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Sample records for voltage-current characteristics simultaneous

  1. Negative-resistance voltage-current characteristics of superconductor contact junctions for macro-scale applications

    CERN Document Server

    Takayasu, M; Minervini, J V; 10.1109/TASC.2003.812854

    2003-01-01

    Voltage-current characteristics of mechanical pressure contact junctions between superconducting wires are investigated using a voltage-driving method. It is found that the switching regions at low voltages result from negative resistance of the contact junction. The current transport of the contact junctions is discussed from the perspective of two existing models: the multiple Andreev reflections at the two SN interfaces of a SNS (Superconductor/Normal metal /Superconductor) junction and the inhomogeneous multiple Josephson weak-link array. (13 refs).

  2. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  3. Experimental study on the influence of current DC component on the metrological characteristics of low-voltage current transformer%电流直流分量对低压电流互感器计量特性影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵震宇; 朱亮; 祝婧; 赵燕; 俞林刚; 邓高峰

    2016-01-01

    电网中的电流直流分量会对低压电流互感器的计量特性产生影响,通过模拟含直流分量的正弦半波电流波形,对被试样品进行试验,分别研究半波电流峰值和直流分量大小对低压电流互感器计量特性的影响。试验表明:电流互感器一次侧电流中含有的直流分量会使二次侧电流发生畸变,其畸变程度既和一次侧电流中所含的直流分量大小有关,也和一次侧电流的峰值有关。%Based on the simulation of sine half-wave current waveform which includes dc component and the experi-ment on the samples of the participants , the influence on the measurement characteristics of low-voltage current trans-former caused by the peak value of half-wave current and dc component is studied in this paper .The experiment shows that the dc component of the current in primary side of low-voltage current transformer would cause the distortion of current in secondary side , and the distortion degree relates to the value of the dc component also the peak value of current in primary side .

  4. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  5. The voltage-current relationship and equivalent circuit implementation of parallel flux-controlled memristive circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Feng Fei; Dong Wei; Pan Sai-Hu

    2013-01-01

    A flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth cubic nonlinearity is taken as an example,upon which the voltage-current relationships (VCRs) between two parallel memristive circuits-a parallel memristor and capacitor circuit (the parallel MC circuit),and a parallel memristor and inductor circuit (the parallel ML circuit)-are investigated.The results indicate that the VCR between these two parallel memristive circuits is closely related to the circuit parameters,and the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal voltage stimulus.An equivalent circuit model of the memristor is built,upon which the circuit simulations and experimental measurements of both the parallel MC circuit and the parallel ML circuit are performed,and the results verify the theoretical analysis results.

  6. Feasibility Implementation of Voltage-Current Waveform Telemetry System in Power Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tatsuya; Akagi, Keita; Fukumoto, Hisao; Itoh, Hideaki; Wakuya, Hiroshi; Hirata, Kenji; Ohchi, Masashi

    The electric power is indispensable for modern life. However, there is a problem of harmonic disturbance when the harmonic power runs into electronic devices. To overcome the problem and realize a stable supply of the electric power is an important issue. In this study, we have developed a voltage-current waveform telemetry system for the remote measurement of the harmonics in the power delivery lines. The system consists of sensors, preamplifiers, a single board computer, and power collectors. Improvements are made on all of these components except the sensors. The power collector is a coil that can be placed around the same power line that we measure. We have designed the power collector by a finite element method(FEM) so that it can provide enough electricity for the computer to work properly. Thus, no other power source such as a battery except the secondary rechargeable battery for the recovery is necessary at the measurement place. The preamplifier in the new system is a single-supply differential amplifier circuit, and the single board computer has an inexpensive SH-3 CPU. Through experiments, we have confirmed that the power collector can provide sufficient electricity and that the new system can successfully measure the waveforms and the harmonics in power delivery systems.

  7. Drying characteristics and heat requirement of coconut endocarp determined by simultaneous thermal analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Duan, Kejun; Song, Fei; Chen, Weijun; Zhao, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Drying characteristics and heat requirement of coconut endocarp at 40, 50 and 60 °C were investigated by a simultaneous thermal analyzer (TG-DSC). Results showed that Page model was the suitable model to describe and estimate the drying characteristics of coconut endocarp with a relatively higher R 2 value and lower χ2 value. Effective moisture diffusivity ( D eff) ranged from 9.90 × 10-9 to 1.10 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energies were 4.70 kJ/mol and heat requirements ranged from 59.3 to 55.9 kJ/kg.

  8. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  10. Processing and Quality Characteristics of Apple Slices under Simultaneous Infrared Dry-blanching and Dehydration with Intermittent Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of three processing parameters, e.g. product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing time, on blanching and dehydration characteristics of apple slices exposed to simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD) with intermittent heating. A...

  11. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  12. Simultaneous idiopathic bilateral sudden hearing loss - characteristics and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ferit; Yollu, Umur; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Yener, H Murat; Mamanov, Marlen; Inci, Ender

    2017-01-24

    The aetiology of sudden hearing loss is poorly defined; however, infectious, vascular and neoplastic aetiologies are presumed to be responsible. In addition, the aetiology of bilateral sudden hearing loss is also unknown. The objective of this study is identify the characteristics and treatment response of simultaneous bilateral sudden hearing loss. This is a case-control study that practised in tertiary care academic centre. 132 patients with sudden hearing loss who were treated with systemic steroid and hyperbaric oxygen together were included. 26 patients had bilateral sudden hearing loss and 106 patients had unilateral sudden hearing loss. Patients were evaluated with clinical, audiological and radiological examinations and laboratory tests were done. Findings and response to treatment of the patients were compared. The mean ages of patients with unilateral and bilateral sudden hearing loss were 42.0 years and 24.5 years respectively with a statistically significant difference (psudden hearing loss. Pre-treatment audiologic thresholds were 69.1dB for unilateral sudden hearing loss and 63.3dB for the left ears and 67.6dB for the right ears for bilateral sudden hearing loss without significant difference. Post-treatment average hearing threshold in unilateral sudden hearing loss was 47.0dB and 55.4dB for the left ears and 59.0 for the right ears in bilateral sudden hearing loss. Average hearing improvement in unilateral sudden hearing loss group was significant (psudden hearing loss group for both ears. Between the groups; there was a significant difference for hearing improvement favouring unilateral sudden hearing loss (psudden hearing loss showed lower age, worse prognosis and higher rate of positive immune response markers. Cardiovascular risk factors seem to have an important role in the aetiology of unilateral cases whereas this importance was not present in bilateral ones. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia C

  13. Suprasegmental Characteristics of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication by Inexperienced Signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Metz, Dale E.; Girardi, Erin; Irwin, Jacqueline; Krigsman, Amanda; Swanson, Christina; Mackenzie, Douglas; Schiavetti, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated suprasegmental variables of syllable stress and intonation contours in contextual speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC) by inexperienced signers. Ten hearing inexperienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech-alone (SA) conditions speaking a set of sentences containing stressed versus…

  14. A dual-learning paradigm can simultaneously train multiple characteristics of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, Matthew A; Toliver, Alexis; Bastian, Amy J

    2016-05-01

    Impairments in human motor patterns are complex: what is often observed as a single global deficit (e.g., limping when walking) is actually the sum of several distinct abnormalities. Motor adaptation can be useful to teach patients more normal motor patterns, yet conventional training paradigms focus on individual features of a movement, leaving others unaddressed. It is known that under certain conditions, distinct movement components can be simultaneously adapted without interference. These previous "dual-learning" studies focused solely on short, planar reaching movements, yet it is unknown whether these findings can generalize to a more complex behavior like walking. Here we asked whether a dual-learning paradigm, incorporating two distinct motor adaptation tasks, can be used to simultaneously train multiple components of the walking pattern. We developed a joint-angle learning task that provided biased visual feedback of sagittal joint angles to increase peak knee or hip flexion during the swing phase of walking. Healthy, young participants performed this task independently or concurrently with another locomotor adaptation task, split-belt treadmill adaptation, where subjects adapted their step length symmetry. We found that participants were able to successfully adapt both components of the walking pattern simultaneously, without interference, and at the same rate as adapting either component independently. This leads us to the interesting possibility that combining rehabilitation modalities within a single training session could be used to help alleviate multiple deficits at once in patients with complex gait impairments.

  15. Clinical characteristics and HLA alleles of a family with simultaneously occurring alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Selma; Metin, Ahmet; Caykoylu, Ali; Akoglu, Gulsen; Ceylan, Gülay G; Oztekin, Aynure; Col, Esra S

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease resulting in partial or total noncicatricial hair loss. HLA class II antigens are the most important markers that constitute genetic predisposition to AA. Various life events and intense psychological stress may play an important role in triggering AA attacks. We report an unusual case series of 4 family members who had simultaneously occurring active AA lesions. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and psychiatric features of 4 cases of active AA lesions occurring simultaneously in a family and determine HLA alleles. The clinical and psychological features of all patients were examined. HLA antigen DNA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. All patients had typical AA lesions over the scalp and/or beard area. Psychological examinations revealed obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the proband's parents as well as anxiety and lack of self-confidence in both the proband and his sister. HLA antigen types were not commonly shared with family members. These findings suggest that AA presenting concurrently in members of the same family was not associated with genetic predisposition. Shared psychological disorders and stressful life events might be the major key points in the concurrent presentation of these familial AA cases and development of resistance against treatments.

  16. Topology optimization for enhancing the acoustical and thermal characteristics of acoustic devices simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kee Seung; Lee, Jin Woo

    2017-08-01

    In this study, an optimal design method was developed using topology optimization for an acoustic device in the presence of temperature gradient. Although acoustic properties were strongly affected by temperature distribution, many topology optimization problems for optimal acoustic devices were formulated under the assumption that temperature was uniformly distributed in the design domain or that heat transfer through boundaries was negligible. An acoustically optimized topology could negatively influence the heat transfer characteristics of a mechanical device. To figure out this issue, thermo-acoustical topology optimization problems were formulated for an optimal design of the acoustic device. A general form of a finite element equation was developed for acoustical and thermal analyses, and interpolation functions were carefully selected to obtain a black-and-white topology in the final step. Optimal design examples were solved for various acoustical and thermal design requirements, and the physical characteristics of an optimal muffler obtained using the proposed approach in the present study were compared with those of a well-known existing design.

  17. Characteristics of simultaneous ammonium and phosphate adsorption from hydrolysis urine onto natural loess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanqing; Wang, Xiaochang; Yang, Shengjiong; Shi, Honglei

    2016-02-01

    Nutrient recovery from human urine is a promising pretreatment of domestic wastewater and provides a sustainable recyclability of N and P. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to identify the characteristics of natural loess (NL) for the adsorption and recovery of ammonium and phosphate from hydrolysis urine (HU). The adsorption mechanisms, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms, as well as the major influencing factors, such as pH and temperature, were investigated. Results revealed that adsorption of ammonium occurred by means of ion exchange and molecule adsorption with the ≡ Si-OH groups, while phosphate adsorption was based on the calcium phosphate precipitation reaction and formation of inner-sphere complexes with ≡ M-OH groups. The adsorption processes of ammonium and phosphate were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model. Adsorption of phosphate was endothermic, while ammonium adsorption was exothermic. Furthermore, the maximum ammonium and phosphate adsorption capacities of NL was 23.24 mg N g(-1) and 4.01 mg P g(-1) at an initial pH of 9 and 10, respectively. Results demonstrated that nutrient-adsorbed NL used as compound fertilizer or conventional fertilizer superaddition was feasible for its high contents of N and P as well as its environmental friendliness.

  18. Effects of Anode Temperature on Working Characteristics and Performance of a Low Power Arcjet Thruster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wen-Xia; LI Teng; WU Cheng-Kang

    2009-01-01

    An arc-heated thruster of 130-800 W input power is tested in a vacuum chamber at pressures lower than 20 Pa with argon or H_2-N_2 gas mixture as propellant.The time-dependent arc voltage-current curve,outside-surface temperature of the anode nozzle and the produced thrust of the firing arcjet thruster are measured in situ simultaneously,in order to analyze and evaluate the dependence of thruster working characteristics and output properties,such as specific impulse and thrust efficiency,on nozzle temperature.

  19. Characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances from sludge and biofilm in a simultaneous nitrification and denitrification system under high salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linting; She, Zonglian; Jin, Chunji; Yang, Shiying; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun

    2016-09-01

    The composition and distribution of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) both from suspended sludge and attached biofilm were investigated in a simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) system with the increase of the salinity from 1.0 to 3.0 %. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy were used to examine proteins (PN), polysaccharides (PS) and humic substances (HS) present in EPS. High total nitrogen removal (above 83.9 %) via SND was obtained in the salinity range of 1.0-2.5 %. Total EPS in the sludge increased from 150.2 to 200.6 mg/gVSS with the increase of salinity from 1.0 to 3.0 %, whereas the corresponding values in the biofilm achieved the maximum of 288.6 mg/g VSS at 2.0 % salinity. Dominant composition of EPS was detected as HS in both sludge and biofilm, having the percentages of 50.6-68.6 and 41.1-69.9 % in total EPS, respectively. Both PN and PS contents in soluble EPS (S-EPS), loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) of sludge and biofilm increased with the increased salinity. The FTIR spectrum and 3D-EEM fluorescence spectroscopy of S-EPS, LB-EPS and TB-EPS in the sludge and biofilm showed the changes of functional groups and conformations of the compositions in EPS with the increase of salinity. The results demonstrated that the characteristics of EPS varied from sludge to biofilm. The obtained results could provide a better understanding of the salinity effect on the EPS characteristics in a SND system.

  20. Mechanical design and realization of integrated automatic detection device for low voltage current transformer%低压电流互感器综合自动检测装置机械设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆小星; 曾国华

    2016-01-01

    为解决低压电流互感器型式检验中电气试验人工操作过程频繁、劳动强度大、易发生误操作、电气接触不可靠及存在不安全、效率低、影响检测质量等问题,设计开发出了一种适用于实验室的多功能自动检测装置。装置设计为1个“控制单元”加2个“检测单元”的“1+2”一体化组合式结构,可同时检测两种规格互感器,实现了多品种互感器异步/并行多作业模式检测。结果表明,新型检测装置设计方案可行,运行可靠,达到了预期目标。%In order to solve the problems of frequently manual operation process, large labor intensity, easily occurred error operation and unreliable electric contact in low - voltage current transformer type test which may be unsafe, low-efficient and affects quality inspection, a kind of multi-function inspection device suitable for laboratory automation or auxiliary automation is designed. The device is designed as a "1 + 2" integrated modular structure with a "control unit" and two "inspection units" which can detect two kinds of specifications transformers simultaneously, realizing the asynchronous/ parallel operating modes of various transformers and efficient inspection. The research results show that the novel inspection device is feasible and reliable, and it reaches the expected target.

  1. Processing and quality characteristics of apple slices under simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration with continuous heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on apple slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating in a continuous heating mode for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were radiation intensity, slice thickne...

  2. Simultaneously enhanced device efficiency, stabilized chromaticity of organic light emitting diodes with lambertian emission characteristic by random convex lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keunsoo; Lee, Jonghee; Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Cho, Doo-Hee; Lim, Jong Tae; Joo, Chul Woong; Kim, Joo Yeon; Yoo, Seunghyup; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Moon, Jaehyun

    2016-02-01

    An optical functional film applicable to various lighting devices is demonstrated in this study. The phase separation of two immiscible polymers in a common solvent was used to fabricate the film. In this paper, a self-organized lens-like structure is realized in this manner with optical OLED functional film. For an OLED, there are a few optical drawbacks, including light confinement or viewing angle distortion. By applying the optical film to an OLED, the angular spectra distortion resulting from the designed organic stack which produced the highest efficiency was successfully stabilized, simultaneously enhancing the efficiency of the OLED. We prove the effect of the film on the efficiency of OLEDs through an optical simulation. With the capability to overcome the main drawbacks of OLEDs, we contend that the proposed film can be applied to various lighting devices.

  3. A Multi-Level Simultaneous Analysis of How Student and School Characteristics Are Related to Students' English Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvendir, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how student and school characteristics are related to Turkish students' English language achievement in Evaluation of Student Achievement Test (ÖBBS) of 2009. The participants of the study involve 43707 ninth year students who were required to take ÖBBS in 2009. For data analysis two level hierarchical linear modeling was…

  4. 基于 LabVIEW 串口通信的太阳能电池I-V 曲线测试系统的设计与应用%Design and implementation of voltage-current testing system based on LabVIEW with serial communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦中立; 范望喜; 张秀花

    2013-01-01

      采用LabVIEW软件平台搭建一套自动化I-V曲线测试系统,系统的数据采集部分由LabVIEW 8.5软件、VISA4.1库、Keithley 2000数字源表、低压电源和计算机等软、硬件所组成.对结构为ITO/PEDOT :PSS/P3HT :PCBM/Al的有机太阳能电池进行的I-V曲线测试,开路电压为0.608 V ,短路电流为8.25 mA/cm2,填充因子为0.662,电池的转换效率为3.32%,其结果与CHI660电化学测量系统测量的结果相近,表明此系统具有可靠性、实时性和准确性等特点.%A auto-testing system based on LabVIEW was designed for voltage-current characteristics ,which was based on LabVIEW 8 .5 express ,Visa 4 .1 , Keithley 2000 ,low-voltage power supply and computer .It was applied to test the voltage-current characteristics of organic solar cells with the structure of ITO/PEDOT :PSS/P3HT :PCBM/Al , and its open circuit viltage was 0 .608 V ,short circuit current was 8 .25 mA・cm -2 ,fill factor was 0 .662 ,energy conversion efficiecy was 3 .32% ,which was as much as the results measured by the CHI660 electrochemical measurement system .It was showed the system had reliable ,real-timed and aecurate properties .

  5. Simultaneous removal of hydrogen sulfide and toluene in a bioreactor:Performance and characteristics of microbial community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Gao; Lin Li; Junxin Liu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between performance and the bacteria community composition by H2S and toluene co-treatment.Operation of the bioreactor was divided into four stages, in which the inlet concentration of toluene and H2S were gradually increased.In Stage Ⅰ, toluene was the sole target compound with an average removal efficiency of 86.49%.After adding H2S in Stage Ⅱ, removal efficiency of toluene decreased immediately and recovered gradually to 85.96%.When the inlet concentration of toluene and H2S was increased in Stage Ⅲ and Stage Ⅳ, respectively, the average removal efficiency for toluene increased continuously from 86.31% to 87.24%.The elimination capacities of toluene increased with increasing inlet loading rates of toluene and H2S.Results of the PCR-DGGE analysis showed a turnover growth and decline of the microbial populations in the bioreactor.In Stage Ⅰ, the dominant toluene-degrading bacteria mainly contained Pseudomonas sp.strain PS+ and Hydrogenophaga sp.In Stage Ⅳ, however, the dominant toluene-degrading bacteria was aciduric bacteria (Clostridium populeti).The dominant microbial community in the bioreactor enhanced the elimination capacity of toluene, and adding H2S changed the environment of microbial growth, thus resulted in an evolution of dominant microorganisms.Analyses of microbial community and their activities provides valuable information to efficiently enhance simultaneous removal of toluene and H2S in the bioreactor.

  6. Impulse Voltage/Current Measuring Software Based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的冲击电压/电流波形测量软件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁非; 龙兆芝; 胡丹晖

    2014-01-01

    %,1. 5%,-0. 17%,and 1. 0% respectively,which indicates that all the calculat-ing deviations are smaller than the maximum errors provided in standard. In addition,according to the calculated re-sults on typical waveforms of chopped lightning impulse( LIC),impulse current( IC),and Switching impulse wave ( SI),the software can be used to calculate variety of waveforms of impulse voltage/current. The parameters comparing results show that the reference software basically meet the requirements of IEC standard except for some great devia-tions of calculation on overshoot,which proves that the developed measuring software in this paper has reached the ad-vanced level in the data calculation of the impulse waveform.

  7. Characteristics of corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h). The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism.

  8. Characteristics of corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Li

    Full Text Available Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h. The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism.

  9. Effect of simultaneous application of mycorrhiza with compost, vermicompost and sulfural geranole on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. in a low input cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P rezvani moghaddam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In recent years, by increasing human knowledge and using different technology on food production, human concerns have increased on safety of food products especially medicinal crops. In order to achieve healthy food production, application of ecological inputs such as organic and biological fertilizers are inevitable. Organic fertilizers are fertilizer compounds that contain one or more kinds of organic matter. They can improve the soil ability to hold water and nutrients. They create a beneficial environment for earthworms and microbial organisms that break the soil down into rich, fine humus (Motta & Magggiore, 2013. Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost can greatly enhance the physical structure of soil. The addition of compost may provide greater drought resistance and more efficient water utilization. Vermicompost is the final product of composting organic material using different types of worms, such as red wigglers or earthworms, to create a homogenized blend of decomposed vegetable and food waste, bedding materials and manure. Vermicompost helps store nutrients and keeps them safe from leaching and irrigation, functioning to balance hormones within plant physiology, and adding beneficial biology to soil (Raja Sekar & Karmegan, 2010. Mycorrhiza arbuscular fungi are other coexist microorganisms that improves soil fertility, nutrients cycling and agroecosystem health. Mycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant organisms in agricultural soils. Many researchers have pointed to the positive roles of mycorrhizal fungi on plants growth characteristics. Despite of many researches on the effect of organic and biological fertilizers on different crops, information on the effects of these fertilizers for many medicinal plants is scarce, therefore, in this study the effect of simultaneous application of mycorrhiza with compost, vermicompost and sulfural geranole on some

  10. Simultaneous use of several monitoring techniques to measure visitor load, spatio-temporal distribution and social characteristics of tourists - a case study of a cable car area in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowska, Karolina; Zięba, Antoni; Brandenburg, Christiane; Muhar, Andreas; Preisel, Hemma; Hibner, Joanna; Latosinska, Barbara; Benítez, Rafael; Bolós, Vicente; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Ziobrowski, Szymon

    2017-04-01

    Visitor monitoring is an integrate part of the effective management of recreational and protected areas. Comprehensive information concerning volume of tourist traffic, spatial-temporal distribution of visitors in a leisure setting as well as visitor socio-demographic characteristics may support understanding human behaviour and the ongoing natural processes (trail deterioration, erosion, impact on flora and fauna). Especially, vulnerable areas that in the same time serve as tourist attractions need to be carefully investigated. One of such areas is Kasprowy Wierch (1987 m.a.s.l.) - a popular cable car destination located in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park, Poland / Slovakia. The aim of this study was to define the overall visitor load and to understand visitor behaviour in the proximity of the upper cable car station at Kasprowy Wierch. The main focus of this presentation is the comparison of the used monitoring techniques and exposing the benefit of their simultaneous application. Visitor monitoring campaign was carried out in the study area in the summer season 2014. The following data collection techniques were simultaneously applied: 1) automatic counting (Eco-Counter pyroelectric sensors), 2) manual counting; 3) on-site interviews combined with trip diaries and visitor observation 4) GPS-tracking 5) registry of cable car tickets 6) registry of entries to the national park (TPN). Between 26.06.2014 and 30.09.2014 at 7 locations a continuous automatic counting of visitors was done using pyroelectric sensors (Eco-Counter). Additionally, on 18 sampling days at 12 locations direct observations (manual counting) of visitor flows was carried out. During the sampling days tourists were interviewed in the field using structured questionnaires (PAPI survey technique, N = 2639). Survey was combined with a documentation of visitors' trip itineraries via GPS-loggers and map sketches. Totally 1250 GPS-tracks of visitors and 1351 map sketches have been

  11. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  12. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  13. Measurement system for determination of current-voltage characteristics of PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzkowski, Adam; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Borawski, Mateusz; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2015-09-01

    The realization of a laboratory stand for testing photovoltaic panels is presented here. The project of the laboratory stand was designed in SolidWorks software. The aim of the project was to control the electrical parameters of a PV panel. For this purpose a meter that measures electrical parameters i.e. voltage, current and power, was realized. The meter was created with the use of LabJack DAQ device and LabVIEW software. The presented results of measurements were obtained in different conditions (variable distance from the source of light, variable tilt angle of the panel). Current voltage characteristics of photovoltaic panel were created and all parameters could be detected in different conditions. The standard uncertainties of sample voltage, current, power measurements were calculated. The paper also gives basic information about power characteristics and efficiency of a solar cell.

  14. Simultaneous consolidation and creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    Materials that exhibit creep under constant effective stress typically also show rate dependent behavior. The creep deformations and the rate sensitive behavior is very important when engineering and geological problems with large time scales are considered. When stress induced compaction...... (consolidation) is retarded by slow drainage of excess pore pressure it is expected that consolidation and creep occur simultaneously. A constitutive model adressing the problems of rate sensitive behavior and simultaneous consolidation and creep is presented....

  15. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Allen I.

    2008-01-01

    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  16. Teaching Voltage-Current Relationships without Ohm's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIldowie, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a course based on a series of experiments in which students are introduced to the behavior of electrical components without any references to Ohm's law. Argues that this approach has advantages over the traditional presentation. (DDR)

  17. Spatially resolved voltage, current and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerteisen, D.; Kurz, T.; Schwager, M.; Hebling, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Merida, W. [Clean Energy Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lupotto, P. [Materials Mates Italia, Milano (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    In this work a 50-channel characterisation system for PEMFCs is presented. The system is capable of traditional electrochemical measurements (e.g. staircase voltammetry, chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry), and concurrent EIS measurements. Unlike previous implementations, this system relies on dedicated potentiostats for current and voltage control, and independent frequency response analysers (FRAs) at each channel. Segmented fuel cell hardware is used to illustrate the system's flexibility and capabilities. The results here include steady-state data for cell characterisation under galvanostatic and potentiostatic control as well as spatially resolved impedance spectra. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Electrochemical sensing using voltage-current time differential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl

    2017-02-28

    A device for signal processing. The device includes a signal generator, a signal detector, and a processor. The signal generator generates an original waveform. The signal detector detects an affected waveform. The processor is coupled to the signal detector. The processor receives the affected waveform from the signal detector. The processor also compares at least one portion of the affected waveform with the original waveform. The processor also determines a difference between the affected waveform and the original waveform. The processor also determines a value corresponding to a unique portion of the determined difference between the original and affected waveforms. The processor also outputs the determined value.

  19. Simultaneous Interval Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jampani, Krishnam Raju

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper, we introduced the simultaneous representation problem (defined for any graph class C) and studied the problem for chordal, comparability and permutation graphs. For interval graphs, the problem is defined as follows. Two interval graphs G_1 and G_2, sharing some vertices I (and the corresponding induced edges), are said to be `simultaneous interval graphs' if there exist interval representations R_1 and R_2 of G_1 and G_2, such that any vertex of I is mapped to the same interval in both R_1 and R_2. Equivalently, G_1 and G_2 are simultaneous interval graphs if there exist edges E' between G_1-I and G_2-I such that G_1 \\cup G_2 \\cup E' is an interval graph. Simultaneous representation problems are related to simultaneous planar embeddings, and have applications in any situation where it is desirable to consistently represent two related graphs, for example: interval graphs capturing overlaps of DNA fragments of two similar organisms; or graphs connected in time, where one is an updated versi...

  20. Simultaneous Multiagent Hyperpolarized 13C Perfusion Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert A.; Reed, Galen D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate simultaneous hyperpolarization and imaging of three 13C-labeled perfusion MRI contrast agents with dissimilar molecular structures ([13C]urea, [13C]hydroxymethyl cyclopropane, and [13C]t-butanol) and correspondingly variable chemical shifts and physiological characteristic...

  1. Geodesics of simultaneity in Schwarzschild

    CERN Document Server

    Paiva, F M

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic of simultaneity is a spacelike geodesic in which every pair of neighbour events are simultaneous ($g_{0\\mu}\\dd x^\\mu=0$). These geodesics are studied in the exterior region of \\Sch's metric.

  2. Simultaneous immunization against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Z Tchilian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them.

  3. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  4. Note on Magnetism and Simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    The paper on "Magnetism and Simultaneity" by Adler provides an excellent new thought experiment involving the lack of simultaneity in Einstein's special relativity. Adler uses the lack of simultaneity rather than the Lorentz contraction to derive the formula for the magnetic force on a moving charged particle. Advantages of his derivation are that…

  5. Simultaneous Quantum Duel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Wagner F.; Huguenin, José A. O.; Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We quantize the classical game of simultaneous two-person duel. In this game, the players Alice and Bob, have a two level system, for example, a spin 1/2 particle, which models alive and dead states. Through physical considerations we write up the unitary operator which represents the classical action of firing, which quantum mechanically is represented by flipping the opponent's spin and test its classical limits. We study three representative special cases of such duel where players start the duel: both alive; in a Bell state; and when one of them has her skills decreasing along the duel. We also present a proposal of experimental realization of this quantum game using twin photons produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion.

  6. Evaluation of Some Agroecological Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. as Affected by Simultaneous Application of Water-Saving Superabsorbent Hydrogel in Soil and Foliar Application of Humic Acid under Different Irrigation Intervals in a Low Inp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to lamiaceae family. This plant is native of India country and other countries in south of Asia. Nowadays, the use of water superabsorbent polymers is increased in agriculture and their role in reducing the drought stress and increasing the crops production has been demonstrated in many researches. Superabsorbent polymers can absorb lots of water and keep it in their structure and give it to plant under drought stress conditions (9. Humic substances are a group of heterogeneous molecules that are bonded together by weak forces, therefore they have high chemical stability. Humic acid comprise 65 to 80 percent of total soil organic matter (6. According to medicinal importance of Basil and its roles in the food and pharmaceutical industries, beside the limited water resources and need to increase water use efficiency through using ecological inputs, this study designed and conducted aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of Basil as affected by application of water-saving superabsorbent and humic acid under irrigation intervals. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effects of different amounts of water-saving superabsorbent and foliar application of humic acid and irrigation intervals on some quantitative characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., a split strip plot experiment was conducted based on RCBD design with three replications at The Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2012-13. Experimental factors included three levels of water-saving superabsorbent (0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 as the main plot factor, two levels of humic acid (0 and 3 kg ha-1 as the sub plot factor and two levels of irrigation interval (5 and 10 days as the strip plot factor. Studied traits were seed number and weight per plant, plant height, number of lateral branches per plant, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index

  7. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, M.; Breuer, F.; Koopmans, P.J.; Norris, David Gordon; Poser, B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have

  8. The electric characteristics simulation and structural parameters calculation of Si-based stabilitron with stabilizing voltage 6,5 V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koritko N. N.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an optimization simulation of original manufacturing process and electric characteristics of stabilitrons with stabilizing voltage Ust=(6,5±0,5 V are presented. The flow of manufacturing process of simulated stabilitron includes the n+-type guard rings regions formation in the р-type substrate; the р–n-junction formation in the р-type substrate; intermediate oxide formation; metal deposition. The stabilizing voltage and differential resistance of the stabilitron voltage-current characteristic reverse branch values were received as the result of calculations at the normal, reduced and high temperature.

  9. A Study on Process Characteristics and Performance of Hot Wire Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process for High Temperature Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban MR,Anantha; Neelakandan, Baskar; Kandasamy,Devakumaran

    2016-01-01

    Hot wire gas tungsten arc welding (HW-GTAW) process is the one where the filler wire is pre-heated close to its melting point before it is fed in to the arc. The effect of HW-GTAW parameters such as welding current, hot wire current and the wire feed rate during welding of super ASS 304H stainless steel tubes were evaluated in terms of heat input, voltage-current (V-I) characteristics and weld bead characteristics such as bead weight and geometry. The results obtained indicate that for a cons...

  10. Relationships between Harmonic Characteristics and Different Types of Voltage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusniati Yusniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about harmonic characteristics due to different types of voltage sources. Usually, the voltage source is sinusoidal. But in actual condition the load that receive voltage sources through the elements where the output voltage of element as input to the load is not pure sinusoidal, for example voltage source at  (PCC between transformer and linear load and nonlinear load. This research has been done with Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer and PM300 Power Quality Analyzer, was focused to all harmonic characteristics as power, voltage, current, power factor (p.f., Harmonic Distortion, and harmonic energy losses cost. The load is Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD because the Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD is one of electronic device causes harmonics. The voltage sources in this research are sine wave, square wave and harmonic order combinations of 3rd, 5th and 7th which can create from Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer.

  11. Relationships between Harmonic Characteristics and Different Types of Voltage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafruddin H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about harmonic characteristics due to different types of voltage sources. Usually, the voltage source is sinusoidal. But in actual condition the load that receive voltage sources through the elements where the output voltage of element as input to the load is not pure sinusoidal, for example voltage source at  (PCC between transformer and linear load and nonlinear load. This research has been done with Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer and PM300 Power Quality Analyzer, was focused to all harmonic characteristics as power, voltage, current, power factor (p.f., Harmonic Distortion, and harmonic energy losses cost. The load is Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD because the Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD is one of electronic device causes harmonics. The voltage sources in this research are sine wave, square wave and harmonic order combinations of 3rd, 5th and 7th which can create from Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer.

  12. Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The publication of the Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations, began July 1, 1875, with daily maps added in 1877. It was published for distribution...

  13. Simultaneous Intussusception in Monozygotic Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Kaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, it was aimed to present the simultaneously occurring intussusception in the monozygotic twins. In addition to genetic predisposition, environmental factors has been hypothesized to be responsible for the development of the disease.

  14. Simultaneous structure and texture image inpainting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalmio, Marcelo; Vese, Luminita; Sapiro, Guillermo; Osher, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm for the simultaneous filling-in of texture and structure in regions of missing image information is presented in this paper. The basic idea is to first decompose the image into the sum of two functions with different basic characteristics, and then reconstruct each one of these functions separately with structure and texture filling-in algorithms. The first function used in the decomposition is of bounded variation, representing the underlying image structure, while the second function captures the texture and possible noise. The region of missing information in the bounded variation image is reconstructed using image inpainting algorithms, while the same region in the texture image is filled-in with texture synthesis techniques. The original image is then reconstructed adding back these two sub-images. The novel contribution of this paper is then in the combination of these three previously developed components, image decomposition with inpainting and texture synthesis, which permits the simultaneous use of filling-in algorithms that are suited for different image characteristics. Examples on real images show the advantages of this proposed approach.

  15. Some Results on the Simultaneous Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. R. Haddadi∗

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give some result on the simultaneous proximinal subset and simultaneous Chebyshev in the uniformly convex Banach space. Also we give relation between fixed point theory and simultaneous proximity.

  16. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchini, C.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; Wooldridge, J. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, P.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Lucas, C. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Lepadatu, S. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bikondoa, O.; Hase, T. P. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lesourd, M. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dontsov, D. [SIOS Meßtechnik GmbH, Am Vogelherd 46, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Cain, M. G. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Electrosciences Ltd., Farnham, Surrey GU9 9QT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  17. Discrete event simulation: Modeling simultaneous complications and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E.H.; Feenstra, T.L.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present an effective and elegant model approach to deal with specific characteristics of complex modeling. METHODS: A discrete event simulation (DES) model with multiple complications and multiple outcomes that each can occur simultaneously was developed. In this DES model parameters,

  18. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  19. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  20. Simultaneous stabilization using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, R.W.; Schmitendorf, W.E. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously stabilizing a set of plants using full state feedback. The problem is converted to a simple optimization problem which is solved by a genetic algorithm. Several examples demonstrate the utility of this method. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Local simultaneity in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivert, J.

    1980-07-01

    In this paper the existence of simultaneous points, in the Landau sense, in the neighborhood of an observer P is studied. It is shown that the set of such points has the structure of a regular submanifold of the space--time manifold.

  2. Simultaneous interpreting: A cognitive perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Groot, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is one of the most complex language tasks imaginable. During SI, one has to listen to and comprehend the input utterance in one language, keep it in working memory until it has been receded and can be produced in the other language, and produce the translation of an

  3. Envisioning Curriculum as Six Simultaneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanin; Conner, Lindsey; Mayo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the discourse of complexity thinking to envision curriculum as six partial and coupled facets that exist simultaneously: curriculum as structure, curriculum as process, curriculum as content, curriculum as teaching, curriculum as learning and curriculum as activity. Such a curriculum is emergent and self-organising. It is emergent…

  4. Best Practices and Simultaneous Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...

  5. Simultaneous interpreting: A cognitive perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K. Christoffels; A.M. de Groot

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is one of the most complex language tasks imaginable. During SI, one has to listen to and comprehend the input utterance in one language, keep it in working memory until it has been receded and can be produced in the other language, and produce the translation of an ea

  6. Simultaneous engineering; Simultaneous Engineering bei der Entwicklung der Motorenbaureihen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifenscheid, O. [Entwicklung Kommerzielle Motoren, MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    At a time when the German industry is faced with world-wide competition and the recent recession has not been fully overcome, the subject of simultaneous engineering is very popular. A series of punch words such as Lean Management, TQM, (Total Quality Management), Lean Production, KVP, Kaizen, Value Management, etc. are considered as synonyms for strategies by which product development is to be made more efficient and production more economical, faster and more flexible. In this respect the co-ordination between market, company the human element, procedure and structure play a major role. The present paper describes Simultaneous Enginering (SE) from the standpoint of the research engineer; provides information regarding the degree of implementation of SE at MTU and presents some of the author`s personal thoughts and experiences for discussion. (orig.)

  7. Study on the characteristics of simultaneous enhanced decolorization of azo dye and the prospect of bioelectricity generation by using the microbial fuel cells via AQDS%基于AQDS增强的微生物燃料电池同步降解刚果红染料和产电特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁梅; 王宝娥

    2013-01-01

    通过在微生物燃料电池(MFC)系统中添加氧化还原介体AQDS,探讨了AQDS对MFC同步降解刚果红染料和产电的影响.结果表明,与空白相比,添加0.005 mmol/L AQDS后,MFC最大功率密度从53.1 mW/m2增大至67 mW/m2,增大了26%;脱色速率从3.3mg/(L·h)增大至16.3 mg/(L·h),增大了400%.AQDS浓度增大至0.05 mmol/L时,MFC功率密度增大至100 mW/m2,进一步增大了49%;脱色速率增大至21.5 mg/(L·),进一步增大了32%.AQDS同时加速了电子由共基质(葡萄糖)到阳极和刚果红染料分子的传递,在减小阳极极化的同时加速了刚果红染料的还原脱色.%This paper intends to bring about our study of the characteristic features of simultaneous enhanced decolorization of azo dye and bioelectricity generation in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) by AQDS.As is known,MFC is a kind of promising biotechnology by using the microorganisms as catalysts to decompose organic substances for simultaneously generation of electric power.During simultaneous decolorization of azo dye and bioelectricity generation,the electron recovered from co-substrate,such as glucose,is divided into two sections:one portion is transferred to die azo dye molecule for reductive decolorization,whereas the other portion is transferred to the anodic electrode for electricity generation.Thus,the electronic transfer from thebacteria to azo dye and to anodic electrode is a technical procedure of rate-limitation as well as a promotion.In this paper,we have managed to enhance the decolorized azo dye and bioelectricity generation in the air-cathode single chambered MFC by adding 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid disodium salt (AQDS).Controlling the MFC (without addition of AQDS),we can add 0.005 mmol/L AQDS to enhancing the power density from 53.1 mW/m2 to 67 mW/m2 and 400% to raise the decolorization rate of Congo red to 37% from 3.3 mg/(L·h) to 16.3 mg/(L·h).And,in turn,the concentration of AQDS can be pushed up to

  8. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  9. Simultaneous epiglottitis and parotitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, D; Quartetti, E; Leikin, J B

    1990-05-01

    A patient presenting to the emergency department with simultaneous parotitis and epiglottitis is described. She underwent emergency airway intervention within 3 hours of presentation. This is the first case of simultaneous parotitis and epiglotitis. Diagnostic symptoms are discussed.

