic Calibration and Reconstruction for Active Vision Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Beiwei

    2012-01-01

    In this book, the design of two new planar patterns for camera calibration of intrinsic parameters is addressed and a line-based method for distortion correction is suggested. The dynamic calibration of structured light systems, which consist of a camera and a projector is also treated. Also, the 3D Euclidean reconstruction by using the image-to-world transformation is investigated. Lastly, linear calibration algorithms for the catadioptric camera are considered, and the homographic matrix and fundamental matrix are extensively studied. In these methods, analytic solutions are provided for the computational efficiency and redundancy in the data can be easily incorporated to improve reliability of the estimations. This volume will therefore prove valuable and practical tool for researchers and practioners working in image processing and computer vision and related subjects.

  10. The Dark Energy Survey Data Processing and Calibration System

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Joseph J; Bertin, Emmanuel; Daues, Gregory E; Desai, Shantanu; Gower, Michelle; Gruendl, Robert; Hanlon, William; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Lin, Huan; Marriner, John; Petravick, Don; Sevilla, Ignacio; Swanson, Molly; Tomashek, Todd; Tucker, Douglas; Yanny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5000 deg2 grizY survey reaching characteristic photometric depths of 24th magnitude (10 sigma) and enabling accurate photometry and morphology of objects ten times fainter than in SDSS. Preparations for DES have included building a dedicated 3 deg2 CCD camera (DECam), upgrading the existing CTIO Blanco 4m telescope and developing a new high performance computing (HPC) enabled data management system (DESDM). The DESDM system will be used for processing, calibrating and serving the DES data. The total data volumes are high (~2PB), and so considerable effort has gone into designing an automated processing and quality control system. Special purpose image detrending and photometric calibration codes have been developed to meet the data quality requirements, while survey astrometric calibration, coaddition and cataloging rely on new extensions of the AstrOmatic codes which now include tools for PSF modeling, PSF homogenization, PSF corrected model fitting cataloging and joint mode...

  11. Coast guard STD calibration procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, R.H; Krug, W.S

    1973-01-01

    This manual describes the procedures used by the Coast Guard Oceanographic UNIT (CGOU) to calibrate several Model 9040 STD systems, manufactured by Plessey Environmental Systems, currently in use within the Coast Guard...

  12. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  13. Astrid-2 EMMA Magnetic Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Risbo, Torben

    1998-01-01

    experiment built as a collaboration between the DTU, Department of Automation and the Department of Plasma Physics, The Alfvenlaboratory, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT), Stockholm. The final magnetic calibration of the Astrid-2 satellite was done at the Lovoe Magnetic Observatory under the Geological...... of the magnetometer readings in each position were related to the field magnitudes from the Observatory, and a least squares fit for the 9 magnetometer calibration parameters was performed (3 offsets, 3 scale values and 3 inter-axes angles). After corrections for the magnetometer digital-to-analogue converters...... fit calibration parameters. Owing to time shortage, we did not evaluate the temperature coefficients of the flight sensor calibration parameters. However, this was done for an identical flight spare magnetometer sensor at the magnetic coil facility belonging to the Technical University of Braunschweig...

  14. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G.; Hansen, A.; Kirkegaard, P.

    2001-01-01

    An outdoor calibration facility for cup anemometers, where the signals from 10 anemometers of which at least one is a reference can be recorded simultaneously, has been established. The results are discussed with special emphasis on the statistical significance of the calibration expressions. It is concluded that the method has the advantage that many anemometers can be calibrated accurately with a minimum of work and cost. The obvious disadvantage is that the calibration of a set of anemometers may take more than one month in order to have wind speeds covering a sufficiently large magnitude range in a wind direction sector where we can be sure that the instruments are exposed to identical, simultaneous wind flows. Another main conclusion is that statistical uncertainty must be carefully evaluated since the individual 10 minute wind-speed averages are not statistically independent. (au)

  15. Bayesian Calibration of Microsimulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Carolyn M; Miglioretti, Diana L; Savarino, James E

    2009-12-01

    Microsimulation models that describe disease processes synthesize information from multiple sources and can be used to estimate the effects of screening and treatment on cancer incidence and mortality at a population level. These models are characterized by simulation of individual event histories for an idealized population of interest. Microsimulation models are complex and invariably include parameters that are not well informed by existing data. Therefore, a key component of model development is the choice of parameter values. Microsimulation model parameter values are selected to reproduce expected or known results though the process of model calibration. Calibration may be done by perturbing model parameters one at a time or by using a search algorithm. As an alternative, we propose a Bayesian method to calibrate microsimulation models that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo. We show that this approach converges to the target distribution and use a simulation study to demonstrate its finite-sample performance. Although computationally intensive, this approach has several advantages over previously proposed methods, including the use of statistical criteria to select parameter values, simultaneous calibration of multiple parameters to multiple data sources, incorporation of information via prior distributions, description of parameter identifiability, and the ability to obtain interval estimates of model parameters. We develop a microsimulation model for colorectal cancer and use our proposed method to calibrate model parameters. The microsimulation model provides a good fit to the calibration data. We find evidence that some parameters are identified primarily through prior distributions. Our results underscore the need to incorporate multiple sources of variability (i.e., due to calibration data, unknown parameters, and estimated parameters and predicted values) when calibrating and applying microsimulation models.

  16. Pressures Detector Calibration and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156315

    2016-01-01

    This is report of my first and second projects (of 3) in NA61. I did data taking and analysis in order to do calibration of pressure detectors and verified it. I analyzed the data by ROOT software using the C ++ programming language. The first part of my project was determination of calibration factor of pressure sensors. Based on that result, I examined the relation between pressure drop, gas flow rate of in paper filter and its diameter.

  17. UVIS G280 Flux Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Flux calibration, image displacement, and spectral trace of the UVIS G280 grism will be established using observations of the HST flux standard start GD71. Accompanying direct exposures will provide the image displacement measurements and wavelength zeropoints for dispersed exposures. The calibrations will be obtained at the central position of each CCD chip and at the center of the UVIS field. No additional field-dependent variations will be derived.

  18. Infrasound Sensor Calibration and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    functions with faster rise times. SUMMARY We have documented past work on the determination of the calibration constant of the LANL infrasound sensor...Monitoring Technologies 735 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated...National Laboratory ( LANL ) has operated an infrasound sensor calibration chamber that operates over a frequency range of 0.02 to 4 Hz. This chamber has

  19. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Klute, Markus; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The $x$-$y$ correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1\\%.