  10. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  11. Simultaneous optimization of dynamic bioprocesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.M. Riascos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the optimal control may introduce significant economical benefits into production processes, thus being an important and challenging research area with practical relevance. The modeling and optimization of biotechnological processes has been object of research and their related results have generated improvements in operating conditions and strategies, however, the inherent features of dynamical bioprocesses prevent the application of conventional optimization algorithms, hence making necessary the development of tailored methods and strategies. The objective of this work is to develop mathematical programming strategies for simultaneous optimization of dynamic systems and evaluate their computational performance. Simultaneous optimization with orthogonal collocation is applied to a simplified model for biosynthesis of penicillin from glucose, which was studied by Cuthrell and Biegler (1989. The results show that discretization of differential equations systems (DAE by orthogonal collocation in finite elements efficiently transforms dynamic optimization problems into nonlinear programming (NLP problems, enabling to solve complex problems with several control variables and minimizing the approximation error.

  12. Self-indicating, simultaneous multianalyte recognition using an ionic liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Andrew; Byrne, Robert; Diamond, Dermot; Radu, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Ionic Liquids (ILs) are the subject of increased diverse research worldwide due to many attractive inherent characteristics such as high thermal stability, negligible vapour pressure and physical and chemical diversity due to the many permutations possible1. We have studied the IL [P6,6,6,14][DCA] as a self-indicating, simultaneous, multianalyte recognition system for heavy metal ions such as Cu2+ and Co2+. When incorporated into a polymer membrane, this system maintains all these at...

  13. On the Language Direction in Chinese/ English Simultaneous Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 石新民

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze specifically the impact of language direction on professional Chinese/English interpreters' performance and strategy use through their experience of simultaneous interpreting in different language directions. Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a kind of translation that constituted by orally translating the message heard in one language into another language immediately and continuously, and at the meanwhile the message will not stop being produced. The unique characteristics of simultaneous interpretation and the various factors that will have great impact on the procession and performance of Chinese/English SI were taken into discussion. It should be noted that unlike in daily communication situations, comprehension and production are often overlapping in simultaneous interpreting. Concurrent comprehension of the source language and production of the target language is perhaps the most unique characteristic of the SI task. Drawn from the effort model proposed by Gile, simultaneous interpreting is accomplished by the sharing of four major efforts: listening and analyzing, production, memory, and coordination. In other words, while a comprehension problem will have a negative effect on production, a production problem also has consequences for comprehension. In this study I illustrate arguments for interpreting of LI to L2 and L2 to LI language respectively, described the studies about interpreters'strategy use and the relationship between language direction and SI strategy use. Interpreters'performance of simultaneous interpreting in different directions was determined by a few factors, including the context, personal factors, and interpreting norms. Studies showed that professional interpreters who must interpret regularly and simultaneously in both directions may develop strategic approaches to meet the dif- ferent demands of A - to - B and B - to - A interpreting. Strategy use can be defined in this study as any

  14. Esophageal contractions in type 3 achalasia esophagus: simultaneous or peristaltic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Patel, Nirali; Ledgerwood-Lee, Melissa; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2016-05-01

    Absence of peristalsis and impaired relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter are the hallmarks of achalasia esophagus. Based on the pressurization patterns, achalasia has been subdivided into three subtypes. The goal of our study was to evaluate the esophageal contraction pattern and bolus clearance in type 3 achalasia esophagus. High-resolution manometry (HRM) recordings of all patients diagnosed with achalasia esophagus in our center between the years 2011 and 2013 were reviewed. Recordings of 36 patients with type 3 achalasia were analyzed for the characteristics of swallow-induced "simultaneous esophageal contraction." The HRM impedance recordings of 14 additional patients with type 3 achalasia were analyzed for bolus clearance from the impedance recording. Finally, the HRM impedance along with intraluminal ultrasound imaging was conducted in six patients to further characterize the simultaneous esophageal contractions. Among 187 achalasia patients, 30 were type 1, 121 type 2, and 36 type 3. A total of 434 swallows evaluated in type 3 achalasia patients revealed that 95% of the swallow-induced contractions met criteria for simultaneous esophageal contraction, based on the onset of contraction. Interestingly, the peak and termination of the majority of simultaneous esophageal contractions were sequential. The HRM impedance revealed that 94% of the "simultaneous contractions" were associated with complete bolus clearance. Ultrasound image analysis revealed that baseline muscle thickness of patients in type 3 achalasia is larger than normal but the pattern of axial shortening is similar to that in normal subjects. The majority of esophageal contractions in type 3 achalasia are not true simultaneous contractions because the peak and termination of contraction are sequential and they are associated with complete bolus clearance.

  15. Simultaneous time-frequency control of bifurcation and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Kun; Suh, C. Steve

    2012-06-01

    Control scheme facilitated either in the time- or frequency-domain alone is insufficient in controlling route-to-chaos, where the corresponding response deteriorates in the time and frequency domains simultaneously. A novel chaos control scheme is formulated by addressing the fundamental characteristics inherent of chaotic response. The proposed control scheme has its philosophical basis established in simultaneous time-frequency control, on-line system identification, and adaptive control. Physical features that embody the concept include multiresolution analysis, adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter, and Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FXLMS) algorithm. A non-stationary Duffing oscillator is investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control methodology. Results presented herein indicate that for the control of dynamic instability including chaos to be deemed viable, mitigation has to be adaptive and engaged in the time and frequency domains at the same time.

  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer: simultaneous and sequential occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rossato Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer (LC is the leading cause of cancer-related death and represents a major public health problem worldwide. Another major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, is tuberculosis. The simultaneous or sequential occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis and LC in the same patient has been reported in various case series and case-control studies. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients developing tuberculosis and LC, either simultaneously or sequentially. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on the review of medical charts. RESULTS: The study involved 24 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and LC between 2009 and 2012. The diagnoses of tuberculosis and LC occurred simultaneously in 10 patients, whereas tuberculosis was diagnosed prior to LC in 14. The median time between the two diagnoses was 5 years (interquartile range: 1-30 years. Fourteen patients (58.3% were male, 20 (83.3% were White, and 22 (91.7% were smokers or former smokers. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, identified in 14 cases (58.3%, followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 6 (25.0%. Seven patients (29.2% presented with distant metastases at diagnosis; of those 7 patients, 5 (71% were diagnosed with LC and tuberculosis simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, most of the patients with tuberculosis and LC were smokers or former smokers, and tuberculosis was diagnosed either before or simultaneously with LC. Non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, was the most common histological type.

  17. Simultaneous diagonalization of two quaternion matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJianhua

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous diagonalization by congruence of pairs of Hermitian quatemion matrices is discussed. The problem is reduced to a parallel one on complex matrices by using the complex adjoint matrix related to each quatemion matrix. It is proved that any two semi-positive definite Hermitian quatemion matrices can be simultaneously diagonalized by congruence.

  18. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  19. Loudness estimation of simultaneous sources using beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for estimating the loudness of several simultaneous sound sources by means of microphone-array beamforming. The algorithm is derived from two listening experiments in which the loudness of two simultaneous sounds (narrow-band noises with 1-kHz and 3.15-kHz center frequenc...

  20. Simultaneous multislice excitation by parallel transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poser, Benedikt A; Anderson, Robert James; Guérin, Bastien; Setsompop, Kawin; Deng, Weiran; Mareyam, Azma; Serano, Peter; Wald, Lawrence L; Stenger, V Andrew

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: A technique is described for simultaneous multislice (SMS) excitation using radiofrequency (RF) parallel transmission (pTX). METHODS: Spatially distinct slices are simultaneously excited by applying different RF frequencies on groups of elements of a multichannel transmit array. The localiz

  1. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be...

  2. A brief analysis on the Simultaneous Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation (SI) is an intellectual activity which requires interpreter to translate form one language into another simultaneously. As the most challenged field of interpretation, SI is considered to be the highest level of language interpreting for it requires special quality of skills which can never be acquired without systematic and sophisticated training.

  3. Practical Considerations for Simultaneous LDV & PIV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothos, Stamatios; Boomsma, Aaron; Troolin, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements are useful for validation experiments and when correlating high temporal resolution measurements with large structures of the flow. Performing simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements can be a challenging task due to the differences in temporal and spatial resolution of each technique, as well as requirements for adequate signal. Even so, simultaneous hot-wire and PIV measurements is even more difficult. Unlike hot-wire, LDV is a non-intrusive technique that is unaffected by PIV laser light-sheet heating. Furthermore, hot-wire measurements are adversely affected by seeding particles in the flow required for PIV. In the present study, we discuss several practical considerations for performing simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements. We completed two separate experiments, each with different seeding densities, flow velocities, and working fluids. With these data sets, we studied the effects of temporal and spatial interpolation, up/down sampling, PIV window size and overlap on the simultaneous signals.

  4. Effect of high power CO2 and Yb:YAG laser radiation on the characteristics of TIG arc in atmospherical pressure argon and helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shikai; Xiao, Rongshi

    2015-04-01

    The effects of laser radiation on the characteristics of the DC tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc were investigated by applying a high power slab CO2 laser and a Yb:YAG disc laser. Experiment results reveal that the arc voltage-current curve shifts downwards, the arc column expands, and the arc temperature rises while the high power CO2 laser beam vertically interacts with the TIG arc in argon. With the increase of the laser power, the voltage-current curve of the arc shifts downwards more significantly, and the closer the laser beam impingement on the arc to the cathode, the more the decrease in arc voltage. Moreover, the arc column expansion and the arc temperature rise occur mainly in the region between the laser beam incident position and the anode. However, the arc characteristics hardly change in the cases of the CO2 laser-helium arc and YAG laser-arc interactions. The reason is that the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption coefficients are greatly different due to the different electron densities of the argon and helium arcs and the different wave lengths of CO2 and YAG lasers.

  5. The question of simultaneity in multisensory integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Lynnette; McCourt, Mark E.

    2012-03-01

    Early reports of audiovisual (AV) multisensory integration (MI) indicated that unisensory stimuli must evoke simultaneous physiological responses to produce decreases in reaction time (RT) such that for unisensory stimuli with unequal RTs the stimulus eliciting the faster RT had to be delayed relative to the stimulus eliciting the slower RT. The "temporal rule" states that MI depends on the temporal proximity of unisensory stimuli, the neural responses to which must fall within a window of integration. Ecological validity demands that MI should occur only for simultaneous events (which may give rise to non-simultaneous neural activations). However, spurious neural response simultaneities which are unrelated to singular environmental multisensory occurrences must somehow be rejected. Using an RT/race model paradigm we measured AV MI as a function of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA: +/-200 ms, 50 ms intervals) under fully dark adapted conditions for visual (V) stimuli that were either weak (scotopic 525 nm flashes; 511 ms mean RT) or strong (photopic 630 nm flashes; 356 ms mean RT). Auditory (A) stimulus (1000 Hz pure tone) intensity was constant. Despite the 155 ms slower mean RT to the scotopic versus photopic stimulus, facilitative AV MI in both conditions nevertheless occurred exclusively at an SOA of 0 ms. Thus, facilitative MI demands both physical and physiological simultaneity. We consider the mechanisms by which the nervous system may take account of variations in response latency arising from changes in stimulus intensity in order to selectively integrate only those physiological simultaneities that arise from physical simultaneities.

  6. An approach to directly probe simultaneity

    CERN Document Server

    Kipreos, Edward T

    2016-01-01

    The theory of special relativity derives from the Lorentz transformation. The Lorentz transformation implies differential simultaneity and light speed isotropy. Experiments to probe differential simultaneity should be able to distinguish the Lorentz transformation from a kinematically-similar alternate transformation that predicts absolute simultaneity, the absolute Lorentz transformation. Here, we describe how published optical tests of light speed isotropy/anisotropy cannot distinguish between the two transformations. We show that the shared equations of the two transformations, from the perspective of the "stationary" observer, are sufficient to predict null results in optical resonator experiments and in tests of frequency changes in one-way light paths. In an influential 1910 exposition on differential simultaneity, Comstock described how a "stationary" observer would observe different clock readings for spatially-separated "moving" clocks. The difference in clock readings is an integral aspect of differ...

  7. Simultaneous determination of protein structure and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; DePristo, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-for obtaining experimental information at ...

  8. Simultaneous sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Simon A; Richardson, Andrew G; Bizzi, Emilio; Press, Daniel Z

    2008-01-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning have often been treated as distinct forms of motor learning. But frequently the motor system must acquire both types of experience simultaneously. Here, we investigated the interaction of these two forms of motor learning by having subjects adapt to predictable forces imposed by a robotic manipulandum while simultaneously reaching to an implicit sequence of targets. We show that adaptation to novel dynamics and learning of a sequence of movements can occur simultaneously and without significant interference or facilitation. When both conditions were presented simultaneously to subjects, their trajectory error and reaction time decreased to the same extent as those of subjects who experienced the force field or sequence independently.

  9. Empirical Investigation into Simultaneous Interpreting Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Presents data concerning the first stages of an ongoing empirical investigation into simultaneous interpreting skills and the best methods and strategies for teaching it. Discusses underlying premises, hypotheses, and objectives of the study as it is now planned. (HB)

  10. Simultaneous estimation of experimental and material parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available to the experimental data. An inverse analysis is performed that determines material properties and boundary conditions simultaneously. This idea is investigated using virtual experimental data. The virtual experimental data is obtained by performing a finite element...

  11. Simultaneous DOA estimation based on Kolmogorov's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Nájar Martón, Montserrat; Lagunas Hernandez, Miguel A.

    1993-01-01

    The design of a new architecture for signal processing, based on the Kolmogorov's theorem (1957), is addressed. This architecture is applied to solve the problem of source separation. Particularly, an adaptive algorithm is proposed to separate simultaneously all the unknown impinging sources on an aperture of sensors. The implemented framework is composed of two different stages: the first one is the inhibition stage, which turns the problem of estimating simultaneous DOAs (directions of arri...

  12. An approach to directly probe simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipreos, Edward T.; Balachandran, Riju S.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of special relativity derives from the Lorentz transformation. The Lorentz transformation implies differential simultaneity and light speed isotropy. Experiments to probe differential simultaneity should be able to distinguish the Lorentz transformation from a kinematically-similar alternate transformation that predicts absolute simultaneity, the absolute Lorentz transformation. Here, we describe how published optical tests of light speed isotropy/anisotropy cannot distinguish between the two transformations. We show that the shared equations of the two transformations, from the perspective of the “stationary” observer, are sufficient to predict null results in optical resonator experiments and in tests of frequency changes in one-way light paths. In an influential 1910 exposition on differential simultaneity, Comstock described how a “stationary” observer would observe different clock readings for spatially-separated “moving” clocks. The difference in clock readings is an integral aspect of differential simultaneity. We derive the equation for the difference in clock readings and show that it is equivalent to the Sagnac correction that describes light speed anisotropies in satellite communications. We describe an experimental strategy that can measure the differences in spatially-separated clock times to allow a direct probe of the nature of simultaneity.

  13. Metal oxide surge arrester model with active V-I characteristics; Sanka aenkei hiraiki dotokusei model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, T.; Funabashi, T.; Watanabe, H.; Takeuchi, N. [Meidensha Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-11-20

    Generally a model of Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for numerical analysis uses a non-linear resistance. But actual Voltage-Current (V-I) characteristics of MOSA have hysteresis loop in time domain like i-{Phi} characteristic of a transformer and frequency dependency. The authors have investigated relation between the actual V-I hysteresis characteristics obtained by some current waveforms and static V-I characteristics. From the voltage difference between above two characteristics, an equation was derived and a new model of MOSA was developed. This model consists of a non-linear resistance representing fundamental V-I characteristic, a linear inductance and voltage source which depends on the absorbed energy. The calculated results by the proposed model are compared with measurement results by using the waveform of standard impulse current, steep front current and oscillated current. And the accuracy of the model has been confirmed to be satisfactory. The model is expected to be useful to investigate insulation coordination of power systems. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The characteristics of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese blood donors: a follow-up study of donors tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous nucleic acid testing of HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaofu; Fu, Ping; Yin, Yijin; Wang, Funeng; Yin, Yiqing; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    The real infection status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative yet nucleic acid test (NAT)-positive blood donors is difficult to clarify. Detailed follow-up study is needed for analyzing the infectivity of these blood donors. Blood donors who screened negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were included in a follow-up epidemiologic questionnaire survey and contributed follow-up samples for further testing. The follow-up samples were tested repeatedly for the serologic markers and HBV DNA. The genotypes and sequence mutations of HBV infected by 11 HBV DNA-positive donors were analyzed through the amplification and sequencing of HBV S region. Of the 46 donors included in this study, 89.1% were infected with HBV (41/46), including one (2.2%) window period infection, three (6.5%) recovered infections, and 37 (80.4%) occult HBV infections (OBIs). The S region of HBV was successfully amplified and sequenced for seven donors, five infected with Genotype B (71.4%), one with Genotype C (14.3%), and one with Genotype D (14.3%). Mutations in the S region were detected in four donors (57.1%) CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed study with multiple follow-up testing of the HBV infection status among blood donors who were tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, HCV, and HIV. Most of these donors were infected with HBV with very low viral load. Our findings indicate that it is important to improve the sensitivity of NAT so as to decrease the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  15. Learner Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Drachsler, H., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Learner Characteristics. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Volume 4 (pp. 1743-1745). New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_347

  16. Perioperative safety of two-team simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty in the obese patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaines Steven T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality with simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty remain a concern, multiple studies have shown the procedure to be safe in selected patient populations. Evidence also remains mixed regarding the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty in obese patients. The purpose of this paper is to compare the rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality in consecutive obese patients undergoing two-team simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty and unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Methods The records on all two-team simultaneous total knee arthroplasties and unilateral total knee arthroplasties from October 1997 to December 2007 were reviewed. A total of 151 patients with a body mass index (BMI >30 undergoing two-team simultaneous total knee arthroplasty and 148 patients with a BMI >30 undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed to determine perioperative morbidity and mortality as well as one-year mortality rates. Results Preoperative patient characteristics did not show any significant differences between groups. The simultaneous bilateral group had significantly longer operative times (127.4 versus 112.7 minutes, p Conclusions Two-team simultaneous total knee arthroplasty appears to be safe in obese patients, with similar complication rates as compared to unilateral procedures. Two-team simultaneous total knee arthroplasty also appears to have potential benefits over a staged procedure in the obese patient, although more study is required regarding this topic.

  17. Alterations in audiovisual simultaneity perception in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual impairment that is increasingly recognized to affect higher-level perceptual and multisensory processes. To further investigate the audiovisual (AV) perceptual impairments associated with this condition, we characterized the temporal interval in which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are perceived as simultaneous 50% of the time (i.e., the AV simultaneity window). Adults with unilateral amblyopia (n = 17) and visually normal controls (n = 17) judged the simultaneity of a flash and a click presented with both eyes viewing. The signal onset asynchrony (SOA) varied from 0 ms to 450 ms for auditory-lead and visual-lead conditions. A subset of participants with amblyopia (n = 6) was tested monocularly. Compared to the control group, the auditory-lead side of the AV simultaneity window was widened by 48 ms (36%; p = 0.002), whereas that of the visual-lead side was widened by 86 ms (37%; p = 0.02). The overall mean window width was 500 ms, compared to 366 ms among controls (37% wider; p = 0.002). Among participants with amblyopia, the simultaneity window parameters were unchanged by viewing condition, but subgroup analysis revealed differential effects on the parameters by amblyopia severity, etiology, and foveal suppression status. Possible mechanisms to explain these findings include visual temporal uncertainty, interocular perceptual latency asymmetry, and disruption of normal developmental tuning of sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony.

  18. Simultaneous measurement of hysteresis in capillary pressure and electric permittivity for multiphase flow through porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.C.; Bruining, J.; Moreno Tirado, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a tool that simultaneously measures the complex permittivity and the capillary pressure characteristics for multiphase flow. The sample holder is a parallel plate capacitor. A precision component analyzer is used to measure the impedance amplitude and phase angle as a function of frequenc

  19. Analyzing phonetic variation in the traditional English dialects : Simultaneously clustering dialects and phonetic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Shackleton, Robert G.; Nerbonne, John

    This study explores the linguistic application of bipartite spectral graph partitioning, a graph-theoretic technique that simultaneously identifies clusters of similar localities as well as clusters of features characteristic of those localities. We compare the results using this approach with

  20. Electronic realisation of recurrent neural network for solving simultaneous linear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    1992-02-01

    An electronic neural network for solving simultaneous linear equations is presented. The proposed electronic neural network is able to generate real-time solutions to large-scale problems. The operating characteristics of an opamp based neural network is demonstrated via an illustrative example.

  1. Research on Working out Passenger and Goods Train Diagram with Computer Simultaneously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Qiyuan; Wang Pei; Nie Xunhuang

    1996-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the railway traffic organization in China, we have studied the use of computer in making train working graph. In this paper, by analysing influences on line carrying capacities when making train working graph with two steps, we put forward a new method to work out passenger and goods train working graph simultaneously and state its principle and solution.

  2. Analyzing phonetic variation in the traditional English dialects : Simultaneously clustering dialects and phonetic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Shackleton, Robert G.; Nerbonne, John

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the linguistic application of bipartite spectral graph partitioning, a graph-theoretic technique that simultaneously identifies clusters of similar localities as well as clusters of features characteristic of those localities. We compare the results using this approach with previ

  3. The Goodness of Simultaneous Fits in ISIS

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Matthias; Grossberger, Christoph; Ballhausen, Ralf; Dauser, Thomas; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E; Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Torrejón, José Miguel; Fürst, Felix; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger; Kretschmar, Peter; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work, we introduced a tool for analyzing multiple datasets simultaneously, which has been implemented into ISIS. This tool was used to fit many spectra of X-ray binaries. However, the large number of degrees of freedom and individual datasets raise an issue about a good measure for a simultaneous fit quality. We present three ways to check the goodness of these fits: we investigate the goodness of each fit in all datasets, we define a combined goodness exploiting the logical structure of a simultaneous fit, and we stack the fit residuals of all datasets to detect weak features. These tools are applied to all RXTE-spectra from GRO 1008-57, revealing calibration features that are not detected significantly in any single spectrum. Stacking the residuals from the best-fit model for the Vela X-1 and XTE J1859+083 data evidences fluorescent emission lines that would have gone undetected otherwise.

  4. THE GOODNESS OF SIMULTANEOUS FITS IN ISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kühnel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work, we introduced a tool for analyzing multiple datasets simultaneously, which has been implemented into ISIS. This tool was used to fit many spectra of X-ray binaries. However, the large number of degrees of freedom and individual datasets raise an issue about a good measure for a simultaneous fit quality. We present three ways to check the goodness of these fits: we investigate the goodness of each fit in all datasets, we define a combined goodness exploiting the logical structure of a simultaneous fit, and we stack the fit residuals of all datasets to detect weak features. These tools are applied to all RXTE-spectra from GRO 1008−57, revealing calibration features that are not detected significantly in any single spectrum. Stacking the residuals from the best-fit model for the Vela X-1 and XTE J1859+083 data evidences fluorescent emission lines that would have gone undetected otherwise.

  5. Simultaneous sampling technique for two spectral sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olin, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is described that uses a bundle of fiber optics to simultaneously sample a dye laser and a spectral lamp. By the use of a real-time display with this technique, the two signals can be superimposed, and the effect of any spectral adjustments can be immediately accessed. In the NASA's CARS system used for combustion diagnostics, the dye laser mixes with a simultaneously pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm to probe the vibrational levels of nitrogen. An illustration of the oscilloscopic display of the system is presented.

  6. Simultaneous wireless electrophysiological and neurochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Kartikeya; Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Thakor, Nitish; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2008-08-01

    Information processing and propagation in the central nervous system is mostly electrical in nature. At synapses, electrical signals cause the release of neurotransmitters like dopamine, glutamate etc., that are sensed by post-synaptic neurons resulting in signal propagation or inhibition. It can be very informative to monitor electrical and neurochemical signals simultaneously to understand the mechanisms underlying normal or abnormal brain function. We present an integrated system for the simultaneous wireless acquisition of neurophysiological and neurochemical activity. Applications of the system to neuroscience include monitoring EEG and glutamate in rat somatosensory cortex following global ischemia.

  7. Analysis of the Electromagnetic Band-gap Structure for Simultaneous Switching Noise Suppression and Transmission Characteristic in High-speed Printed Circuit Board%高速印刷电路板中电磁带隙结构的同步开关噪声抑制和传输特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冬初; 李玉山; 路建民; 丁同浩

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of the Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structure composed of regular hexagonal patches is analyzed in the frequency domain and time domain. Respective influences of the side length of patches, space between patches and the radius of vias on the band-gap and transmission characteristics are investigated from the theory of the equivalent circuit. Mathematical expressions which estimate accurately the upper and lower cutoff frequency and bandwidth of the band gap for different side lengths of patches are obtained and verified. Studies show that space between patches changes the bandwidth, but has no influence on the characteristics of the left part of the band gap. When the radius of vias is reduced, the band-gap shifts left and becomes narrow. Finally, The time-domain characteristic of the signal transmission line using EBG structure as a return path is also analyzed. Experiments show that the smaller the period of structure, the worse the signal quality.%  该文从频域和时域两方面对一种正六边形贴片的电磁带隙(EBG)结构进行了特性分析和研究。利用等效电路理论分析和研究了贴片边长、贴片间距和过孔半径对该结构的带隙和传输特性的各自不同的影响,得到并验证了准确估算不同贴片边长带隙的上、下限频率和带宽的数学表达式。研究表明可以通过贴片间距来改变带宽,但不影响带隙左侧特性,过孔半径的缩小会导致带隙左移并变窄。最终分析了以 EBG 结构为返回路径的信号线的时域特性,实验证明 EBG 结构的周期越小,信号的传输质量越差。

  8. Effect of current-voltage characteristics on plasma reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, N. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Environmental System Engineering; Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Environmental System Research Division; Hur, M.; Kim, K.T.; Kim, S.J.; Song, Y.H. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Environmental System Research Division

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the energy costs associated with plasma fuel reforming can vary depending on the type of plasma generation technique. The reasons for the different energy costs, however, are not yet clear, since different types of plasma reactor lead to not only different plasma conditions but also lead to different reaction conditions that is not relevant to plasma, such as gas residence time, heat and mass flow conditions. This paper presented the results of a parametric study on methane partial oxidation which was conducted to determine the optimal operating conditions and geometrical design of an arc jet plasma fuel reformer. The arc reactor used in this study was designed to control various operating parameters such as arc length, gas residence time, and gas mixing. Two different types of power supply were tested, notably one that produced high voltage with low current, and one that produced relatively low voltage and high current. The effects of these different voltage-current characteristics on gas reforming process were analyzed based on methane conversion rates, selectivity of products, and thermal efficiencies. The study showed that the input power but not the voltage plays an important role in the present partial oxidation process. The gas residence time was also found to be an important factor in controlling the reformer process. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Sequentiality versus simultaneity: Interrelated factor demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asphjell, M.K.; Letterie, W.A.; Nilsen, O.A.; Pfann, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Firms may adjust capital and labor sequentially or simultaneously. In this paper, we develop a structural model of interrelated factor demand subject to nonconvex adjustment costs and estimated by simulated method of moments. Based on Norwegian manufacturing industry plant-level data, parameter

  10. Simultaneous occurrence of distinct symmetries in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2015-01-01

    We show that distinct emergent symmetries, such as partial dynamical symmetry and quasi dynamical symmetry, can occur simultaneously in the same or different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Implications for nuclear spectroscopy in the rare-earth region and for first-order quantum phase transitions between spherical and deformed shapes, are considered.

  11. Problems at simultaneous interpreting education: linguadidactic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishkova Elena Jurievna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problems which students are facing while mastering the skills of a simultaneous interpreting. The article offers a number of exercises to help solve these problems. The authors underline that it is hardly possible to prepare professional simultaneous interpreters among undergraduates for some reasons, and above all because of insufficient time and absence of technical equipment. Nevertheless, the authors conclude by stating the importance of systematic development of students' perceptive skills, attention, memory and reaction required for providing simultaneous interpreting. The main difficulties in simultaneous interpreting training can be connected with three stages of interpreting: listening, comprehension and speaking. Listening challenges deal with a bad speaker’s pronunciation, some technical problems, as well as regional accents or pigeons. As for comprehension problems they are usually connected with the fact that the interpreter isn’t well grounded in the discussion topic, or he isn’t good at topic terminology. It stands to reason that a well-skilled interpreter should prepare to the interpreting topic beforehand. Speaking difficulties can be connected with a poor interpreter’s pronunciation, often caused a stress factor and a lack of topic knowledge. As a rule an excellent pronunciation, a good articulation and a trained voice are necessary for a professional interpreter. The main principal of training exercises given in this article covers all interpreting difficulties mentioned above.

  12. Queues and risk models with simultaneous arrivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badila, E.S.; Boxma, O.J.; Resing, J.A.C.; Winands, E.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    We focus on a particular connection between queueing and risk models in a multidimensional setting. We first consider the joint workload process in a queueing model with parallel queues and simultaneous arrivals at the queues. For the case that the service times are ordered (from largest in the firs

  13. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination in Asian Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U. Tin; Htun, U. Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants ("Elephas aximus") in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black- discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white- discrimination in 5.3…

  14. Einstein Synchronisation and the Conventionality of Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Domazet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a broad-range title the paper settles for the related issue of whether the Special Theory of Relativity (STR necessarily advocates the demise of an ontological difference between past and future events, between past and future in general. In the jargon of H. Stein: are we forced, within the framework of the STR, to choose only between ‘solipsism’ and ‘determinism’ exclusively? A special emphasis is placed on the role that the conventionality of simultaneity plays in the STR with regards to this question. The standard arguments rely on the relativity of simultaneity, the claim that the STR negates the existence of a universal ‘present’ that divides the ‘past’ and the ‘future’, so as to conclude that there is no ontological difference between past and future events, that both are equally determined/real (‘determinism’. This often neglects the fact that to establish the ontological claims related to relativity of simultaneity, one must first resolve the issues of conventionality of simultaneity within the STR. The paper will aim to show that by addressing the issue of conventionality from Dummett’s ‘purely philosophical’ determination of the difference between the past and the future, we develop an understanding of the said difference, within the framework of the STR, beyond the (unwanted strict ontological dichotomy of ‘solipsism/determinism’, given that the criterion that is provided by the STR is understood as epistemic and not ontological.

  15. Sequentiality versus simultaneity: Interrelated factor demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asphjell, M.K.; Letterie, W.A.; Nilsen, O.A.; Pfann, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Firms may adjust capital and labor sequentially or simultaneously. In this paper, we develop a structural model of interrelated factor demand subject to nonconvex adjustment costs and estimated by simulated method of moments. Based on Norwegian manufacturing industry plant-level data, parameter esti

  16. Simultaneous confidence bands for log-logistic regression with applications in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Lucy X

    2017-05-01

    In risk assessment, it is often desired to make inferences on the low dose levels at which a specific benchmark risk is attained. Applications of simultaneous hyperbolic confidence bands for low-dose risk estimation with quantal data under different dose-response models (multistage, Abbott-adjusted Weibull, and Abbott-adjusted log-logistic models) have appeared in the literature. The use of simultaneous three-segment bands under the multistage model has also been proposed recently. In this article, we present explicit formulas for constructing asymptotic one-sided simultaneous hyperbolic and three-segment bands for the simple log-logistic regression model. We use the simultaneous construction to estimate upper hyperbolic and three-segment confidence bands on extra risk and to obtain lower limits on the benchmark dose by inverting the upper bands on risk under the Abbott-adjusted log-logistic model. Monte Carlo simulations evaluate the characteristics of the simultaneous limits. An example is given to illustrate the use of the proposed methods and to compare the two types of simultaneous limits at very low dose levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simultaneous 2D Strain Sensing Using Polymer Planar Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosenberger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain.

  18. Simultaneous Co-Clustering and Classification in Customers Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggistia, M.; Saefuddin, A.; Sartono, B.

    2017-04-01

    Building predictive model based on the heterogeneous dataset may yield many problems, such as less precise in parameter and prediction accuracy. Such problem can be solved by segmenting the data into relatively homogeneous groups and then build a predictive model for each cluster. The advantage of using this strategy usually gives result in simpler models, more interpretable, and more actionable without any loss in accuracy and reliability. This work concerns on marketing data set which recorded a customer behaviour across products. There are some variables describing customer and product as attributes. The basic idea of this approach is to combine co-clustering and classification simultaneously. The objective of this research is to analyse the customer across product characteristics, so the marketing strategy implemented precisely.

  19. Simultaneous Measurements of Electrostatic and Magnetic Fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade Edge Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Codrina; Vianello, Nicola; Müller, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    in such a way that simultaneously the poloidal and radial electric field components, the ion saturation current and the current-voltage characteristic can be registered. During the AUG discharges of 7 s lengths the probe head is inserted two to three times for 100 ms each by the midplane manipulator......In ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in the edge plasma region were measured simultaneously during ELMy H-mode (high confinement) plasmas and L-mode (low confinement) plasmas and during a transition between the two modes. A special probe was used containing six Langmuir...

  20. First simultaneous measurements of thermospheric winds and zonal ion drifts from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriwether, John; Baker, Brooke; Twork, Greg; Chau, Jorge; Veliz, Oskar; Woodman, Ronald; Hedden, Russell; Hysell, David

    The first simultaneous observations of thermospheric winds and zonal ion drifts have been ob-tained at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory using a new Fabry-Perot interferometer observatory installed on a mountain ridge overlooking the valley where the JRO radar is located. The re-sults show that the neutral winds and ion drifts generally have the same speed and temporal variation characteristics. These results illustrate the simultaneous detection of the midnight temperature maximum as well. The paper will also describe efforts to obtain common volume measurements of thermospheric winds and temperatures utilizing the FPI Arequipa observatory which is located 4 degrees south of the geomagnetic equator.

  1. Avaliação do trofismo muscular de sóleos de ratos wistar após compressão nervosa e tratamento com corrente de alta voltagem Evaluación del tropismo del músculo sóleo de ratas wistar después de la compresión del nervio y tratamiento con corriente de alto voltaje Assessment of wistar rats' soleus muscle trophism after nerve compression and treatment with high-voltage current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a corrente de alta voltagem sobre o trofismo de sóleos de ratos com compressão de nervo isquiático. Dezoito ratos distribuídos em: GS - compressão nervosa e simulacro; GP+ - compressão e tratado com corrente anódica; GP- - compressão e catódica. Ao final, os sóleos foram dissecados e pesados em balança analítica. Em seguida foram montadas lâminas de cortes transversais, observadas em microscópio óptico de luz comum e digitalizadas, para análise do menor diâmetro de 100 fibras por músculo. RESULTADOS: todos os grupos apresentaram menor trofismo pelas duas formas de avaliação (p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: a corrente de alta voltagem não inibiu a hipotrofia em sóleos submetidos à compressão nervosa.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la corriente de alto voltaje en el tropismo del sóleo de ratas con la compresión del nervio ciático. Dieciocho ratas se dividieron en: GS - compresión del nervio y la falsa; GP+ - compresión y tratados con corriente anódica; GP- - compresión y el cátodo. Por último, fueron los sóleos disecados y pesados ​​en una balanza analítica. Luego diapositivas de secciones transversales fueron montadas para la observación al microscopio de luz común y digitalizadas para el análisis de menor diámetro de 100 fibras por músculo. RESULTADOS: Todos los grupos mostraron menor tropismo, las dos formas de evaluación (p 0,05. CONCLUSIÓN: La corriente de alto voltaje no inhibe la atrofia en el músculo sóleo se sometieron a la compresión del nervio.AIM: to evaluate the high voltage current on the tropism of rats soleus with sciatic nerve compression. Eighteen rats were divided into: GS - nerve compression and sham; GP + - compression and treated with anodic current; GP - compression and cathode. Finally, the soleus were dissected and weighed on an analytical balance. Then slides were mounted cross sections observed in light microscope and digitized for analysis of smaller diameter of 100 fibers per

  2. The dilemma of simultaneous or successive bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Furlan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study starts from the definition of bilingualism, according to which a person is considered to be bilingual, if she had started to learn (in natural situations two languages from her birth or from early childhood on. The aim of this research work was to assess the existence of any personality differences among "simultaneous" (children exposed to both languages from birth on or at least before the first birthday and "successive" (children exposed to the first language from birth on and to the second language from the toddler period through early childhood bilingual adolescents. The participants were adolescents from secondary schools from the Slovenian coast and from Trieste. Results show that simultaneousness/successiveness of acquisition of the two languages in question doesn't have any impact on personality traits of tested adolescents.

  3. Analysis of Errors Encountered in Simultaneous Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方峥

    2015-01-01

    I.Introduction1.1 Definition of an error An error happens when the interpreter’s delivery affects the communicative impact of the speaker’s message,including semantic inaccuracies and inaccuracies of presentation.Along with the development of simultaneous interpreting,there has been a number of professional interpreters and linguists present their definitions and points of views about the errors

  4. Simultaneous topology optimization of structures and supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a method for and the benefits of simultaneously designing structure and support distribution using topology optimization. The support conditions are included in the topology optimization by introducing, a new set of design variables that represents...... cost of supports in a design domain. Other examples show that more efficient mechanisms are obtained by introducing the support conditions in the topology optimization problem....

  5. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  6. Freeform object design and simultaneous manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Weihan; Lin, Heng; Leu, Ming C.

    2003-04-01

    Today's product design, especially the consuming product design, focuses more and more on individuation, originality, and the time to market. One way to meet these challenges is using the interactive and creationary product design methods and rapid prototyping/rapid tooling. This paper presents a novel Freeform Object Design and Simultaneous Manufacturing (FODSM) method that combines the natural interaction feature in the design phase and simultaneous manufacturing feature in the prototyping phase. The natural interactive three-dimensional design environment is achieved by adopting virtual reality technology. The geometry of the designed object is defined through the process of "virtual sculpting" during which the designer can touch and visualize the designed object and can hear the virtual manufacturing environment noise. During the designing process, the computer records the sculpting trajectories and automatically translates them into NC codes so as to simultaneously machine the designed part. The paper introduced the principle, implementation process, and key techniques of the new method, and compared it with other popular rapid prototyping methods.

  7. Simultaneous statistical inference for epigenetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildknecht, Konstantin; Olek, Sven; Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic research leads to complex data structures. Since parametric model assumptions for the distribution of epigenetic data are hard to verify we introduce in the present work a nonparametric statistical framework for two-group comparisons. Furthermore, epigenetic analyses are often performed at various genetic loci simultaneously. Hence, in order to be able to draw valid conclusions for specific loci, an appropriate multiple testing correction is necessary. Finally, with technologies available for the simultaneous assessment of many interrelated biological parameters (such as gene arrays), statistical approaches also need to deal with a possibly unknown dependency structure in the data. Our statistical approach to the nonparametric comparison of two samples with independent multivariate observables is based on recently developed multivariate multiple permutation tests. We adapt their theory in order to cope with families of hypotheses regarding relative effects. Our results indicate that the multivariate multiple permutation test keeps the pre-assigned type I error level for the global null hypothesis. In combination with the closure principle, the family-wise error rate for the simultaneous test of the corresponding locus/parameter-specific null hypotheses can be controlled. In applications we demonstrate that group differences in epigenetic data can be detected reliably with our methodology.

  8. Simultaneous Extensive Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct and Pancreas: A Very Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vor Luvira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB is a specific type of bile duct tumor. It has been proposed that it could be the biliary counterpart of the intraductal papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of simultaneous intraductal tumors of both the bile duct and pancreas. There have been five reports of patients with simultaneous IPNB and IPMN-P. In all of these cases, biliary involvement was limited to the intrahepatic and perihilar bile duct, which had characteristics similar to IPMN-P and usually had slow progression in nature. Herein, we present the first case of extensive intraductal neoplasm involving the extrahepatic bile duct, intrahepatic bile duct, and entire length of the pancreas with a poor outcome, even after being treated aggressively with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, we summarize previous case reports of simultaneous intraductal lesions of the bile duct and pancreas.

  9. Twin-core fiber-based sensor for measuring the strain and bending simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yaxun; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2013-08-01

    A novel composite interferometer sensor is presented and its sensing characteristics are investigated. Based on the infiber integrated Michelson interferometer, a quartz tube is used to encapsulate the ends of the twin-core fiber and single mode fiber to form the dual extrinsic FP cavities. Thereby, the Michelson and FP configurations are integrated into a single fiber, which we call it Michelson-FP composite interferometer sensor. The novel sensor can respond to the axial strain and radial bending simultaneously. We have derived and analyzed the interferometer principle of the new structure. The analysis results show that the interferometer sensor could be considered as the superposition of Michelson interferometer and FP interferometer. Moreover, we establish a testing system and conduct a series of experiments to investigate the strain and bending characteristics. We measure the reflection spectra with the spectrum analyzer. The spectral response of the composite interferometer sensor presents two pattern fringes with different frequencies due to the respective optical path interferometers. The experimental results indicate that the composite interferometer sensor is very sensitive to the strain and bending characteristics, and the presented sensor has different strain and bending sensitivity coefficients. Due to these characteristics, the presented sensor might be able to measure the strain and bending characteristics simultaneously. In conclusion, the presented novel interferometer sensor is of compact structure, high integration and good strain and bending sensing characteristics. Thus, many types of fiber-optic sensors may be built based on it.

  10. Simultaneous scheduling of machines and mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously scheduling machines and a number of autonomous mobile robots in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Besides capability of transporting materials between machines, the considered mobile robots are different from other material handling devices...... in terms of their advanced ability to perform tasks at machines by using their manipulation arms. The mobile robots thus have to be scheduled in relation to scheduling of machines so as to increase the efficiency of the overall system. The performance criterion is to minimize time required to complete all...

  11. Beamformer for simultaneous magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seokha; Jun, Sung Chan

    2010-05-01

    We proposed the beamformer for simultaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG)/electroencephalography (EEG) analysis which has the synergy effects such as high spatial resolution, low localization bias and robustness for orientation of brain sources. Through Monte Carlo simulation study, it was found that the localization performance of our proposed beamformer was far superior to those of MEG-only and EEG-only. For the given specific sensor geometry (160 MEG, 50 EEG sensors), we investigated comparative localization performance of our proposed beamformer over various weighting factors of MEG data, while weighting factor of EEG keeps fixed. Furthermore, we demonstrated its capability for simulated two dipole problem and empirical somatosensory median nerve stimulation data.

  12. Short-term Memory in Simultaneous Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项舒涵

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This is an epoch of cross-culture communication and exchanges.We have never been so close than any period in the history.A large number of international conferences are being held every year,from World Economic Forum to the UN Climate Change Conference,from political leaders’state visits to casua luncheon speeches.Furthermore,the idea of time-saving leads to people’s preference for simultaneous interpreting(SI).The job of SI is the product of our information age,indispensable and

  13. Focusing on Concepts by Covering Them Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Pete

    2017-05-01

    "Parallel" pedagogy covers the four mechanics concepts of momentum, energy, forces, and kinematics simultaneously instead of building each concept on an understanding of the previous one. Course content is delivered through interactive videos, allowing class time for group work and student-centered activities. We start with simple examples, building complexity throughout the course with the introduction of springs, two dimensions, vectors, energy diagrams, universal gravitation, and rotation. Success means that students ponder underlying physics concepts rather than hunt for formulas. Surveys indicate that students accept this learning model well and have considerable improvement in applied conceptual understanding.

  14. Resolution enhancement using simultaneous couple illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Martínez Fuentes, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    A super-resolution technique based on structured illumination created by a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) is presented. Single and simultaneous pairs of tilted beams are generated to illuminate a target object. Resolution enhancement of an optical 4f system is demonstrated by using numerical simulations. The resulting intensity images are recorded at a charged couple device (CCD) and stored in the computer memory for further processing. One dimension enhancement can be performed with only 15 images. Two dimensional complete improvement requires 153 different images. The resolution of the optical system is extended three times compared to the band limited system.

  15. Definition, theory, methods, and applications of the safe and efficient simultaneous extraction of coal and gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanping Cheng; Liang Wang; Hongyong Liu; Shengli Kong; Quanlin Yang; Jintuo Zhu; Qingyi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of the coal and gas is an effective method of eliminating coal mine gas disasters while safely exploiting the coal and achieving efficient gas drainage in China, which is widely accepted by the main coal-producing countries around the world. However, the concrete definition of simultaneous extraction is vague and there is little accurate theoretical support for the simultaneous extraction of coal and gas, which makes it difficult to determine an efficient gas drainage method appropriate to the features of coal seams. Based on theoretical analysis, laboratory tests and field observations, a specific definition of simultaneous extraction of coal and gas is proposed after analyzing the characteristics of coal seam occurrences in China, and we developed the mechanism of mining-enhanced permeability and established the corresponding theoretical model. This comprises a process of fracture network formation, in which the original fractures are opened and new fractures are produced by unloading damage. According to the theoretical model, the engineering approaches and their quantitative parameters of‘unloading by borehole drilling’ for single coal seams and‘unloading by protective seam mining’ for groups of coal seams are proposed, and the construction principles for coal exploitation and gas-drainage systems for different conditions are given. These methods were applied successfully in the Tunlan Coal Mine in Shanxi Province and the Panyi Coal Mine in Anhui Province and could assure safe and efficient simultaneous extraction of coal and gas in these outburst coal mines.

  16. A simple model describes large individual differences in simultaneous colour contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2009-09-01

    We report experimental evidence for substantial individual differences in the susceptibility to simultaneous colour contrast. Interestingly, we found that not only the general amount of colour induction varies across observers, but also the general shape of the curves describing asymmetric matching data. A simple model based on von Kries adaptation and crispening describes the data rather well when we regard its free parameters as observer specific. We argue that the von Kries component reflects the action of a temporal adaptation mechanism, while the crispening component describes the action of the instantaneous, purely spatial mechanism most appropriately labeled simultaneous colour contrast. An interesting consequence of this view is that traditional ideas about the general characteristics of simultaneous contrast must be considered as misleading. According to Kirschmann's 4th law, for instance, the simultaneous contrast effect should increase with increasing saturation of the surround, but crispening predicts the converse. Based on this reasoning, we offer a plausible explanation for the mixed evidence on the validity of Kirschmann's 4th law. We also argue that simultaneous contrast, the crispening effect, Meyer's effect and the gamut expansion effect are just different names for the same basic phenomenon.

  17. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy for solid tumor treatment; Simultane Radiochemotherapie zur Behandlung solider Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, Rainer [Erlangen Univ. Hospital, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-15

    The simultaneous radio-chemotherapy has evolved during the last two decades to be the essential treatment of organ carcinomas. Loco-regional control has significantly improved the prognosis for the patients. Increased acute side effects of simultaneous radio-chemotherapy can be reduced by appropriate supportive measures. In the future the appropriate selection of targeting volume, for instance by reduction in the sense of ''involved fields'' and the introduction of modern irradiation technologies like IMRT the toxicity of the simultaneous radio-chemotherapy can be additionally reduced. The significance of targeting pharmaceuticals in combination with irradiation cannot yet be assessed. First results indicate an enhancing effect of monoclonal antibodies.

  18. Simultaneous morphological and biochemical endogenous optical imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Javier A; Park, Jesung; Pande, Paritosh; Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J; Rico Jimenez, J de Jesus; Clubb, Fred; Walton, Brian; Buja, L Maximilian; Phipps, Jennifer E; Feldman, Marc D; Adame, Jessie; Applegate, Brian E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to validate novel imaging technology for simultaneous morphological and biochemical endogenous optical imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) generates high-resolution 3D images of plaque morphology and endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) characterizes biochemical composition. Both imaging modalities rely on plaque's intrinsic optical characteristics, making contrast agents unnecessary. A multimodal OCT/FLIM system was utilized to generate luminal biochemical maps superimposed on high-resolution (7 µm axial and 13 µm lateral) structural volumetric images. Forty-seven fresh postmortem human coronary segments were imaged: pathological intimal thickening (PIT, n = 26), fibroatheroma (FA, n = 12), thin-cap FA (TCFA, n = 2), and fibrocalcific plaque (CA, n = 7), determined by histopathology. Multimodal images were evaluated, and each plaque identified as PIT, FA, TCFA, or CA based on expert OCT readers, and as having high-lipid (HL), high-collagen (HC), or low-collagen/low-lipid (LCL) luminal composition based on linear discriminant analysis of FLIM. Of 47 plaques, 89.4% (42/47) of the plaques were correctly identified based on OCT/FLIM evaluation using tissue histopathology and immunohistochemistry as the gold standard. Four of the misclassifications corresponded to confusing PIT with HL luminal composition for FA with HL cap. The other corresponded to confusing FA with a HC cap for FA with an LCL cap. We have demonstrated the feasibility of accurate simultaneous OCT/FLIM morphological and biochemical characterization of coronary plaques at spatial resolutions and acquisition speeds compatible with catheter-based intravascular imaging. The success of this pilot study sets up future development of a multimodal intravascular imaging system that will enable studies that could help improve our understanding of plaque pathogenesis. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  19. Tilt, Warp, and Simultaneous Precessions in Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2012-01-01

    Warps are suspected in disks around massive compact objects. However, the proposed warping source -- non-axisymmetric radiation pressure -- does not apply to white dwarfs. In this letter we report the first Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of accretion disks in SU UMa-type systems that naturally tilt, warp, and simultaneously precess in the prograde and retrograde directions using white dwarf V344 Lyrae in the Kepler field as our model. After ~79 days in V344 Lyrae, the disk angular momentum L_d becomes misaligned to the orbital angular momentum L_o. As the gas stream remains normal to L_o, hydrodynamics (e.g., the lift force) is a likely source to disk tilt. In addition to tilt, the outer disk annuli cyclically change shape from circular to highly eccentric due to tidal torques by the secondary star. The effect of simultaneous prograde and retrograde precession is a warp of the colder, denser midplane as seen along the disk rim. The simulated rate of apsidal advance to nodal regression per orbit ne...

  20. Anaesthetic consideration during laparoscopic bilateral simultaneous nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha P Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: To assess outcome from anaesthesia during laparoscopic bilateral simultaneous nephrectomy. Design: Retrospective study. Measurements: Preoperative Hb%, serum potassium, coagulation profile electrocardiography (ECG changes, 2D Echography, x-ray chest, haemodynamic changes, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 , fluid management and postoperative analgesia. Results: The mean age was 24.75 ± 14.35 years. The mean duration of surgery was 120 ± 80 minutes. The Hb%, serum creatinine and serum potassium were 9.4 ± 1.04%, 6.79 ± 4.91 meq/L and 3.61 ± 0.51 meq/L, respectively. Pulse rate mean blood pressure and EtCO 2 were recorded after creation of pneumoperitoneum and at 15, 30, 45 and after exsufflation of pneumoperitoneum. After pneumoperitoneum, there was increase in pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and EtCO 2 . After 30 minutes and throughout the surgery, these variables remained stable. Four patients required nitroglycerine infusion for intraoperative hypertention. Only one patient required packed cell volume (PCV transfusion and total intravenous fluid was 1 ± 0.5 L. At the time of exsufflation, there was decrease in pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and EtCO 2 . Conclusion: Because of advancement in anaesthetic agents and muscle relaxant, there is safe outcome from anaesthesia during laparoscopic bilateral simultaneous nephrectomy.

  1. Simultaneity Analysis In A Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Miodrag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An original wireless sensor network for vibration measurements was designed. Its primary purpose is modal analysis of vibrations of large structures. A number of experiments have been performed to evaluate the system, with special emphasis on the influence of different effects on simultaneity of data acquired from remote nodes, which is essential for modal analysis. One of the issues is that quartz crystal oscillators, which provide time reading on the devices, are optimized for use in the room temperature and exhibit significant frequency variations if operated outside the 20–30°C range. Although much research was performed to optimize algorithms of synchronization in wireless networks, the subject of temperature fluctuations was not investigated and discussed in proportion to its significance. This paper describes methods used to evaluate data simultaneity and some algorithms suitable for its improvement in small to intermediate size ad-hoc wireless sensor networks exposed to varying temperatures often present in on-site civil engineering measurements.

  2. Rapid, Simultaneous Multianalyte Detection with a Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasianowicz, John; Henrickson, Sarah; Robertson, Baldwin; Weetall, Howard

    2000-03-01

    The ability to rapidly and simultaneously quantitate many analytes represents the next frontier in sensing. This capability would have a great impact on the cost and feasibility of analyzing blood, detecting pathogens and toxins in drinking water as well as chemical and biological warfare agents. In addition to performing transport and defense functions in cells and organelles, pore-forming proteins (ionic channels) act as sensors by converting the concentration of an analyte into a change in the pore’s conductance. Recently, several groups, including ours, suggested that channels placed in artificial membranes might prove useful for detecting analytes. Unfortunately, molecules that alter native channel conductance are limited to a small number of highly specific classes (e.g. neurotransmitters, anesthetics, protons or deuterium ions). Thus, steps towards adapting channels for more generalized analyte detection have placed recognition sites inside a channel, adjacent to the pore’s mouth or well outside the pore. We demonstrated that a wide variety of analytes could be simultaneously detected by a simpler system. Instead of attaching the recognition element inside a narrow channel, it is covalently linked to a polymer that threads completely through a nanopore.

  3. Simultaneous Segmentation and Statistical Label Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Andrew J; Landmana, Bennett A

    2012-02-23

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi- atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  4. Simultaneous formation of Solar System giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Guilera, O M; Brunini, A; Benvenuto, O G

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, the so-called "Nice model" has got a significant importance in the study of the formation and evolution of the solar system. According to this model, the initial orbital configuration of the giant planets was much more compact than the one we observe today. We study the formation of the giant planets in connection with some parameters that describe the protoplanetary disk. The aim of this study is to establish the conditions that favor their simultaneous formation in line with the initial configuration proposed by the Nice model. We focus in the conditions that lead to the simultaneous formation of two massive cores, corresponding to Jupiter and Saturn, able to achieve the cross-over mass (where the mass of the envelope of the giant planet equals the mass of the core, and gaseous runway starts) while Uranus and Neptune have to be able to grow to their current masses. We compute the in situ planetary formation, employing the numerical code introduced in our previous work, for different d...

  5. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF SAFETY SIMULTANEOUS EXTRACTION OF COAL AND COALBED METHANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shugang

    2000-01-01

    Coalbed methane is of great value to extract and utilize in China, but the result of such research is not satisfied yet today.The paper analyzed the storage characteristics of coalbed methane, and then studied the behavior of coalbed methane using the key stratum theory of strata control.According to the features related to coalbed methane accumulations and delivery, the technique for safely simultaneous extraction of coal and coalbed methane is proposed, and benefit analysis is made too.

  6. Optical control of fusion of microparticles in solution and simultaneous spectrophotometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H; Ikeda, H; Inoue, Y; Kitamura, N

    1996-12-01

    A multibeam laser manipulation technique has been applied to noncontact and nondestructive optical fusion of two dye-containing microdroplets or that of a dye/water droplet and a porous silica gel particle in solution. Characteristics of the dye/particle(s) before and after coalescence have been followed simultaneously by microspectroscopy. Application of the multibeam laser manipulation-spectroscopy method in microanalytical chemistry is discussed.

  7. Spoken Spanish: turn taking, interventing and simultaneous speech in spontaneus conversation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Conversation is a very important human activity through which people connect to the outer world. In this article, we try to understand the dynamics of spontaneous speech (taking turns, interventions, simultaneous speech) and the reasons why the participants do not participate equally in a conversation. The work is based on a recorded ten minute long spontaneous conversation among Spanish students and on the analysis of its tran scription. The corpus has got all the characteristics of spoken l...

  8. Economics of heat pump systems for simultaneous heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat pumps can be incorporated advantageously into processes which require simultaneously both cooling and heating. The economics of heat pumps in India for simultaneous heat and cooling is assessed with respect to process, design and economic parameters. For the typical conditions of various parameters in India, a heat pump system for simultaneous heating and cooling is very attractive.

  9. Feasibility of simultaneous recording of cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials via galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ming; Young, Yi-Ho; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2013-12-01

    Simultaneous galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS)-cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and GVS-ocular (oVEMP) tests yielded similar information to that obtained in individual tests. This study compared the characteristic parameters of cVEMPs and oVEMPs via GVS between individual and simultaneous recording patterns in healthy and elderly subjects. Consequently, the effectiveness of simultaneous GVS-cVEMP and GVS-oVEMP tests was assessed. A total of 24 healthy and 16 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent individual cVEMP, individual oVEMP, and simultaneous cVEMP and oVEMP testing via GVS mode in a random order. The response rates and characteristic parameters of cVEMPs and oVEMPs between individual and simultaneous tests, including latencies, intervals, and amplitudes, were measured. The VEMP parameters, including latencies, intervals, and amplitudes, all demonstrated no significant differences between individual and simultaneous tests (p > 0.05, paired t test), either in healthy or elderly subjects. Pearson's correlation analyses also revealed significant positive correlations in all parameters between these two tests (p < 0.05).

  10. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  11. Simultaneous polymerization of Mg and Zr alkoxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Vivar, J.; Lara, V.H. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Depto. de Quimica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Mendoza-Serna, R.; Ayala-Morales, A. [Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, UNAM, Carrera de Ingenieria Quimica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Bosch, P. [Inst. de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM Circuito Exterior, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The preparation of homogeneous MgO-ZrO{sub 2} ceramics by the sol-gel process is of interest because of its potential technological applications as dielectric materials in thin films and membranes. In this work we used magnesium methoxide and zirconium n-propoxide as precursors. The simultaneous polymerization of the alkoxides was performed via the sol-gel process, using acetylacetone (acacH) and isoeugenol (isoH) separately as the chelating agents, in order to control the hydrolysis and condensation steps. Spectroscopic studies have been performed on the sols, gels, xerogels and oxides, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). (orig.)

  12. Characterization of addressability by simultaneous randomized benchmarking

    CERN Document Server

    Gambetta, Jay M; Merkel, S T; Johnson, B R; Smolin, John A; Chow, Jerry M; Ryan, Colm A; Rigetti, Chad; Poletto, S; Ohki, Thomas A; Ketchen, Mark B; Steffen, M

    2012-01-01

    The control and handling of errors arising from cross-talk and unwanted interactions in multi-qubit systems is an important issue in quantum information processing architectures. We introduce a benchmarking protocol that provides information about the amount of addressability present in the system and implement it on coupled superconducting qubits. The protocol consists of randomized benchmarking each qubit individually and then simultaneously, and the amount of addressability is related to the difference of the average gate fidelities of those experiments. We present the results on two similar samples with different amounts of cross-talk and unwanted interactions, which agree with predictions based on simple models for the amount of residual coupling.

  13. Simultaneous presentation of two cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Ezura, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kazuto; Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman experienced sudden onset of severe headache. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hematoma in the right frontal lobe. Digital subtraction angiography revealed three aneurysms in the anterior communicating artery (AcomA), the right posterior communicating artery (PcomA), and the right middle cerebral artery. The AcomA aneurysm was treated with endovascular coiling. However, her oculomotor nerve palsy was aggravated after the procedure. Embolization of the right PcomA aneurysm was conducted immediately and her oculomotor nerve palsy recovered completely 3 months later. Simultaneous presentation of multiple aneurysms with separate symptoms is rare. We speculate that the progressive oculomotor nerve palsy was caused by tiny enlargement or morphological change of the aneurysm caused by elevated blood pressure and pulsatile effect after SAH.

  14. Simultaneous scheduling of machines and mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously scheduling machines and a number of autonomous mobile robots in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Besides capability of transporting materials between machines, the considered mobile robots are different from other material handling devices...... in terms of their advanced ability to perform tasks at machines by using their manipulation arms. The mobile robots thus have to be scheduled in relation to scheduling of machines so as to increase the efficiency of the overall system. The performance criterion is to minimize time required to complete all...... tasks or makespan. A heuristic based on genetic algorithm is developed to find the best solution for the problem. A numerical example is investigated to demonstrate results of the proposed approach. The implementation of the proposed approach in a multi-agent system is also generally described....

  15. Simultaneous covalent and noncovalent hybrid polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhilin; Tantakitti, Faifan; Yu, Tao; Palmer, Liam C.; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)

    2016-01-28

    Covalent and supramolecular polymers are two distinct forms of soft matter, composed of long chains of covalently and noncovalently linked structural units, respectively. We report a hybrid system formed by simultaneous covalent and supramolecular polymerizations of monomers. The process yields cylindrical fibers of uniform diameter that contain covalent and supramolecular compartments, a morphology not observed when the two polymers are formed independently. The covalent polymer has a rigid aromatic imine backbone with helicoidal conformation, and its alkylated peptide side chains are structurally identical to the monomer molecules of supramolecular polymers. In the hybrid system, covalent chains grow to higher average molar mass relative to chains formed via the same polymerization in the absence of a supramolecular compartment. The supramolecular compartments can be reversibly removed and re-formed to reconstitute the hybrid structure, suggesting soft materials with novel delivery or repair functions.

  16. Simultaneous determination of protein structure and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; DePristo, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a protocol for the experimental determination of ensembles of protein conformations that represent simultaneously the native structure and its associated dynamics. The procedure combines the strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-for obtaining experimental information...... at the atomic level about the structural and dynamical features of proteins-with the ability of molecular dynamics simulations to explore a wide range of protein conformations. We illustrate the method for human ubiquitin in solution and find that there is considerable conformational heterogeneity throughout...... the protein structure. The interior atoms of the protein are tightly packed in each individual conformation that contributes to the ensemble but their overall behaviour can be described as having a significant degree of liquid-like character. The protocol is completely general and should lead to significant...

  17. Simultaneous use of multiple seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, J.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.

    2017-05-01

    Seismic arrays provide an important means of enhancing seismic signals and determining the directional properties of the wavefield by beamforming. When multiple arrays are to be used together, the viewpoint needs to be modified from looking outwards from each array to focusing on a specific target area and so constraining the portions of the waveforms to be analysed. Beamforming for each array is supplemented by the relative time constraints for propagation from the target to each array to provide tight spatial control. Simultaneous multiple array analysis provides a powerful tool for source characterization, and for structural analysis of scatterers as virtual sources. The multiple array concept allows us to illuminate a specific point in the Earth from many different directions and thus maps detailed patterns of heterogeneity in the Earth. Furthermore, illumination of the structure from multiple directions using data from the same event minimizes source effects to provide clearer images of heterogeneity. The analysis is based on a similar concept to the backprojection technique, where a part of the seismic wave train is mapped to a specific point in space by ray tracing. In contrast to classic backprojection where the incoming energy is mapped onto a horizontal plane with limited vertical resolution, the multiarray method controls depth response by combining relative time constraints between the arrays and conventional beamforming. We illustrate this approach with application to two earthquakes at moderate depth. The results show that the use of simultaneous multiple arrays can provide improvement both in signal quality and resolution, with the additional benefit of being able to accurately locate the source of the incoming energy and map large areas with only a limited number of such arrays.

  18. Simultaneous use of multiple seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, J.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic arrays provide an important means of enhancing seismic signals and determining the directional properties of the wavefield by beam-forming. When multiple arrays are to be used together, the viewpoint needs to be modified from looking outwards from each array to focusing on a specific target area and so constraining the portions of the waveforms to be analysed. Beam-forming for each array is supplemented by the relative time constraints for propagation from the target to each array to provide tight spatial control. Simultaneous multiple array analysis provides a powerful tool for source characterisation, and for structural analysis of scatterers as virtual sources. The multiple array concept allows us to illuminate a specific point in the Earth from many different directions and thus map detailed patterns of heterogeneity in the Earth. Furthermore, illumination of the structure from multiple directions using data from the same event minimizes source effects to provide clearer images of heterogeneity. The analysis is based on a similar concept to the back-projection technique, where a part of the seismic wavetrain is mapped to a specific point in space by ray-tracing. In contrast to classic back-projection where the incoming energy is mapped onto a horizontal plane with limited vertical resolution, the multi-array method controls depth response by combining relative time constraints between the arrays and conventional beam-forming. We illustrate this approach with application to two earthquakes at moderate depth. The results show that the use of simultaneous multiple arrays can provide improvement both in signal quality and resolution, with the additional benefit of being able to accurately locate the source of the incoming energy and map large areas with only a limited number of such arrays.

  19. Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.BEATTY; D.W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences.For example,the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey,predators versus non-predators,or mates of varying quality.Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful,we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously.Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception,signal evolution,and discrimination,and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals.While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive,it has not been experimentally tested in this context,and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments,or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies.Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a) the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients,and b) we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology,such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems.Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli - and to learn to distinguish between stimuli - when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously,even if the intervening time interval is short.

  20. Investigation of Harmonic Characteristics in Printer due to Different Types of Voltage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Risnidar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about harmonic characteristics due to different types of voltage sources. Usually, the voltage source is sinusoidal. But in actual condition the load that receives voltage sources through the elements where the output voltage of element as input to the load is not pure sinusoidal, for example voltage source at Power of Common Coupling (PCC between transformer and linear load and nonlinear load. This research has been done  with Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer and PM300 Power Quality Analyzer, was focused to all harmonic characteristics as power, voltage, current, power factor (p.f., Harmonic Distortion, and harmonic energy losses cost. The load is printer because the printer is one of electronic device causes harmonics. The voltage sources in this research are sine wave, triangle wave and harmonic order combinations of 3rd, 5th and 9th. Why this research discuses voltage source for Harmonic order 3rd, 5th and 9th and don not combination of 3rd, 5th and 7th, because the combination 3rd, 5th and 9th is more complicated then combination of 3rd, 5th and 7th.

  1. Space Charge Transient Kinetic Characteristics in DC Air Corona Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Xian, Richang; Sun, Xuefeng; Wang, Tao; Lv, Xuebin; Chen, Suhong; Yang, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Investigating the corona mechanism plays a key role in enhancing the performance of electrical insulation systems. Numerical simulation offers a better understanding of the physical characteristics of air corona discharges. Using a two-dimensional axisymmetrical kinetics model, into which the photoionization effect is incorporated, the DC air corona discharge at atmosphere pressure is studied. The plasma model is based on a self-consistent, multi-component, and continuum description of the air discharge, which is comprised of 12 species and 22 reactions. The discharge voltage-current characteristic predicted by the model is found to be in quite good agreement with experimental measurements. The behavior of the electronic avalanche progress is also described. O2+ and N2+ are the dominant positive ions, and the values of O- and O2- densities are much smaller than that of the electron. The electron and positive ion have a low-density thin layer near the anode, which is a result of the surface reaction and absorption effect of the electrode. As time progresses, the electric field increases and extends along the cathode surface, whereas the cathode fall shrinks after the corona discharge hits the cathode; thus, in the cathode sheath, the electron temperature increases and the position of its peak approaches to the cathode. The present computational model contributes to the understanding of this physical mechanism, and suggests ways to improve the electrical insulation system.

  2. Simultaneous Investigation of Flexibility and Plasma Actuation Effects on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Oscillating Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mahboubi Doust

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a numerical study of two dimensional laminar incompressible flow around the flexible oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is performed using the open source code OpenFOAM. Oscillatory motion types including pitching and flapping is considered. Reynolds number for these motions is assumed fixed at 12000. One of the important issues that must be considered in designing air structures, in particular the aircraft wing, is the interaction between the air and the elastic aircraft wings that is known as the Aeroelastic phenomenon. For this purpose, the effect of airfoil flexibility and flow induced vibration in these motion types is investigated and compared with the case of rigid airfoil. It is observed that the flexibility in both types of motions causes improvement of the thrust which is boosted with increasing the frequency. Contrary to thrust, the significant improvement of lift is only achievable in high frequencies. It was also found that the effect of flexibility on the flapping motion is higher than the pitching motion. For flow control on the airfoil, Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma actuator is used in the trailing edge of a flexible airfoil, and its effect on the flexible airfoil is also investigated.

  3. Simultaneous Investigation of Flexibility and Plasma Actuation Effects on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Oscillating Airfoil

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Mahboubi Doust; Abas Ramiar; Morteza Dardel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a numerical study of two dimensional laminar incompressible flow around the flexible oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is performed using the open source code OpenFOAM. Oscillatory motion types including pitching and flapping is considered. Reynolds number for these motions is assumed fixed at 12000. One of the important issues that must be considered in designing air structures, in particular the aircraft wing, is the interaction between the air and the elastic aircraft wings that i...

  4. Simultaneously high gravimetric and volumetric methane uptake characteristics of the metal-organic framework NU-111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yang; Srinivas, Gadipelli; Wilmer, Christopher E; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K

    2013-04-14

    We show that the MOF NU-111 exhibits equally high volumetric and gravimetric methane uptake values, both within ≈75% of the DOE targets at 300 K. Upon reducing the temperature to 270 K, the uptake increases to 0.5 g g(-1) and 284 cc(STP) per cc at 65 bar. Adsorption of CO2 and H2 is also reported. Simulated isotherms are in excellent agreement with those obtained from experiments.

  5. Characteristics and kinetics study of simultaneous pyrolysis of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, wood and polypropylene through TGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kolsoom; Keshavarz Moraveji, Mostafa; Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed

    2017-11-01

    Thermal decomposition behavior and kinetics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, wood and polypropylene were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Experiments were carried out at heating rates of 10, 20 and 40°C/min from ambient temperature to 600°C. The results show that pyrolysis process of C. vulgaris and wood can be divided into three stages while pyrolysis of polypropylene occurs almost totally in one step. It is shown that wood can delay the pyrolysis of microalgae while microalgae can accelerate the pyrolysis of wood. The existence of polymer during the pyrolysis of microalgae or wood will lead to two divided groups of peaks in DTG curve of mixtures. The results showed that interaction is inhibitive rather than synergistic during the decomposition process of materials. Kinetics of process is studied by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO). The average E values obtained from FWO and KAS methods were 131.228 and 142.678kJ/mol, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous optimization of multiple performance characteristics in coagulation-flocculation process for Indian paper industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, R; Saseetharan, M K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to optimize the coagulation-flocculation process in wastewater generated from the paper and pulp industry using a grey relational analysis (GRA)-based Taguchi method. Process parameters included types and doses of natural coagulants and coagulant aid, and pH. To track the efficiency of the treatment process, the following responses were chosen for optimization: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity of wastewater, alone or in combination or all together. Analysis of variance showed that the type and dose of the coagulant aid were the most significant parameters, followed by pH and the dose of the coagulant; the type of coagulant used was found to be insignificant in the coagulation-flocculation process. Optimization of process parameters to achieve lower turbidity and greater removal of COD and TDS was verified in a separate confirmatory experiment, which showed improvements in COD and TDS removal and a decrease in turbidity of 8.2, 6.35 and 26.17%, respectively, with the application of the Taguchi method and GRA.

  7. Simultaneous determination of eleven characteristic lignans in Schisandra chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyang Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schisandra chinensis, one of the well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicines, is derived from the dry ripe fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. according to the 9th China Pharmacopeia. Lignans are the main components isolated from extracts of S. chinensis and their content varies depending on where S. chinensis was collected. We have established a qualitative and quantitative method based on the bioactive lignans for control of the quality of S. chinensis from different sources. Materials and Methods: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatography method, an Elite ODS C18 column (250 mm Χ 4.6 mm, 5μm at a column temperature of 30°C and flow rate of 1.0ml/min using acetonitrile (A and water (B as the mobile phase with a linear gradient and the peaks were monitored at 217 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.9995 within test ranges. This method showed good repeatability for the quantification of these eleven components in S. chinensis with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 0.43% and 1.21%, respectively. In the recovery test, results of accuracy ranged from 99.51% to 101.31% with RSD values less than 2.68%, Conclusion: The validated method can be successfully applied to quantify the eleven investigated components in 22 samples of S. chinensis from different sources.

  8. Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup

    OpenAIRE

    HEADLEY, Selwyn Arlington; Saito,Taís Berelli

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...

  9. Simultaneous mapping of multiple gene loci with pooled segregants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Claesen

    Full Text Available The analysis of polygenic, phenotypic characteristics such as quantitative traits or inheritable diseases remains an important challenge. It requires reliable scoring of many genetic markers covering the entire genome. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides a new way to evaluate large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as genetic markers. Combining the technologies with pooling of segregants, as performed in bulked segregant analysis (BSA, should, in principle, allow the simultaneous mapping of multiple genetic loci present throughout the genome. The gene mapping process, applied here, consists of three steps: First, a controlled crossing of parents with and without a trait. Second, selection based on phenotypic screening of the offspring, followed by the mapping of short offspring sequences against the parental reference. The final step aims at detecting genetic markers such as SNPs, insertions and deletions with next generation sequencing (NGS. Markers in close proximity of genomic loci that are associated to the trait have a higher probability to be inherited together. Hence, these markers are very useful for discovering the loci and the genetic mechanism underlying the characteristic of interest. Within this context, NGS produces binomial counts along the genome, i.e., the number of sequenced reads that matches with the SNP of the parental reference strain, which is a proxy for the number of individuals in the offspring that share the SNP with the parent. Genomic loci associated with the trait can thus be discovered by analyzing trends in the counts along the genome. We exploit the link between smoothing splines and generalized mixed models for estimating the underlying structure present in the SNP scatterplots.

  10. Simultaneous spectrophotometric and mechanical property characterization of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunegin, Leonid; Moore, Jeffery B.

    2006-02-01

    Both reflectance spectroscopy and the determination Young's Modulus of skin have shown promise for identifying skin pathology. At present, these determinations are carried out using separate methodologies. This study demonstrates a new technology combining digital UV/VIS reflectance spectroscopy and vacuum aspiration for simultaneously determining the reflectance spectrum and mechanical properties of human skin tissue. A small hand held prototype device incorporating fiber-optic light guides into a vacuum channel was calibrated using various elastic materials subjected to increments of stress by vacuum from 0 to 25 in Hg. The intensity of a UV/VIS light beam reflected from the material at each vacuum increment was compared to the resulting material strain. The reflected beam was also spectrophotometrically analyzed. Skin types were similarly evaluated comparing normal and scar tissue and skin of various ages and coloration. An exponential relationship between reflected beam intensity and the amount of strain resulting from vacuum increments was observed. Young's Modulus (calculated from Aoki et. al equation) and spectra from normal skin and scar tissue were in agreement with previously published observations. Age related decreases in skin elasticity were also demonstrated. In the reflectance spectra, oxy and deoxy-hemoglobin absorbance bands were detected, becoming significantly enhanced at increased levels of vacuum. Melanin absorbance was also easily detected and appeared to correlate with skin coloration. Since superficial skin pathologies have characteristic spectroscopic and mechanical properties, this technique may provide a promising new approach for rapid, non-invasive method for the evaluation of skin lesions.

  11. Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nordin

    2017-01-01

    Data compression and encryption are key components of commonly deployed platforms such as Hadoop. Numerous data compression and encryption tools are presently available on such platforms and the tools are characteristically applied in sequence, i.e., compression followed by encryption or encryption followed by compression. This paper focuses on the open-source Hadoop framework and proposes a data storage method that efficiently couples data compression with encryption. A simultaneous compression and encryption scheme is introduced that addresses an important implementation issue of source coding based on Tent Map and Piece-wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLM), which is the infinite precision of real numbers that result from their long products. The approach proposed here solves the implementation issue by removing fractional components that are generated by the long products of real numbers. Moreover, it incorporates a stealth key that performs a cyclic shift in PWLM without compromising compression capabilities. In addition, the proposed approach implements a masking pseudorandom keystream that enhances encryption quality. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a congruent fit within the Hadoop framework, providing robust encryption security and compression. PMID:28072850

  12. Io - One of at Least Four Simultaneous Erupting Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of an active volcanic eruption on Jupiter's satellite Io was taken 1 hour, 52 minutes after the accompanying picture, late in the evening of March 4, 1979, Pacific time. On the limb of the satellite can be seen one of at least four simultaneous volcanic eruptions -- the first such activity ever observed on another celestial body. Seen against the limb are plume-like structures rising more than 60 miles (100 kilometers) above the surface. Several eruptions have been identified with volcanic structures on the surface of Io, which have also been identified by Voyager 1's infrared instrument as being abnormally hot -- several hundred degrees warmer than surrounding terrain. The fact that several eruptions appear to be occurring at the same time suggests that Io has the most active surface in the solar system and that volcanism is going on there essentially continuously. Another characteristic of the observed volcanism is that it appears to be extremely explosive, with velocities more than 2,000 miles an hour (at least 1 kilometer per second). That is more violent than terrestrial volcanoes like Etna, Vesuvius or Krakatoa.

  13. Simultaneous EUVE/ASCA/RXTE Observations of NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, J; Blaes, Omer M; Nowak, M A; Murray, N; Madejski, G M; Marshall, H L; Magdziarz, P

    1999-01-01

    We present simultaneous observations by EUVE, ASCA, and RXTE of the type~1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548. These data indicate that variations in the EUV emission (at $\\sim 0.2 $keV) appear to lead similar modulations in higher energy ($\\ga 1 $keV) X-rays by $\\sim$10--30 ks. This is contrary to popular models which attribute the correlated variability of the EUV, UV and optical emission in type~1 Seyferts to reprocessing of higher energy radiation. This behavior instead suggests that the variability of the optical through EUV emission is an important driver for the variability of the harder X-rays which are likely produced by thermal Comptonization. We also investigate the spectral characteristics of the fluorescent iron K$\\alpha$ line and Compton reflection emission. In contrast to prior measurements of these spectral features, we find that the iron K$\\alpha$ line has a relatively small equivalent width ($W_{K\\alpha} \\sim 100 $eV) and that the reflection component is consistent with a covering factor which is signi...