  20. Is your system calibrated? MRI gradient system calibration for pre-clinical, high-resolution imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O'Callaghan

    Full Text Available High-field, pre-clinical MRI systems are widely used to characterise tissue structure and volume in small animals, using high resolution imaging. Both applications rely heavily on the consistent, accurate calibration of imaging gradients, yet such calibrations are typically only performed during maintenance sessions by equipment manufacturers, and potentially with acceptance limits that are inadequate for phenotyping. To overcome this difficulty, we present a protocol for gradient calibration quality assurance testing, based on a 3D-printed, open source, structural phantom that can be customised to the dimensions of individual scanners and RF coils. In trials on a 9.4 T system, the gradient scaling errors were reduced by an order of magnitude, and displacements of greater than 100 µm, caused by gradient non-linearity, were corrected using a post-processing technique. The step-by-step protocol can be integrated into routine pre-clinical MRI quality assurance to measure and correct for these errors. We suggest that this type of quality assurance is essential for robust pre-clinical MRI experiments that rely on accurate imaging gradients, including small animal phenotyping and diffusion MR.

  1. Calibration of shaft alignment instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Bjorn

    1998-09-01

    Correct shaft alignment is vital for most rotating machines. Several shaft alignment instruments, ranging form dial indicator based to laser based, are commercially available. At VTT Manufacturing Technology a device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments was developed during 1997. A feature of the developed device is the similarity to the typical use of shaft alignment instruments i.e. the rotation of two shafts during the calibration. The benefit of the rotation is that all errors of the shaft alignment instrument, for example the deformations of the suspension bars, are included. However, the rotation increases significantly the uncertainty of calibration because of errors in the suspension of the shafts in the developed device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments. Without rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.001 mm for the parallel offset scale and 0,003 mm/m for the angular scale. With rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.002 mm for the scale and 0.004 mm/m for the angular scale.

  2. Zoom lens calibration with zoom- and focus-related intrinsic parameters applied to bundle adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shunyi; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Rongyong

    2015-04-01

    A zoom lens is more flexible for photogrammetric measurements under diverse environments than a fixed lens. However, challenges in calibration of zoom-lens cameras preclude the wide use of zoom lenses in the field of close-range photogrammetry. Thus, a novel zoom lens calibration method is proposed in this study. In this method, instead of conducting modeling after monofocal calibrations, we summarize the empirical zoom/focus models of intrinsic parameters first and then incorporate these parameters into traditional collinearity equations to construct the fundamental mathematical model, i.e., collinearity equations with zoom- and focus-related intrinsic parameters. Similar to monofocal calibration, images taken at several combinations of zoom and focus settings are processed in a single self-calibration bundle adjustment. In the self-calibration bundle adjustment, three types of unknowns, namely, exterior orientation parameters, unknown space point coordinates, and model coefficients of the intrinsic parameters, are solved simultaneously. Experiments on three different digital cameras with zoom lenses support the feasibility of the proposed method, and their relative accuracies range from 1:4000 to 1:15,100. Furthermore, the nominal focal length written in the exchangeable image file header is found to lack reliability in experiments. Thereafter, the joint influence of zoom lens instability and zoom recording errors is further analyzed quantitatively. The analysis result is consistent with the experimental result and explains the reason why zoom lens calibration can never have the same accuracy as monofocal self-calibration.

  3. The Algorithm for MODIS Wavelength On-Orbit Calibration Using the SRCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Harry; Che, Nianzeng; Parker, Kirsten; Bowser, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    The Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA) provides on-orbit spectral calibration of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflected solar bands and this paper describes how it is accomplished. The SRCA has two adjacent exit slits: 1) Main slit and 2) Calibration slit. The output from the main slit is measured by a reference silicon photo-diode (SIPD) and then passes through the MODIS. The output from the calibration slit passes through a piece of didymium transmission glass and then it is measured by a calibration SIPD. The centroids of the sharp spectral peaks of a didymium glass are utilized as wavelength standards. After normalization using the reference SIPD signal to eliminate the effects of the illuminating source spectra, the calibration SIPD establishes the relationship between the peaks of the didymium spectra and the grating angle; this is accomplished through the grating equation. In the grating equation the monochromator parameters, Beta (half angle between the incident and diffractive beams) and Theta(sub off) (offset angle of the grating motor) are determined by matching, in a least square sense, the known centroid wavelengths of the didymium peaks and the calculated centroid grating angles from the calibration SIPD signals for the peaks. A displacement between the calibration SIPD and the reference SIPD complicates the signal processing.

  4. Calibration and validation of DRAINMOD to model bioretention hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. A.; Skaggs, R. W.; Hunt, W. F.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryPrevious field studies have shown that the hydrologic performance of bioretention cells varies greatly because of factors such as underlying soil type, physiographic region, drainage configuration, surface storage volume, drainage area to bioretention surface area ratio, and media depth. To more accurately describe bioretention hydrologic response, a long-term hydrologic model that generates a water balance is needed. Some current bioretention models lack the ability to perform long-term simulations and others have never been calibrated from field monitored bioretention cells with underdrains. All peer-reviewed models lack the ability to simultaneously perform both of the following functions: (1) model an internal water storage (IWS) zone drainage configuration and (2) account for soil-water content using the soil-water characteristic curve. DRAINMOD, a widely-accepted agricultural drainage model, was used to simulate the hydrologic response of runoff entering a bioretention cell. The concepts of water movement in bioretention cells are very similar to those of agricultural fields with drainage pipes, so many bioretention design specifications corresponded directly to DRAINMOD inputs. Detailed hydrologic measurements were collected from two bioretention field sites in Nashville and Rocky Mount, North Carolina, to calibrate and test the model. Each field site had two sets of bioretention cells with varying media depths, media types, drainage configurations, underlying soil types, and surface storage volumes. After 12 months, one of these characteristics was altered - surface storage volume at Nashville and IWS zone depth at Rocky Mount. At Nashville, during the second year (post-repair period), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for drainage and exfiltration/evapotranspiration (ET) both exceeded 0.8 during the calibration and validation periods. During the first year (pre-repair period), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for drainage, overflow, and exfiltration

  5. Effective radiation attenuation calibration for breast density: compression thickness influences and correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jerry A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calibrating mammograms to produce a standardized breast density measurement for breast cancer risk analysis requires an accurate spatial measure of the compressed breast thickness. Thickness inaccuracies due to the nominal system readout value and compression paddle orientation induce unacceptable errors in the calibration. Method A thickness correction was developed and evaluated using a fully specified two-component surrogate breast model. A previously developed calibration approach based on effective radiation attenuation coefficient measurements was used in the analysis. Water and oil were used to construct phantoms to replicate the deformable properties of the breast. Phantoms consisting of measured proportions of water and oil were used to estimate calibration errors without correction, evaluate the thickness correction, and investigate the reproducibility of the various calibration representations under compression thickness variations. Results The average thickness uncertainty due to compression paddle warp was characterized to within 0.5 mm. The relative calibration error was reduced to 7% from 48-68% with the correction. The normalized effective radiation attenuation coefficient (planar representation was reproducible under intra-sample compression thickness variations compared with calibrated volume measures. Conclusion Incorporating this thickness correction into the rigid breast tissue equivalent calibration method should improve the calibration accuracy of mammograms for risk assessments using the reproducible planar calibration measure.