  14. Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usama, Muhammad; Zakaria, Nordin

    2017-01-01

    Data compression and encryption are key components of commonly deployed platforms such as Hadoop. Numerous data compression and encryption tools are presently available on such platforms and the tools are characteristically applied in sequence, i.e., compression followed by encryption or encryption followed by compression. This paper focuses on the open-source Hadoop framework and proposes a data storage method that efficiently couples data compression with encryption. A simultaneous compression and encryption scheme is introduced that addresses an important implementation issue of source coding based on Tent Map and Piece-wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLM), which is the infinite precision of real numbers that result from their long products. The approach proposed here solves the implementation issue by removing fractional components that are generated by the long products of real numbers. Moreover, it incorporates a stealth key that performs a cyclic shift in PWLM without compromising compression capabilities. In addition, the proposed approach implements a masking pseudorandom keystream that enhances encryption quality. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a congruent fit within the Hadoop framework, providing robust encryption security and compression.

  15. Fizeau simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry based on extended source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Qiudong; Hou, Yinlong; Cao, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Coaxial Fizeau simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer plays an important role in many fields for its characteristics of long optical path, miniaturization, and elimination of reference surface high-frequency error. Based on the matching of coherence between extended source and interferometer, orthogonal polarization reference wave and measurement wave can be obtained by Fizeau interferometry with Michelson interferometer preposed. Through matching spatial coherence length between preposed interferometer and primary interferometer, high contrast interference fringes can be obtained and additional interference fringes can be eliminated. Thus, the problem of separation of measurement and reference surface in the common optical path Fizeau interferometer is solved. Numerical simulation and principle experiment is conducted to verify the feasibility of extended source interferometer. Simulation platform is established by using the communication technique of DDE (dynamic data exchange) to connect Zemax and Matlab. The modeling of the extended source interferometer is realized by using Zemax. Matlab codes are programmed to automatically rectify the field parameters of the optical system and conveniently calculate the visibility of interference fringes. Combined with the simulation, the experimental platform of the extended source interferometer is established. After experimental research on the influence law of scattering screen granularity to interference fringes, the granularity of scattering screen is determined. Based on the simulation platform and experimental platform, the impacts on phase measurement accuracy of the imaging system aberration and collimation system aberration of the interferometer are analyzed. Compared the visibility relation curves between experimental measurement and simulation result, the experimental result is in line with the theoretical result.

  16. Simultaneous reconstruction and segmentation for dynamic SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Rossmanith, Carolin; Zhang, Xiaoqun

    2016-10-01

    This work deals with the reconstruction of dynamic images that incorporate characteristic dynamics in certain subregions, as arising for the kinetics of many tracers in emission tomography (SPECT, PET). We make use of a basis function approach for the unknown tracer concentration by assuming that the region of interest can be divided into subregions with spatially constant concentration curves. Applying a regularised variational framework reminiscent of the Chan-Vese model for image segmentation we simultaneously reconstruct both the labelling functions of the subregions as well as the subconcentrations within each region. Our particular focus is on applications in SPECT with the Poisson noise model, resulting in a Kullback-Leibler data fidelity in the variational approach. We present a detailed analysis of the proposed variational model and prove existence of minimisers as well as error estimates. The latter apply to a more general class of problems and generalise existing results in literature since we deal with a nonlinear forward operator and a nonquadratic data fidelity. A computational algorithm based on alternating minimisation and splitting techniques is developed for the solution of the problem and tested on appropriately designed synthetic data sets. For those we compare the results to those of standard EM reconstructions and investigate the effects of Poisson noise in the data.

  17. Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery: economic analysis; Helsinki Simultaneous Bilateral Cataract Surgery Study Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivo, Tiina; Sarikkola, Anna-Ulrika; Uusitalo, Risto J; Hellstedt, Timo; Ess, Sirje-Linda; Kivelä, Tero

    2011-06-01

    To present an economic-analysis comparison of simultaneous and sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Economic analysis. Effects were estimated from data in a study in which patients were randomized to have bilateral cataract surgery on the same day (study group) or sequentially (control group). The main clinical outcomes were corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, complications, Visual Function Index-7 (VF-7) scores, and patient-rated satisfaction with vision. Health-care costs of surgeries and preoperative and postoperative visits were estimated, including the cost of staff, equipment, material, floor space, overhead, and complications. The data were obtained from staff measurements, questionnaires, internal hospital records, and accountancy. Non-health-care costs of travel, home care, and time were estimated based on questionnaires from a random subset of patients. The main economic outcome measures were cost per VF-7 score unit change and cost per patient in simultaneous versus sequential surgery. The study comprised 520 patients (241 patients included non-health-care and time cost analyses). Surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction were similar in both groups. Simultaneous cataract surgery saved 449 Euros (€) per patient in health-care costs and €739 when travel and paid home-care costs were included. The savings added up to €849 per patient when the cost of lost working time was included. Compared with sequential bilateral cataract surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery provided comparable clinical outcomes with substantial savings in health-care and non-health-care-related costs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dark Energy from Quantum Uncertainty of Simultaneity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, M J

    2014-01-01

    The observed acceleration expansion of the universe was thought attribute to a mysterious dark energy in the framework of the classical general relativity. The dark energy behaves very similar with a vacuum energy in quantum mechanics. However, once the quantum effects are seriously taken into account, it predicts a wrong order of the vacuum energy and leads to a severe fine-tuning, known as the cosmological constant problem. We abandon the standard interpretation that time is a global parameter in quantum mechanics, replace it by a quantum dynamical variable playing the role of an operational quantum clock system. In the framework of reinterpretation of time, we find that the synchronization of two quantum clocks distance apart can not be realized in all rigor at quantum level. Thus leading to an intrinsic quantum uncertainty of simultaneity between spatial interval, which implies a visional vacuum energy fluctuation and gives an observed dark energy density $\\rho_{de}=\\frac{6}{\\pi}L_{P}^{-2}L_{H}^{-2}$, whe...

  19. THE PUZZLE OF SIMULTANEOUS SAVINGS AND DEBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA IANOLE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available „Neither a borrower nor a lender be” recommends Shakespeare in Hamlet. The advice seems particularly interesting in nowadays society where a person can be easily found in both approximate situations, in the same time. It goes without saying that saving and borrowing do not describe mutually exclusive strategies of financial management and thus many people retain savings or carry on saving at the same time as having debts. We add to this fact a more pragmatically wisdom, the one of the economist Robert Solow -“We (economists think of wealth as fungible; we think a dollar is a dollar. Why don't they (the others do so?” (Solow, 1987 – and we naturally ask ourselves if the mechanism of having simultaneous savings and debts is a rational one, according to traditional economics.Making appeal to the emerging body of behavioral economics literature we reach to the mental accounting theory to see if it can explain savings inclination versus debt inclination. The main research question we want to explore is the following: if mental accounting prevents people from spending money from one „mental account” on goods belonging to another one, will people – after using all their money from a given account – be willing to go into debt to buy goods belonging to this account in a situation when they still have money in other accounts?

  20. Simultaneous Occurrence of Dens Invaginatus and Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mhapuskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Dens invaginatus and fusion are well-known and well established dental anomalies, they are rarely seen in supernumerary teeth. In this article, simultaneous occurrence of Dens invaginatus and fusion between maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth is described. Dens invaginatus is clinically significant due to the possibility of the pulpal involvement; pulpitis, necrotic pulps and chronic periapical lesions are often associated with this anomaly without clinical symptoms. Fusion has a negative impact on the aesthetics, especially when it occurs in maxillary anterior teeth. It is difficult to clinically make differential diagnosis between fused teeth and geminated teeth, especially when these anomalies take place together with hypodontia or supernumerary tooth. It has been found that sequel of such teeth may result in delayed eruption, ectopic eruption or even impaction of permanent teeth; hence proper diagnosis by clinical and radiographic methods and intervention at appropriate time is of paramount importance. The accurate knowledge of variations in morphology of tooth and pulp cavity greatly assists the dentist in planning successful treatment options.

  1. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-08-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  2. Scaling in ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Smilde, Age K; Ceulemans, Eva

    In omics research often high-dimensional data is collected according to an experimental design. Typically, the manipulations involved yield differential effects on subsets of variables. An effective approach to identify those effects is ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), which combines analysis of variance with principal component analysis. So far, pre-treatment in ASCA received hardly any attention, whereas its effects can be huge. In this paper, we describe various strategies for scaling, and identify a rational approach. We present the approaches in matrix algebra terms and illustrate them with an insightful simulated example. We show that scaling directly influences which data aspects are stressed in the analysis, and hence become apparent in the solution. Therefore, the cornerstone for proper scaling is to use a scaling factor that is free from the effect of interest. This implies that proper scaling depends on the effect(s) of interest, and that different types of scaling may be proper for the different effect matrices. We illustrate that different scaling approaches can greatly affect the ASCA interpretation with a real-life example from nutritional research. The principle that scaling factors should be free from the effect of interest generalizes to other statistical methods that involve scaling, as classification methods.

  3. Issue Mechanism for Embedded Simultaneous Multithreading Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Chengjie; Imai, Shigeki; Frank, Steven; Kimura, Shinji

    Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) technology enhances instruction throughput by issuing multiple instructions from multiple threads within one clock cycle. For in-order pipeline to each thread, SMT processors can provide large number of issued instructions close to or surpass than using out-of-order pipeline. In this work, we show an efficient issue logic for predicated instruction sequence with the parallel flag in each instruction, where the predicate register based issue control is adopted and the continuous instructions with the parallel flag of ‘0’ are executed in parallel. The flag is pre-defined by a compiler. Instructions from different threads are issued based on the round-robin order. We also introduce an Instruction Queue skip mechanism for thread if the queue is empty. Using this kind of issue logic, we designed a 6 threads, 7-stage, in-order pipeline processor. Based on this processor, we compare round-robin issue policy (RR(T1-Tn)) with other policies: thread one always has the highest priority (PR(T1)) and thread one or thread n has the highest priority in turn (PR(T1-Tn)). The results show that RR(T1-Tn) policy outperforms others and PR(T1-Tn) is almost the same to RR(T1-Tn) from the point of view of the issued instructions per cycle.

  4. Simultaneous multithreaded processor enhanced for multimedia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombers, Friederich; Thomas, Michel

    1999-12-01

    The paper proposes a new media processor architecture specifically designed to handle state-of-the-art multimedia encoding and decoding tasks. To achieve this, the architecture efficiently exploit Data-, Instruction- and Thread-Level parallelisms while continuously adapting its computational resources to reach the most appropriate parallelism level among all the concurrent encoding/decoding processes. Looking at the implementation constraints, several critical choices were adopted that solve the interconnection delay problem, lower the cache misses and pipeline stalls effects and reduce register files and memory size by adopting a clustered Simultaneous Multithreaded Architecture. We enhanced the classic model to exploit both Instruction and Data Level Parallelism through vector instructions. The vector extension is well justified for multimedia workload and improves code density, crossbars complexity, register file ports and decoding logic area while it still provides an efficient way to fully exploit a large set of functional units. An MPEG-2 encoding algorithms based on Hybrid Genetic search has been implemented that show the efficiency of the architecture to adapt its resources allocation to better fulfill the application requirements.

  5. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-05-22

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast.

  6. Simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation for tidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, M.U.

    2011-05-12

    The Dutch continental shelf model (DCSM) is a shallow sea model of entire continental shelf which is used operationally in the Netherlands to forecast the storm surges in the North Sea. The forecasts are necessary to support the decision of the timely closure of the moveable storm surge barriers to protect the land. In this study, an automated model calibration method, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) is implemented for tidal calibration of the DCSM. The method uses objective function evaluations to obtain the gradient approximations. The gradient approximation for the central difference method uses only two objective function evaluation independent of the number of parameters being optimized. The calibration parameter in this study is the model bathymetry. A number of calibration experiments is performed. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of the final results as well as the computational costs required to produce these results. In doing so, comparison is made with a traditional steepest descent method and also with a newly developed proper orthogonal decompositionbased calibration method. The main findings are: (1) The SPSA method gives comparable results to steepest descent method with little computational cost. (2) The SPSA method with little computational cost can be used to estimate large number of parameters.

  7. [Simultaneous rupture of a patellar tendon and contralateral quadriceps tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horas, U; Ernst, S; Meyer, C; Halbsguth, A; Herbst, U

    2006-09-01

    The simultaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare injury; only occasional reports exist about the bilateral simultaneous rupture of the patellar tendon. Degenerative changes of the tendon due to drugs or diseases lead to the rupture. We describe two cases of simultaneous rupture of the patellar and contralateral quadriceps tendons; only one patient had special risks. We report the management of therapy and the functional results using the Lysholm score and Knee Rating Scale.

  8. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  9. Simultaneous Penetrating Keratoplasty and Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty (PK, cataract removal and intraocular lens implantation (triple procedure, and to compare the safety and efficacy of two different cataract extraction techniques during the course of PK. Methods: This retrospective comparative study was conducted on patients who had undergone a triple procedure. The technique of cataract extraction was either opensky extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE or phacoemulsification (PE. In the ECCE group, the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL was implanted in the ciliary sulcus, while in the PE group PCIOLs were fixated within the capsular bag. Outcome measures included best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, refractive results, graft clarity and complications. Results: Seventy-six eyes of 69 consecutive patients with mean age of 61.4±14.2 years were enrolled. Mean follow-up period was 61.4±37.2 months over which mean BSCVA was significantly improved from 1.40±0.68 to 0.44±0.33 LogMAR (P<0.001. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refractive error was -2.13±3.02 D, which significantly differed from the target refraction (-0.73±0.29 D, P=0.004. At final follow-up, 89.5% of the corneal grafts remained clear. Conclusion: The triple procedure is a safe and effective approach to restore vision in patients with coexisting corneal pathologies and cataracts. However, unacceptable postoperative refractive error can be anticipated.

  10. Simultaneous Penetrating Keratoplasty and Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr; Moein, Hamid-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the clinical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty (PK), cataract removal and intraocular lens implantation (triple procedure), and to compare the safety and efficacy of two different cataract extraction techniques during the course of PK. Methods This retrospective comparative study was conducted on patients who had undergone a triple procedure. The technique of cataract extraction was either open- sky extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) or phacoemulsification (PE). In the ECCE group, the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) was implanted in the ciliary sulcus, while in the PE group PCIOLs were fixated within the capsular bag. Outcome measures included best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), refractive results, graft clarity and complications. Results Seventy-six eyes of 69 consecutive patients with mean age of 61.4±14.2 years were enrolled. Mean follow-up period was 61.4±37.2 months over which mean BSCVA was significantly improved from 1.40±0.68 to 0.44±0.33 LogMAR (P<0.001). Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refractive error was -2.13±3.02 D, which significantly differed from the target refraction (-0.73±0.29 D, P=0.004). At final follow-up, 89.5% of the corneal grafts remained clear. Conclusion The triple procedure is a safe and effective approach to restore vision in patients with coexisting corneal pathologies and cataracts. However, unacceptable postoperative refractive error can be anticipated. PMID:23825711

  11. Damage of cellular material under simultaneous application of pressure and pulsed electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Bazhal, M I; Vorobev, E I

    2000-01-01

    Influence of pulsed electric field (PEF) simultaneous to pressure treatment on moisture expression from fine-cut cellular raw material has been investigated. Dependencies of specific conductivity $\\sigma$, liquid yield $Y$, instantaneous flow rate $v$ and qualitative juice characteristics at different modes of PEF treatment are discussed. Three main consolidation phases were observed in a case of mechanical expression. A unified approach is proposed for liquid yield data analysis allowing to reduce the data scattering caused by differences in the quality of samples. Simultaneous application of pressure and PEF treatment allows to reveal a passive form of electrical damage. Pressure provokes the damage of defected cells, enhances diffusion migration of moisture in porous cellular material and depresses the cell resealing processes. PEF application at a moment when a sample specific electrical conductivity reaches minimum and pressure achieves its constant value seemed to be the most optimal.

  12. Quantification of Dance Movement by Simultaneous Measurement of Body Motion and Biophysical Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woong Choi; Tadao Isaka; Mamiko Sakata; Seiya Tsuruta; Kozaburo Hachimura

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is a quantitative analysis of movement patterns of dance, which cannot be analyzed with a motion capture system alone, using simultaneous measurement of body motion and biophysical information. In this research, two kinds of same leg movement are captured by simultaneous measurement; one is a leg movement with given strength, the other is a leg movement without strength on condition of basic experiment using optical motion capture and electromyography (EMG) equipment in order to quantitatively analyze characteristics of leg movement. Also, we measured the motion of the traditional Japanese dance using the constructed system. We can visualize leg movement of Japanese dance by displaying a 3D CG character animation with motion data and EMG data. In addition, we expect that our research will help dancers and researchers on dance through giving new information on dance movement which cannot be analyzed with only motion capture.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of surface shape and optical thickness using wavelength tuning and a polynomial window function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hibino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-12-14

    In this study, a 6N - 5 phase shifting algorithm comprising a polynomial window function and discrete Fourier transform is developed for the simultaneous measurement of the surface shape and optical thickness of a transparent plate with suppression of the coupling errors between the higher harmonics and phase shift error. The characteristics of the 6N - 5 algorithm were estimated by connection with the Fourier representation in the frequency domain. The phase error of the measurements performed using the 6N - 5 algorithm is discussed and compared with those of measurements obtained using other algorithms. Finally, the surface shape and optical thickness of a transparent plate were measured simultaneously using the 6N - 5 algorithm and a wavelength tuning interferometer.

  14. Multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escott S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Escott, Ahmad B Tarabishy, Frederick H DavidorfHavener Eye Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The paper describes the first reported case of multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis-A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. A 33-year-old male developed sudden onset of flashing lights and floaters in his right eye 3 weeks following hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. Fundus examination and angiography confirmed the presence of multiple peripheral chorioretinal lesions. These lesions demonstrated characteristic morphologic changes over a period of 8 weeks which were consistent with a diagnosis of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis. Vaccine-induced intraocular inflammation has been described infrequently. We demonstrate the first case of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous administration of hepatitis A, yellow fever, and typhoid immunizations.Keywords: multifocal choroiditis, vaccination, hepatitis A, typhoid, yellow fever

  15. THE SIMULTANEOUS AND NON-SIMULTANEOUS BLOW-UP CRITERIA FOR A DIFFUSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengqiu LING; Zejia WANG; Guoqiang ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the finite time blow-up of nonnegative solutions for a nonlinear diffusion system with a more complicated source term,which is a product of localized source,local source,and weight function,and complemented by homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions.The criteria are proposed to identify simultaneous and nonsimultaneous blow-up solutions.Moreover,the related classification for the four parameters in the model is optimal and complete.The results extend those in Zhang and Yang [12].

  16. Ranking of Simultaneous Equation Techniques to Small Sample Properties and Correlated Random Deviates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Adepoju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: All simultaneous equation estimation methods have some desirable asymptotic properties and these properties become effective in large samples. This study is relevant since samples available to researchers are mostly small in practice and are often plagued with the problem of mutual correlation between pairs of random deviates which is a violation of the assumption of mutual independence between pairs of such random deviates. The objective of this research was to study the small sample properties of these estimators when the errors are correlated to determine if the properties will still hold when available samples are relatively small and the errors were correlated. Approach: Most of the evidence on the small sample properties of the simultaneous equation estimators was studied from sampling (or Monte Carlo experiments. It is important to rank estimators on the merit they have when applied to small samples. This study examined the performances of five simultaneous estimation techniques using some of the basic characteristics of the sampling distributions rather than their full description. The characteristics considered here are the mean, the total absolute bias and the root mean square error. Results: The result revealed that the ranking of the five estimators in respect of the Average Total Absolute Bias (ATAB is invariant to the choice of the upper (P1 or lower (P2 triangular matrix. The result of the FIML using RMSE of estimates was outstandingly best in the open-ended intervals and outstandingly poor in the closed interval (-0.051 and P2 we re-combined. Conclusion: (i The ranking of the various simultaneous estimation methods considered based on their small sample properties differs according to the correlation status of the error term, the identifiability status of the equation and the assumed triangular matrix. (ii The nature of the relationship under study also determined which of the criteria for judging the

  17. Simultaneous spreading and evaporation: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Sergey; Trybala, Anna; Rubio, Ramon G; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor; Velarde, Manuel G

    2014-04-01

    The recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of simultaneous spreading and evaporation of liquid droplets on solid substrates is discussed for pure liquids including nanodroplets, nanosuspensions of inorganic particles (nanofluids) and surfactant solutions. Evaporation of both complete wetting and partial wetting liquids into a nonsaturated vapour atmosphere are considered. However, the main attention is paid to the case of partial wetting when the hysteresis of static contact angle takes place. In the case of complete wetting the spreading/evaporation process proceeds in two stages. A theory was suggested for this case and a good agreement with available experimental data was achieved. In the case of partial wetting the spreading/evaporation of a sessile droplet of pure liquid goes through four subsequent stages: (i) the initial stage, spreading, is relatively short (1-2 min) and therefore evaporation can be neglected during this stage; during the initial stage the contact angle reaches the value of advancing contact angle and the radius of the droplet base reaches its maximum value, (ii) the first stage of evaporation is characterised by the constant value of the radius of the droplet base; the value of the contact angle during the first stage decreases from static advancing to static receding contact angle; (iii) during the second stage of evaporation the contact angle remains constant and equal to its receding value, while the radius of the droplet base decreases; and (iv) at the third stage of evaporation both the contact angle and the radius of the droplet base decrease until the drop completely disappears. It has been shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that during the first and second stages of evaporation the volume of droplet to power 2/3 decreases linearly with time. The universal dependence of the contact angle during the first stage and of the radius of the droplet base during the second stage on the reduced time has been

  18. Phase reset affects auditory-visual simultaneity judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Jun; Kakimoto, Yuta; Araki, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    We continuously receive the external information from multiple sensors simultaneously. The brain must judge a source event of these sensory informations and integrate them. It is thought that judging the simultaneity of such multisensory stimuli is an important cue when we discriminate whether the stimuli are derived from one event or not. Although previous studies have investigated the correspondence between an auditory-visual (AV) simultaneity perceptions and the neural responses, there are still few studies of this. Electrophysiological studies have reported that ongoing oscillations in human cortex affect perception. Especially, the phase resetting of ongoing oscillations has been examined as it plays an important role in multisensory integration. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of phase resetting for the judgment of AV simultaneity judgement tasks. The subjects were successively presented with auditory and visual stimuli with intervals that were controlled as [Formula: see text] and they were asked to report whether they perceived them simultaneously or not. We investigated the effects of the phase of ongoing oscillations on simultaneity judgments with AV stimuli with SOAs in which the detection rate of asynchrony was 50 %. It was found that phase resetting at the beta frequency band in the brain area that related to the modality of the following stimulus occurred after preceding stimulus onset only when the subjects perceived AV stimuli as simultaneous. This result suggested that beta phase resetting occurred in areas that are related to the subsequent stimulus, supporting perception multisensory stimuli as simultaneous.

  19. Simultaneous Intracranial and Spinal Subdural Hematoma: Two Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chung Dae; Song, Chang Joon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Choi, Seung Won [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Spinal subdural hematoma is a rare disease. Simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma is extremely rare and only 14 such cases have been reported. We report here on two cases of simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma that occurred following a fall-down head injury and intracranial surgery, and we discuss the pathogenesis of the disease.

  20. Components of simultaneous interpreting: Comparing interpreting with shadowing and paraphrasing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Groot, A.M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production,

  1. A simple arc column model that accounts for the relationship between voltage, current and electrode gap during VAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

    1997-02-01

    Mean arc voltage is a process parameter commonly used in vacuum arc remelting (VAR) control schemes. The response of this parameter to changes in melting current (I) and electrode gap (g{sub e}) at constant pressure may be accurately described by an equation of the form V = V{sub 0} + c{sub 1}g{sub e}I + c{sub 2}g{sub e}{sup 2} + c{sub 3}I{sup 2}, where c{sub 1}, c{sub 2} and c{sub 3} are constants, and where the non-linear terms generally constitute a relatively small correction. If the non-linear terms are ignored, the equation has the form of Ohm`s law with a constant offset (V{sub 0}), c{sub 1}g{sub e} playing the role of resistance. This implies that the arc column may be treated approximately as a simple resistor during constant current VAR, the resistance changing linearly with g{sub e}. The VAR furnace arc is known to originate from multiple cathode spot clusters situated randomly on the electrode tip surface. Each cluster marks a point of exist for conduction electrons leaving the cathode surface and entering the electrode gap. Because the spot clusters re highly localized on the cathode surface, each gives rise to an arc column that may be considered to operate independently of other local arc columns. This approximation is used to develop a model that accounts for the observed arc voltage dependence on electrode gap at constant current. Local arc column resistivity is estimated from elementary plasma physics and used to test the model for consistency by using it to predict local column heavy particle density. Furthermore, it is shown that the local arc column resistance increases as particle density increases. This is used to account for the common observation that the arc stiffens with increasing current, i.e. the arc voltage becomes more sensitive to changes in electrode gap as the melting current is increased. This explains why arc voltage is an accurate electrode gap indicator for high current VAR processes but not low current VAR processes.

  2. Effect of Ferrite Magnetic Wedge on Capacitor Motor Characteristics in Triac Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akio; Anazawa, Yoshihisa; Tajima, Katsubumi

    1991-07-01

    Split-phase capacitor motors are commonly used to drive household electric appliances. The motor has some slots and teeth to embed electric conductors or coils. The presence of the slots and teeth induces the variation of magnetic reluctance through the magnetic circuit to introduce heavy pulsation of the air gap flux. Thus, the voltage, current and torque of the motor become oscillative to increase the electric power loss and finally to reduce the motor efficiency. First, the authors discuss the characteristics of a 3-phase cage-type induction motor in which the ferrite magnetic wedges have been installed into the stator slot openings of the motor to smooth the air gap flux pulsation and to decrease the electric power loss, resulting in improved motor efficiency. If the motor is driven by the voltage source in accordance with the loading condition, more economical operation will be achieved. In this study, a nonsinusoidal voltage controlled by the switching element of a triac has been applied to a capacitor motor with wedges of ferrite magnetic materials. This paper reports on the interesting results obtained.

  3. The role of simultaneous and successive processing in EFL reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filickova, Marta; Kovalcikova, Iveta; Ropovik, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between simultaneous and successive processing (the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive processing [PASS] theory processes) and reading skills in English as a foreign language (EFL). A group of 81 children were administered two batteries of tests. One was used to measure EFL reading skills, while the other one assessed simultaneous and successive processing. We hypothesised (a) cognitive processes to predict reading ability, as well as (b) the presence of a significant relationship between (c) simultaneous processing and reading comprehension and (d) successive processing and letter and word decoding. The findings confirmed that the anticipated relationships between these domains exist and are of moderate effect size. The research has helped to contribute to the understanding of how simultaneous and successive processing can affect EFL reading skills both on the level of basic word and letter decoding and reading comprehension. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Simultaneous multi-scale registration using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Laurent; Vialard, François-Xavier; Wolz, Robin; Murgasova, Maria; Holm, Darryl D; Rueckert, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    In the framework of large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM), we present a practical methodology to integrate prior knowledge about the registered shapes in the regularizing metric. Our goal is to perform rich anatomical shape comparisons from volumetric images with the mathematical properties offered by the LDDMM framework. We first present the notion of characteristic scale at which image features are deformed. We then propose a methodology to compare anatomical shape variations in a multi-scale fashion, i.e., at several characteristic scales simultaneously. In this context, we propose a strategy to quantitatively measure the feature differences observed at each characteristic scale separately. After describing our methodology, we illustrate the performance of the method on phantom data. We then compare the ability of our method to segregate a group of subjects having Alzheimer's disease and a group of controls with a classical coarse to fine approach, on standard 3D MR longitudinal brain images. We finally apply the approach to quantify the anatomical development of the human brain from 3D MR longitudinal images of pre-term babies. Results show that our method registers accurately volumetric images containing feature differences at several scales simultaneously with smooth deformations.

  5. Simultaneous detection of antibodies to five Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars using bead-based multiplex analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Sanne Schou; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Boas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    We have developed and made a preliminary validation of a bead-based multiplexed immunoassay for simultaneous detection of porcine serum antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1, 2, 6, 7, and 12. Magnetic fluorescent beads were coupled with A. pleuropneumoniae antigens and tested...... Pathogen Free system. Assay specificities and sensitivities as well as the corresponding cutoff values were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the A. pleuropneumoniae multiplex assay showed good correlation with the in-house ELISAs and CF tests with areas under ROC...

  6. Evidence for Simultaneous Production of J/ψ and Υ Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Aushev, V.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besancon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Perez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cuth, J.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Deliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Faure, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franc, J.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garcia-Gonzalez, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffre, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurca, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; de Sa, R. Lopes; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magana-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martinez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Petroff, P.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B. [et al.

    2016-02-25

    We report evidence for the simultaneous production of J/ψ and Υ mesons in 8.1 fb$^{-1}$of data collected at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab $p\\bar{p}$ Tevatron Collider. Events with these characteristics are expected to be produced predominantly by gluon-gluon interactions. In this analysis, we extract the effective cross section characterizing the initial parton spatial distribution, σ$_{eff}$=2.2±0.7(stat)±0.9(syst) mb.

  7. Evidence for simultaneous production of $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ mesons

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    We report evidence for the simultaneous production of $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ mesons in 8.1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=$1.96 TeV by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab $p \\bar p$ Tevatron Collider. Events with these characteristics are expected to be produced predominantly by gluon-gluon interactions. In this analysis, we extract the effective cross section characterizing the initial parton spatial distribution, $\\sigma_{eff}=2.2\\pm 0.7\\mbox{(stat)} \\pm 0.9 \\mbox{(syst)} ~\\mbox{mb}$.

  8. Simultaneous acquisition of differing image types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G

    2012-10-09

    A system in one embodiment includes an image forming device for forming an image from an area of interest containing different image components; an illumination device for illuminating the area of interest with light containing multiple components; at least one light source coupled to the illumination device, the at least one light source providing light to the illumination device containing different components, each component having distinct spectral characteristics and relative intensity; an image analyzer coupled to the image forming device, the image analyzer decomposing the image formed by the image forming device into multiple component parts based on type of imaging; and multiple image capture devices, each image capture device receiving one of the component parts of the image. A method in one embodiment includes receiving an image from an image forming device; decomposing the image formed by the image forming device into multiple component parts based on type of imaging; receiving the component parts of the image; and outputting image information based on the component parts of the image. Additional systems and methods are presented.

  9. Localization of coherent sources by simultaneous MEG and EEG beamformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Hee; Ahn, Minkyu; Kim, Kiwoong; Jun, Sung Chan

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) analysis is known generally to yield better localization performance than a single modality only. For simultaneous analysis, MEG and EEG data should be combined to maximize synergistic effects. Recently, beamformer for simultaneous MEG/EEG analysis was proposed to localize both radial and tangential components well, while single modality analyses could not detect them, or had relatively higher location bias. In practice, most interesting brain sources are likely to be activated coherently; however, conventional beamformer may not work properly for such coherent sources. To overcome this difficulty, a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformer may be used with a source suppression strategy. In this work, simultaneous MEG/EEG LCMV beamformer using source suppression was formulated firstly to investigate its capability over various suppression strategies. The localization performance of our proposed approach was examined mainly for coherent sources and compared thoroughly with the conventional simultaneous and single modality approaches, over various suppression strategies. For this purpose, we used numerous simulated data, as well as empirical auditory stimulation data. In addition, some strategic issues of simultaneous MEG/EEG analysis were discussed. Overall, we found that our simultaneous MEG/EEG LCMV beamformer using a source suppression strategy is greatly beneficial in localizing coherent sources.

  10. Characteristics of Information Systems and Business Informatics Study Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade there is an intensive discussion within the Information Systems (IS) and Informatics community about the characteristics and identity of the discipline. Simultaneously with the discussion, there is an ongoing debate on essential skills and capabilities of IS and Business Informatics graduates as well as the profile of IS…

  11. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  12. Temperature Characteristics of BJMOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yun; YAN Min; YANG Hong-guan; GAO Yun

    2005-01-01

    The resolution expression for the temperature dependence of the current and threshold voltage is deduced as well as the analysis of temperature characteristics of BJMOSFET. Equivalent circuit of analysis and simulation has been established for the BJMOSFET temperature characteristics. By using the general circuit simulation software of PSpice9 and computer simulation, characteristic graphs of the BJMOSFET output characteristic, transient characteristic and amplitude-frequency characteristic with temperature variation are obtained. The results accorded very good with theoretical analysis and proved that BJMOSFET has better temperature characteristics than traditional MOSFET.

  13. Graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous detection of heroine, morphine and noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah; Teymourian, Hazhir

    2012-01-15

    In the present study, the graphene nanosheets (GNSs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode is employed for simultaneous determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the simultaneous determination of these three important opiate drugs based on their direct electrochemical oxidation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) technique is utilized in order to study the surface morphology of the modified electrode. The modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of morphine, noscapine and heroin at reduced overpotentials in wide pH range. In the performed experiments, differential pulse voltammetric determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin yields calibration curves with the following characteristics; linear dynamic range up to 65, 40 and 100 μM, sensitivity of 275, 500 and 217 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and detection limits of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.5 μM at 3S(B), respectively. Fast response time, signal stability, high sensitivity, low cost and ease of preparation method without using any specific electron-transfer mediator or specific reagent are the advantageous of the proposed sensor. The modified electrode can be used for simultaneous or individual detection of three major narcotic components, heroin, noscapine and morphine at micromolar concentration without any separation or pretreatment steps.

  14. Glycerol production by Oenococcus oeni during sequential and simultaneous cultures with wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Cesar E; Farías, Marta E; Strasser de Saad, Ana M; Pasteris, Sergio E

    2014-07-01

    Growth and fermentation patterns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kloeckera apiculata, and Oenococcus oeni strains cultured in grape juice medium were studied. In pure, sequential and simultaneous cultures, the strains reached the stationary growth phase between 2 and 3 days. Pure and mixed K. apiculata and S. cerevisiae cultures used mainly glucose, producing ethanol, organic acids, and 4.0 and 0.1 mM glycerol, respectively. In sequential cultures, O. oeni achieved about 1 log unit at 3 days using mainly fructose and L-malic acid. Highest sugars consumption was detected in K. apiculata supernatants, lactic acid being the major end-product. 8.0 mM glycerol was found in 6-day culture supernatants. In simultaneous cultures, total sugars and L-malic acid were used at 3 days and 98% of ethanol and glycerol were detected. This study represents the first report of the population dynamics and metabolic behavior of yeasts and O. oeni in sequential and simultaneous cultures and contributes to the selection of indigenous strains to design starter cultures for winemaking, also considering the inclusion of K. apiculata. The sequential inoculation of yeasts and O. oeni would enhance glycerol production, which confers desirable organoleptic characteristics to wines, while organic acids levels would not affect their sensory profile.

  15. Simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation from aqueous solutions by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Fan, Jiaqi; Zou, Zhengjun; Li, Hui; Hu, Xinjiang; Long, Fei [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ministry of Education, Changsha (CN). Key Lab. of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan Univ.)

    2011-08-15

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been recognised as an effective bioremediation agent due to its unique degradation to xenobiotic and biosorption ability to heavy metals. However, few studies have focused on the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in P. chrysosporium liquid cultures. The removal efficiencies were pH dependent and the maximum removal efficiencies were observed at pH 6.5 under an initial cadmium concentration of 5 mg/L and an initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 20 mg/L. The removal efficiencies for cadmium and 2,4-DCP reached 63.62% and 83.90%, respectively, under the optimum conditions. The high production levels of lignin peroxidase (7.35 U/mL) and manganese peroxidase (8.30 U/mL) resulted in an increase in 2,4-DCP degradation. The protein content decreased with increasing cadmium concentration. The surface characteristics and functional groups of the biomass were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the use of P. chrysosporium is promising for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and 2,4-DCP from liquid media. (orig.)

  16. Simultaneous Laser Thermal Lens Spectrometric Determination of Trace Platinum and Palladium in an Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Xiao-Ling(张小玲); YAN,Hong-Tao(阎宏涛)

    2002-01-01

    A selective and sensitive method for determination of platinum and palladium(Ⅱ) in an aqueous solntion simultaneously by laser thermal lens spectrometry, based on the complex reaction of 2- (3,5-dichloropyridylazo)-5- dimethylaminoamiline (3,5-diCl-PADMA) with platinum and palladium, has been developed. It is shown that the palladium complex can be formed at room temperature, while the platinum complex can be only formed after being heated in a boiling water bath. By using this difference of reaction temperature and the characteristic of the complexes mentioned above, the method for simultaneous determination of platinum and palladium was established in an aqueous solution without a pre-separation. The results show that the dynamic linear ranges of determination for platinum and pallladium are 0.005-0.04 μg/mL and 0.005-0.25 μg/mL respectively, and that the detection limits are both 0.002 μg/mL. The method has been applied to the determination of platinum and palladium simultaneously in alloy and catalyst samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Simultaneous Laser Thermal Lens Spectrometric Determination of Trace Platinum and Palladium in an Aquesous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小玲; 阎宏涛

    2002-01-01

    A selective and sensitive method for determination of platinum and palladium(Ⅱ)in an aqueous solution simultaneously by laser thermal lens spectrometry,based on the complex reaction of 2-(3,5-dichloropyridylazo)-5-dimethylaminoamiline(3,5-diCl-PADMA) with platinum and palladium,has been developed.It is shown that the palladium complex can be fromed at room temperature, while the platinum complex can be only formed after being heated in a boiling water bath.By using this difference of reaction temperature and the characteristic of the complexes mentioned above,the method for simultaneous determination of platinum and palladium was established in an aqueous solution without a pre-separation.The results show that the dynamic linear ranges of determination for platinum and palladium are 0.005-0.04μg/mL and 0.005-0.25μg/mL respectively,and that the detection limits are both 0.002/μg/mL.The method has been applied to the determination of platinum and palladium simultaneously in alloy and catalyst samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Simultaneous Chronoamperometric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid and Acetaminophen at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Radovan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry (CV and chronoamperometry (CA have been used to sense and determine simultaneously L-ascorbic acid (AA and acetaminophen (AC at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The calibration plots of anodic current peak versus concentration obtained from CV and CA data for both investigated compounds in single and di-component solutions over the concentration range 0.01 mM – 0.1 mM proved to be linear, with very good correlation parameters. Sensitivity values and RSD of 2-3% were obtained for various situations, involving both individual and simultaneous presence of AA and AC. The chronoamperometric technique associated with standard addition in sequential one step and/or two successive and continuous chronoamperograms at two characteristic potential levels represented a feasible option for the simultaneous determination of AA and AC in real sample systems such as pharmaceutical formulations. The average values indicated by the supplier were confirmed to a very close approximation from chronoamperomgrams by using several additions with the application of suitable current correction factors.

  19. Simultaneous distribution between the deflection angle and the lateral displacement under the Moliere theory of multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, Takao [Okayama Shoka University, Laboratory of Information Science, Okayama (Japan); Okei, Kazuhide [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. of Information Sciences, Kurashiki (Japan); Iyono, Atsushi [Okayama university of Science, Dept. of Fundamental Science, Faculty of Science, Okayama (Japan); Bielajew, Alex F. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous distribution between the deflection angle and the lateral displacement of fast charged particles traversing through matter is derived by applying numerical inverse Fourier transforms on the Fourier spectral density solved analytically under the Moliere theory of multiple scattering, taking account of ionization loss. Our results show the simultaneous Gaussian distribution at the region of both small deflection angle and lateral displacement, though they show the characteristic contour patterns of probability density specific to the single and the double scatterings at the regions of large deflection angle and/or lateral displacement. The influences of ionization loss on the distribution are also investigated. An exact simultaneous distribution is derived under the fixed energy condition based on a well-known model of screened single scattering, which indicates the limit of validity of the Moliere theory applied to the simultaneous distribution. The simultaneous distribution will be valuable for improving the accuracy and the efficiency of experimental analyses and simulation studies relating to charged particle transports. (orig.)

  20. Reduction in hospitalisation rates following simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting; experience from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare hospital, clinical, and health care cost among patients undergoing reversed staged procedure coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass (off-pump CABG) first and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) second (control group), compared with patients who had simultaneous CEA and off-pump CABG (study group). From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004, 53 consecutive patients underwent combined operations at a single institution. Reversed staged procedures were used in the first 23 patients (January 2000-September 2003), and the next 30 patients (September 2003-September 2004) received the one-stage operations. The two groups were similar with respect to baseline characteristics. An internal control system was implemented at the University Clinic Cardiovascular Department (UCCD) in order to compare staged versus simultaneous CEA/OPCABG. The objectives of the internal control system were two-fold: (1) to collect clinical outcomes, resource utilization on patients undergoing reverse-staged or simultaneous OPCABG/CEA and (2) to compare reverse-staged OPCABG/CEA patients, to patients receiving simultaneous CEA/OPCABG in a UCCD. Study patients spent statistically significantly less time in the hospital than control patients (10 vs. 17.9 days). The difference in the mean annual cost of simultaneous versus staged surgery was estimated to be -11.417 Euros (9.619 vs. 21.028 Euros).

  1. some effects of simultaneous administration of crude aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... This study was designed to determine the simultaneous effect of ... untreated and served as control group, group B was treated with .... activity is proportional to the amount of ... analysis were alanine transaminase (ALT) and.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-08-08

    Aug 8, 2014 ... Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, ratio derivative method, ultraviolet spectrometry, simultaneous ... either complex sample preparation or toxic organic solvents. In ... properties of BPA and BPS, a new analysis method for the simul-.

  3. Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Verena S.; Schaerer, Lukas; Michiels, Nico K.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites have typically focused either on evolutionary or one-time, ontogenetic optimization of sex allocation, ignoring variation within an individual's lifetime. Here, we study whether hermaphrodites also possess facultative sex allocation,

  4. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  5. a successful reduction in triglyceride levels with simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    triglyceride levels with simultaneous insulin infusion and plasma exchange. A Korba*, PH ... proinflammatory free fatty acids, leading to endothelial damage. ... triglyceride levels remains unclear.1,14 Taking all the available published literature ...

  6. Best Simultaneous Approximation to Totally Bounded Sequences in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Fa LUO; Chong LI; Genaro LOPEZ

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of best weighted simultaneous approximations to totally bounded sequences in Banach spaces. Characterization results from convex sets in Banach spaces are established under the assumption that the Banach space is uniformly smooth.

  7. Part 6: Modelling of simultaneous chemical-biological P removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    This paper reviews three published models for simultaneous chemical phosphorus precipitation in ... could not form dynamically during the ensuing kinetic simulation. ... choice of certain key equilibrium (or solubility product) constants.

  8. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability

  9. Simultaneous control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... Simultaneous control among drug-treated diabetes patients. 785 ... complications (i.e., diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic ..... awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus in mainland china from.

  10. Simultaneous bilateral fungal keratitis caused by different fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajna Venkatesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal keratitis is an important cause of corneal disease in the tropical world. We report a rare presentation of simultaneous bilateral corneal ulceration caused by different fungi.

  11. Simultaneous Engineering - he strategy of the 90's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, J. B.; Humphrey, A. T.; Calhoun, P. R.; Giglio, J.; Sellars, A. L.

    With the Pacific Numerix PCB Design Expert System, GEC-Marconi is following the initiative of implementing simultaneous engineering. Pacific Numerix software is aimed directly at achieving the goal of zero defect products as part of its commitment on a world-wide scale. This paper, with examples, expounds on the philosophy of 'what is' simultaneous enineering, and how it is applied in the design of sophisticated electronic equipment.

  12. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal*

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Jin, Jian; He, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitr...

  13. Simultaneous imaging of neural activity in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eQuirin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a scanless optical method to image neuronal activity in three dimensions simultaneously. Using a spatial light modulator and a custom-designed phase mask, we illuminate and collect light simultaneously from different focal planes and perform calcium imaging of neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo. This method, combining structured illumination with volume projection imaging, could be used as a technological platform for brain activity mapping.

  14. Analysing an Analytical Solution Model for Simultaneous Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Chowdhury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current mobility models for simultaneous mobility h ave their convolution in designing simultaneous movement where mobile nodes (MNs travel randomly f rom the two adjacent cells at the same time and also have their complexity in the measurement of th e occurrences of simultaneous handover. Simultaneou s mobility problem incurs when two of the MNs start h andover approximately at the same time. As Simultaneous mobility is different for the other mo bility pattern, generally occurs less number of tim es in real time; we analyze that a simplified simultaneou s mobility model can be considered by taking only symmetric positions of MNs with random steps. In ad dition to that, we simulated the model using mSCTP and compare the simulation results in different sce narios with customized cell ranges. The analytical results shows that with the bigger the cell sizes, simultaneous handover with random steps occurrences become lees and for the sequential mobility (where initial positions of MNs is predetermined with ran dom steps, simultaneous handover is more frequent.

  15. The development of the perception of audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Shore, David I; Lewis, Terri L; Maurer, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    We measured the typical developmental trajectory of the window of audiovisual simultaneity by testing four age groups of children (5, 7, 9, and 11 years) and adults. We presented a visual flash and an auditory noise burst at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and asked participants to report whether the two stimuli were presented at the same time. Compared with adults, children aged 5 and 7 years made more simultaneous responses when the SOAs were beyond ± 200 ms but made fewer simultaneous responses at the 0 ms SOA. The point of subjective simultaneity was located at the visual-leading side, as in adults, by 5 years of age, the youngest age tested. However, the window of audiovisual simultaneity became narrower and response errors decreased with age, reaching adult levels by 9 years of age. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the adult-like performance of 9-year-old children was caused by the testing of a wide range of SOAs. Together, the results demonstrate that the adult-like precision of perceiving audiovisual simultaneity is developed by 9 years of age, the youngest age that has been reported to date.

  16. Are streamflow recession characteristics really characteristic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stoelzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streamflow recession has been investigated by a variety of methods, often involving the fit of a model to empirical recession plots to parameterize a non-linear storage-outflow relationship. Such recession analysis methods (RAMs are used to estimate hydraulic conductivity, storage capacity, or aquifer thickness and to model streamflow recession curves for regionalization and prediction at the catchment scale. Numerous RAMs have been published, but little is known about how characteristic the resulting recession models are to distinguish characteristic catchment behavior. In this study we combined three established recession extraction methods with three different parameter-fitting methods to the power-law storage-outflow model to compare the range of recession characteristics that result from the application of these different RAMs. Resulting recession characteristics including recession time and corresponding storage depletion were evaluated for 20 meso-scale catchments in Germany. We found plausible ranges for model parameterization, however, calculated recession characteristics varied over two orders of magnitude. While recession characteristics of the 20 catchments derived with the different methods correlate strongly, particularly for the RAMs that use the same extraction method and while they rank the catchments relatively consistent, there are still considerable differences among the methods. To elucidate this variability we discuss the ambiguous roles of recession extraction procedures and the parameterization of storage-outflow model and the limitations of the presented recession plots. The results suggest strong limitations to the comparability of recession characteristics derived with different methods, not only in the model parameters but also in the relative characterization of different catchments. A multiple methods approach to investigate streamflow recession characteristics should be considered for applications whenever possible.

  17. Simultaneous and non-simultaneous blow-up and uniform blow-up profiles for reaction-diffusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Ling

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the blow-up solutions of a reaction-diffusion system with nonlocal sources, subject to the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. The criteria used to identify simultaneous and non-simultaneous blow-up of solutions by using the parameters p and q in the model are proposed. Also, the uniform blow-up profiles in the interior domain are established.

  18. Comparison of volatile and semivolatile compounds from commercial cigarette by supercritical fluid extraction and simultaneous distillation extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子刚; 郑琳

    2004-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) was studied as a rapid method for extraction of volatile and semivolatile compounds of Chinese commercial cigarettes. The method was compared with simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE). Temperature and pressure for the SFE were optimized. The extracts obtained by the two methods showed different characters in composition and represented differently the flavor characteristics of tobacco; compared to SDE, SFE can extract compounds within a shorter time and avoid the thermal degradation and solvent contamination of samples. The extracts by the two extraction methods are complementary for investigating the flavor characteristic of tobacco products.

  19. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  20. Concepts of Simultaneity From Antiquity to Einstein and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, F A [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for the History and Foundations of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht University P.O Box 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-10-05

    Concepts of Simultaneity (henceforth: Simultaneity) is Jammer's historical monograph dedicated to the development of a single concept in physics. Jammer's idea to write a history of concepts of simultaneity proves to be a wonderful idea: it makes Simultaneity literally unique in its kind and it provides a new perspective from which to look at the historical development of concepts of time, about which much has already been written. Anyone who believes that Einstein was the first person on planet Earth to reflect on how to establish whether two distant events have occurred at the same time, i.e. simultaneously, will stop believing this after having read chapters 2 and 3 of Simultaneity (chapter 1 consists of terminological preliminaries), which deal with Antiquity and the Middle Ages, respectively. For example, Augustine of Hippo anticipated, in his Confessions (397 C.E.), nothing less than the method to determine the simultaneity of distant events that we associate with Einstein. Augustine set out to criticise the heresy of astrology. He considered two infants being born simultaneously in distant places. According to the doctrines of astrology they should lead very similar lives, because they are born under the same constellation of the stars. Yet one infant, Augustine imagined, is the child of a poor maid servant whereas the other is the child of a rich lady, so that they would almost certainly lead very different lives. How to know whether the infants are born simultaneously? Augustine proposed to dispatch, at the moment of birth, two messengers who run equally fast from the houses were the babies were born (whether they do run equally fast can be ascertained by using only local simultaneity judgments); the messengers should run towards each other in order to see whether they meet 'at equal distance from either house' (p. 49). If so, the infants were born simultaneously. Of course, this will not be very accurate, but that is not the point. The

  1. A flexible framework for sparse simultaneous component based data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Deun Katrijn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 1 Background High throughput data are complex and methods that reveal structure underlying the data are most useful. Principal component analysis, frequently implemented as a singular value decomposition, is a popular technique in this respect. Nowadays often the challenge is to reveal structure in several sources of information (e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics that are available for the same biological entities under study. Simultaneous component methods are most promising in this respect. However, the interpretation of the principal and simultaneous components is often daunting because contributions of each of the biomolecules (transcripts, proteins have to be taken into account. 2 Results We propose a sparse simultaneous component method that makes many of the parameters redundant by shrinking them to zero. It includes principal component analysis, sparse principal component analysis, and ordinary simultaneous component analysis as special cases. Several penalties can be tuned that account in different ways for the block structure present in the integrated data. This yields known sparse approaches as the lasso, the ridge penalty, the elastic net, the group lasso, sparse group lasso, and elitist lasso. In addition, the algorithmic results can be easily transposed to the context of regression. Metabolomics data obtained with two measurement platforms for the same set of Escherichia coli samples are used to illustrate the proposed methodology and the properties of different penalties with respect to sparseness across and within data blocks. 3 Conclusion Sparse simultaneous component analysis is a useful method for data integration: First, simultaneous analyses of multiple blocks offer advantages over sequential and separate analyses and second, interpretation of the results is highly facilitated by their sparseness. The approach offered is flexible and allows to take the block structure in different ways into account. As such

  2. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...... bilateral simultaneous and staged TKA procedures from 2010 to 2011. The staged procedures were defined as two separate procedures done within 0-6 months or within 7-18 months. RESULTS: A total of 157 patients had bilateral simultaneous TKA, 346 patients had bilateral staged TKA within 0-6 months and 292...... simultaneous TKA versus three deaths (0.9 and 1.0 %) in each of the bilateral staged groups within 90 days of surgery (n.s.). The total readmission rate within 30 days of surgery was lower after bilateral simultaneous TKA (7 %, CI 4.0-12.0) and bilateral staged TKA within 0-6 months (9 %, CI 6.4-12.4) compared...

  3. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  4. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations. PMID:27551918

  5. The Simultaneous Membership Problem for Chordal, Comparability and Permutation graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jampani, Krishnam Raju

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the 'simultaneous membership problem', defined for any graph class C characterized in terms of representations, e.g. any class of intersection graphs. Two graphs G_1 and G_2, sharing some vertices X (and the corresponding induced edges), are said to be 'simultaneous members' of graph class C, if there exist representations R_1 and R_2 of G_1 and G_2 that are "consistent" on X. Equivalently (for the classes C that we consider) there exist edges E' between G_1-X and G_2-X such that G_1 \\cup G_2 \\cup E' belongs to class C. Simultaneous membership problems have application in any situation where it is desirable to consistently represent two related graphs, for example: interval graphs capturing overlaps of DNA fragments of two similar organisms; or graphs connected in time, where one is an updated version of the other. Simultaneous membership problems are related to simultaneous planar embeddings, graph sandwich problems and probe graph recognition problems. In this paper we give effici...

  6. Iterative methods for simultaneous inclusion of polynomial zeros

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag

    1989-01-01

    The simultaneous inclusion of polynomial complex zeros is a crucial problem in numerical analysis. Rapidly converging algorithms are presented in these notes, including convergence analysis in terms of circular regions, and in complex arithmetic. Parallel circular iterations, where the approximations to the zeros have the form of circular regions containing these zeros, are efficient because they also provide error estimates. There are at present no book publications on this topic and one of the aims of this book is to collect most of the algorithms produced in the last 15 years. To decrease the high computational cost of interval methods, several effective iterative processes for the simultaneous inclusion of polynomial zeros which combine the efficiency of ordinary floating-point arithmetic with the accuracy control that may be obtained by the interval methods, are set down, and their computational efficiency is described. The rate of these methods is of interest in designing a package for the simultaneous ...

  7. Simultaneous Reconstruction and Segmentation with Class-Specific Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanov, Mikhail

    for regularizing the reconstruction process. The thesis provides models and algorithms for simultaneous reconstruction and segmentation and their performance is empirically validated. Two method of simultaneous reconstruction and segmentation are described in the thesis. Also, a method for parameter selection......Studying the interior of objects using tomography often require an image segmentation, such that different material properties can be quantified. This can for example be volume or surface area. Segmentation is typically done as an image analysis step after the image has been reconstructed....... This thesis investigates computing the reconstruction and segmentation simultaneously. The advantage of this is that because the reconstruction and segmentation are computed jointly, reconstruction errors are not propagated to the segmentation step. Furthermore the segmentation procedure can be used...

  8. Simultaneous Subaru/MAGNUM Observations of Extrasolar Planetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, N.

    2007-07-01

    We introduce our project of simultaneous Subaru/MAGNUM observations of extrasolar planetary transits, designed for (i) transmission spectroscopy in order to search for absorption features due to planetary exospheres, and (ii) precise radial velocity measurements in order to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Our observing strategy of extrasolar planetary transits is to conduct simultaneous spectroscopic/photometric (optical+IR) observations, using the HDS of the Subaru 8.2-m telescope at Mauna Kea and the MAGNUM 2-m telescope at Haleakala, both in Hawaii. The simultaneous photometric monitoring will eliminate any uncertainty due to orbital ephemeris in our results, and it will also allow an independent determination of the transit depth and the limb-darkening parameters. In this manuscript, we detail our ability of observations to characterize transiting extrasolar planets, and also introduce previous studies, current status and prospects of the project.

  9. Simultaneous Combined Myositis, Inflammatory Polyneuropathy, and Overlap Myasthenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated neuromuscular disorders include pathologies of the peripheral nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. If overlap syndromes (or the association of almost two autoimmune disorders are recognized, the simultaneous occurrence of several autoimmune neuromuscular disorders is rare. We describe two patients presenting the simultaneous occurrence of inflammatory neuropathy, myositis, and myasthenia gravis (with positive acetylcholine receptor antibodies. For each patient, we carried out a pathological analysis (nerve and muscle and an electrophysiological study (and follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a triple immune-mediated neuromuscular syndrome. We compared our observations with a few other cases of simultaneous diagnosis of two inflammatory neuromuscular disorders.

  10. Simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for rectal and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongbo; Master, Jiafeng Fang; Chen, Tufeng; Zheng, Zongheng; Wei, Bo; Huang, Yong; Huang, Jianglong; Master, Haozhong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopy-assisted surgery for either rectal or gastric cancer has been increasingly performed. However, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is rarely reported in the literature. In our study, 3 cases of patients who received simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer were recorded. The results showed that all 3 patients recovered well, with only 253 minutes of mean operation time, 57 mL of intraoperative blood loss, 5 cm of assisted operation incision, 4 days to resume oral intake, 12 days' postoperative hospital stay, and no complication or mortality. No recurrence or metastasis was found within the follow-up period of 22 months. When performed by surgeons with plentiful experience in laparoscopic technology, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is safe and feasible, with the benefits of minimal trauma, fast recovery, and better cosmetic results, compared with open surgery.

  11. Low-resolution continuum source simultaneous multi-element electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: steps into practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za

    2015-03-01

    The theory and practical problems of continuum source simultaneous multi-element electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SMET AAS) are discussed by the example of direct analysis of underground water. The experimental methodology is based on pulse vaporization of the sample in a fast heated graphite tube and measurement of transient absorption of continuum spectrum radiation from D{sub 2} and Xe lamps within 200–400 nm wavelengths range with a low resolution spectral instrument and linear charge-coupled device. The setup permits the acquisition of 200 spectra during 1 s atomization pulse. Respective data matrix absorbance vs wavelength/time is employed for the quantification of elements in the sample. The calculation algorithm developed includes broad band and continuum background correction, linearization of function absorbance vs. concentration of atomic vapor and integration of thus modified absorbance at the resonance lines of the elements to be determined. Practical application shows that the method can be employed for the direct simultaneous determination of about 20 elements above microgram per liter level within 3–5 orders of the magnitude concentration range. The investigated sources of measurement errors are mainly associated with the atomization and vapor transportation problems, which are aggravated for the simultaneous release of major and minor sample constituents. Respective corrections concerning the selection of analytical lines, optimal sampling volume, matrix modification and cleaning of the atomizer have been introduced in the SMET AAS analytical technology. Under the optimized experimental conditions the calibration curves in Log-Log coordinates for all the investigated analytes in the single or multi-element reference solutions are approximated by the first order equations. The use of these equations as permanent characteristics of the setup enables instant quantification of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ni in the underground

  12. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results. Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  13. An experimental study on discharge characteristics in a pulsed-dc atmospheric pressure CH3OH/Ar plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Muyang; Liu, Sanqiu; Yang, Congying; Pei, Xuekai; Lu, Xinpei; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-10-01

    Recently, C/H/Ar plasma discharges found enormous potential and possibility in carbonaceous compounds conversion and production. In this work, a pulsed-dc CH3OH/Ar plasma jet generated at atmospheric pressure is investigated by means of optical and electrical diagnosis concerning the variation of its basic parameters, absolute concentration of OH radicals, and plasma temperature with different CH3OH/Ar volume ratios, in the core region of discharge with needle-to-ring electrode configuration. The voltage-current characteristics are also measured at different CH3OH/Ar ratios. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) results here show that only small amounts of added methanol vapor to argon plasma (about 0.05% CH3OH/Ar volume ratio) is favorable for the production of OH radicals. The optical emission lines of CH, CN, and C2 radicals have been detected in the CH3OH/Ar plasma. And, the plasma temperatures increase with successive amount of added methanol vapor to the growth plasma. Moreover, qualitative discussions are presented regarding the mechanisms for methanol dissociation and effect of the CH3OH component on the Ar plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure.

  14. Simultaneous estimation of esomeprazole and domperidone by UV spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabu S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of esomeprazole and domperidone. The method involved solving simultaneous equations based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, 301 nm and 284 nm, ′λ max of esomeprazole and domperidone respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 5-20 µg/ml and 8-30 µg/ml for esomeprazole and domperidone respectively. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific. The proposed method was successfully applied to estimation of esomeprazole and domperidone in combined solid dosage form.

  15. LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS USING SIMULTANEOUSLY MONITORED PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The topic is maximum likelihood inference from several simultaneously monitored response processes of a structure to obtain knowledge about the parameters of other not monitored but important response processes when the structure is subject to some Gaussian load field in space and time. The consi......The topic is maximum likelihood inference from several simultaneously monitored response processes of a structure to obtain knowledge about the parameters of other not monitored but important response processes when the structure is subject to some Gaussian load field in space and time....... The considered example is a ship sailing with a given speed through a Gaussian wave field....

  16. Server-Aided Two-Party Computation with Simultaneous Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ranellucci, Samuel

    We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal composab......We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal...

  17. A case of simultaneous triple primary gastrointestinal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinglong Qu; Yu Han; Yi Zhang; Bing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary carcinoma which is the same organ of the same patient or multiple organs, tissues has occurred two or more than two kinds of the primary malignant tumor. Al cancer at the same time or 6 months from diagnosis is caled simultaneous multiple primary carcinoma. In this case the patient sufering from cancer including rectal cancer, colon cancer and appendix gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) three primary carcinoma, is simultaneous multiple primary carcinoma and it’s extremely rare on the clinical cases. This report address that the incidence of the patient with operation and pathological diagnosis.

  18. New model for holographic storage by simultaneous angular multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, J. C.; Urzua, D.; Olivares-Peréz, A.; Ortiz-Gutierrez, M.

    2006-05-01

    We describe a technique for holographic storage by simultaneous angular multiplexing to obtain a large-scale holographic memory. We recorded 72 objects at the same time in one point on holographic plate PFG-03M from Slavich Co., using a He-Ne laser (λ = 633 nm). Each object is placed on a circular photographic transparency, separate 0.94 degree each one. The technique allows us simultaneous reconstruction of the 72 images without cross-talk. The diffraction efficiency obtained at order one is 6%. Experimental results are shown.

  19. Simultaneous quadratic performance stabilization for linear time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuepeng; Zhou Zude; Liu Huanbin; Zhang Qingling

    2006-01-01

    A newly designed approach of simultaneous stabilization is given for linear discrete time-delay systems. The problem of stabilization for a collection of systems is discussed initially. Adequate condition are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which are independent of time delays such that the resultant collection of discrete time-delay systems are stable with an upper bound of the quadratic performance index. Subsequently, controllers are designed such that the resultant closed-loop discrete time-delay systems are simultaneously stabilized with the upper bound of the quadratic performance index. Finally,a numerical example is given to illustrate the design method.

  20. A device for simultaneous spin analysis of ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afach, S. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Jena University Hospital, Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena (Germany); Ban, G.; Lefort, T.; Lemiere, Y.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Quemener, G. [Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen ENSICAEN, Caen (France); Bison, G.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M.; Henneck, R.; Lauss, B.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bodek, K.; Rawlik, M.; Rozpedzik, D.; Zejma, J. [Jagiellonian University, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Kirch, K.; Komposch, S. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Grujic, Z.D.; Kasprzak, M.; Weis, A. [University of Fribourg, Physics Department, Fribourg (Switzerland); Hayen, L.; Severijns, N.; Wursten, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Helaine, V. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen ENSICAEN, Caen (France); Kermaidic, Y.; Pignol, G.; Rebreyend, D. [Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, LPSC, Grenoble (France); Kozela, A. [Henryk Niedwodniczanski Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Krempel, J.; Piegsa, F.M. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Prashanth, P.N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Ries, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Jena University Hospital, Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena (Germany); Roccia, S. [Universite Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, CSNSM, Orsay campus (France); Wyszynski, G. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jagiellonian University, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    We report on the design and first tests of a device allowing for measurement of ultracold neutrons polarisation by means of the simultaneous analysis of the two spin components. The device was developed in the framework of the neutron electric dipole moment experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Individual parts and the entire newly built system have been characterised with ultracold neutrons. The gain in statistical sensitivity obtained with the simultaneous spin analyser is (18.2 ± 6.1) % relative to the former sequential analyser under nominal running conditions. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral Simultaneous Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment following Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Yumusak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old woman developed simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in both eyes. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy surgery combined with endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade in the right eye. A week later, pneumatic retinopexy was done in the left eye. As the retinal tear did not seal, 360° scleral buckling surgery was performed and retina was attached. Bilateral simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after LASIK for correction of myopia can be a serious complication. Patients should be informed about the possibility of this complication.

  2. Adaptive noise radar for simultaneous bistatic SAR and GMTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigling, Brian D.

    2005-05-01

    The adaptive noise radar algorithm allows computation of compressed pseudo-pulses from a received noise radar signal at the receiver ADC rate. This is accomplished through use of LMS channel identification algorithms commonly exploited in wireless communications. This paper shows how having access to compressed pseudo-pulses at the ADC rate may be exploited to simultaneously implement SAR and GMTI modes in two parallel Doppler-processing chains. Simultaneous SAR and GMTI will aid in tracking of alternately moving and stationary targets.

  3. SIMULTANEOUS RECORDING OF FRINGE PATTERNS WITH ONE CAMERA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Fei; DAI Fulong; CHIAN Kerm Sin; YI Sung

    2004-01-01

    A novel method to separate and simultaneously record the Moiré interferometry fringe patterns of three deformation fields with only one CCD camera is developed; details of its operation principle, key points and error analysis are presented. With this technique, the deformation in U, V and W fields can be measured simultaneously, so dynamic test with comprehensive information can be performed. The advantage of this technique over other similar techniques lies in its simplicity, easy implementation and low cost. An application of this technique is given to show its feasibility. Technical problems that may be caused with this technique are also analyzed.

  4. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  5. Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction for determination of volatile constituents in tobacco flavor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Ke-jun; WEI Wan-zhi; GUO Fang-qiu; HUANG Lan-fang

    2005-01-01

    The volatile and semi-volatile components in tobacco flavor additives were extracted by both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Extraction conditions for solid-phase micro-extraction were optimized with information theory. Then, detection were accomplished by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Characteristic of each method was compared. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of 6# tobacco flavor sample were accomplished through both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. The experimental results show that solid-phase micro-extraction method is the first choice for qualitative analysis and simultaneous distillation extraction is another good selection for quantitative analysis. By means of simultaneous distillation extraction, 20 components are identified, accounting for 92.77% of the total peak areas. Through solid-phase micro-extraction, there are 17 components identified accounting for 91.49% of the total peak areas. The main aromatic components in 6# tobacco flavor sample are propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester, menthol and menthyl acetate. The presented method has been successfully used for quality control of tobacco flavor.

  6. The First Simultaneous Microlensing Observations by Two Space telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Li, Z.; Udalski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of microlensing events from multiple locations allow for the breaking of degeneracies between the physical properties of the lensing system, specifically by exploring different regions of the lens plane and by directly measuring the “microlens parallax.” We report the di...

  7. The best simultaneous approximation in linear 2-normed spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we shall investigate and analyse a new study on the best simultaneous approximation in the context of linear 2-normed spaces inspired by Elumalai and his coworkers in Elumalai. The basis of this investigation is to extend and refinement the definition of the classical aproximation, best approximation and some related concepts to linear 2-normed spaces.

  8. Simultaneous multi-headed imager geometry calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vi-Hoa; Meikle, Steven Richard; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2008-02-19

    A method for calibrating multi-headed high sensitivity and high spatial resolution dynamic imaging systems, especially those useful in the acquisition of tomographic images of small animals. The method of the present invention comprises: simultaneously calibrating two or more detectors to the same coordinate system; and functionally correcting for unwanted detector movement due to gantry flexing.

  9. Simultaneous approximation by certain Baskakov–Durrmeyer–Stancu operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gupta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we establish some direct results in simultaneous approximation for Baskakov–Durrmeyer–Stancu (abbr. BDS operators Dn(α,β(f,x. We establish point-wise convergence, Voronovskaja type asymptotic formula and an error estimate in terms of second order modulus of continuity of the function.

  10. Simultaneous communication and cochlear implants in the classroom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.C.; Marschark, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential of simultaneous communication (sign and speech together) to support classroom learning by college students who use cochlear implants (CIs). Metacognitive awareness of learning also was evaluated. A within-subjects design involving 40 implant users

  11. SIMULTANEOUS PANCREAS-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION: EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Khubutia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: evaluation of the incidence of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation.Materials and methods. The analysis of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation is presented in the paper, the most rational diagnostic algorithms, non-surgical and surgical complications’ treatment; the outcomes of the SPKT are reported.Results. 15,6% of patients experienced surgical complications, 12,5% – immunological complications, 12,5% – infectious complications, 6,25% – complications of the immunosuppressive therapy. 1-year patient survival after SPKT was 91,4%; pancreas graft survival – 85,7%; kidney graft survival – 88,6%.Conclusion. The incidence of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation remains signifi cant in spite of progressive improvement of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation due to surgical technique improvement, introduction of new antibacterial and immunosuppressive agents. Data, we recovered, fully correspond to the data obtained from the global medical community.

  12. Simultaneous Communication and Cochlear Implants in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helen C.; Marschark, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential of simultaneous communication (sign and speech together) to support classroom learning by college students who use cochlear implants (CIs). Metacognitive awareness of learning also was evaluated. A within-subjects design involving 40 implant users indicated that the student participants learned…

  13. A Simultaneous Mobile E-Learning Environment and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal, Hasan; Bahcekapili, Ekrem; Yildiz, Adil

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a mobile learning environment that enables the use of a teleconference application used in simultaneous e-learning with mobile devices and to evaluate this mobile learning environment based on students' views. With the mobile learning environment developed in the study, the students are able to follow…

  14. Simultaneous Bilateral Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip without Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Okada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH is a rare disorder characterized by acute severe coxalgia and temporary osteopenia in the proximal femur. Although most cases were unilateral or staged bilateral TOH, some authors reported that the pregnant patients simultaneously had TOH in their bilateral hips. However, there has been no report of simultaneous bilateral TOH in the patient without pregnancy. A 25-year-old Japanese woman without pregnancy had acute simultaneous bilateral hip pain. Plain X-ray of the bilateral hips did not show a periarticular osteopenia. However, magnetic resonance image obtained one week after the onset demonstrated increased T2-weighted signal intensity and decreased T1-weighted signal intensity in the bilateral femoral heads. She was treated conservatively, and follow-up magnetic resonance image at seven weeks after the onset returned to normal bone marrow signal intensity. Her bilateral coxalgia subsided gradually. At one year after the onset, she had no sign of symptomatic flair. Our experience with this case indicates that recognizing the possibility of simultaneous bilateral TOH is important unless the patient is pregnant, and magnetic resonance image is predictable test to make a diagnosis of TOH, even in the absence of abnormal finding on plain X-ray.

  15. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...

  16. A simultaneous confidence band for sparse longitudinal regression

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Shujie

    2012-01-01

    Functional data analysis has received considerable recent attention and a number of successful applications have been reported. In this paper, asymptotically simultaneous confidence bands are obtained for the mean function of the functional regression model, using piecewise constant spline estimation. Simulation experiments corroborate the asymptotic theory. The confidence band procedure is illustrated by analyzing CD4 cell counts of HIV infected patients.

  17. Ballistocardiogram artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderperren, K.; Ramautar, J.R.; Novitskiy, N.; de Vos, M.; Mennes, M.; Vanrumste, B.; Stiers, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Wagemans, J.; Lagae, L.; Sunaert, S.; Van Huffel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Vanderperren, K., Ramautar, J., Novitskiy, N., De Vos, M., Mennes, M., Vanrumste, B., Stiers, P., Van den Bergh, B., Wagemans, J., Lagae, L., Sunaert, S., Van Huffel, S. (2007). Ballistocardiogram artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions. International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism, 9 (3), 1

  18. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  19. POINTWISE SIMULTANEOUS APPROXIMATION BY LEFT GAMMA QUASI-INTERPOLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbiao Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Recently some classical operator quasi-interpolants were introduced to obtain much faster convergence.We consider left Gamma quasi-interpolants and give a pointwise simultaneous approximation equivalence theorem with ω2r(4)λ(f,f)∞ by means of unified the classical modulus and Ditzian-Totick modulus.

  20. Simultaneous optimization of decisions using a linear utility function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to simultaneously optimize decision rules for combinations of elementary decisions. As a result of this approach, rules are found that make more efficient use of the data than does optimizing those decisions separately. The framework for the approach is derived from empi

  1. Sequential and simultaneous revascularization in adult orthotopic piggyback liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, WG; Miyamoto, S; Nemes, BA; Peeters, PMJG; de Jong, KP; Porte, RJ; Slooff, MJH

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether there is a difference in outcome after sequential or simultaneous revascularization during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in terms of patient and graft survival, mortality, morbidity, and liver function. The study population consisted of 102 adult p

  2. Simultaneous communication and cochlear implants in the classroom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.C.; Marschark, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential of simultaneous communication (sign and speech together) to support classroom learning by college students who use cochlear implants (CIs). Metacognitive awareness of learning also was evaluated. A within-subjects design involving 40 implant users in

  3. Simultaneous Communication and Cochlear Implants in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helen C; Marschark, Marc

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential of simultaneous communication (sign and speech together) to support classroom learning by college students who use cochlear implants (CIs). Metacognitive awareness of learning also was evaluated. A within-subjects design involving 40 implant users indicated that the student participants learned significantly more when material was presented via simultaneous communication than spoken language overall, but a statistical interaction indicated that the difference held only with more difficult material. Learning in the speech-only condition was positively related to the students' spoken language skills, their confidence with spoken language, and their receptive simultaneous communication skills. Learning in that condition was negatively related to the age at which the participants learned to sign. Findings were interpreted to indicate that simultaneous communication can be beneficial for classroom learning by college students with CIs, at least with more complex material or when information redundancy is otherwise important. Further research is needed to determine who is likely to benefit in what settings.

  4. Simultaneous communication supports learning in noise by cochlear implant users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.C.; Marschark, M.; Machmer, E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the potential of using spoken language and signing together (simultaneous communication, SimCom, sign-supported speech) as a means of improving speech recognition, comprehension, and learning by cochlear implant (CI) users in noisy contexts.Methods: Forty ei

  5. Simultaneous spatio-temporal focusing for tissue manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squier J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous spatiotemporal focusing (SSTF is applied to lens tissue and compared directly with standard femtosecond micromachining of the tissue at the same numerical aperture. Third harmonic generation imaging is used for spatio-temporal characterization of the processing conditions obtained with both a standard and SSTF focus.

  6. Sequential and simultaneous revascularization in adult orthotopic piggyback liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, WG; Miyamoto, S; Nemes, BA; Peeters, PMJG; de Jong, KP; Porte, RJ; Slooff, MJH

    The aim of the study was to assess whether there is a difference in outcome after sequential or simultaneous revascularization during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in terms of patient and graft survival, mortality, morbidity, and liver function. The study population consisted of 102 adult

  7. Simultaneous-equations Analysis in Regional Science and Economic Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Stephan, Andreas

    This paper provides an overview over simultaneous equation models (SEM) in the context of analyses based on regional data. We describe various modelling approaches and highlight close link of SEMs to theory and also comment on the advantages and disadvantages of SEMs.We present selected empirical...

  8. Simultaneous interpreting as an aid in parallel-medium tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    In this section, two cases of the use of simultaneous interpreting to facilitate teaching at tertiary institutions ..... be used as an alternative to the duplication of classes, the RAU case study does seem to indicate that the ... Dlamini, C.R.M. 2001.

  9. Simultaneous determination of warehouse layout and control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodbergen, Kees Jan; Vis, Iris F. A.; Taylor, G. Don

    2015-01-01

    In a supply chain's order fulfilment process, it is often the warehouse that plays a central role in making the right product available to the right customer at the right time. This paper aims to improve warehouse performance by deriving an effective design method for the simultaneous determination

  10. EQUIVALENT THEOREMS ON SIMULTANEOUS APPROXIMATION BY COMBINATIONS OF BERNSTEIN OPERATORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cheng; Linsen Xie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we give equivalent theorems on simultaneous approximation for the combinations of Bernstein operators by r-th Ditzian-Totik modulus of smoothness ωτψλ (f, t)(0 ≤λ≤ 1). We also investigate the relation between the derivatives of the combinations of Bernstein operators and the smoothness of derivatives of functions.

  11. Simultaneous laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and cystectomy: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and concomitant upper urinary tract tumors may be candidates for simultaneous cystectomy and nephroureterectomy. Other clinical conditions such as dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease and non-functioning kidney are also indications for simultaneous removal of the bladder and kidney. In the present study, we report our laparoscopic experience with simultaneous laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC and nephroureterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2000 and June 2007, 8 patients underwent simultaneous laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LNU (unilateral-6, bilateral-2 and radical cystectomy at our institution. Demographic data, pathologic features, surgical technique and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The laparoscopic approach was technically successful in all 8 cases (7 males and 1 female without the need for open conversion. Median total operative time, including LNU, LRC, pelvic lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion, was 9 hours (range 8-12. Median estimated blood loss and hospital stay were 755 mL (range 300-2000 and 7.5 days (range 4-90, respectively. There were no intraoperative complications but only 1 major and 2 minor postoperative complications. The overall and cancer specific survival rates were 37.5% and 87.5% respectively at a median follow-up of 9 months (range 1-45. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with concomitant cystectomy is technically feasible. Greater number of patients with a longer follow-up is required to confirm our results.