  6. Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Bastrikov, V

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ~75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ~7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm.

  7. Calibration of the HSPF model with a new coupled FTABLE generation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Mark Ross; Ken Trout; Demin Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The hydrological simulation program FORTRAN (HSPF) is a comprehensive watershed model designed to simulate water quantity and quality processes.It is used widely throughout the world.Calculating discharge from a stream reach by HSPF is based mainly on function tables (FTABLEs),which describe the relationship between surface area,stream stage,volume,and discharge.The traditional method of FTABLE generation (using general stream cross-sections and the Manning equation or other discharge relationships) can be time-consuming and inaccurate when there are limited calibration stations and survey data.Recent insights into generalized coupled stage/storage and stage/discharge relationships,however,offer the potential to improve both the speed and accuracy of compiling FTABLEs and thus HSPF models.This study tested the application of these insights in generating FTABLEs.The study domain included 18 gauging stations in a coastal plain environment on the Peace River watershed in West-Central Florida.In the calibration of this model,wetlands were treated as reaches in HSPF with storage-attenuation characteristics.Over the simulation period,the modeled daily flow and stage correlated well with observed data at all ganging stations along the Peace River.The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and correlation coefficient computed using observed and simulated daily flows were 0.90 and 0.91,respectively,at the Peace River outlet.Rigorous testing found that the new system for calibrating the FTABLEs improved the model predictive ability and efficiency.Uncertainty in un-calibrated station performance was also reduced.The model parameters obtained in this study could potentially serve as reference values for model application in similar climatic regions.They may also have particular relevance in disaster management,as the simulation period extended over the hurricane season of 2004,and the model domain was within a high hurricane impact zone.The possible effects of hurricanes on discharge are

  8. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  9. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  10. Cross-calibration of pencil-beam (DPX-NT) and fan-beam (QDR-4500C) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenyu; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Muramoto, Akiko; Kanzaki, Hiroki; Nohara, Takashi; Shimizu, Hitomi; Nakazawa, Tomoko; Harada, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as the loss of muscle mass accompanied by weakness, is an important factor leading to frailty and is a growing concern in the aging Japanese society. Muscle mass can be calculated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but results differ between devices produced by different manufactures. Thus, cross-calibration is needed to compare body composition results in multicenter trials or when scanners are replaced. The purpose of this study was to perform an in vivo calibration of total body scans between pencil-beam (DPX-NT, GE Healthcare) and fan-beam (QDR-4500C, Hologic Inc.) DXA units. A total 30 subjects (15 women, 15 men, mean age = 35 years, range 22-49 years) were recruited. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), femoral neck BMD, appendicular fat and lean body mass, and the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) were highly correlated (r = 0.979-0.993, r(2) = 0.889-0.977). The conversion formulas were as follows: lumbar BMD, Y = -0.08 + 1.16X (X = QDR-4500C, Y = DPX-NT), femoral neck BMD, Y = -0.015 + 1.11X, and ASMI Y = 0.92 + 0.90X. There is excellent comparability between the DPX-NT and the QDR-4500C DXA units. However, cross-calibration equations are required to assess muscle volume, fat, and ASMI in multicenter studies investigating sarcopenia.

  11. Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ted

    2016-05-20

    A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.

  12. Towards constitutive equations for the deep Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new formulation of constitutive equations for states of high compression is introduced for isotropic media, exploiting a separation between hydrostatic and deviatoric components in strain energy. The strain energy is represented as functions of strain invariants, with one purely volumetric component and the other which vanishes for purely hydrostatic deformation. This approach preserves the form of familiar equations of state through the volumetric component, but allows the addition of volume and pressure dependence of the shear modulus from the deviatoric term. A suitable shear modulus representation to accompany a Keane equation of state is demonstrated.

  13. Using fundamental equations to describe basic phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    constraining the total charge of refrigerant in the system, which is missing.In traditional mathematical modelling of a refrigeration cycle/system, the influence from the total charge of refrigerant on the system behaviour is normally not modelled explicitly. Instead, parameters such as superheat......When the fundamental thermodynamic balance equations (mass, energy, and momentum) are used to describe the processes in a simple refrigeration system, then one finds that the resulting equation system will have a degree of freedom equal to one. Further investigations reveal that it is the equation...... and the before mentioned parameters. In doing so, a systematic use of control volumes for modelling a refrigeration system is outlined....

  14. Calibration of the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator for (18)F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, L; Reinhard, M I; Davies, J B; Alexiev, D; Baldock, C

    2006-04-01

    Primary standardisation was performed on a solution of (18)F using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency-tracing extrapolation method with (60)Co used as a tracer nuclide. The result was used to calibrate the ANSTO secondary standard ionisation chamber which is used to disseminate Australian activity standards for gamma emitters. Using the secondary activity standard for (18)F, the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Quality Control (QC) Section was calibrated. The dial setting number recommended by the manufacturer for the measurement of the activity of (18)F is 439. In this work, the dial setting numbers for the activity measurement of the solution of (18)F in Wheaton vials were experimentally determined to be 443+/-12, 446+/-12, 459+/-11, 473+/-15 for 0.1, 1, 4.5 and 9ml solution volumes, respectively. The uncertainties given above are expanded uncertainties (k=2) giving an estimated level of confidence of 95%. The activities determined using the manufacturer recommended setting number 439 are 0.8%, 1.4%, 4.0% and 6.5% higher than the standardised activities, respectively. It is recommended that a single dial setting number of 459 determined for 4.5ml is used for 0.1-9ml solution in Wheaton vials in order to simplify the operation procedure. With this setting the expended uncertainty (k=2) in the activity readout from the Capintec dose calibrator would be less than 6.2%.

  15. Solving Nonlinear Wave Equations by Elliptic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; LIU Shi-Kuo

    2003-01-01

    The elliptic equation is taken as a transformation and applied to solve nonlinear wave equations. It is shown that this method is more powerful to give more kinds of solutions, such as rational solutions, solitary wave solutions,periodic wave solutions and so on, so it can be taken as a generalized method.

  16. The physics behind Van der Burgh's empirical equation, providing a new predictive equation for salinity intrusion in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2017-07-01

    The practical value of the surprisingly simple Van der Burgh equation in predicting saline water intrusion in alluvial estuaries is well documented, but the physical foundation of the equation is still weak. In this paper we provide a connection between the empirical equation and the theoretical literature, leading to a theoretical range of Van der Burgh's coefficient of 1/2 residual circulation. This type of mixing is relevant in the wider part of alluvial estuaries where preferential ebb and flood channels appear. Subsequently, this dispersion equation is combined with the salt balance equation to obtain a new predictive analytical equation for the longitudinal salinity distribution. Finally, the new equation was tested and applied to a large database of observations in alluvial estuaries, whereby the calibrated K values appeared to correspond well to the theoretical range.