  12. Multicolor Electron Microscopy for Simultaneous Visualization of Multiple Molecular Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Stephen R; Mackey, Mason R; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Palida Lemieux, Sakina F; Steinbach, Paul; Bushong, Eric A; Butko, Margaret T; Giepmans, Ben N G; Ellisman, Mark H; Tsien, Roger Y

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) remains the primary method for imaging cellular and tissue ultrastructure, although simultaneous localization of multiple specific molecules continues to be a challenge for EM. We present a method for obtaining multicolor EM views of multiple subcellular components. The meth

  13. Simultaneous exact model matching with stability by output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsis, Konstadinos H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, is studied the problem of simultaneous exact model matching by dynamic output feedback for square and invertible linear time invariant systems. In particular, explicit necessary and sufficient conditions are established which guarantee the solvability of the problem with stability and a procedure is given for the computation of dynamic controller which solves the problem.

  14. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, van G.; Deventer, van H.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability imp

  15. Simultaneous determination of warehouse layout and control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodbergen, Kees Jan; Vis, Iris F. A.; Taylor, G. Don

    2015-01-01

    In a supply chain's order fulfilment process, it is often the warehouse that plays a central role in making the right product available to the right customer at the right time. This paper aims to improve warehouse performance by deriving an effective design method for the simultaneous determination

  16. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...

  17. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  18. Simultaneous Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Vasospasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Dae; Han, Moon Hee; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyoung [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jeong Wook [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sun Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The management of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and severe vasospasm is subject to considerable controversy. We intended to describe herein an endovascular technique for the simultaneous treatment of aneurysms and vasospasm. A series of 11 patients undergoing simultaneous endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms and vasospasm were reviewed. After placement of a guiding catheter within the proximal internal carotid artery for coil embolization, an infusion line of nimodipine was wired to one hub, and of a microcatheter was advanced through another hub (to select and deliver detachable coils). Nimodipine was then infused continuously during the coil embolization. This technique was applied to 11 ruptured aneurysms accompanied by vasospasm (anterior communicating artery, 6 patients; internal carotid artery, 2 patients; posterior communicating and middle cerebral arteries, 1 patient each). Aneurysmal occlusion by coils and nimodipine-induced angioplasty were simultaneously achieved, resulting in excellent outcomes for all patients, and there were no procedure-related complications. Eight patients required repeated nimodipine infusions. Our small series of patients suggests that the simultaneous endovascular management of ruptured cerebral aneurysms and vasospasm is a viable approach in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe vasospasm.

  19. Multimodality calibration for simultaneous fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijst, Casper; Elschot, Mattijs; van der Velden, Sanda; de Jong, Hugo W A M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simultaneous real-time fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging could benefit image-guided (oncological) procedures. To this end, a hybrid modality is currently being developed by our group, by combining a c-arm with a gamma camera and a four-pinhole collimator. Accurate determination of the sys

  20. Special Relativity in Week One: 4) Lack of Simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is our final article on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. One of the profound changes in our view of the world was Einstein's discovery of the lack of simultaneity. He illustrated this result with a thought experiment in which we observe a railroad car passing by us. We see the two ends of the…

  1. A Simultaneous Study of Outsourcing and Location Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leiblein, Michael J.; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    This paper simultaneously evaluates factors affecting decisions regarding the organization and location of economic activity. The paper uses data from a comprehensive sample of exchanges involving public and private global semiconductor firms over the 1990 to 2005 time period. The paper accounts ...

  2. A Simultaneous Examination of Outsourcing and Location Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leiblein, Michael J.; Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This paper simultaneously evaluates factors affecting decisions regarding the organization and location of economic activity. The paper uses data from a comprehensive sample of exchanges involving public and private global semiconductor firms over the 1990 to 2005 time period. The paper accounts ...

  3. The Benedum Collaborative--Features for Simultaneous Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Sarah; Shambaugh, Neal; Combs, Jaclyn; Farley, Randall; Hayes, Sharon; Morewood, Aimee; Morris, Terry; Poling, Toni; Taylor, Susan; Van Horn, Laura; Viglianco, Rachel; Yohe, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Benedum Collaborative was recognized by the National Association for Professional Development Schools (NAPDS) with its "Award for Exemplary Professional Development School Achievement" at the 2012 National Professional Development Schools Conference. The conceptual framework supporting simultaneous renewal of teachers, pre-service teachers,…

  4. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR. At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS, and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C 18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d. and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control.

  5. Simultaneous x-ray fluorescence and K-edge CT imaging with photon-counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of the X-ray phonon-counting detection technology brings tremendous research and application opportunities. In addition to improvements in conventional X-ray imaging performance such as radiation dose utilization and beam hardening correction, photon-counting detectors allows significantly more efficient X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and K-edge imaging, and promises a great potential of X-ray functional, cellular and molecular imaging. XRF is the characteristic emission of secondary X-ray photons from a material excited by initial X-rays. The phenomenon is widely used for chemical and elemental analysis. K-edge imaging identifies a material based on its chemically-specific absorption discontinuity over X-ray photon energy. In this paper, we try to combine XRF and K-edge signals from the contrast agents (e.g., iodine, gadolinium, gold nanoparticles) to simultaneously realize XFCT and K-edge CT imaging for superior image performance. As a prerequisite for this dual-modality imaging, the accurate energy calibration of multi-energy-bin photon-counting detectors is critically important. With the measured XRF data of different materials, we characterize the energy response function of a CZT detector for energy calibration and spectrum reconstruction, which can effectively improve the energy resolution and decrease the inconsistence of the photon counting detectors. Then, a simultaneous K-edge and X-ray fluorescence CT imaging (SKYFI) experimental setup is designed which includes a cone-beam X-ray tube, two separate photon counting detector arrays, a pin-hole collimator and a rotation stage. With a phantom containing gold nanoparticles the two types of XFCT and K-edge CT datasets are collected simultaneously. Then, XFCT and K-edge CT images are synergistically reconstructed in a same framework. Simulation results are presented and quantitative analyzed and compared with the separate XFCT and K-edge CT results.

  6. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ying; Wang, Yu; Li, Hang; Li, Na; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Jiaming; Niu, Xiaohui; Gao, Xiaochen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR). At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d.) and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g) with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil) in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control. PMID:25422536

  7. Evaluation of Linear Regression Simultaneous Myoelectric Control Using Intramuscular EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of linear regression models to decode patterns of muscle coactivation from intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) and provide simultaneous myoelectric control of a virtual 3-DOF wrist/hand system. Performance was compared to the simultaneous control of conventional myoelectric prosthesis methods using intramuscular EMG (parallel dual-site control)-an approach that requires users to independently modulate individual muscles in the residual limb, which can be challenging for amputees. Linear regression control was evaluated in eight able-bodied subjects during a virtual Fitts' law task and was compared to performance of eight subjects using parallel dual-site control. An offline analysis also evaluated how different types of training data affected prediction accuracy of linear regression control. The two control systems demonstrated similar overall performance; however, the linear regression method demonstrated improved performance for targets requiring use of all three DOFs, whereas parallel dual-site control demonstrated improved performance for targets that required use of only one DOF. Subjects using linear regression control could more easily activate multiple DOFs simultaneously, but often experienced unintended movements when trying to isolate individual DOFs. Offline analyses also suggested that the method used to train linear regression systems may influence controllability. Linear regression myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG provided an alternative to parallel dual-site control for 3-DOF simultaneous control at the wrist and hand. The two methods demonstrated different strengths in controllability, highlighting the tradeoff between providing simultaneous control and the ability to isolate individual DOFs when desired.

  8. In situ simultaneous analysis of polyacetylenes, carotenoids and polysaccharides in carrot roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig; Baranski, Rafal; Nothnagel, Thomas; Christensen, Lars P

    2005-08-24

    This paper presents an approach to simultaneously analyze polyacetylenes, carotenoids, and polysaccharides in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots by means of Raman spectroscopy. The components were measured in situ in the plant tissue without any preliminary sample preparation. The analysis is based on the intensive and characteristic key bands observed in the Raman spectrum of carrot root. The molecular structures of the main carrot polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, are similar, but their Raman spectra exhibit specific differences demonstrated by the shift of their -C[triple bond]C- mode from 2258 to 2252 cm(-)(1), respectively. Carotenoids can be identified by -C=C- stretching vibrations (about 1520 and 1155 cm(-)(1)) of the conjugated system of their polyene chain, whereas the characteristic Raman band at 478 cm(-)(1) indicates the skeletal vibration mode of starch molecule. The other polysaccharide, pectin, can be identified by the characteristic band at 854 cm(-)(1), which is due to the -C-O-C- skeletal mode of alpha-anomer carbohydrates. The Raman mapping technique applied here has revealed detailed information regarding the relative distribution of polyacetylenes, carotenoids, starch, and pectin in the investigated plant tissues. The distribution of these components varies among various carrot cultivars, and especially a significant difference can be seen between cultivated carrot and the wild relative D. carota ssp. maritimus.

  9. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  10. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  11. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  12. Technical note: Simultaneous fully dynamic characterization of multiple input–output relationships in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    We introduce system identification techniques to climate science wherein multiple dynamic input–output relationships can be simultaneously characterized in a single simulation. This method, involving multiple small perturbations (in space and time) of an input field while monitoring output fields to quantify responses, allows for identification of different timescales of climate response to forcing without substantially pushing the climate far away from a steady state. We use this technique to determine the steady-state responses of low cloud fraction and latent heat flux to heating perturbations over 22 regions spanning Earth's oceans. We show that the response characteristics are similar to those of step-change simulations, but in this new method the responses for 22 regions can be characterized simultaneously. Furthermore, we can estimate the timescale over which the steady-state response emerges. The proposed methodology could be useful for a wide variety of purposes in climate science, including characterization of teleconnections and uncertainty quantification to identify the effects of climate model tuning parameters.

  13. Effect of simultaneous use of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival of HIV patients with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria; Castilla, Virgilio; Sanz, José; Gaspar, Gabriel; Condes, Emilia; Barros, Carlos; Cervero, Miguel; Torres, Rafael; Guijarro, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    The optimal timing for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) is an unresolved question. To assess the effect of HAART on the survival of patients with TB, we designed this study. We selected all HIV patients included in the COMESEM cohort with TB diagnosis after 1996. Clinical and epidemiological data were registered. We compared patients who started HAART at the diagnosis of TB [simultaneous therapy (ST)] or not. Survival was assessed by Cox analysis. Among the 6934 HIV patients included in the cohort, 1217 patients had TB, 322 of them (26.5%) after 1996. At the time of TB diagnosis, 45% of them started HAART (ST). There were no differences between groups regarding basal characteristics, except for a lower viral load in ST patients. ST therapy was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.72, P = 0.003). By univariate analysis, survival was also associated with no endovenous drug use and a later year of TB diagnosis. After adjusting for other prognostic variables, by Cox multivariate analysis, ST remained robustly associated with improved survival (hazard ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.66, P = 0.001). Simultaneous HAART and TB treatment in HIV patients with TB is associated with improved survival.

  14. Simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation of furans-rich synthetic hydrolysate by digestate-based pyrochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Barakat, A

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a sustainable pathway to transform renewable biomasses into both biofuels and advanced carbonaceous materials (i.e. pyrochar) which can be used as adsorbent of furan compounds. In particular, the aim of this study was to: i) evaluate the effect of vibro-ball milling on physical characteristics of pyrochar and its consequent performance on solely detoxification of a synthetic medium, containing furans and soluble sugars; ii) study the simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation, by adding activated pyrochar into fermentation medium. Results demonstrated that, compared to untreated pyrochar, the use of milled pyrochar increased by 52% furfural removal from the synthetic medium. Furfural removal rate was also increased (adsorption kinetic constant increased from 0.015 min(-1) up to 0.215 min(-1)), at a pyrochar loading of 40 g L(-1). Although, the simultaneous addition of pyrochar into the fermentation medium did not improve the bioethanol yield of the synthetic medium, it has significantly increased the bioethanol production rate.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and size based on gray difference and autocorrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gray of two images of a same particle taken by a digital camera with different exposure times is different too. Based on the gray difference of particle images in a double-exposed photo and autocorrelation processing of digital images,this paper proposes a method for measuring particle velocities and sizes simultaneously. This paper also introduces the theoretical foundation of this method,the process of particle imaging and image processing,and the simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of a low speed flow field with 35 μm and 75 μm standard particles. The graphical measurement results can really reflect the flow characteristics of the flow field. In addition,although the measured velocity and size histograms of these two kinds of standard particles are slightly wider than the theoretical ones,they are all still similar to the normal distribution,and the peak velocities and diameters of the histograms are consistent with the default values. Therefore,this measurement method is capable of providing moderate measurement accuracy,and it can be further developed for high-speed flow field measurements.

  16. Simultaneous Detection of Fenitrothion and Chlorpyrifos-Methyl with a Photonic Suspension Array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    Full Text Available A technique was developed for simultaneous detection of fenitrothion (FNT and chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLT using a photonic suspension array based on silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs. The SCCBs were encoded with the characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of colloidal crystal. This approach avoids the bleaching, fading or potential interference seen when encoding by fluorescence. SCCBs with a nanopatterned surface had increased biomolecule binding capacity and improved stability. Under optimal conditions, the proposed suspension array allowed simultaneous detection of the selected pesticides in the ranges of 0.25 to 1024 ng/mL and 0.40 to 735.37 ng/mL, with the limits of detection (LODs of 0.25 and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The mean recoveries in tests in which samples were spiked with target standards were 82.35% to 109.90% with a standard deviation within 9.93% for CLT and 81.64% to 108.10% with a standard deviation within 8.82% for FNT. The proposed method shows a potentially powerful capability for fast quantitative analysis of pesticide residues.

  17. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangqin Wang; Jingjing Zhang; Juan Liu; Guangsheng Qian; Chunmei Fu n

    2016-01-01

    For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP) and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD). For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Ad-ditionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, nar-ingin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9%in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside) were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  18. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangqin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC--DAD. For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, naringin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9% in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  19. Study on Simultaneous Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide and Nitric Oxide on Rare Earth Mixed Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    CeO2/γ-Al2O3, La2O3/γ-Al2O3, CeO2-La2O3/γ-Al2O3 and CeO2-La2O3, which were prepared by impregnating in certain ratio, were used as the catalysts for the reduction of SO2 and NO by CO. Separate and simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO over La2O3/γ-Al2O3, CeO2/γ-Al2O3, CeO2-La2O3/γ-Al2O3 were investigated. The phase characteristics of catalysts were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the conversions of SO2 and NO are above 98% over CeO2/γ-Al2O3 and CeO2-La2O3/γ-Al2O3. After SO2 is added in the NO-CO-N2 system (NO∶SO2=1∶2~1∶3), the conversions of SO2 and NO are both above 98%. Furthermore, it is found that CeO2-La2O3 with various ratios has different activity for the simultaneous reduction of SO2 and NO.

  20. Direct and Simultaneous Determination of Phenol, Hydroquinone and Nitrophenol at Boron-Doped Diamond Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO, Guo-Hua; TANG, Yi-Ting; LIU, Mei-Chuan; LEI, Yan-Zhu; XIAO, Xiao-E

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of multi-component phenolic pollutants, such as phenol (Ph), hydroquinone (HQ) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), were investigated on boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. A simple and feasible platform was accordingly established for the direct and simultaneous determination of these three phenolic pollutants. Results showed that, Ph, HQ and 4-NP gave obvious oxidation peaks on BDD electrode at the potential of 1.24, 0.76 and 1.52 V, respectively. Each of them displayed good linear relationship between their oxidation peak currents and their corresponding concentrations in a rather wide range coexisting with one or two of the other phenolic pollutants. The detection limits of Ph, HQ and 4-NP were estimated to be as low as 1.82×10-6, 1.67×10-6 and 1.44×10-6mol·L-1, respectively. Therefore, a promising direct and simultaneous electrochemical determination method of multi-component phenolic pollutants in wastewater samples was constructed successfully on BDD electrode with advantages being rapid, simple, convenient, sensitive, in situ and inexpensive.

  1. First simultaneous SST/CRISP and IRIS observations of a small-scale quiet Sun vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S -H; Kontogiannis, I; Tziotziou, K; Scullion, E; Doyle, J G

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitous small-scale vortices have recently been found in the lower atmosphere of the quiet Sun in state-of-the-art solar observations and in numerical simulations. We investigate the characteristics and temporal evolution of a granular-scale vortex and its associated upflows through the photosphere and chromosphere of a quiet Sun internetwork region. We analyzed high spatial and temporal resolution ground- and spaced-based observations of a quiet Sun region. The observations consist of high-cadence time series of wideband and narrowband images of both H-alpha 6563 A and Ca II 8542 A lines obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), as well as ultraviolet imaging and spectral data simultaneously obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). A small-scale vortex is observed for the first time simultaneously in H-alpha, Ca II 8542 A, and Mg II k lines. During the evolution of the vortex, H-alpha narrowband images at -0.77 A an...

  2. Thermodynamic investigations of nitroxoline sublimation by simultaneous DSC-FTIR method and isothermal TG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gau-Yi; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the physicochemical characteristics, thermodynamics, possible sublimation process and kinetics of nitroxoline, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal thermogravimetry (TG), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy equipped with a micro hot-stage of DSC microscopy assembly (simultaneous DSC-FTIR method) were used. The DSC result indicates that nitroxoline exhibited a sharp endothermic peak at 182 degrees C with enthalpy of 103.1 J/g due to the melting point of nitroxoline. A sublimation behavior of nitroxoline was found from 129 degrees C by gradual weight loss in TG curve. However, the nonisothermal DSC-FTIR method reveals that the temperature at 95 degrees C was the onset temperature of nitroxoline sublimation. A significant difference between DSC-FTIR method and TG analysis suggests that the simultaneous DSC-FTIR method was more sensitive than that of the TG analysis to detect the beginning temperature of nitroxoline sublimation. The sublimation kinetics of nitroxoline determined by isothermal TG analysis evidenced that the zero-order kinetics was followed over the sublimation time. The sublimation enthalpy correction was also carried out by a group additivity approach for the estimation of heat capacity. The enthalpy of nitroxoline sublimation estimated was 86.14 KJ/mol at 298.15 K.

  3. Inter-Slice Blood Flow and Magnetization Transfer Effects as A New Simultaneous Imaging Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kyu Han

    Full Text Available The recent blood flow and magnetization transfer (MT technique termed alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN achieves the contrast using interslice blood flow and MT effects with no separate preparation RF pulse, thereby potentially overcoming limitations of conventional methods. In this study, we examined the signal characteristics of ALADDIN as a simultaneous blood flow and MT imaging strategy, by comparing it with pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL and conventional MT asymmetry (MTA methods, all of which had the same bSSFP readout. Bloch-equation simulations and experiments showed ALADDIN perfusion signals increased with flip angle, whereas MTA signals peaked at flip angle around 45°-60°. ALADDIN provided signals comparable to those of pCASL and conventional MTA methods emulating the first, second, and third prior slices of ALADDIN under the same scan conditions, suggesting ALADDIN signals to be superposition of signals from multiple labeling planes. The quantitative cerebral blood flow signals from a modified continuous ASL model overestimated the perfusion signals compared to those measured with a pulsed ASL method. Simultaneous mapping of blood flow, MTA, and MT ratio in the whole brain is feasible with ALADDIN within a clinically reasonable time, which can potentially help diagnosis of various diseases.

  4. An Investigation of Value Updating Bidders in Simultaneous Online Art Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Dass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous online auctions, in which the auction of all items being sold starts at the same time and ends at the same time, are becoming popular especially in selling items such as collectables and art pieces. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of bidders (Reactors in simultaneous auctions who update their preauction value of an item in the presence of influencing bidders (Influencers. We represent an auction as a network of bidders where the nodes represent the bidders participating in the auction and the ties between them represent an Influencer-Reactor relationship. We further develop a random effects bilinear model that is capable of handling covariates of both bidder types at the same time and account for higher-order dependence among the bidders during the auction. Using the model and data from a Modern Indian Art auction, we find that Reactors tend to update their values on items that have high preauction estimates, bid on items created by high investment risk artists, bid selectively only on certain items, and are more active in the second half of the auction. Implications for the auction house managers are discussed.

  5. Multiplexed Cassegrain Reflector Antenna for Simultaneous Generation of Three Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Woo Jin; Kim, Kwang Seon; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Young Seung; Song, Myung Sun; Choi, Hyung Do; Cho, Yong Heui

    2016-06-01

    A multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna with a 2 × 2 open-ended rectangular waveguide (OERW) matrix feed and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode mux is proposed for the simultaneous generation of three OAM modes (l = 0, ±1). The OAM mode mux (OMM) was designed using sequential combinations of quadrature hybrids, crossovers, and phase shifters to multiplex and demultiplex three OAM modes at the same time. The 2 × 2 OERW matrix feed and the OMM were separately measured and their performances were verified according to proposed theories. A near-field antenna measurement for a multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna was conducted to obtain the far-field magnitude and phase patterns around polar elevation angle θ and azimuthal angle ϕ, thus confirming that our antenna can produce three OAM modes simultaneously. We also measured the communication link characteristics of two identical multiplexed antennas. The measurement results show that the channel isolation of three OAM modes is more than 12.7 [dB] and 17 [dB] for fixed and compensated receiver positions, respectively, indicating that the proposed antenna system can be used for independent communication links with the same frequency and polarisation.

  6. Spoken Spanish: turn taking, interventing and simultaneous speech in spontaneus conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svečnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversation is a very important human activity through which people connect to the outer world. In this article, we try to understand the dynamics of spontaneous speech (taking turns, interventions, simultaneous speech and the reasons why the participants do not participate equally in a conversation. The work is based on a recorded ten minute long spontaneous conversation among Spanish students and on the analysis of its tran scription. The corpus has got all the characteristics of spoken language and spontaneous conversation. Spontaneous conversation is a strugle to gain one’s turn. This is obvious in simultaneous interventions, when the predominant person is the one who gets his/her turn. Interventions are often a sign of participation in a conversation and not necessar ily a sign of strugle to get one’s turn. The participation of individuals in a conversation depends on relations between them, their cultural background and on their knowledge of the language used in the conversation (for foreigners it’s harder. The participants must be fast and efficient (situational context is very important. That is why they develop strate gies that could be interesting for further research.

  7. Multiplexed Cassegrain Reflector Antenna for Simultaneous Generation of Three Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Woo Jin; Kim, Kwang Seon; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Young Seung; Song, Myung Sun; Choi, Hyung Do; Cho, Yong Heui

    2016-06-02

    A multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna with a 2 × 2 open-ended rectangular waveguide (OERW) matrix feed and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode mux is proposed for the simultaneous generation of three OAM modes (l = 0, ±1). The OAM mode mux (OMM) was designed using sequential combinations of quadrature hybrids, crossovers, and phase shifters to multiplex and demultiplex three OAM modes at the same time. The 2 × 2 OERW matrix feed and the OMM were separately measured and their performances were verified according to proposed theories. A near-field antenna measurement for a multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna was conducted to obtain the far-field magnitude and phase patterns around polar elevation angle θ and azimuthal angle ϕ, thus confirming that our antenna can produce three OAM modes simultaneously. We also measured the communication link characteristics of two identical multiplexed antennas. The measurement results show that the channel isolation of three OAM modes is more than 12.7 [dB] and 17 [dB] for fixed and compensated receiver positions, respectively, indicating that the proposed antenna system can be used for independent communication links with the same frequency and polarisation.

  8. Initial Experiences of Simultaneous Laparoscopic Resection of Colorectal Cancer and Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Hoekstra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC and synchronous liver metastases (SLMs is subject of debate with respect to morbidity in comparison to staged resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate our initial experience with this approach. Methods. Five patients with primary CRC and a clinical diagnosis of SLM underwent combined laparoscopic colorectal and liver surgery. Patient and tumor characteristics, operative variables, and postoperative outcomes were evaluated retrospectively. Results. The primary tumor was located in the colon in two patients and in the rectum in three patients. The SLM was solitary in four patients and multiple in the remaining patient. Surgical approach was total laparoscopic (2 patients or hand-assisted laparoscopic (3 patients. The midline umbilical or transverse suprapubic incision created for the hand port and/or extraction of the specimen varied between 5 and 10 cm. Median operation time was 303 (range 151–384 minutes with a total blood loss of 700 (range 200–850 mL. Postoperative hospital stay was 5, 5, 9, 14, and 30 days. An R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Conclusions. From this initial single-center experience, simultaneous laparoscopic colorectal and liver resection appears to be feasible in selected patients with CRC and SLM, with satisfying short-term results.

  9. Simultaneous removal of ammonia nitrogen and manganese from wastewater using nitrite by electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Qiu, Jiang; Chen, Hongliang; Tao, Changyuan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nitrite was developed to simultaneously remove manganese and ammonia nitrogen from wastewater by the electrochemical method. The characteristics of electrolytic reaction were observed via cyclic voltammograms. Moreover, the mole ratio of nitrite and ammonia nitrogen, voltage, and initial pH value, which affected the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and manganese, were investigated. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater could be reduced from 120.2 to 6.0 mg L(-1), and manganese could be simultaneously removed from 302.4 to 1.5 mg L(-1) at initial pH of 8.0, the mole ratios of nitrite and ammonia nitrogen of 1.5:1, and voltage of 20 V direct current electrolysis for 4.0 h. XRD analysis showed that manganese dioxide was deposited on the anode, and manganese was mainly removed in the form of manganese hydroxide precipitation in the cathode chamber.

  10. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H. W.; Tang, G. H.; Niu, D.

    2016-06-01

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed.

  11. Simultaneous determination of phenol and mononitrophenol isomers using PLS regression and conventional and derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Ghavami, Raoof; Sharghi, Hashem; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2005-01-01

    The partial least squares regression method (PLS) was tested as a calibration procedure for the simultaneous determination of phenol, o-nitrophenol, m-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol by both conventional and first derivative UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The experiments were conducted in the acidic, neutral and basic media. The results obtained by the application of the PLS procedure on the conventional and first derivative spectra in two solvent media were compared. It was found that the results obtained in the basic medium have better performance characteristics than those obtained in the acidic or neutral media. Comparable results were obtained in the case of both conventional and first derivative absorbance data. The proposed method was applied to the determination of the four phenol derivatives in natural spiked water samples at concentration levels between 1.0 and 10.0 microg ml(-1) with average recoveries in the range 96% - 99%.

  12. Modelling a Simultaneous Radio/X-Ray Flare from Cyg X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Konstantinos; Markoff, Sera; Wilsm, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Maitra, Dipankar; Pottschmidt, Katja; Pooley, Guy G.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Rotschild, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    The long-term monitoring campaign of Cyg X-1 has provided the detection of the first simultaneous radio/X-ray flare seen from that source. We investigate the physical characteristics of the event in terms of emission from a homogeneous, expanding blob of pair-plasma, superimposed on a baseline flux in both bands. We find that while the radio flare can be reconstructed under various configurations of a cooling blob, continuous (re)acceleration of particles inside the jet is necessary to sustain X-ray emission at the levels implied by the data, for the observed duration. We present major results of the modelling and discuss implications for the role of microquasar jets.

  13. Degradation of HT9 under simultaneous ion beam irradiation and liquid metal corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, D.; Qvist, S.; Parker, S.; Krumwiede, D. L.; Caro, M.; Tesmer, J.; Maloy, S. A.; Wang, Y. Q.; Hosemann, P.

    2016-10-01

    A potentially promising coolant/structural material pair for a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors is lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant with the ferritic/martensitic steel HT9. The challenge of deploying LBE, however, is the corrosive environment it creates for structural materials. This corrosion can be mitigated with precise oxygen content control in the LBE to allow for the growth of passive protective oxide layers on the surface of the steel. In this paper, results are reported from the Irradiation Corrosion Experiment II (ICE-II), which allowed the simultaneous irradiation of a sample while in contact with LBE. It was found that a characteristic multilayer structure with an outer Fe3O4 oxide and inner FeCr2O4 spinel was grown and the oxidation was significantly larger in the irradiated region when compared to the region that was only exposed to LBE corrosion. Possible mechanisms are discussed to help understand this irradiation enhanced corrosion behavior.

  14. Dual Band Electrodes in Generator-Collector Mode: Simultaneous Measurement of Two Species

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Edward O; Dale, Sara E C; Marken, Frank; Compton, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    A computational model for the simulation of a double band collector-generator experiment is applied to the situation where two electrochemical reactions occur concurrently. It is shown that chronoamperometric measurements can be used to take advantage of differences in diffusion coefficients to measure the concentrations of both electroactive species simultaneously, by measuring the time at which the collection efficiency reaches a specific value. The separation of the electrodes is shown to not affect the sensitivity of the method (in terms of percentage changes in the measured time to reach the specified collection efficiency), but wider gaps can provide a greater range of (larger) absolute values of this characteristic time. It is also shown that measuring the time taken to reach smaller collection efficiencies can allow for the detection of smaller amounts of whichever species diffuses faster. The case of a system containing both ascorbic acid and opamine in water is used to exemplify the method, and it i...

  15. The simultaneous influence of thermodynamics and aerosols on deep convection and lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Douglas C.

    The dissertation consists of a multi-scale investigation of the relative contributions of thermodynamics and aerosols to the observed variability of deep convective clouds in the Tropics. First, estimates of thermodynamic quantities and cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN) in the environment are attributed to convective features (CFs) observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for eight years (2004-2011) between 36?S-36?N across all longitudes. The collection of simultaneous observations was analyzed in order to assess the relevance of thermodynamic and aerosol hypotheses for explaining the spatial and temporal variability of the characteristics of deep convective clouds. Specifically, the impacts of normalized convective available potential energy (NCAPE) and warm cloud depth (WCD) as well as CCN concentrations (D ? 40 nm) on total lightning density (TLD), average height of 30 dBZ echoes (AVGHT30), and vertical profiles of radar reflectivity (VPRR) within individual CFs are the subject of initial curiosity. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  16. Ultrasonic crystallization monitoring technique for simultaneous in-line measurement of liquid and solid phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, T.; Pertig, D.; Ulrich, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mean crystal size, the suspension density and the liquid concentration are the three most important process parameters to quantify the progress of industrial crystallization processes. It will be shown that these parameters can be in-line monitored simultaneously by means of an ultrasonic crystallization monitoring technique (UCM), which will be introduced here in a proof of concept. This process analytical technology (PAT) differs from the known ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy (UAS). For the UCM the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation were correlated and related to characteristic events during a crystallization process measured at only one frequency (no spectra of frequencies as it is used for UAS). The results shown in this study prepare the ground to establish the UCM as a simple, less complex, robust, universal applicable, inexpensive and, therefore, a winning alternative PAT to monitor and control in-line the solid as well as the liquid phase in the industrial crystallization by means of only one measuring device with two sensors.

  17. Simultaneous localization and mapping of mobile robot using a RGB-D camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junqin; Han, Baoling; Ge, Zhuo; Liang, Guanhao; Zhao, Jiahang

    2016-10-01

    Localization algorithm based on machine vision is a hot topic in the field of intelligent mobile robot A fast method for mobile robot 3D SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) was presented to address the problem of 3D modeling in complex indoor environment. After filtering, the SIFT feature is extracted and matched between every two frames of the sequence. According to the camera calibration model and the image feature extraction and matching procedure, the association between two 3D point clouds was established. On the basis of the RANSAC (random sample consensus) algorithm, the correspondence based iterative closest point arithmetic model was solved to realize the robot's precise localization effectively. With the key frame-to-frame selection mechanism, the 3D map method and the unique normal characteristic of a spatial point were used for maintaining and updating the global map. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the indoor environment.

  18. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  19. Simultaneous Fault Detection and Sensor Selection for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenna Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system are used widely in wind farms to obtain operation and performance information about wind turbines. The paper presents a three-way model by means of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC for wind turbine fault detection and sensor selection, and evaluates the method with SCADA data obtained from an operational farm. The main characteristic of this new approach is that it can be used to simultaneously explore measurement sample profiles and sensors profiles to avoid discarding potentially relevant information for feature extraction. With K-means clustering method, the measurement data indicating normal, fault and alarm conditions of the wind turbines can be identified, and the sensor array can be optimised for effective condition monitoring.

  20. Food freezing with simultaneous surface dehydration: approximate prediction of freezing time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanone, Laura A.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Mascheroni, Rodolfo H. [Centro de Investigacion Desarollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); MODIAL, Facultad de Ingenieria, La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-03-01

    Freezing of unpackaged foods induces mass transfer in the form of surface ice sublimation, which in turn modifies heat transfer conditions. At present there are no simplified methods for predicting freezing times when surface dehydration occurs. This paper uses a previously developed model for the simulation of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during food freezing and storage to generate a complete set of predicted freezing times when dehydration occurs. Based on these data a simplified analytical method for the prediction of freezing time during freezing of unpackaged frozen foods was developed. The method accounts for product characteristics (shape, size and composition) and operating conditions (initial and refrigerant temperature, heat transfer coefficient, relative humidity). The prediction equation is very simple and results of its use - simulating usual freezing conditions for different products - shows very good accuracy when tested against the previously cited numerical model and all the available experimental data. (Author)

  1. Innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    energy between zones with one hydronic circuit, operating with a water temperature between 20°C and 23°C. To calculate the energy performance of the system, simulation-based research was developed. The two-pipe system was modelled by using EnergyPlus, a whole building energy simulation program. Hourly......The aim of this paper was to investigate the energy savings potential of an innovative two-pipe system in an active chilled beam application for heating and cooling of office buildings. The characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by transferring...... heating, cooling and ventilation loads were calculated by the program and an annual energy consumption evaluation of the system was made. Simulation results showed that the innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system used approximately 5% less energy than a conventional four-pipe system....

  2. Amphoteric Starch in Simultaneous Process Preparation with Box-Behnken Design for Optimal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch was chemically modified to produce an amphoteric starch. The amphoteric starch was prepared in a simultaneous process which was evaluated in relation to four factors: temperature (45-55 °C, 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC, 4-12% and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP, 2-8% concentrations, and reaction time (2-6 h. The extent of amphoteric starch produced was determined by the degree of substitution (DS of the nitrogen content and percentage of phosphorus content. In addition, a quantitative response of yield and whiteness as well as pasting characteristics were tested. Response surface analysis showed that the DS (0.01-0.05 increased with increasing temperature, CHPTAC and reaction time. The phosphorus content (0.09-0.34% followed a parabolic shape with all of the factors. Consequently, the response surface methodology appears to be a powerful technique to determine the optimal conditions for the production of amphoteric starches.

  3. Simultaneous Real-Time Analysis of Bulk and Bottom Cure of Ultraviolet-Curable Inks Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Hennie A L; Koskamp, Janou A; Theiss, Wolfgang; Iedema, Piet D; Willemse, Robin X E

    2017-01-01

    The curing characteristics of an ultraviolet (UV) ink layer are of utmost importance for the development of UV inks. Measuring either bulk or bottom cure in itself is not new and has been the subject of many articles. In this article, two methods are described based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to measure in real time and simultaneously the bulk and bottom cure of a thin UV ink layer. The procedure consists of applying a thin (10-12 µm) layer of UV-curing ink on an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. The bottom cure is measured with ATR. The bulk cure is measured simultaneously with a reflection analysis (method 1) or a transmission analysis (method 2). With both methods, the bulk and bottom cure can be determined. To overcome problems with the interference in the ATR reflection setup, it is recommended to use the ATR transmission setup.

  4. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial-value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D-axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black-hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black-hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  5. Development of phased array and tofd simultaneous inspection system for coke drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, M. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Toyo Works, Quality Assurance Dept., Ehime (Japan); Kawashima, K. [S.H.I. Examination and Inspection, Ltd., Inspection and Engineering Dept., Ehime (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Our current AUT (automatic ultrasonic testing) system is ''phased array linear scan and dual TOFD (time of fight diffraction) simultaneous inspection system'' which has been applied to the pre-service inspection at shop in lieu of radiography as per ASME Code case 2235-4 and the in-service inspection at user's turnaround stage for the circumferential and longitudinal weld joints of shell courses of coke drum. The coke drum is 13-30 feet in diameter and 80-100 feet in height. The base material of coke drum is either C-1/2Mo steel, 1Cr-1/2Mo steel, 1.25Cr-1/2Mo steel, or 2.25Cr-1Mo steel with type 410S or 405 stainless steel cladding material, and clad restoration weld material is either Inconel 82, Inconel 625 or same material as the cladding material (13Cr stainless steel). It is too difficult to detect the flaws in the clad restoration weld by the conventional manual UT and/or TOFD, but phased array can clearly detect them. In order to improve the capability to detect and size the low cycle fatigue crack caused in the clad restoration weld and its heat affected zone due to the cyclic operation of coke drum ''phased array sector scan'' has been adopted. This paper reports the verification test results of ''dual phased array sector scan'' (the simultaneous scanning by a pair of phased array probes placed equally for the centerline of weld joint) in comparison with the verification test results of TOFD, and introduces the characteristic of our current AUT system. In consideration with the verification test results in this paper, we would like to propose that ''dual phased array sector scan and dual TOFD simultaneous inspection system'' (the simultaneous inspection by four (4) kinds of AUT) will be applied to the in-service inspection for the coke drum and other important reactors overlaid inside by stainless steel or inconel at the oil refineries and/or petrochemical plants. (orig.)

  6. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  7. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Meadors, A Ken; Silverman, Robert W; Cherry, Simon R

    2002-12-21

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice.

  8. Polarized digital shearography for simultaneous dual shearing directions measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Lee, Cheok Peng; Li, Junrui; Zhang, Boyang; Yang, Lianxiang

    2016-08-01

    The selection of the direction of sensitivity for digital shearography is determined by its shearing direction. As a result, directionally shaped defects could be missed in non-destructive testing using a digital shearography system with only one shearing direction. This paper reports a polarized digital shearography system based on two Mach-Zehnder interferometers, which can create two orthogonal shearing directions and record shearograms in the two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The two shearograms are separated from each other by proper polarization design so that no cross interference occurs. The phase maps of the shearograms are generated by spatial phase shift methods through the introduction of different carrier frequencies in the two orthogonal shearograms and use of the Fourier transform method. This enabled simultaneous dual directional non-destructive testing during continuous loading. Theory derivation, spectrum analysis, and non-destructive testing application results are shown in detail.

  9. Stability of simultaneously triangularizable switched systems on hybrid domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Eisenbarth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend the results of [8, 15, 22], which provide sufficient conditions for the global exponential stability of switched systems under arbitrary switching via the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function. In particular, we extend the Lie algebraic results in [15] to switched systems with hybrid non-uniform discrete and continuous domains, a direct unifying generalization of switched systems on R and Z, and extend the results in [8, 22] to a larger class of switched systems, namely those whose subsystem matrices are simultaneously triangularizable. In addition, we explore an easily checkable characterization of our required hypotheses for the theorems. Finally, conditions are provided under which there exists a stabilizing switching pattern for a collection of (not necessarily stable linear systems that are simultaneously triangularizable and separate criteria are formed which imply the stability of the system under a given switching pattern given a priori.

  10. Simultaneous estimation of aceclofenac, paracetamol and chlorzoxazone in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of aceclofenac, paracetamol and chlorzoxazone is emerging as one of the widely prescribed combination in single dosage form. Aceclofenac is a typical Cox-2 inhibitor in combination with muscle relaxant chlorzoxazone and a traditional antipyretic drug paracetamol. Literature revealed that there is no single method for the simultaneous estimation of all these drugs in tablet dosage forms, which prompted us to develop a simple, rapid, accurate, economical and sensitive spectrophotometric method. The simultaneous estimation method is based on the additivity of absorbances, for the determination of aceclofenac, paracetamol and chlorzoxazone in tablet formulation. The absorption maxima of the drugs found to be at 276 nm, 282 nm and 248 nm respectively for aceclofenac, chlorzoxazone and paracetamol in methanol. All three drugs obeyed the Beer Lambert′s law in the concentration range of 2-20 µg /ml. The accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method was statistically validated by recovery studies.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Magnolol and Honokiol by Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min ZHANG; Li Ming DU

    2006-01-01

    A simple sensitive and quick assay for simultaneously determining magnolol (MOL)and honokiol (HOL) has been described based on their natural fluorescence. This method is based on the fact that synchronous fluorometry could resolve the overlapping of fluorescence spectra, which was aroused by their similar molecular structures. In this work, the synchronous spectrum, maintaining a constant difference of Δλ =10 nm between the emission and excitation wavelengths, has been selected for the determination of HOL and MOL. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of MOL and HOL in solution over the range 0.075-0.7 μg/mL and 0.05-0.9 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.029 μg/mL and 0.019 μg/mL, respectively. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of MOL and HOL in pharmaceutical dosage with satisfactory results.

  12. Variation among heritage speakers: Sequential vs. simultaneous bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the differences in the grammatical knowledge of two types of heritage speakers of Korean. Early simultaneous bilinguals are exposed to both English and the heritage language from birth, whereas early sequential bilinguals are exposed to the heritage language first and then to English upon schooling. A listening comprehension task involving relative clauses was conducted with 51 beginning-level Korean heritage speakers. The results showed that the early sequential bilinguals exhibited much more accurate knowledge than the early simultaneous bilinguals, who lacked rudimentary knowledge of Korean relative clauses. Drawing on the findings of adult and child Korean L1 data on the acquisition of relative clauses, the performance of each group is discussed with respect to attrition and incomplete acquisition of the heritage language.

  13. Quadratic Loss of Isotonic Normal Means Under Simultaneous Order Restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳萍; 史宁中

    2002-01-01

    For two normal populations with unknown means μ and unknown variances σ2,assume that there are simple order restrictions among the means and variances:μ1≤μ2 and σ12≥σ22>0,This case is said to be simultaneous order restriction by Shi (Maximum likelihood estimation of means and variances from normal populations under simultaneous order restrictions.J.Multivariate,Anal.50(1994),282-293.)and an iterative algorithm of computing the order restricted maximum likelihood estimates of μi and σi2 was given in that paper,This paper shows that the restricted maximum likelihood estimate of μi has smaller mean square loss than the usual estimate xi under some conditions.

  14. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Monton, C.; Castro, G. R.; García, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10-3 to 10-5, depending on the particular experiment.

  15. Simultaneous SERS detection of copper and cobalt at ultratrace levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoutsi, Dionysia; Guerrini, Luca; Hermida-Ramon, Jose Manuel; Giannini, Vincenzo; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Wei, Alexander; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2013-07-07

    We report a SERS-based method for the simultaneous and independent determination of two environmental metallic pollutants, Cu(ii) and Co(ii). This was achieved by exploiting the coordination-sensitive Raman bands of a terpyridine (TPY) derivative for detecting transition metal ions. Changes in the vibrational SERS spectra of dithiocarbamate anchored terpyridine (TPY-DTC) were correlated as a function of each metal ion concentration, with limits of detection comparable to those of several conventional analytical methods. Simultaneous detection of ultratrace levels of Co(ii) in the presence of high Cu(ii) concentration was also demonstrated, supporting the potential of this sensing strategy for monitoring potable water supplies.

  16. Simultaneous Surface Plasmon Resonance and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, A; Collado, V; Rubio-Zuazo, J; Monton, C; Castro, G; García, M A

    2012-01-01

    We present here an experimental set-up to perform simultaneously measurements of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of X-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of X-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to detect the changes in the electronic configuration of thin films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this set-up ranges from 10-3 to 10-5, depending on the particular experiment.

  17. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez de la Fuente, O. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Castro, G. R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG Beamline at the ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Monton, C. [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Garcia, M. A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, depending on the particular experiment.

  18. Spectroscopy of Solar Prominences Simultaneously from Space and Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Stellmacher, G; Dammasch, I E

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive set of spectral data from two quiescent solar prominences observed in parallel from space and ground: with the VTT, simultaneous two-dimensional imaging of H-beta 4862 and Ca II 8542 yields a constant ratio, indicating small spatial pressure variations over the prominences. With the Gregory, simultaneous spectra of Ca II 8542 and He I 10830 were taken, their widths yielding 80006 *10^4 K; higher levels k > 8 appear more and more overpopulated. The larger widths of the Lyman lines require high non-thermal broadening close to that of 'hot' EUV lines. In contrast, the He II emission is more related to the 'cool' lines.

  19. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang

    2014-03-24

    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  20. Optical biosensor for simultaneous detection of captan and organophosphorus compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Song, Sun-Young; Lee, Won Hong

    2003-05-01

    The optical biosensor consisting of GST and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-immobilized gel film was developed to detect captan and organophosphorus compounds simultaneously in contaminated water. The sensing scheme was based on the measurement of decrease of products formation (s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione and alpha-naphthol by GST and AChE, respectively) due to the inhibition by captan and organophosphorus compounds. The absorbance of s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione and alpha-naphthol was detected at 400 and 500 nm, respectively, by a proposed optical biosensor system. It was observed that AChE was inhibited by both captan and organophosphorus compounds, and GST was inhibited only by captan. The simultaneous detection and quantification of captan and organophosphorus compounds could be successfully achieved by the proposed sensor system. The proposed biosensor could successfully detect the captan and organophosphorus compounds concentration from 0 to 2 ppm.

  1. SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF CIRCULAR DICHROISM AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2002-01-19

    Circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy are important tools for characterizing biomolecular systems. Both are used extensively in kinetic experiments involving stopped- or continuous flow systems as well as titrations and steady-state spectroscopy. This paper presents the theory for determining circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy simultaneously, thus insuring the two parameters are recorded under exactly the same conditions and at exactly the same time in kinetic experiments. The approach to measuring circular dichroism is that used in almost all conventional dichrographs. Two arrangements for measuring fluorescence polarization anisotropy are described. One uses a single fluorescence detector and signal processing with a lock-in amplifier that is similar to the measurement of circular dichroism. The second approach uses classic ''T'' format detection optics, and thus can be used with conventional photon-counting detection electronics. Simple extensions permit the simultaneous measurement of the absorption and excitation intensity corrected fluorescence intensity.

  2. Simultaneous powdery boronaluminizing of steel stable in aluminum melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhariev, Z. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Bl.11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: zahary19@mail.bg; Marinov, M.; Penyashki, T.; Tsokov, Pl. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Bl.11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-14

    The corrosion resistance of a boron-aluminized carbon steel C45 in aluminum melt has been investigated. Simultaneous saturation with aluminum and boron has been performed with different powdery mixtures. Simultaneous boronizing and aluminizing of steels has been found possible, layers of up to 1 mm thickness being obtained. Corrosion tests have shown the advantages of the two-component layers obtained by the alumothermic method (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Al + B{sub 2}O{sub 3} + NaF) as compared to other saturating mixtures and especially single-component boronizing with EKabor. It has been shown that the two-component boron-aluminized layer can be used for protecting usual carbon steels in aluminum melts.

  3. Multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication with secret sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Two multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication (MSQIA) protocols based on secret sharing are presented. All the users can be authenticated by a trusted third party (TTP) simultaneously. In the first protocol,the TTP shares a random key K with all the users using quantum secret sharing. The ith share acts as the authentication key of the ith user. When it is necessary to perform MSQIA,the TTP generates a random number R secretly and sends a sequence of single photons encoded with K and R to all the users. According to his share,each user performs the corresponding unitary operations on the single photon sequence sequentially. At last,the TTP can judge whether the impersonator exists. The sec-ond protocol is a modified version with a circular structure. The two protocols can be efficiently used for MSQIA in a network. They are feasible with current technol-ogy.

  4. Multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication with secret sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YuGuang; WEN QiaoYan; ZHANG Xing

    2008-01-01

    Two multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication (MSQIA) protocols based on secret sharing are presented.All the users can be authenticated by a trusted third party (TTP) simultaneously.In the first protocol, the TTP shares a random key K with all the users using quantum secret sharing.The ith share acts as the authentication key of the ith user.When it is necessary to perform MSQIA, the TTP generates a random number R secretly and sends a sequence of single photons encoded with K and R to all the users.According to his share, each user performs the corresponding unitary operations on the single photon sequence sequentially.At last, the TTP can judge whether the impersonator exists.The sec-ond protocol is a modified version with a circular structure.The two protocols can be efficiently used for MSQIA in a network.They are feasible with current technol-ogy.

  5. Organized simultaneous displays facilitate learning of complex natural science categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Brian J; Carvalho, Paulo F; Goldstone, Robert L; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2017-02-24

    Subjects learned to classify images of rocks into the categories igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. In accord with the real-world structure of these categories, the to-be-classified rocks in the experiments had a dispersed similarity structure. Our central hypothesis was that learning of these complex categories would be improved through observational study of organized, simultaneous displays of the multiple rock tokens. In support of this hypothesis, a technique that included the presentation of the simultaneous displays during phases of the learning process yielded improved acquisition (Experiment 1) and generalization (Experiment 2) compared to methods that relied solely on sequential forms of study and testing. The technique appears to provide a good starting point for application of cognitive-psychology principles of effective category learning to the science classroom.

  6. Simultaneous anatomic reconstruction of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments using a single tendon graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Campbell, Sean; Scott, Jonathan; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel surgical technique for simultaneous anatomic reconstruction of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments using a single tendon graft and to compare its biomechanical characteristics to those of a coracoid cerclage reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. Six matched pairs of human acromioclavicular joints with an average age of 54.8 ± 7.8 years were used. One shoulder from each pair received the single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction; the contralateral shoulder received the coracoid cerclage reconstruction. Bovine extensor tendon was used for both techniques. The single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction technique provided anatomic restoration of the two coracoclavicular ligaments and the superior and inferior acromioclavicular ligaments simultaneously using one coracoid hole, one acromion hole, and two clavicular holes with interference screws. Anterior-posterior and superior-inferior translations were quantified for all specimens before and after reconstruction, followed by load to failure testing. Following coracoid cerclage reconstruction, total anterior-posterior translation was significantly greater than intact (10.0 ± 5.7 mm; p = 0.008). Following single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior translation compared to intact (-1.6 ± 2.2 mm; n.s.). The coracoid cerclage technique demonstrated significantly greater anterior-posterior translation than the single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular technique (p = 0.007). Both techniques restored superior-inferior translation to the intact condition (n.s.). Ultimate load, deformation at ultimate load, and energy absorbed at ultimate load were significantly greater after acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction than after coracoid cerclage reconstruction (p

  7. Appendicitis within Morgagni Hernia and simultaneous Paraesophageal Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Morgagni hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic defect that rarely presents with symptomatic findings in adults. The presence of one diaphragmatic defect may decrease the occurrence of a separate diaphragmatic defect. Appendicitis may be a unique presentation of incarcerated bowel in a Morgagni defect. Case presentation Review of recent literature and presentation of a patient with Morgagni defect. Only five cases of simultaneous Morgagni hernia and paraesophageal hernia have been de...

  8. Alveolar bone grafting with simultaneous cleft lip rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Eun; Han, Jihyeon; Baek, Rong-Min; Kim, Baek-Kyu

    2016-11-01

    Optimal timing for cleft lip rhinoplasty is controversial. Definitive rhinoplasty is deferred until facial skeletal growth is completed. Intermediate rhinoplasty is performed after stabilization of the grafted alveolar bone, because the grafted bone tends to be absorbed over several months postoperatively, distorting the nasal profile. Here, we report our experience with simultaneous rhinoplasty during alveolar bone grafting for indicated patients, describe our surgical technique that ensures long-term bone graft survival, and report graft take rates and nasal profile changes. This retrospective chart review included a total of 54 patients; 44 underwent alveolar bone grafting only, and 10 underwent simultaneous cleft lip rhinoplasty. All surgeries were conducted with a judicious mucosal incision for tensionless wound closure. Bone graft take was evaluated with dental radiographs by the Bergland classification. Further, nasal aesthetic outcome was evaluated with medical photographs, based on nostril height and width and alar base width. In total, 96.3% of clefts showed graft success with Type I (66.7%) or Type II (27.8%) classifications; only 3.7% of clefts showed unfavorable results classified as Type III, and no clefts showed Type IV failure. The nasal shape was flatter with a decreased nostril height and increased nostril width after alveolar bone grafting, while nostril height was increased and nostril width was decreased in patients who underwent simultaneous rhinoplasty. With surgical techniques ensuring alveolar bone graft survival, simultaneous cleft lip rhinoplasty can result in nasal aesthetic improvement for patients with severe nasal deformities, decreasing the number of operations. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous velocity and thickness imaging by ultrasonic scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David K.; Fei, Dong; Shannon, Robert E.; Dayal, Vinay

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a pulse-echo implementation of the simultaneous velocity and thickness scan technique. The technique was used to measure very small changes in thickness and velocity. Special considerations for achieving accurate and reliable thickness and velocity images are discussed in details. The pulse-echo scan method was also demonstrated for three nondestructive evaluation and material characterization problems: (1) composite laminates containing anomalies, (2) thermal barrier coating materials and (3) creep/rupture tested metal specimens.

  10. Recombinant hosts suitable for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Zhou, Shengde

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides recombinant host cells containing at least one heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polysaccharase under the transcriptional control of a surrogate promoter capable of increasing the expression of the polysaccharase. In addition, the invention further provides such hosts with genes encoding secretory protein/s to facilitate the secretion of the expressed polysaccharase. Preferred hosts of the invention are ethanologenic and capable of carrying out simultaneous saccharification fermentation resulting in the production of ethanol from complex cellulose substrates.

  11. Classification of Simultaneous Movements using Surface EMG Pattern Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Aaron J.; Smith, Lauren H.; Rouse, Elliott J.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced upper-limb prostheses capable of actuating multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) are now commercially available. Pattern recognition algorithms that use surface electromyography (EMG) signals show great promise as multi-DOF controllers. Unfortunately, current pattern recognition systems are limited to activate only one degree of freedom at a time. This study introduces a novel classifier based on Bayesian theory to provide classification of simultaneous movements. This approach and two o...

  12. Simultaneous confidence bands for Cox regression from semiparametric random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shoubhik; Subramanian, Sundarraman

    2016-01-01

    Cox regression is combined with semiparametric random censorship models to construct simultaneous confidence bands (SCBs) for subject-specific survival curves. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of the proposed SCBs with the SCBs that are based only on standard Cox. The new SCBs provide correct empirical coverage and are more informative. The proposed SCBs are illustrated with two real examples. An extension to handle missing censoring indicators is also outlined.

  13. Simultaneous Chiral SeparationUsing a Combinatorial Molecular Imprinting Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Molecular imprinting chiral stationary phase against Cbz-L-Serine (Cbz-L-Ser) and Cbz-L-Alaine (Cbz-L-Ala) were prepared utilizing acrylamide + 2-vinylpyridine as combined basic functional monomers.Cross-selectivity was used to obtain simultaneous chiral separations of Cbz-DL-Ser and Cbz-DL-Ala by connecting two columns packed with Cbz-L-Ser and Cbz-L-Ala imprinted chiral stationary phase, respectively.

  14. Feasibility study of simultaneous capacitance detection during STM of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Dwyer, Kevin; Pomeroy, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We are examining the feasibility of capacitance detection during STM to image buried metal nanostructures in silicon. As the hydrogen STM lithography for quantum information enables us to fabricate the atomically precise devices such as single atom qubits, the accurate alignment of metal contacts such as electrodes to the buried nanostructures on the surface becomes very challenging. Using SCM with STM gives benefits to locate the buried nanostructures and image the surface morphology simultaneously.

  15. Daclizumab als Induktionsimmunsuppressivum nach simultaner Nieren- und Pankreastransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Tonia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous kidney – and pancreas transplantation (SPK) is a well established therapeutical option in patients with diabetes mellitus type I and pre-terminal kidney insufficiency. For this indication, PNTX is the only causal therapy with acceptable long term results. The application of an effective immunosuppressive therapy with low incidence of side effects is mandatory for clinical success. Available immunosuppressive medications allow successful SPK in most cases. However, se...

  16. Simultaneous contrast restoration and obstacles detection : First results

    OpenAIRE

    HAUTIERE, N; TAREL, JP; Aubert, D

    2007-01-01

    Reliable obstacles detection under adverse weather conditions especially foggy conditions, is a challenging task because the contrast is drastically reduced. Consequently, the classical approaches relying on pattern recognition techniques or points of interest matching are not so efficient anymore. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed which is able to simultaneously restore the contrast of the scene and to detect the presence of obstacles by stereovision once the atmosphere opacity is ...

  17. Simultaneous central nervous system complications of C. neoformans infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Higera Calleja, Jesus; Mitre, Vicente Gijón; Ramos, Guillermo Garcia

    2009-01-01

    The most common neurological manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection is meningitis. Other less common manifestations include parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) granulomatous disease, hydrocephalus and stroke. C. neoformans is often suspected in immunodepressed patients, but it can be easily overlooked in otherwise healthy patients. This paper provides a detailed clinical description of a patient without immunosupression who developed multiple simultaneous neurological manifestations after the infection with C. neoformans. PMID:21577360

  18. MIMO Cellular Networks with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we introduce a mathematical approach for system-level analysis and optimization of densely deployed multiple-antenna cellular networks, where low-energy devices are capable of decoding information data and harvesting power simultaneously. The base stations are assumed to be deployed according to a Poisson point process and tools from stochastic geometry are exploited to quantify the trade-off in terms of information rate and harvested power. It is shown ...

  19. Clinical validation of simultaneous dual-isotope myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann, Pierre; Moretti, Jean Luc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Paris XIII University, 125, Rue de Stalingrad, 93 009 Bobigny Cedex (France); Faraggi, Marc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bichat Hospital, Paris VII University (France); Hannequin, Pascal [Centre d' Imagerie Nucleaire, Annecy (France)

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope (rest thallium-201/stress technetium-99m sestamibi) myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) would be an ideal procedure; however, {sup 99m}Tc cross-talk on the {sup 201}Tl window hampers its routine use. Photon energy recovery (PER) is a spectral deconvolution technique validated for scatter and cross-talk removal in phantom studies and a limited series of patients. In this study we aimed to validate the technique in 295 patients within a context of clinical routine practice. Conventional separate rest {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPET data sets were visually compared with simultaneous dual-isotope data sets corrected by PER. Conventional separate rest {sup 201}Tl data sets were identical to dual PER-corrected {sup 201}Tl data sets in 173 (58.6%) patients. As dual PER {sup 201}Tl data sets are corrected for {sup 99m}Tc cross-talk but also for {sup 201}Tl scatter, they were compared with separate rest {sup 201}Tl data sets corrected by PER in the 122 discordant patients. No difference was found in 77 (26.1%) patients. In 26 (8.8%) patients, the difference consisted in the presence of a defect on dual PER {sup 201}Tl data sets only, mirroring an ischaemic defect on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi data sets. This difference can be attributed to the influence of stress on the kinetics of {sup 201}Tl injected at rest. In the remaining 19 (6.4%) patients, the difference between separate and simultaneous PER-corrected data sets was scored as mild in 11 and moderate in eight patients and seemed to be related to multiple methodological factors. It is concluded that PER correctly removes {sup 99m}Tc cross-talk. With the addition of an appropriate attenuation correction, the PER technique may allow the routine use of simultaneous dual-isotope myocardial scintigraphy in the near future. (orig.)

  20. Digital technique for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keffer, J F; Budny, R S; Kawall, J G

    1978-09-01

    A computer-oriented, hot-wire anemometer technique for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature in heated turbulent flows is described. This technique involves conversion of analogue anemometer voltage signals into digital forms and processing of these latter on a digital computer, in accordance with the anemometer response equations, to obtain instantaneous temperature and velocity. The technique was tested with a heated plane jet and found to be satisfactory.

  1. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Paracetamol in Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaparale Sonali; Telekone R; Raut R; Damle S; Kasture P

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamo...

  2. The effect of visual apparent motion on audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal

  3. Simultaneous two-photon excitation of photodynamic therapy agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Partridge, W.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dees, H.C. [Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petersen, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1998-01-01

    The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of several photosensitive compounds are compared using conventional single-photon excitation (SPE) and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). TPE is achieved using a mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of non-resonant TPE. Excitation spectra and excited state properties of both type 1 and type 2 photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are examined.

  4. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  5. Structured plant metabolomics for the simultaneous exploration of multiple factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Boccard, Julien; Lang, Gerhard; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Goepfert, Simon; Rudaz, Serge; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors act simultaneously on plants to establish complex interaction networks involving nutrients, elicitors and metabolites. Metabolomics offers a better understanding of complex biological systems, but evaluating the simultaneous impact of different parameters on metabolic pathways that have many components is a challenging task. We therefore developed a novel approach that combines experimental design, untargeted metabolic profiling based on multiple chromatography systems and ionization modes, and multiblock data analysis, facilitating the systematic analysis of metabolic changes in plants caused by different factors acting at the same time. Using this method, target geraniol compounds produced in transgenic tobacco cell cultures were grouped into clusters based on their response to different factors. We hypothesized that our novel approach may provide more robust data for process optimization in plant cell cultures producing any target secondary metabolite, based on the simultaneous exploration of multiple factors rather than varying one factor each time. The suitability of our approach was verified by confirming several previously reported examples of elicitor–metabolite crosstalk. However, unravelling all factor–metabolite networks remains challenging because it requires the identification of all biochemically significant metabolites in the metabolomics dataset. PMID:27853298

  6. Simultaneous Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Karolina; Buschmann, Volker; Hille, Carsten

    2015-09-22

    In living cells, there are always a plethora of processes taking place at the same time. Their precise regulation is the basis of cellular functions, since small failures can lead to severe dysfunctions. For a comprehensive understanding of intracellular homeostasis, simultaneous multiparameter detection is a versatile tool for revealing the spatial and temporal interactions of intracellular parameters. Here, a recently developed time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) board was evaluated for simultaneous fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM/PLIM). Therefore, the metabolic activity in insect salivary glands was investigated by recording ns-decaying intrinsic cellular fluorescence, mainly related to oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the μs-decaying phosphorescence of the oxygen-sensitive ruthenium-complex Kr341. Due to dopamine stimulation, the metabolic activity of salivary glands increased, causing a higher pericellular oxygen consumption and a resulting increase in Kr341 phosphorescence decay time. Furthermore, FAD fluorescence decay time decreased, presumably due to protein binding, thus inducing a quenching of FAD fluorescence decay time. Through application of the metabolic drugs antimycin and FCCP, the recorded signals could be assigned to a mitochondrial origin. The dopamine-induced changes could be observed in sequential FLIM and PLIM recordings, as well as in simultaneous FLIM/PLIM recordings using an intermediate TCSPC timing resolution.

  7. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording and calcium imaging of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Robert P; Allen, Charles N

    2013-12-08

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and fluorescent imaging recording methods were used to study the role of changes of membrane potential or current in regulating the intracellular calcium concentration. Changing environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle, can modify neuronal and neural network activity and the expression of a family of circadian clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the location of the master circadian clock in the mammalian brain. Excitatory synaptic transmission leads to an increase in the postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentration that is believed to activate the signaling pathways that shifts the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes. Hypothalamic slices containing the SCN were patch clamped using microelectrodes filled with an internal solution containing the calcium indicator bis-fura-2. After a seal was formed between the microelectrode and the SCN neuronal membrane, the membrane was ruptured using gentle suction and the calcium probe diffused into the neuron filling both the soma and dendrites. Quantitative ratiometric measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration were recorded simultaneously with membrane potential or current. Using these methods it is possible to study the role of changes of the intracellular calcium concentration produced by synaptic activity and action potential firing of individual neurons. In this presentation we demonstrate the methods to simultaneously record electrophysiological activity along with intracellular calcium from individual SCN neurons maintained in brain slices.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS BCG AND SMALLPOX VACCINATION ON NEWBORN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rivai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dikemukakan anggapan-anggapan yang terdapat dewasa ini tentang vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan. Telah dilakukan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan pada 729 neonati dengan freeze dried Smallpox vaccine buatan dari Bio Farma dan freeze dried BCG vaccine Tokyo. Pencacaran dilakukan secara multiple puncture dan bifurcated needle dengan suntikan BCG dengan jarum dan spuit khusus intracutan dengan dosis 0,1 ml. Tuberkulin test dilakukan dengan PPD dari Kopenhagen dengan kekuatan 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi. Dari 741 bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey, 12 menolak, 3 bayi tidak dapat dilakukan pemeriksaan pertama, 35 bayi belum diperiksa, pemeriksaan pertama telah dilakukan pada 691 bayi. Dari 406 bayi yang seharusnya sudah diperiksa untuk pemeriksaan kedua, 23 dapat dilakukan karena tidak dapat dijumpai atau meninggal. Telah dikemukakan bahwa pencatatan alamat yang jelas dan lengkap serta kesungguhan dalam melakukan home visits sangat penting untuk berhasilnya penyelidikan semacam ini. Dari hasil-hasil yang didapatkan sampai sekarang telah dapat diambil kesimpulan sementara, bahwa vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan memberikan hasil yang memuaskan, juga bila dibandingkan dengan hasil-hasil penyelidikan diluar negeri take pada pencacaran 99.4 percent, test tuberkulin dengan PPD 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi memberikan indurasi lebih dari 5 mm pada 99.75 percent dan tidak menimbulkan komplikasi-komplikasi. Pelaksanaan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar dapat dilakukan oleh tenaga paramedis yang telah mendapat latihan khusus dan diawasi oleh dokter yang kompeten. Dianjurkan untuk melakukan follow up pada bayi-bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey ini.

  9. The Value of Simultaneous Electrocardiography Recording in the EEG Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mottamedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to assess the value of simultaneous EKG with EEG to diagnose cardiac disorders in patients with seizure- like attacks and to investigate the extent of misdiagnosis of epilepsy. Materials and Methods: 210 patients presenting with transient loss of consciousness (TLoC and paroxysmal events suspicious to seizure were studied. All patients had undergone EEG simultaneous with an EKG. Besides reporting the EEG, a cardiologist analyzed the EKG in an attempt to recognize abnormal EKG as a potential cause of TLoC. Moreover, in all patients it was ascertained if any cardiac disorders in patients and their first degree relatives had been diagnosed. Results: Sixteen out of two hundred ten (7.6% patients had abnormal EKG which was significantly potential cause of symptom of whom 6 patients were found to have bradycardia and 10 patients had dysrhythmias. Moreover, in patients with previous cardiovascular disorder, 30.4% had abnormal EKG where as in patients without cardiac disease only 4.8% had EKG abnormalities. Besides in patients with positive family history for cardiac disease 20.3% had abnormal EKG while in patients without family history of cardiac disease, abnormal EKG was revealed in only 2.05% patients. Conclusion: Simultaneous EKG with EEG is valuable in declining rate of misdiagnosis of epilepsy. Besides, EKG abnormalities in these patients have a significant association with any previous cardiovascular disorders in the patients and in their first degree relatives.

  10. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Wiebke [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hayata-Takano, Atsuko [Molecular Research Center for Children' s Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamo, Toshihiko [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakazawa, Takanobu, E-mail: takanobunakazawa-tky@umin.ac.jp [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Kazuki [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Program for Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Academic Initiatives, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shintani, Norihito [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ago, Yukio [Laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Farfan, Camille [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-27

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. - Highlights: • We develop a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes. • Neuron-specific labeling is achieved using Scg10 and synapsin promoters. • Astrocyte-specific labeling is generated using the minimal GFAP promoter. • Nuclear localization of fluorescent proteins is achieved with histone 2B protein.

  11. Dual Target Search is Neither Purely Simultaneous nor Purely Successive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Kyle R; Menneer, Tamaryn; Nomani, Mohammad S; Stroud, Michael J; Donnelly, Nick

    2017-08-31

    Previous research shows that visual search for two different targets is less efficient than search for a single target. Stroud, Menneer, Cave and Donnelly (2012) concluded that two target colours are represented separately based on modeling the fixation patterns. Although those analyses provide evidence for two separate target representations, they do not show whether participants search simultaneously for both targets, or first search for one target and then the other. Some studies suggest that multiple target representations are simultaneously active, while others indicate that search can be voluntarily simultaneous, or switching, or a mixture of both. Stroud et al.'s participants were not explicitly instructed to use any particular strategy. These data were revisited to determine which strategy was employed. Each fixated item was categorised according to whether its colour was more similar to one target or the other. Once an item similar to one target is fixated, the next fixated item is more likely to be similar to that target than the other, showing that at a given moment during search, one target is generally favoured. However, the search for one target is not completed before search for the other begins. Instead, there are often short runs of one or two fixations to distractors similar to one target, with each run followed by a switch to the other target. Thus, the results suggest that one target is more highly weighted than the other at any given time, but not to the extent that search is purely successive.

  12. Simultaneously scanning two connected tips in a scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wan-Ting; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Dreyer, M.

    2017-06-01

    We have modified a dual-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by electrically connecting the tips together with a short (3 mm) strip of flexible 25 μm thick Nb foil. For simultaneous topographic imaging with both tips, we moved each tip to within tunneling distance z of a surface and modulated one tip's z-piezo at 5 kHz and the other at 10 kHz. The resulting combined tunneling current has modulation at both frequencies which we detect using individual lock-in amplifiers. Each lock-in output is fed back to its corresponding tip's individual STM z-position controller to maintain a stable current in both junctions. During the tests at room temperature, simultaneous imaging was performed with both tips made of Pt-Ir on Au/mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples, where a small tip-to-tip mechanical coupling was observed. We describe the system's performance, show results from simultaneous imaging, and discuss the potential application of the system to imaging superconducting phase differences.

  13. Targeting cancer metabolism by simultaneously disrupting parallel nutrient access pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong M; Roy, Saurabh G; Chen, Bin; Nguyen, Tiffany M; McMonigle, Ryan J; McCracken, Alison N; Zhang, Yanling; Kofuji, Satoshi; Hou, Jue; Selwan, Elizabeth; Finicle, Brendan T; Nguyen, Tricia T; Ravi, Archna; Ramirez, Manuel U; Wiher, Tim; Guenther, Garret G; Kono, Mari; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Weisman, Lois S; Potma, Eric O; Tromberg, Bruce J; Edwards, Robert A; Hanessian, Stephen; Edinger, Aimee L

    2016-11-01

    Oncogenic mutations drive anabolic metabolism, creating a dependency on nutrient influx through transporters, receptors, and macropinocytosis. While sphingolipids suppress tumor growth by downregulating nutrient transporters, macropinocytosis and autophagy still provide cancer cells with fuel. Therapeutics that simultaneously disrupt these parallel nutrient access pathways have potential as powerful starvation agents. Here, we describe a water-soluble, orally bioavailable synthetic sphingolipid, SH-BC-893, that triggers nutrient transporter internalization and also blocks lysosome-dependent nutrient generation pathways. SH-BC-893 activated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to mislocalization of the lipid kinase PIKfyve. The concomitant mislocalization of the PIKfyve product PI(3,5)P2 triggered cytosolic vacuolation and blocked lysosomal fusion reactions essential for LDL, autophagosome, and macropinosome degradation. By simultaneously limiting access to both extracellular and intracellular nutrients, SH-BC-893 selectively killed cells expressing an activated form of the anabolic oncogene Ras in vitro and in vivo. However, slower-growing, autochthonous PTEN-deficient prostate tumors that did not exhibit a classic Warburg phenotype were equally sensitive. Remarkably, normal proliferative tissues were unaffected by doses of SH-BC-893 that profoundly inhibited tumor growth. These studies demonstrate that simultaneously blocking parallel nutrient access pathways with sphingolipid-based drugs is broadly effective and cancer selective, suggesting a potential strategy for overcoming the resistance conferred by tumor heterogeneity.

  14. SIMULTANEOUS BCG AND SMALLPOX VACCINATION ON NEWBORN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rivai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dikemukakan anggapan-anggapan yang terdapat dewasa ini tentang vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan. Telah dilakukan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan pada 729 neonati dengan freeze dried Smallpox vaccine buatan dari Bio Farma dan freeze dried BCG vaccine Tokyo. Pencacaran dilakukan secara multiple puncture dan bifurcated needle dengan suntikan BCG dengan jarum dan spuit khusus intracutan dengan dosis 0,1 ml. Tuberkulin test dilakukan dengan PPD dari Kopenhagen dengan kekuatan 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi. Dari 741 bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey, 12 menolak, 3 bayi tidak dapat dilakukan pemeriksaan pertama, 35 bayi belum diperiksa, pemeriksaan pertama telah dilakukan pada 691 bayi. Dari 406 bayi yang seharusnya sudah diperiksa untuk pemeriksaan kedua, 23 dapat dilakukan karena tidak dapat dijumpai atau meninggal. Telah dikemukakan bahwa pencatatan alamat yang jelas dan lengkap serta kesungguhan dalam melakukan home visits sangat penting untuk berhasilnya penyelidikan semacam ini. Dari hasil-hasil yang didapatkan sampai sekarang telah dapat diambil kesimpulan sementara, bahwa vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan memberikan hasil yang memuaskan, juga bila dibandingkan dengan hasil-hasil penyelidikan diluar negeri take pada pencacaran 99.4 percent, test tuberkulin dengan PPD 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi memberikan indurasi lebih dari 5 mm pada 99.75 percent dan tidak menimbulkan komplikasi-komplikasi. Pelaksanaan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar dapat dilakukan oleh tenaga paramedis yang telah mendapat latihan khusus dan diawasi oleh dokter yang kompeten. Dianjurkan untuk melakukan follow up pada bayi-bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey ini.

  15. Simultaneous transcriptional profiling of bacteria and their host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Humphrys

    Full Text Available We developed an RNA-Seq-based method to simultaneously capture prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression profiles of cells infected with intracellular bacteria. As proof of principle, this method was applied to Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, successfully obtaining transcriptomes of both C. trachomatis and the host cells at 1 and 24 hours post-infection. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause a range of mammalian diseases. In humans chlamydiae are responsible for the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections and trachoma (infectious blindness. Disease arises by adverse host inflammatory reactions that induce tissue damage & scarring. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these outcomes. Chlamydia are genetically intractable as replication outside of the host cell is not yet possible and there are no practical tools for routine genetic manipulation, making genome-scale approaches critical. The early timeframe of infection is poorly understood and the host transcriptional response to chlamydial infection is not well defined. Our simultaneous RNA-Seq method was applied to a simplified in vitro model of chlamydial infection. We discovered a possible chlamydial strategy for early iron acquisition, putative immune dampening effects of chlamydial infection on the host cell, and present a hypothesis for Chlamydia-induced fibrotic scarring through runaway positive feedback loops. In general, simultaneous RNA-Seq helps to reveal the complex interplay between invading bacterial pathogens and their host mammalian cells and is immediately applicable to any bacteria/host cell interaction.

  16. Simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai-yun; XIANG Guo-an; WANG Han-ning; XIAO Fang-lian

    2011-01-01

    Background Rectal carcinoma patients are often accompanied by hepatic metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma with synchronous hepatic metastasis.Methods A total of 41 patients with rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis detected by CT scan were included in this study. Among them, 23 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery and 18 patients underwent traditional open surgery to simultaneously remove the rectal tumor and hepatic metastasis lesions. All patients received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients were followed up from 36 to 72 months (mean 45.3 months).Results All the operations were performed successfully and no patient was turned to open surgery in laparoscopic group. The mean blood loss, the mean postoperative hospital stay, the mean blood transfusion and the mean intestinal functional recovery time showed a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 82.6%, 43.5% and 8.6% in the laparoscopic group, without significant difference compared with the open group (77.8%, 38.9% and 0) (P>0.05).Conclusions Simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis is safe and effective with similar survival achieved by the traditional open abdominal surgery.

  17. Simultaneous micellar LC determination of lidocaine and tolperisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2003-03-26

    A micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) procedure was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of lidocaine hydrochloride (LD HCl) and tolperisone hydrochloride (TP HCl) using a short-column C18 (12.5 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with a small amount of isopropanol, and diode array detector. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous determination of both drugs were 0.075 mol l(-1) SDS-7.5% (v/v) isopropanol with a flow rate of 0.7 ml min(-1) and detection at 210 nm. The LOD (2S/N) of LD HCl was 0.73 ng 20 microl(-1), whereas that of TP HCl was 1.43 ng 20 microl(-1). The calibration curves for LD HCl and TP HCl were linear over the ranges 0.125-500 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.9999) and 1.00-500 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.9997), respectively. The %recoveries of both drugs were in the range 98-103% and the %RSD values were less than 2. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of TP HCl and LD HCl in various pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Wiebke; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Kamo, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru; Shintani, Norihito; Ago, Yukio; Farfan, Camille; Hashimoto, Ryota; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-03-27

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains.

  19. Diagnostic Role of ECG Recording Simultaneously With EEG Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirli, Mustafa Tansel; Aparci, Mustafa; Kendirli, Nurten; Tekeli, Hakan; Karaoglan, Mustafa; Senol, Mehmet Guney; Togrol, Erdem

    2015-07-01

    Arrhythmia is not uncommon in the etiology of syncope which mimics epilepsy. Data about the epilepsy induced vagal tonus abnormalities have being increasingly reported. So we aimed to evaluate what a neurologist may gain by a simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in the patients who underwent EEG testing due to prediagnosis of epilepsy. We retrospectively evaluated and detected ECG abnormalities in 68 (18%) of 376 patients who underwent EEG testing. A minimum of 20 of minutes artifact-free recording were required for each patient. Standard 1-channel ECG was simultaneously recorded in conjunction with the EEG. In all, 28% of females and 14% of males had ECG abnormalities. Females (mean age 49 years, range 18-88 years) were older compared with the male group (mean age 28 years, range 16-83 years). Atrial fibrillation was more frequent in female group whereas bradycardia and respiratory sinus arrhythmia was higher in male group. One case had been detected a critical asystole indicating sick sinus syndrome in the female group and treated with a pacemaker implantation in the following period. Simultaneous ECG recording in conjunction with EEG testing is a clinical prerequisite to detect and to clarify the coexisting ECG and EEG abnormalities and their clinical relevance. Potentially rare lethal causes of syncope that mimic seizure or those that could cause resistance to antiepileptic therapy could effectively be distinguished by detecting ECG abnormalities coinciding with the signs and abnormalities during EEG recording.