  17. On the calibration of polarimetric Thomson scattering by Raman polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2015-12-01

    Polarimetric Thomson scattering (TS) is an alternative method for the analysis of Thomson scattering spectra in which the plasma temperature T e is determined from the depolarization of the TS radiation. This is a relativistic effect and therefore the technique is suitable only for very hot plasmas (T e  >  10 keV) such as those of ITER. The practical implementation of polarimetric TS requires a method to calibrate the polarimetric response of the collection optics carrying the TS light to the detection system, and in particular to measure the additional depolarization of the TS radiation introduced by the plasma-exposed first mirror. Rotational Raman scattering of laser light from diatomic gases such as H2, D2, N2 and O2 can provide a radiation source of predictable intensity and polarization state from a well-defined volume inside the vacuum vessel and is therefore suitable for these calibrations. In this paper we discuss Raman polarimetry as a technique for the calibration of a hypothetical polarimetric TS system operating in the same conditions of the ITER core TS system and suggest two calibration methods for the measurement of the additional depolarization introduced by the plasma-exposed first mirror, and in general for calibrating the polarimetric response of the detection system.

  18. An Example Multi-Model Analysis: Calibration and Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlmann, M.; James, S. C.; Lowry, T. S.

    2007-12-01

    Modeling solute transport is a complex process governed by multiple site-specific parameters like porosity and hydraulic conductivity as well as many solute-dependent processes such as diffusion and reaction. Furthermore, it must be determined whether a steady or time-variant model is most appropriate. A problem arises because over-parameterized conceptual models may be easily calibrated to exactly reproduce measured data, even if these data contain measurement noise. During preliminary site investigation stages where available data may be scarce it is often advisable to develop multiple independent conceptual models, but the question immediately arises: which model is best? This work outlines a method for quickly calibrating and ranking multiple models using the parameter estimation code PEST in conjunction with the second-order-bias-corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc). The method is demonstrated using the twelve analytical solutions to the one- dimensional convective-dispersive-reactive solute transport equation as the multiple conceptual models (van~Genuchten M. Th. and W. J. Alves, 1982. Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional convective- dispersive solute transport equation, USDA ARS Technical Bulletin Number 1661. U.S. Salinity Laboratory, 4500 Glenwood Drive, Riverside, CA 92501.). Each solution is calibrated to three data sets, each comprising an increasing number of calibration points that represent increased knowledge of the modeled site (calibration points are selected from one of the analytical solutions that provides the "correct" model). The AICc is calculated after each successive calibration to the three data sets yielding model weights that are functions of the sum of the squared, weighted residuals, the number of parameters, and the number of observations (calibration data points) and ultimately indicates which model has the highest likelihood of being correct. The results illustrate how the sparser data sets can be modeled

  19. 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications, held at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman in May 2013. The conference brought together experts and novices in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems. The volume features papers in difference equations and discrete time dynamical systems with applications to mathematical sciences and, in particular, mathematical biology, ecology, and epidemiology. It includes four invited papers and eight contributed papers. Topics covered include: competitive exclusion through discrete time models, Benford solutions of linear difference equations, chaos and wild chaos in Lorenz-type systems, advances in periodic difference equations, the periodic decomposition problem, dynamic selection systems and replicator equations, and asymptotic equivalence of difference equations in Banach Space. This book will appeal to researchers, scientists, and educators who work in th...

  20. Nonlinear calibration transfer based on hierarchical Bayesian models and Lagrange Multipliers: Error bounds of estimates via Monte Carlo - Markov Chain sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seichter, Felicia; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-01-25

    The calibration of analytical systems is time-consuming and the effort for daily calibration routines should therefore be minimized, while maintaining the analytical accuracy and precision. The 'calibration transfer' approach proposes to combine calibration data already recorded with actual calibrations measurements. However, this strategy was developed for the multivariate, linear analysis of spectroscopic data, and thus, cannot be applied to sensors with a single response channel and/or a non-linear relationship between signal and desired analytical concentration. To fill this gap for a non-linear calibration equation, we assume that the coefficients for the equation, collected over several calibration runs, are normally distributed. Considering that coefficients of an actual calibration are a sample of this distribution, only a few standards are needed for a complete calibration data set. The resulting calibration transfer approach is demonstrated for a fluorescence oxygen sensor and implemented as a hierarchical Bayesian model, combined with a Lagrange Multipliers technique and Monte-Carlo Markov-Chain sampling. The latter provides realistic estimates for coefficients and prediction together with accurate error bounds by simulating known measurement errors and system fluctuations. Performance criteria for validation and optimal selection of a reduced set of calibration samples were developed and lead to a setup which maintains the analytical performance of a full calibration. Strategies for a rapid determination of problems occurring in a daily calibration routine, are proposed, thereby opening the possibility of correcting the problem just in time.

  1. The KLOE Online Calibration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Pasqualucci

    2001-01-01

    Based on all the features of the KLOE online software,the online calibration system performs current calibration quality checking in real time and starts automatically new calibration procedures when needed.Acalibration manager process controls the system,implementing the interface to the online system,receiving information from the run control and translating its state transitions to a separate state machine.It acts as a " calibration run controller"and performs failure recovery when requested by a set of process checkers.The core of the system is a multi-threaded OO histogram server that receives histogramming commands by remote processes and operates on local ROOT histograms.A client library and C,fortran and C++ application interface libraries allow the user to connect and define his own histogram or read histograms owned by others using an bool-like interface.Several calibration processes running in parallel in a destributed,multiplatform environment can fill the same histograms,allowing fast external information check.A monitor thread allow remote browsing for visual inspection,Pre-filtered data are read in nonprivileged spy mode from the data acquisition system via the Kloe Integrated Dataflow,privileged spy mode from the data acquisiton system via the Kole Integrated Dataflow.The main characteristics of the system are presented.

  2. On the Basic Equations of the Magnetostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the physical relationship between the main objects of the magnetic field in a continuous medium with magnetization effects. Consistently considers the following hypotheses: a hypothesis of the primacy and the physical reality of the magnetization vector field environment, a similar hypothesis about the real existence of Ampere currents (molecular currents, magnetization currents, a hypothesis of a magnetic dipole moment of the medium volume element in view of bulk density of electric currents in this volume. A more rigorous derivation of the basic differential equations of magnetostatics from the Biot-Savart-Laplace equation is proposed.The well-known works justifying basic equations of magnetostatics use a procedure wherein when proving the local differential ratio is used a transformation of some volume integral to the surface integral bounding this volume. Thus, there is a specific way to select a closed surface that is either a surface in a vacuum (beyond the medium volume under consideration, or a surface of the conductor (a normal component of currents to the surface, here, becomes zero. In the paper the control surface is arbitrarily carried out within the volume of the medium under consideration, thereby leading to the mathematically sound result.The paper analyzes the hypotheses listed above. The main feature of analysis is a succesively using concept of bilateralism surface bounding the medium volume of the arbitrary finite dimensions. The analysis allowed us to reveal the physical adequacy of the considered hypotheses, derive the appropriate differential equations for the basic vector fields of magnetostatics and obtain a new condition. The resulting condition for the closedness of magnetization currents is recorded in entire compliance with the well-known Gauss electrostatic law, which avoids the need for additional, but not always reasonable assumptions.

  3. Introduction to differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formulations of problems in physics, economics, biology, and other sciences are usually embodied in differential equations. The analysis of the resulting equations then provides new insight into the original problems. This book describes the tools for performing that analysis. The first chapter treats single differential equations, emphasizing linear and nonlinear first order equations, linear second order equations, and a class of nonlinear second order equations arising from Newton's laws. The first order linear theory starts with a self-contained presentation of the exponen

  4. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EvangelosChaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similar fashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is done by replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vector potential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vector analysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHD equations.

  5. Handbook of differential equations evolutionary equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, CM

    2008-01-01

    The material collected in this volume discusses the present as well as expected future directions of development of the field with particular emphasis on applications. The seven survey articles present different topics in Evolutionary PDE's, written by leading experts.- Review of new results in the area- Continuation of previous volumes in the handbook series covering Evolutionary PDEs- Written by leading experts

  6. Partial differential equations and calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Leis, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 18 invited papers by members and guests of the former Sonderforschungsbereich in Bonn (SFB 72) who, over the years, collaborated on the research group "Solution of PDE's and Calculus of Variations". The emphasis is on existence and regularity results, on special equations of mathematical physics and on scattering theory.

  7. On chromatic and geometrical calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folm-Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    of non-uniformity of the illumination of the image plane. Only the image deforming aberrations and the non-uniformity of illumination are included in the calibration models. The topics of the pinhole camera model and the extension to the Direct Linear Transform (DLT) are described. It is shown how......The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources...... the DLT can be extended with non-linear models of the common lens aberrations/errors some of them caused by manufacturing defects like decentering and thin prism distortion. The relation between a warping and the non-linear defects are shown. The issue of making a good resampling of an image by using...

  8. Reduced Ambiguity Calibration for LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2012-01-01

    Interferometric calibration always yields non unique solutions. It is therefore essential to remove these ambiguities before the solutions could be used in any further modeling of the sky, the instrument or propagation effects such as the ionosphere. We present a method for LOFAR calibration which does not yield a unitary ambiguity, especially under ionospheric distortions. We also present exact ambiguities we get in our solutions, in closed form. Casting this as an optimization problem, we also present conditions for this approach to work. The proposed method enables us to use the solutions obtained via calibration for further modeling of instrumental and propagation effects. We provide extensive simulation results on the performance of our method. Moreover, we also give cases where due to degeneracy, this method fails to perform as expected and in such cases, we suggest exploiting diversity in time, space and frequency.

  9. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  10. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    is calibrated rather than a reconstructed parameter. This contribution presents a generic methodology to calibrate profiling nacelle-mounted lidars. The application of profiling lidars to wind turbine power performance and corresponding need for calibration procedures is introduced in relation to metrological...... standards. Further, two different calibration procedure concepts are described along with their strengths and weaknesses. The main steps of the generic methodology are then explained and illustrated by calibration results from two types of profiling lidars. Finally, measurement uncertainty assessment...

  11. Flexible calibration procedure for fringe projection profilometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Javier; Quiroga Mellado, Juan Antonio; Terrón López, María José

    2007-01-01

    A novel calibration method for whole field three-dimensional shape measurement by means of fringe projection is presented. Standard calibration techniques, polynomial-and model-based, have practical limitations such as the difficulty of measuring large fields of view, the need to use precise z stages, and bad calibration results due to inaccurate calibration points. The proposed calibration procedure is a mixture of the two main standard techniques, sharing their benefits and avoiding their m...

  12. The Effect of Nonrandom Distribution of Molecules on the Equation of State for Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Haeyoung [DukSung Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Using the free volume of van der Waals equation, Carnahan-Starling equation for hard spheres, Wilson equation for nonrandom mixing of solution, NRTL equation and our equation, several new equations of states for pure gases are derived. Using these equations, compressibility factors for pure gases are calculated and compared with Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility factor charts. The equation of states using the concept of molecular nonrandom distribution gave better results than those of molecular random distribution. This shows that the molecular nonrandom distribution makes considerable effect on the equation of states.

  13. Discretized Volumes in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We present two techniques novel in numerical methods. The first technique compiles the domain of the numerical methods as a discretized volume. Congruent elements are glued together to compile the domain over which the solution of a boundary value problem is sought. We associate a group and a graph to that volume. When the group is symmetry of the boundary value problem under investigation, one can specify the structure of the solution, and find out if there are equispectral volumes of a given type. The second technique uses a complex mapping to transplant the solution from volume to volume and a correction function. Equation for the correction function is given. A simple example demonstrates the feasibility of the suggested method.

  14. 3D-Calibration for IMU of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrutov V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new calibration method for Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU of Strapdown Iner-tial Navigation Systems was presented. IMU has been composed of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a circuit of signal processing. Normally, a rate transfer test and multi-position tests are us-ing for IMU calibration. The new calibration method is based on whole angle rotation or finite rotation. In fact it’s suggested to turn over IMU around three axes simultaneously. In order to solve the equation of calibration, it is necessary to provide an equality of a rank of basic matrix into degree of basic matrix. The results of simulated IMU data presented to demonstrate the performance of the new calibration method.

  15. Tank calibration; Arqueacao de tanques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ana [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work relates the analysis of the norms ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks used in fiscal measurement, established on Joint Regulation no 1 of June 19, 2000 between the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum) and the INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality). In this work a comparison between norms ISO and norms published by the API (American Petroleum Institute) and the IP (Institute of Petroleum) up to 2001 was made. It was concluded that norms ISO are wider than norms API, IP, and INMETRO methods in the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks. (author)

  16. Instrument Calibration and Certification Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. Wesley [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    The Amptec 640SL-2 is a 4-wire Kelvin failsafe resistance meter, designed to reliably use very low-test currents for its resistance measurements. The 640SL-1 is a 2-wire version, designed to support customers using the Reynolds Industries type 311 connector. For both versions, a passive (analog) dual function DC Milliameter/Voltmeter allows the user to verify the actual 640SL output current level and the open circuit voltage on the test leads. This procedure includes tests of essential performance parameters. Any malfunction noticed during calibration, whether specifically tested for or not, shall be corrected before calibration continues or is completed.

  17. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  18. On the Raychaudhuri equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    George F R Ellis

    2007-07-01

    The Raychaudhuri equation is central to the understanding of gravitational attraction in astrophysics and cosmology, and in particular underlies the famous singularity theorems of general relativity theory. This paper reviews the derivation of the equation, and its significance in cosmology.

  19. Soil specific re-calibration of water content sensors for a field-scale sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Caley K.; Brown, David J.; Anderson, Todd; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining accurate soil moisture data from a sensor network requires sensor calibration. Soil moisture sensors are factory calibrated, but multiple site specific factors may contribute to sensor inaccuracies. Thus, sensors should be calibrated for the specific soil type and conditions in which they will be installed. Lab calibration of a large number of sensors prior to installation in a heterogeneous setting may not be feasible, and it may not reflect the actual performance of the installed sensor. We investigated a multi-step approach to retroactively re-calibrate sensor water content data from the dielectric permittivity readings obtained by sensors in the field. We used water content data collected since 2009 from a sensor network installed at 42 locations and 5 depths (210 sensors total) within the 37-ha Cook Agronomy Farm with highly variable soils located in the Palouse region of the Northwest United States. First, volumetric water content was calculated from sensor dielectric readings using three equations: (1) a factory calibration using the Topp equation; (2) a custom calibration obtained empirically from an instrumented soil in the field; and (3) a hybrid equation that combines the Topp and custom equations. Second, we used soil physical properties (particle size and bulk density) and pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at saturation, field capacity, and wilting point for each installation location and depth. We also extracted the same reference points from the sensor readings, when available. Using these reference points, we re-scaled the sensor readings, such that water content was restricted to the range of values that we would expect given the physical properties of the soil. The re-calibration accuracy was assessed with volumetric water content measurements obtained from field-sampled cores taken on multiple dates. In general, the re-calibration was most accurate when all three reference points (saturation, field capacity, and wilting

  20. Methods of calibration to optical trapping force upon non-spherical cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youli Yu; Zhenxi Zhang; Zheng Li; Xiaoli Wang

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical equation of a trapping cell is solved to find calibration methods for the trapping force, and two methods are compared by synthetic experiment data. Results indicate that: Boltzmann distribution method (BDM) is available for the force calibration of non-spherical or anisotropic cells in arbitrary trap potential; the mean square displacement method (MSDM) is available only for a symmetric harmonic optical trap. The spatial resolution requirement of the calibration system is about a nanometer. The results agree with the reported experiments.

  1. Stochastic partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the theory of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) of evolutionary type. SPDEs are one of the main research directions in probability theory with several wide ranging applications. Many types of dynamics with stochastic influence in nature or man-made complex systems can be modelled by such equations. The theory of SPDEs is based both on the theory of deterministic partial differential equations, as well as on modern stochastic analysis. Whilst this volume mainly follows the ‘variational approach’, it also contains a short account on the ‘semigroup (or mild solution) approach’. In particular, the volume contains a complete presentation of the main existence and uniqueness results in the case of locally monotone coefficients. Various types of generalized coercivity conditions are shown to guarantee non-explosion, but also a systematic approach to treat SPDEs with explosion in finite time is developed. It is, so far, the only book where the latter and t...

  2. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  3. Renormalizing Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Bricmont, J.; Kupiainen, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this review paper, we explain how to apply Renormalization Group ideas to the analysis of the long-time asymptotics of solutions of partial differential equations. We illustrate the method on several examples of nonlinear parabolic equations. We discuss many applications, including the stability of profiles and fronts in the Ginzburg-Landau equation, anomalous scaling laws in reaction-diffusion equations, and the shape of a solution near a blow-up point.

  4. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  5. The density minimum at the Earth's magnetic equator

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Journal of Geophysical Research,Volume 97, pp. 1135-1150 Observations of the density structure in the plasmapause region reveal the existence of a local minimum in the total electron density at the magnetic equator.

  6. Beyond partial differential equations on linear and quasi-linear abstract hyperbolic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Horst Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    The present volume is self-contained and introduces to the treatment of linear and nonlinear (quasi-linear) abstract evolution equations by methods from the theory of strongly continuous semigroups. The theoretical part is accessible to graduate students with basic knowledge in functional analysis. Only some examples require more specialized knowledge from the spectral theory of linear, self-adjoint operators in Hilbert spaces. Particular stress is on equations of the hyperbolic type since considerably less often treated in the literature. Also, evolution equations from fundamental physics need to be compatible with the theory of special relativity and therefore are of hyperbolic type. Throughout, detailed applications are given to hyperbolic partial differential equations occurring in problems of current theoretical physics, in particular to Hermitian hyperbolic systems. This volume is thus also of interest to readers from theoretical physics.

  7. The Calibration of a Low-Frequency Calibrating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-08-20

    to measure the pressure changes because such changes were too small to be measured with a mercury manometer or conventional gage, 4.222 Data The data...volume displacement of the water If the chamber is infinitely stiff, all -the volume displacement will be passed through the mercury manometer , causing a

  8. Novel calibration method for structured-light system with an out-of-focus projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beiwen; Karpinsky, Nikolaus; Zhang, Song

    2014-06-01

    A structured-light system with a binary defocusing technique has the potential to have more extensive application due to its high speeds, gamma-calibration-free nature, and lack of rigid synchronization requirements between the camera and projector. However, the existing calibration methods fail to achieve high accuracy for a structured-light system with an out-of-focus projector. This paper proposes a method that can accurately calibrate a structured-light system even when the projector is not in focus, making it possible for high-accuracy and high-speed measurement with the binary defocusing method. Experiments demonstrate that our calibration approach performs consistently under different defocusing degrees, and a root-mean-square error of about 73 μm can be achieved with a calibration volume of 150(H) mm×250(W) mm×200(D)mm.

  9. Single Image Camera Calibration in Close Range Photogrammetry for Solder Joint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, D.; Knabner, S.; Baumgarten, D.

    2016-06-01

    Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) play an important role in the manufacturing of electronic devices. To ensure a correct function of the PCBs a certain amount of solder paste is needed during the placement of components. The aim of the current research is to develop an real-time, closed-loop solution for the analysis of the printing process where solder is printed onto PCBs. Close range photogrammetry allows for determination of the solder volume and a subsequent correction if necessary. Photogrammetry is an image based method for three dimensional reconstruction from two dimensional image data of an object. A precise camera calibration is indispensable for an accurate reconstruction. In our certain application it is not possible to use calibration methods with two dimensional calibration targets. Therefore a special calibration target was developed and manufactured, which allows for single image camera calibration.

  10. A New Multiphase Equation of State for Composition B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Joshua Damon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Margevicius, Madeline Alma [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-07-25

    We describe the construction of a complete equation of state for the high explosive Composition B in its unreacted (inert) form, as well as chemical equilibrium calculations of its detonation products. The multiphase reactant EOS is of SESAME type, and was calibrated to ambient thermal and mechanical data, the shock initiation experiments of Dattelbaum, et al., and the melt line of trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  11. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The DART II is a remote, interactive, microprocessor-based data acquistion system suitable for use with air monitors. This volume of DART II documentation contains the following appendixes: adjustment and calibration procedures; mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets; ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction list, octal listing; and cable lists. (RWR)

  12. Practical intraoperative stereo camera calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Philip; Bergeles, Christos; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Many of the currently available stereo endoscopes employed during minimally invasive surgical procedures have shallow depths of field. Consequently, focus settings are adjusted from time to time in order to achieve the best view of the operative workspace. Invalidating any prior calibration procedure, this presents a significant problem for image guidance applications as they typically rely on the calibrated camera parameters for a variety of geometric tasks, including triangulation, registration and scene reconstruction. While recalibration can be performed intraoperatively, this invariably results in a major disruption to workflow, and can be seen to represent a genuine barrier to the widespread adoption of image guidance technologies. The novel solution described herein constructs a model of the stereo endoscope across the continuum of focus settings, thereby reducing the number of degrees of freedom to one, such that a single view of reference geometry will determine the calibration uniquely. No special hardware or access to proprietary interfaces is required, and the method is ready for evaluation during human cases. A thorough quantitative analysis indicates that the resulting intrinsic and extrinsic parameters lead to calibrations as accurate as those derived from multiple pattern views.

  13. Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz;

    2000-01-01

    The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...

  14. Laboratory panel and radiometer calibration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deadman, AJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AND RADIOMETER CALIBRATION A.J Deadmana, I.D Behnerta, N.P Foxa, D. Griffithb aNational Physical Laboratory (NPL), United Kingdom bCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa ABSTRACT This paper presents the results...

  15. CALIBRATION OF THE INFRARED OPTOMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infrared optometer for measuring the absolute status of accommodation is subject to a constant error not associated with chromatic aberration or...on optometer accuracy as long as the pupil does not vignette the optometer beam. A modification is described for calibrating the infrared optometer ...for an individual subject without using trial lenses or a subjective optometer . (Author)

  16. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report...

  17. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  18. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this repor...

  19. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Chaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similarfashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is doneby replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vectorpotential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vectoranalysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHDequations.

  20. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  1. Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powerful mathematical tool for solving fractional differential equations.

  2. Cash flow in the context of economic equation of continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez Villarraga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic scheme, known as economic equation of continuity, is established for the balance of economic resources. In order to apply this equation it is necessary to determine an economic volume of control. The patrimonial equation is also proposed as a speed equationfor this volurne. The integral equation of economic continuity is applied to the «cash» system along with the integral patrimonial equation and so it gets expressions that correspond to model to elaborate cashflow statement with the particularities of the direct and indirect method. This model generales a useful definition for the calculation of this basic financial statement classified by operating, investing and financing activities.

  3. Timing calibration and spectral cleaning of LOFAR time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstanje, A.; Buitink, S.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a method for spectral cleaning and timing calibration of short time series data of the voltage in individual radio interferometer receivers. It makes use of phase differences in fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra across antenna pairs. For strong, localized terrestrial sources these are stable over time, while being approximately uniform-random for a sum over many sources or for noise. Using only milliseconds-long datasets, the method finds the strongest interfering transmitters, a first-order solution for relative timing calibrations, and faulty data channels. No knowledge of gain response or quiescent noise levels of the receivers is required. With relatively small data volumes, this approach is suitable for use in an online system monitoring setup for interferometric arrays. We have applied the method to our cosmic-ray data collection, a collection of measurements of short pulses from extensive air showers, recorded by the LOFAR radio telescope. Per air shower, we have collected 2 ms of raw time series data for each receiver. The spectral cleaning has a calculated optimal sensitivity corresponding to a power signal-to-noise ratio of 0.08 (or -11 dB) in a spectral window of 25 kHz, for 2 ms of data in 48 antennas. This is well sufficient for our application. Timing calibration across individual antenna pairs has been performed at 0.4 ns precision; for calibration of signal clocks across stations of 48 antennas the precision is 0.1 ns. Monitoring differences in timing calibration per antenna pair over the course of the period 2011 to 2015 shows a precision of 0.08 ns, which is useful for monitoring and correcting drifts in signal path synchronizations. A cross-check method for timing calibration is presented, using a pulse transmitter carried by a drone flying over the array. Timing precision is similar, 0.3 ns, but is limited by transmitter position measurements, while requiring dedicated flights.

  4. GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF FULL SPHERICAL PANORAMIC RICOH-THETA CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aghayari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel calibration process of RICOH-THETA, full-view fisheye camera, is proposed which has numerous applications as a low cost sensor in different disciplines such as photogrammetry, robotic and machine vision and so on. Ricoh Company developed this camera in 2014 that consists of two lenses and is able to capture the whole surrounding environment in one shot. In this research, each lens is calibrated separately and interior/relative orientation parameters (IOPs and ROPs of the camera are determined on the basis of designed calibration network on the central and side images captured by the aforementioned lenses. Accordingly, designed calibration network is considered as a free distortion grid and applied to the measured control points in the image space as correction terms by means of bilinear interpolation. By performing corresponding corrections, image coordinates are transformed to the unit sphere as an intermediate space between object space and image space in the form of spherical coordinates. Afterwards, IOPs and EOPs of each lens are determined separately through statistical bundle adjustment procedure based on collinearity condition equations. Subsequently, ROPs of two lenses is computed from both EOPs. Our experiments show that by applying 3*3 free distortion grid, image measurements residuals diminish from 1.5 to 0.25 degrees on aforementioned unit sphere.

  5. Geometric Calibration of Full Spherical Panoramic Ricoh-Theta Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayari, S.; Saadatseresht, M.; Omidalizarandi, M.; Neumann, I.

    2017-05-01

    A novel calibration process of RICOH-THETA, full-view fisheye camera, is proposed which has numerous applications as a low cost sensor in different disciplines such as photogrammetry, robotic and machine vision and so on. Ricoh Company developed this camera in 2014 that consists of two lenses and is able to capture the whole surrounding environment in one shot. In this research, each lens is calibrated separately and interior/relative orientation parameters (IOPs and ROPs) of the camera are determined on the basis of designed calibration network on the central and side images captured by the aforementioned lenses. Accordingly, designed calibration network is considered as a free distortion grid and applied to the measured control points in the image space as correction terms by means of bilinear interpolation. By performing corresponding corrections, image coordinates are transformed to the unit sphere as an intermediate space between object space and image space in the form of spherical coordinates. Afterwards, IOPs and EOPs of each lens are determined separately through statistical bundle adjustment procedure based on collinearity condition equations. Subsequently, ROPs of two lenses is computed from both EOPs. Our experiments show that by applying 3*3 free distortion grid, image measurements residuals diminish from 1.5 to 0.25 degrees on aforementioned unit sphere.

  6. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  7. An estimate of global glacier volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grinsted

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess the feasibility of using multivariate scaling relationships to estimate glacier volume from glacier inventory data. Scaling laws are calibrated against volume observations optimized for the specific purpose of estimating total global glacier ice volume. I find that adjustments for continentality and elevation range improve skill of area–volume scaling. These scaling relationships are applied to each record in the Randolph Glacier Inventory, which is the first globally complete inventory of glaciers and ice caps. I estimate that the total volume of all glaciers in the world is 0.35 ± 0.07 m sea level equivalent, including ice sheet peripheral glaciers. This is substantially less than a recent state-of-the-art estimate. Area–volume scaling bias issues for large ice masses, and incomplete inventory data are offered as explanations for the difference.

  8. Radiation calibration for LWIR Hyperspectral Imager Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixiong; Yu, Chunchao; Zheng, Wei-jian; Lei, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Yuan, Xiaochun; Zhang, Peizhong

    2014-11-01

    The radiometric calibration of LWIR Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer is presented. The lab has been developed to LWIR Interferometric Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer Prototype(CHIPED-I) to study Lab Radiation Calibration, Two-point linear calibration is carried out for the spectrometer by using blackbody respectively. Firstly, calibration measured relative intensity is converted to the absolute radiation lightness of the object. Then, radiation lightness of the object is is converted the brightness temperature spectrum by the method of brightness temperature. The result indicated †that this method of Radiation Calibration calibration was very good.

  9. Three particles in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Polejaeva, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Within the non-relativistic potential scattering theory, we derive a generalized version of the L\\"uscher formula, which includes three-particle inelastic channels. Faddeev equations in a finite volume are discussed in detail. It is proved that, even in the presence of the three-particle intermediate states, the discrete spectrum in a finite box is determined by the infinite-volume elements of the scattering S-matrix up to corrections, exponentially suppressed at large volumes.

  10. Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated.

  11. Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Westerberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models will normally depend on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, are challenged by problems including: (1 uncertain discharge data, (2 variable sensitivity of different performance measures to different flow magnitudes, (3 influence of unknown input/output errors and (4 inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. This paper explores a calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs to address these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs on the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested – based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WASMOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application, e.g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the method appears less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than previous use of limits of

  12. Topics in numerical partial differential equations and scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Numerical partial differential equations (PDEs) are an important part of numerical simulation, the third component of the modern methodology for science and engineering, besides the traditional theory and experiment. This volume contains papers that originated with the collaborative research of the teams that participated in the IMA Workshop for Women in Applied Mathematics: Numerical Partial Differential Equations and Scientific Computing in August 2014.

  13. Time integration of the shallow water equations in spherical geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Lanser; J.G. Blom (Joke); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe shallow water equations in spherical geometry provide a prototype for developing and testing numerical algorithms for atmospheric circulation models. In a previous paper we have studied a spatial discretization of these equations based on an Osher-type finite-volume method on stereog

  14. Time integration of the shallow water equations in spherical geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanser, D.; Blom, J.G.; Verwer, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The shallow water equations in spherical geometry provide a prototype for developing and testing numerical algorithms for atmospheric circulation models. In a previous paper we have studied a spatial discretization of these equations based on an Osher-type finite-volume method on stereographic and l

  15. Trends in differential equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Neble, María; Galván, José

    2016-01-01

    This work collects the most important results presented at the Congress on Differential Equations and Applications/Congress on Applied Mathematics (CEDYA/CMA) in Cádiz (Spain) in 2015. It supports further research in differential equations, numerical analysis, mechanics, control and optimization. In particular, it helps readers gain an overview of specific problems of interest in the current mathematical research related to different branches of applied mathematics. This includes the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations, exact solutions techniques for ordinary differential equations, numerical analysis and numerical simulation of some models arising in experimental sciences and engineering, control and optimization, and also trending topics on numerical linear Algebra, dynamical systems, and applied mathematics for Industry. This volume is mainly addressed to any researcher interested in the applications of mathematics, especially in any subject mentioned above. It may be also useful to PhD s...

  16. Calibration of Models Using Groundwater Age (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water-resource managers are frequently concerned with the long-term ability of a groundwater system to deliver volumes of water for both humans and ecosystems under natural and anthropogenic stresses. Analysis of how a groundwater system responds to such stresses usually involves the construction and calibration of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The calibration procedure usually involves the use of both groundwater-level and flux observations. Water-level data are often more abundant, and thus the availability of flux data can be critical, with well discharge and base flow to streams being most often available. Lack of good flux data however is a common occurrence, especially in more arid climates where the sustainability of the water supply may be even more in question. Environmental tracers are frequently being used to estimate the “age” of a water sample, which represents the time the water has been in the subsurface since its arrival at the water table. Groundwater ages provide flux-related information and can be used successfully to help calibrate groundwater models if porosity is well constrained, especially when there is a paucity of other flux data. As several different methods of simulating groundwater age and tracer movement are possible, a review is presented here of the advantages, disadvantages, and potential pitfalls of the various numerical and tracer methods used in model calibration. The usefulness of groundwater ages for model calibration depends on the ability both to interpret a tracer so as to obtain an apparent observed age, and to use a numerical model to obtain an equivalent simulated age observation. Different levels of simplicity and assumptions accompany different methods for calculating the equivalent simulated age observation. The advantages of computational efficiency in certain methods can be offset by error associated with the underlying assumptions. Advective travel-time calculation using path-line tracking in finite

  17. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  18. Calibration of radon-222 detectors using closed circuit radium-226 sources; Calibracao de detectores de radonio-222 atraves do uso de fontes de radio-222 em circuito fechado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Del Claro, Flavia, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the calibration of the Radon-222 detectors used by the Laboratories specializing in measuring natural radiation from this gas. The research was conducted in collaboration between UTFPR, CDTN/CNEN, UFRN and IRD/CNEN. During the calibration the detectors were exposed in isolated chambers with radioactive calibrated sources. The calibration procedure was supported with four instant radon monitors AlphaGUARD (SAPHYMO Co.) responsible for radon activity measurements in the experimental chamber. The calibration procedure resulted an equation that relates the number of tracks found in solid-state detector CR-39 (Track-Etch detector) with the concentration of radon in the atmosphere. Obtained results are compatible with previously performed calibration at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan) using high activity levels of radon in air. Present results of calibration give the possibility to expand the calibration curve of CR-39 for medium and low activity levels of radon. (author)

  19. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  20. Histogram-Based Calibration Method for Pipeline ADCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyeonuk; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Heetae; Kang, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Measurement and calibration of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using a histogram-based method requires a large volume of data and a long test duration, especially for a high resolution ADC. A fast and accurate calibration method for pipelined ADCs is proposed in this research. The proposed calibration method composes histograms through the outputs of each stage and calculates error sources. The digitized outputs of a stage are influenced directly by the operation of the prior stage, so the results of the histogram provide the information of errors in the prior stage. The composed histograms reduce the required samples and thus calibration time being implemented by simple modules. For 14-bit resolution pipelined ADC, the measured maximum integral non-linearity (INL) is improved from 6.78 to 0.52 LSB, and the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) are improved from 67.0 to 106.2dB and from 65.6 to 84.8dB, respectively. PMID:26070196