  20. A Characteristic Particle Length

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

  1. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  2. Database on Wind Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

  3. Database on Wind Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

  4. Simultaneous SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ separation from flue gases of combustion systems. Simultane SO/sub 2/- und NO/sub x/-Abscheidung in Rauchgasen hinter Verbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-10-15

    The characteristics of the process of treating the washing solution from simultaneous washing of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is that the washing solution enriched with EDTA iron complexes is being retained for more than one hour in a residence tank after having contacted crude gas in the scrubber. The residence time depends on the iron III and iron II contents in the washing solution that have to be reduced. In the residence tank the reduction takes place due to the sulphite contained in the washing solution.

  5. Simultaneous surgery in patients with both cardiac and noncardiac diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yang Yang,1 Feng Xiao,1 Jin Wang,1 Bo Song,1 Xi-Hui Li,1 Jian Li,2 Zhi-Song He,3 Huan Zhang,4 Ling Yin5 1Department of Cardiac Surgery, 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, 3Department of Urology Surgery, 4Department of General Surgery, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: To investigate the possibility and feasibility of simultaneous cardiac and noncardiac surgery.Methods: From August 2000 to March 2015, 64 patients suffering from cardiac and noncardiac diseases have been treated by simultaneous surgeries.Results: Two patients died after operations in hospital; thus, the hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. One patient with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and a recurrence of bladder cancer accepted emergency simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, bladder cystectomy, and ureterostomy. He died of acute cerebral infarction complicated with multiple organ failure on the 153rd day after operation. The other patient with chronic constrictive pericarditis and right lung cancer underwent pericardial stripping and right lung lower lobectomy, which resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died on the tenth day postoperatively. The remaining 62 patients recovered and were discharged. The total operative morbidity was 17.2%: postoperative hemorrhage (n, % [1, 1.6%], pulmonary infection and hypoxemia (2, 3.1%, hemorrhage of upper digestive tract (1, 1.6%, incisional infection (3, 4.7%, subphrenic abscess (1, 1.6%, and postoperative acute renal failure and hemofiltration (3, 4.7%. Of the 62 patients discharged, 61 patients were followed up. Eleven patients died with 10 months to 10 years during the follow-up. The mean survival time is 116.2±12.4 months. The cumulative survival rate is 50.8%.Conclusion: Simultaneous surgeries in patients suffering from both cardiac and noncardiac benign or malignant diseases are safe and possible

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Preservatives (Methyl Paraben and Propyl Paraben) in Sucralfate Suspension Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh M. Kashid; Santosh G. Singh; Shrawan Singh

    2011-01-01

    A reversed phase HPLC method that allows the separation and simultaneous determination of the preservatives methyl paraben (M.P.) and propyl paraben (P.P.) is described. The separations were effected by using an initial mobile phase of water: acetonitrile (50:50) on Inertsil C18 to elute P.P. and M.P. The detector wavelength was set at 205 nm. Under these conditions, separation of the two components was achieved in less than 10 min. Analytical characteristics of the separation such as precisi...

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Preservatives (Methyl Paraben and Propyl Paraben) in Sucralfate Suspension Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh M. Kashid; Santosh G. Singh; Shrawan Singh

    2011-01-01

    A reversed phase HPLC method that allows the separation and simultaneous determination of the preservatives methyl paraben (M.P.) and propyl paraben (P.P.) is described. The separations were effected by using an initial mobile phase of water: acetonitrile (50:50) on Inertsil C18 to elute P.P. and M.P. The detector wavelength was set at 205 nm. Under these conditions, separation of the two components was achieved in less than 10 min. Analytical characteristics of the separation such as precisi...

  8. Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Simultaneous Delivery and Pick-Up Service Based on MCPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two additional factors of the widely researched vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The two factors, which are very common characteristics in realworld, are uncertain number of vehicles and simultaneous delivery and pick-up service. Using minimization of the total transport costs as the objective of the extension VRPTW, a mathematic model is constructed. To solve the problem, an efficient multiswarm cooperative particle swarm optimization (MCPSO algorithm is applied. And a new encoding method is proposed for the extension VRPTW. Finally, comparing with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, the MCPSO algorithm performs best for solving this problem.

  9. Simultaneous effect of dissolved organic carbon, surfactant, and organic acid on the desorption of pesticides investigated by response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ha Thu; Duong, Hanh Thi; Ta, Thao Thi

    2017-01-01

    Desorption of pesticides (fenobucarb, endosulfan, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)) from soil to aqueous solution with the simultaneous presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium oxalate (Oxa) was investigated in batch test by applying a full fac...... characteristics of flooding and irrigation water in rice fields, and surfactants from pollution increase the problem with desorption of legacy pesticides in the rice fields....... caused the minimum desorption. This point at conditions of concern for flooding water is high content of organic compounds causing potentially high contamination by desorption, and the remarkably lower desorption at organic matter-free conditions. The suspended organic matter is one of the common...

  10. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy and endoluminal HDR brachytherapy in esophageal cancer; Simultane Radiochemotherapie mit intraluminaler HDR-Brachytherapie des Oesophaguskarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patonay, P.; Naszaly, A.; Mayer, A. [Hauptstaedtisches Zentrum fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Budapest (Hungary)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: to study efficacy and toxicity of radiochemotherapy in esophageal cancer including initial endoluminal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Patients and methods: between 01/1995 and 06/2005, 61 patients with esophageal cancer were treated preoperatively with definitive and palliative intent. Treatment started with intraluminal HDR-BT for recanalization of the esophagus (single fraction size of 8 Gy in 0.5 cm depth, three times, q7d) followed by external-beam radiation therapy (50 Gy total dose, 5 x 2 Gy/week, 25 fractions in 5 weeks). Chemotherapy was started simultaneously with external irradiation (three courses of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, q21d). Results: swallowing function improved in 55/61 patients (dysphagia classification according to the RTOG), and worsened in 6/61 patients, respectively. Median duration of symptomatic improvement was 11 months, median follow-up 12 months (range 3-68 months). Following simultaneous radiochemotherapy, tumor resectability was achieved in 7/25 patients of the neoadjuvant group, and the histological specimen showed complete remission in 6/7 patients. Conclusion: these results indicate a favorable effect of simultaneous radiochemotherapy starting with endoluminal HDR-after-loading-(AL-)BT in esophageal cancer. (orig.)

  11. Potential of mixed microalgae to harness biodiesel from ecological water-bodies with simultaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Devi, M Prathima; Mohanakrishna, G; Amarnath, N; Babu, M Lenin; Sarma, P N

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel as an eco-friendly fuel is gaining much acceptance in recent years. This communication provides an overview on the possibility of using mixed microalgae existing in ecological water-bodies for harnessing biodiesel. Microalgal cultures from five water-bodies are cultivated in domestic wastewater in open-ponds and the harvested algal-biomass was processed through acid-catalyzed transesterification. Experiments evidenced the potential of using mixed microalgae for harnessing biodiesel. Presence of palmitic acid (C16:0) in higher fraction and physical properties of algal oil correlated well with the biodiesel properties. Functional characteristics of water-bodies showed to influence both species diversity and lipid accumulation. Microalgae from stagnant water-bodies receiving domestic discharges documented higher lipid accumulation. Algal-oil showed to consist 33 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having wide food and fuel characteristics. Simultaneous wastewater treatment was also noticed due to the syntrophic association in the water-body microenvironment. Diversity studies visualized the composition of algae species known to accumulate higher lipids.

  12. Food freezing with simultaneous surface dehydration: approximate prediction of weight loss during freezing and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanone, Laura A.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Mascheroni, Rodolfo H. [Centro de Investigacion Desarollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); MODIAL, Facultad de Ingenieria, La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-03-01

    Weight loss of unpackaged foods during freezing and later storage is an important quality and economic issue. It is originated on surface ice sublimation due to differences in water activity between food surface and the refrigerating air. Weight loss rate is determined by refrigerating conditions and product characteristics. The modelling of this phenomenon has merited very little attention; at present there are no simplified methods to predict weight losses during the freezing and the storage of unpackaged foods. In previous studies we developed a detailed model for the simultaneous heat and mass transfer during food freezing and storage with ice sublimation. Based on the information of this numerical model, simplified analytical methods for the prediction of weight loss during the freezing and the storage of unpackaged frozen foods were developed. The methods account for product characteristics and storage conditions. The prediction equations are very simple and results of their use - simulating usual freezing and storage conditions for different products - give very good accuracy when tested against the previously cited numerical model and experimental data. (Author)

  13. Molecular detection on a defective MoS2 monolayer by simultaneous conductance and force simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Dappe, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    Based on simultaneous force and conductance simulations, a proof of concept for a potential method of molecular detection is presented. Using density functional theory calculations, a metallic tip has been approached to different small inorganic molecules such as CO, CO2, H2O , NO, N2, or O2. The molecules have been previously chemisorbed on a defect formed by two Mo atoms occupying a S divacancy on a MoS2 monolayer where they are strongly bonded to the topmost substitutional molybdenum. At that site, the fixed molecules can be imaged by a conductive atomic-force-microscopy tip. Due to the differences in atomic composition and electronic configurations, each molecule yields specific conductance/force curves during the tip approach. A molecule-tip contact is established at the force minimum, followed by the formation of a characteristic plateau in the conductance in most of the cases. Focusing our attention on the position and values of such force minimum and conductance maximum, we can conclude that both characteristic properties can give a clear signature of each molecule, proposing a different method of detecting molecules adsorbed on highly reactive sites.

  14. Moyamoya disease manifested as multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinlu; Yuan, Yongjie; Li, Wei; Xu, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MSIH) caused by Moyamoya disease (MMD) is extremely rare. To date, the clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics and mechanism of MMD-induced MSIH have not yet been elucidated. In order to improve the understanding on such cases, the present study described a rare case of MSIH caused by MMD. A 40-year-old female patient with no history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus experienced a sudden headache followed by coma. Cranial computed tomography (CT) examination revealed MSIH in the left frontal area, temporal lobe and basal ganglia. CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography examinations revealed typical characteristics of MMD. Subsequent to excluding disorders of the blood system and blood coagulation, we concluded that the present case of MSIH was caused by MMD. Hematoma evacuation and decompressive craniectomy were performed with satisfactory results. In addition, after reviewing previous MSIH cases in the literature, potential mechanisms of MMD-mediated MSIH were considered. In conclusion, MMD should be considered as a possible cause of MSIH during diagnosis and treatment. MMD can lead to pathological changes in the fragility of small arteries; therefore, rupture and hemorrhage at one site may induce a transient increase in blood pressure, causing the rupture of small arteries at other sites, and thus leading to MSIH. Hematoma evacuation and decompression should be conducted in selective cases of MMD-induced MSIH in order to achieve a good prognosis. PMID:27588064

  15. Characteristics of type III bursts in the solar wind from simultaneous observations on board ISEE-3 and Voyager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecacheux, A.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Hoang, S.; Dulk, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of solar type III bursts observed aboard ISEE-3 and Voyager that originate behind the sun are analyzed and compared to those originating on the near side. The measurement of the burst parameters and the correction for proximity effects are described. The diminution of flux densities, the increase of source sizes, the difference of source azimuths and elevations, the change of spectral properties, and the anomalous delays in burst arrival time at one spacecraft relative to another are determined. Many of the observations imply that the beaming of type III radiation is much more widespread at all frequencies than has been derived from statistical studies. The effective beam appears to consist of at least two components: a Gaussian core of half width about 60 deg, and a very broad halo that extends to 180 deg with an amplitude of a few percent.

  16. Simultaneous production of cellulase and reducing sugar through modification of compositional and structural characteristic of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Li Wan; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Chua, Adeline Seak May

    2013-09-10

    This study examined the potential of untreated and alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) in cellulase, reducing sugar (RS) and fungal biomass production via solid state fermentation (SSF) using Pycnoporus sanguineus. The impact of the composition, structure and cellulase adsorption ability of SCB on the production of cellulase, RS and fungal biomass was investigated. From the morphological and compositional analyses, untreated SCB has relatively more structural changes with a higher percentage of depolymerisation on the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content compared to alkali-pretreated SCB. Thus, untreated SCB favoured the production of cellulase and fungal biomass whereas alkali-pretreated SCB yielded a higher amount of RS. The composition and morphology of untreated SCB did not encourage RS production and this suggested that RS produced during SSF might be consumed in a faster rate by the more abundantly grown fungus. Besides that, alkali-pretreated SCB with higher cellulase adsorption ability could have adsorbed the cellulase produced and resulted in a lower cellulase titre. In short, the production of specific bioproducts via SSF is dependent on the structure and composition of the substrate applied.

  17. Phenomenal characteristics of cryptomnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Lampinen, James M; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Qualitative characteristics of cryptomnesia, or unintentional plagiarism were investigated. In Experiment 1 we compared accurate and inaccurate source attributions in terms of their level of confidence using instructions that did not require a fixed number of responses. Confidence was lower for plagiarised responses than for correct responses. Nevertheless, participants provided high ratings of certainty for a large proportion of their plagiarised responses. In Experiment 2 the phenomenological differences between plagiarised recall and veridical recall were compared by using an adaptation of the memory characteristics questionnaire (Johnson, Foley, Suengas, & Raye, 1988). Correct responses were associated with more experiential detail than plagiarised responses. However, a considerable number of plagiarised responses were accompanied by a confident memory of at least one qualitative characteristic. Results are discussed in terms of the source monitoring framework developed by Johnson, Hashtroudi, and Lindsay (1993).

  18. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this artificial outer boundary via Cauchy-characteristic matching, by which the radiated waveform can be computed at null infinity. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  19. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  20. Biogeochemistry of the Bay of Bengal: Physical, chemical and primary productivity characteristics of the central and western Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon 2001

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Gauns, M.; Ramaiah, N.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.; Muraleedharan, U.D.

    Reliable data on biological characteristics from the Bay of Bengal are elusive. In this paper, we present results on physics, chemistry and biology simultaneously measured during the summer monsoon, 2001 from open ocean and coastal areas...

  1. Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in audiovisual temporal order judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation. In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to bayesian integration theory (bayesian calibration. We further showed, in theory, that the effect of bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "light-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to "light-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli.

  2. The Great Geospace Observatory and Simultaneous Missions of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Eric; Brandt, Pontus; Siebeck, David; Spann, James; Lester, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A predictive understanding of the sun to geospace environment is one of the main goals of ILWS. This can only be achieved through a "system-level" approach, meaning long-term, simultaneous, continuous observations across the relevant scales of the magnetosphere and ionosphere/thermosphere (IT). To date such an approach, which must involve simultaneous, multi-scale, global imaging of different geospace regions, has not been carried out for a complete geomagnetic storm. Such imagery, now routine for the Solar community, is of critical scientific importance and captures public imagination. Its absence in geospace studies has limited the growth and impact of geospace science. In this presentation, we discuss a concept called the Great Geospace Observatory, which would involve coordinated geospace imaging through an international effort of multiple, simultaneous Missions of Opportunity. In this way, the cost would be spread among different agencies as well as putting remote sensors in vantage points optimized for each type of imaging. 24/7 auroral imaging from weather satellites on Molniya (or similar) orbits, EUV imaging of the plasmasphere from high-inclination orbits, continuous and global ENA imaging from geosynchronous commercial satellites, and continuous X-ray imaging of the cusp and magnetosheath from a high-altitude dedicated probe would quantitatively track system-level dynamics at through substorms, sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection, and storms; studying energy and mass coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and the upper atmosphere. In our minds, The Great Geospace Observatory represents the next strategic step for ILWS and needs to be seriously considered.

  3. Simultaneous operation for cardiac disease and gastrointestinal malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teruo; Komokata; Mikio; Fukueda; Mamoru; Kaieda; Takayuki; Ueno; Yoshihumi; Iguro; Yutaka; Imoto; Ryuzo; Sakata

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety of performing simulta-neous cardiac surgery and a resection of a gastrointes-tinal malignancy. METHODS: Among 3664 elective cardiac operations performed in adults at Kagoshima University Hospi-tal from January 1991 to October 2009, this study reviewed the clinical records of the patients who un-derwent concomitant cardiac surgery and a gastroin-testinal resection. Such simultaneous surgeries were performed in 15 patients between January 1991 and October 2009. The cardiac diseases included 8 cases of coronary artery disease and 7 cases with valvular heart disease. Gastrointestinal malignancies included 11 gas-tric and 4 colon cancers. Immediate postoperative andlong-term outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Postoperative complications occurred in 5 patients(33.3%), including strokes(n = 1), respiratory failure requiring re-intubation(n = 1), hemorrhage(n = 2), hyperbilirubinemia(n = 1) and aspiration pneu-monia(n = 1). There was 1 hospital death caused by the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome after postoperative surgical bleeding followed aortic valve replacement plus gastrectomy. There was no car-diovascular event in the patients during the follow-up period. The cumulative survival rate for all patients was 69.2% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous procedures are accept-able for the patients who require surgery for both car-diac diseases and gastrointestinal malignancy. In par-ticular, the combination of a standard cardiac operation, such as coronary artery bypass grafting or an isolated valve replacement and simple gastrointestinal resection, such as gastrectomy or colectomy can therefore be safely performed.

  4. Quantitative Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Acetaminophen and 6 Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; Pistorius, Marcel C M; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2017-04-01

    Hepatotoxicity after ingestion of high-dose acetaminophen [N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP)] is caused by the metabolites of the drug. To gain more insight into factors influencing susceptibility to APAP hepatotoxicity, quantification of APAP and metabolites is important. A few methods have been developed to simultaneously quantify APAP and its most important metabolites. However, these methods require a comprehensive sample preparation and long run times. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simplified, but sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen, the main metabolites acetaminophen glucuronide and acetaminophen sulfate, and 4 Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolites by using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric (LC-MS) detection. The method was developed and validated for the human plasma, and it entailed a single method for sample preparation, enabling quick processing of the samples followed by an LC-MS method with a chromatographic run time of 9 minutes. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, imprecision, dilution integrity, recovery, process efficiency, ionization efficiency, and carryover effect. The method showed good selectivity without matrix interferences. For all analytes, the mean process efficiency was >86%, and the mean ionization efficiency was >94%. Furthermore, the accuracy was between 90.3% and 112% for all analytes, and the within- and between-run imprecision were method presented here enables the simultaneous quantification of APAP and 6 of its metabolites. It is less time consuming than previously reported methods because it requires only a single and simple method for the sample preparation followed by an LC-MS method with a short run time. Therefore, this analytical method provides a useful method for both clinical and research purposes.

  5. Simultaneous communication supports learning in noise by cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helen; Marschark, Marc; Machmer, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of using spoken language and signing together (simultaneous communication, SimCom, sign-supported speech) as a means of improving speech recognition, comprehension, and learning by cochlear implant (CI) users in noisy contexts. Forty eight college students who were active CI users, watched videos of three short presentations, the text versions of which were standardized at the 8(th)-grade reading level. One passage was presented in spoken language only, one was presented in spoken language with multi-talker babble background noise, and one was presented via simultaneous communication with the same background noise. Following each passage, participants responded to 10 (standardized) open-ended questions designed to assess comprehension. Indicators of participants' spoken language and sign language skills were obtained via self-reports and objective assessments. When spoken materials were accompanied by signs, scores were significantly higher than when materials were spoken in noise without signs. Participants' receptive spoken language skills significantly predicted scores in all three conditions; neither their receptive sign skills nor age of implantation predicted performance. Students who are CI users typically rely solely on spoken language in the classroom. The present results, however, suggest that there are potential benefits of simultaneous communication for such learners in noisy settings. For those CI users who know sign language, the redundancy of speech and signs potentially can offset the reduced fidelity of spoken language in noise. Accompanying spoken language with signs can benefit learners who are CI users in noisy situations such as classroom settings. Factors associated with such benefits, such as receptive skills in signed and spoken modalities, classroom acoustics, and material difficulty need to be empirically examined.

  6. Simultaneous multi-frequency single pulse observations of pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, A.; Joshi, B. C.; Manoharan, P. K.; KrishnaKumar, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We report on simultaneous multi-frequency single pulse observations of a sample of pulsars with previously reported, frequency dependent subpulse drift inferred from non-simultaneous and short observations. We aim to clarify if the frequency dependence is a result of multiple drift modes in these pulsars. Methods: We performed simultaneous observations at 326.5 MHz with the Ooty Radio Telescope and at 326, 610, and 1308 MHz with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope for a sample of 12 pulsars, where frequency dependent single pulse behaviour was reported. The single pulse sequences were analysed with three types of fluctuation analysis techniques, namely longitude-resolved fluctuation spectrum technique, two-dimensional fluctuation spectrum technique and sliding two-dimensional fluctuation spectrum technique. The first two techniques are sensitive to average fluctuation properties of the pulses, whereas the last technique is used for examining the temporal behaviour of the pulses. Results: We report subpulse drifting in PSR J0934-5249 for the first time. We also report pulse nulling measurements in PSRs J0934-5249, B1508+55, J1822-2256, B1845-19, and J1901-0906 for the first time. Our measurements of subpulse drifting and pulse nulling for the rest of the pulsars are consistent with previously reported values. Contrary to previous belief, we find no evidence for a frequency dependent drift pattern in PSR B2016+28 as reported in previous studies. In PSRs B1237+25, J1822-2256, J1901-0906, and B2045-16, our longer and more sensitive observations reveal multiple drift rates with distinct P3. We increase the sample of pulsars showing concurrent nulling across multiple frequencies by more than 100 percent, adding four more pulsars to this sample. Our results confirm and further strengthen the understanding that the subpulse drifting and pulse nulling are consistent in the broadband with previous studies and are closely tied to physics of polar gap.

  7. Reducing interaction in simultaneous paired stimulation with CI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Dirk; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Kalkman, Randy K.; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study simultaneous paired stimulation of electrodes in cochlear implants is investigated by psychophysical experiments in 8 post-lingually deaf subjects (and one extra subject who only participated in part of the experiments). Simultaneous and sequential monopolar stimulation modes are used as references and are compared to channel interaction compensation, partial tripolar stimulation and a novel sequential stimulation strategy named phased array compensation. Psychophysical experiments are performed to investigate both the loudness integration during paired stimulation at the main electrodes as well as the interaction with the electrode contact located halfway between the stimulating pair. The study shows that simultaneous monopolar stimulation has more loudness integration on the main electrodes and more interaction in between the electrodes than sequential stimulation. Channel interaction compensation works to reduce the loudness integration at the main electrodes, but does not reduce the interaction in between the electrodes caused by paired stimulation. Partial tripolar stimulation uses much more current to reach the needed loudness, but shows the same interaction in between the electrodes as sequential monopolar stimulation. In phased array compensation we have used the individual impedance matrix of each subject to calculate the current needed on each electrode to exactly match the stimulation voltage along the array to that of sequential stimulation. The results show that the interaction in between the electrodes is the same as monopolar stimulation. The strategy uses less current than partial tripolar stimulation, but more than monopolar stimulation. In conclusion, the paper shows that paired stimulation is possible if the interaction is compensated. PMID:28182685

  8. Radiation therapy and simultaneous chemotherapy for recurrent cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windschall, A.; Ott, O.J.; Sauer, R.; Strnad, V. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity in patients with recurrence of cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy and simultaneous chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Between 1987 and 2001, 24 patients with recurrent cervical carcinoma were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Nine patients had incomplete tumor resection prior to radiation therapy. Irradiation was delivered to a total dose of 60 Gy, in three patients with central recurrence supplemented by brachytherapy. One patient was treated with brachytherapy alone. Simultaneous chemotherapy was done as a combined therapy of 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU, 600 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5, 29-33) and cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5, 29-33; 16/24 patients) or of 5-FU (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5, 29-33) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m{sup 2}/d2, 30; 1/24 patients). Cisplatin alone (25 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5) and carboplatin alone (800 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5) were administered in 5/24 patients (21%) and 2/24 patients (8%). Results: The 5-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 37%, disease-free survival 33%, and overall survival 34%. Grade 3 toxicity (NCI-CTC grade 3) occurred mainly as diarrhea (38%), leukopenia (33%), and nausea (21%). Severe toxicity (grade 4) was not seen in any of the patients. Conclusion: Radiation therapy with simultaneous chemotherapy for recurrences of cervical cancer is an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity. (orig.)

  9. Simultaneous Rheoelectric Measurements of Strongly Conductive Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Divoux, Thibaut; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce an modular fixture designed for stress-controlled rheometers to perform simultaneous rheological and electrical measurements on strongly conductive complex fluids under shear. By means of a nontoxic liquid metal at room temperature, the electrical connection to the rotating shaft is completed with minimal additional mechanical friction, allowing for simultaneous stress measurements at values as low as 1 Pa. Motivated by applications such as flow batteries, we use the capabilities of this design to perform an extensive set of rheoelectric experiments on gels formulated from attractive carbon-black particles, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 15 wt %. First, experiments on gels at rest prepared with different shear histories show a robust power-law scaling between the elastic modulus G0' and the conductivity σ0 of the gels—i.e., G0'˜σ0α, with α =1.65 ±0.04 , regardless of the gel concentration. Second, we report conductivity measurements performed simultaneously with creep experiments. Changes in conductivity in the early stage of the experiments, also known as the Andrade-creep regime, reveal for the first time that plastic events take place in the bulk, while the shear rate γ ˙ decreases as a weak power law of time. The subsequent evolution of the conductivity and the shear rate allows us to propose a local yielding scenario that is in agreement with previous velocimetry measurements. Finally, to establish a set of benchmark data, we determine the constitutive rheological and electrical behavior of carbon-black gels. Corrections first introduced for mechanical measurements regarding shear inhomogeneity and wall slip are carefully extended to electrical measurements to accurately distinguish between bulk and surface contributions to the conductivity. As an illustrative example, we examine the constitutive rheoelectric properties of five different grades of carbon-black gels and we demonstrate the relevance of this rheoelectric apparatus as a

  10. Simultaneity learning in vision, audition, tactile sense and their cross-modal combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virsu, Veijo; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Vedenpää, Anita; Jaatinen, Pentti; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2008-04-01

    Latencies of sensory neurons vary depending on stimulus variables such as intensity, contrast, distance and adaptation. Therefore, different parts of an object and simultaneous environmental events could often elicit non-simultaneous neural representations. However, despite the neural discrepancies of timing, our actions and object perceptions are usually veridical. Recent results suggest that this temporal veridicality is assisted by the so-called simultaneity constancy which actively compensates for neural timing asynchronies. We studied whether a corresponding compensation by simultaneity constancy could be learned in natural interaction with the environment without explicit feedback. Brief stimuli, whose objective simultaneity/non-simultaneity was judged, consisted of flashes, clicks or touches, and their cross-modal combinations. The stimuli were presented as two concurrent trains. Twenty-eight adult participants practised unimodal (visual, auditory and tactile) and cross-modal (audiovisual, audiotactile and visuotactile) simultaneity judgement tasks in eight sessions, two sessions per week. Effects of practice were tested 7 months later. All tasks indicated improved judgements of simultaneity that were also long-lasting. This simultaneity learning did not affect relative temporal resolution (Weber fraction). Transfer of learning between practised tasks was minimal, which suggests that simultaneity learning mechanisms are not centralised but modally specific. Our results suggest that natural perceptual learning can generate simultaneity-constancy-like phenomena in a well-differentiated and long-lasting manner and concomitantly in several sensory systems. Hebbian learning can explain how experience with environmental simultaneity and non-simultaneity can develop the veridicality of perceived synchrony.

  11. Intelligent Simultaneous Quantitative Online Analysis of Environmental Trace Heavy Metals with Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF has achieved remarkable success with the advantages of simultaneous multi-element analysis capability, decreased background noise, no matrix effects, wide dynamic range, ease of operation, and potential of trace analysis. Simultaneous quantitative online analysis of trace heavy metals is urgently required by dynamic environmental monitoring and management, and TXRF has potential in this application domain. However, it calls for an online analysis scheme based on TXRF as well as a robust and rapid quantification method, which have not been well explored yet. Besides, spectral overlapping and background effects may lead to loss of accuracy or even faulty results during practical quantitative TXRF analysis. This paper proposes an intelligent, multi-element quantification method according to the established online TXRF analysis platform. In the intelligent quantification method, collected characteristic curves of all existing elements and a pre-estimated background curve in the whole spectrum scope are used to approximate the measured spectrum. A novel hybrid algorithm, PSO-RBFN-SA, is designed to solve the curve-fitting problem, with offline global optimization and fast online computing. Experimental results verify that simultaneous quantification of trace heavy metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, is realized on the online TXRF analysis platform, and both high measurement precision and computational efficiency are obtained.

  12. Simultaneous human detection and ranging using a millimeter-wave radar system transmitting wideband noise with an embedded tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kyle A.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radar system that has been constructed to simultaneously range and detect humans at distances up to 82 meters. This is done by utilizing a composite signal consisting of two waveforms: a wideband noise waveform and a single tone. These waveforms are summed together and transmitted simultaneously. Matched filtering of the received and transmitted noise signals is performed to range targets with high resolution, while the received single tone signal is used for Doppler analysis. The Doppler measurements are used to distinguish between different human movements using characteristic micro-Doppler signals. Using hardware and software filters allows for simultaneous processing of both the noise and Doppler waveforms. Our measurements establish the mm-wave system's ability to detect humans up to and beyond 80 meters and distinguish between different human movements. In this paper, we describe the architecture of the multi-modal mm-wave radar system and present results on human target ranging and Doppler characterization of human movements. In addition, data are presented showing the differences in reflected signal strength between a human with and without a concealed metallic object.

  13. Intelligent simultaneous quantitative online analysis of environmental trace heavy metals with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Wang, Yeyao; Yang, Qi; Liu, Yubing; Shi, Ping

    2015-05-06

    Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) has achieved remarkable success with the advantages of simultaneous multi-element analysis capability, decreased background noise, no matrix effects, wide dynamic range, ease of operation, and potential of trace analysis. Simultaneous quantitative online analysis of trace heavy metals is urgently required by dynamic environmental monitoring and management, and TXRF has potential in this application domain. However, it calls for an online analysis scheme based on TXRF as well as a robust and rapid quantification method, which have not been well explored yet. Besides, spectral overlapping and background effects may lead to loss of accuracy or even faulty results during practical quantitative TXRF analysis. This paper proposes an intelligent, multi-element quantification method according to the established online TXRF analysis platform. In the intelligent quantification method, collected characteristic curves of all existing elements and a pre-estimated background curve in the whole spectrum scope are used to approximate the measured spectrum. A novel hybrid algorithm, PSO-RBFN-SA, is designed to solve the curve-fitting problem, with offline global optimization and fast online computing. Experimental results verify that simultaneous quantification of trace heavy metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, is realized on the online TXRF analysis platform, and both high measurement precision and computational efficiency are obtained.

  14. Server-Aided Two-Party Computation with Simultaneous Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ranellucci, Samuel

    We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal composab...... composability framework introduced by Canetti and Vald and we show that information-theoretically secure two-party computation is possible if and only if there is always at least one server which remains uncorrupted....

  15. Simultaneous spectrophotometric estimation of atorvastatin calcium and ezetimibe in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawane S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate, economical and reproducible procedure for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin calcium and ezetimibe in their tablet dosage form has been developed using, Q-absorbance equation. The method involves, the absorbance measurement at 235.5 nm (iso-absorptive point and 246.0 nm (λmax of atorvastatin calcium, in methanol. Both the drugs, obey Beer-Lambert′s law in the concentration range of 5-25 μg/ml. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  16. Simultaneous electric-field measurements on nearby balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Electric-field payloads were flown simultaneously on two balloons from Great Whale River, Canada, on September 21, 1971, to provide data at two points in the upper atmosphere that differed in altitude by more than one atmospheric density scale height and in horizontal position by 30-140 km. The altitude dependences in the two sets of data prove conclusively that the vertical electric field at balloon altitudes stems from fair-weather atmospheric electricity sources and that the horizontal fields are mapped down ionospheric fields, since the weather-associated horizontal fields were smaller than 2 mV/m.

  17. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry.tyutyunnikov@uni-ulm.de [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Burak Özdöl, V. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, MS 72-150 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Koch, Christoph T. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available.

  18. Simultaneous detection of different serum pepsinogens and its primary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To develop the simple, rapid and sensitive dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for pepsinogens in human serum.METHODS: Based on two-site sandwich protocol, mono-clonal antibodies (McAbs) against pepsinogen Ⅰ (PG Ⅰ) and PG Ⅱ were co-coated in 96 microtitration wells, and tracer McAbs against PG Ⅰ and PG Ⅱ were labeled with europium (Eu) and samarium (Sm) chelate, respectively. Diluted serum samples of Eu3+- and Sm3+-McAbs were added into microtitration wells simultaneously. After washing, fluores...

  19. Frequency domain simultaneous algebraic reconstruction techniques: algorithm and convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zheng, Yibin

    2005-03-01

    We propose a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) in the frequency domain for linear imaging problems. This algorithm has the advantage of efficiently incorporating pixel correlations in an a priori image model. First it is shown that the generalized SART algorithm converges to the weighted minimum norm solution of a weighted least square problem. Then an implementation in the frequency domain is described. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated with fan beam computed tomography (CT) examples. Compared to the traditional SART and its major alternative ART, the new algorithm offers superior image quality and potential application to other modalities.

  20. Simultaneous constraint and phase conversion processing of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Thompson, Elliott D.; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.; DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Parrell, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Jodi L.

    2003-04-29

    A method of making an oxide superconductor article includes subjecting an oxide superconductor precursor to a texturing operation to orient grains of the oxide superconductor precursor to obtain a highly textured precursor; and converting the textured oxide superconducting precursor into an oxide superconductor, while simultaneously applying a force to the precursor which at least matches the expansion force experienced by the precursor during phase conversion to the oxide superconductor. The density and the degree of texture of the oxide superconductor precursor are retained during phase conversion. The constraining force may be applied isostatically.

  1. A Simple Loop for Simultaneous OTDM Demultiplexing and Clock Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; LU Dan; GONG Tao-Rong; LV Bo; WANG Mu-Guang; LI Tang-Jun; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A simple and stable loop consisting of a pair of concatenated electroabsorption modulators (EAMs) and 10 GHz clock recovery module is presented and demonstrated experimentally for simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery for OTDM networks. The 1OGb/s demultiplexed signai and IOGHz recovered clock are successfully implemented from 80 Gbit/s and 160 Gbit/s OTDM signals utilizing the loop. The loop based on EAM-PLL can provide excellent tolerance range (> 5 dB) of the OSCR of the source laser, and the recovered clock signa J exhibits low rms jitter over a dynamic input optical power range of 15 dB.

  2. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  3. Simultaneous occurrence of toxic epidermal necrolysis and neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is an acute life-threatening blistering disease characterized by involvement of the skin, multiple mucous membranes and internal organs. It is most commonly precipitated by the administration of medications like anticonvulsants. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare complication of neuroleptic therapy characterized by catatonic behavior, generalized muscular rigidity, hyperthermia and autonomic dysfunction. An 18-year-old girl presenting with simultaneous appearance of TEN and NMS following anti-psychotic drugs given for bipolar mood disorder, is reported for the rare association and her complete recovery.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using four connecting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Allen R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new signal-conditioning technique for measuring strain and temperature which uses fewer connecting wires than conventional techniques. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain has been achieved by using thermocouple wire to connect strain gages to signal conditioning. This signal conditioning uses a new method for demultiplexing sampled analog signals and the Anderson current loop circuit. Theory is presented along with data to confirm that strain gage resistance change is sensed without appreciable error because of thermoelectric effects. Furthermore, temperature is sensed without appreciable error because of voltage drops caused by strain gage excitation current flowing through the gage resistance.

  5. Simultaneous contrast improvement and denoising via diffusion-related equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Guillermo; Caselles, Vicent

    1995-08-01

    The explicit use of partial differential equations (PDE's) in image processing became a major topic of study in the last years. In this work we present an algorithm for histogram modification via PDE's. We show that the histogram can be modified to achieve any given distribution. The modification can be performed while simultaneously reducing noise. This avoids the noise sharpening effect in classical algorithms. The approach is extended to local contrast enhancement as well. A variational interpretation of the flow is presented and theoretical results on the existence of solutions are given.

  6. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  7. On a problem in simultaneous Diophantine approximation: Schmidt's conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Badziahin, Dzmitry; Velani, Sanju

    2010-01-01

    For any $i,j \\ge 0$ with $i+j =1$, let $\\bad(i,j)$ denote the set of points $(x,y) \\in \\R^2$ for which $ \\max \\{\\|qx\\|^{1/i}, \\|qy\\|^{1/j} \\} > c/q $ for all $ q \\in \\N $. Here $c = c(x,y)$ is a positive constant. Our main result implies that any finite intersection of such sets has full dimension. This settles a conjecture of Wolfgang M. Schmidt in the theory of simultaneous Diophantine approximation.

  8. A Bayesian approach to simultaneously quantify assignments and linguistic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC FREDERICKSBURG; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2010-10-07

    Subject matter expert assessments can include both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. This paper examines assessments containing linguistic uncertainty associated with a qualitative description of a specific state of interest and the assignment uncertainty associated with assigning a qualitative value to that state. A Bayesian approach is examined to simultaneously quantify both assignment and linguistic uncertainty in the posterior probability. The approach is applied to a simplified damage assessment model involving both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. The utility of the approach and the conditions under which the approach is feasible are examined and identified.

  9. Preparation Techniques and Syntactical Strategies for Simultaneous Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晶

    2013-01-01

    This essay is a case study of an interpreting exam recording about a speech by President Bush on the topic of energy security and climate change, this paper discussed preparation techniques and syntactical strategies for simultaneous interpreting. The research shows that interpreting excellency is based on a sound preparation. Anticipating and waiting strategies enable a natural output. Waiting could cause overloaded memory. Integrating can benefit interpreting by saving time and energy, especially in information-intensive ST. A mix of stalling and chunking can be used to deal with long and complex sentences but interpreters should be cautious on adding linking words, which may undermine the preciseness of the ST.

  10. Simultaneous amplification and attenuation in isotropic chiral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-05-01

    The electromagnetic field phasors in an isotropic chiral material (ICM) are superpositions of two Beltrami fields of different handedness. Application of the Bruggeman homogenization formalism to two-component composite materials delivers ICMs wherein Beltrami fields of one handedness attenuate whereas Beltrami fields of the other handedness amplify. One component material is a dissipative ICM, the other an active dielectric material. The range of the volume fraction of the active component material for which simultaneous amplification and attenuation is exhibited decreases—but does not vanish—as the ICM component becomes more dissipative and as its chirality parameter reduces in magnitude.

  11. Simultaneous field-aligned currents at Swarm and Cluster satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunlop, M. W.; Yang, J. Y.; Yang, Y. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We show for the first time, with direct, multispacecraft calculations of electric current density, and other methods, matched signatures of field-aligned currents (FACs) sampled simultaneously near the ionosphere at low (∼500km altitude) orbit and in the magnetosphere at medium (similar to 2.5 RE...... find clear evidence of both small-scale and large-scale FACs and clear matching of the behavior and structure of the large-scale currents at both Cluster and Swarm. The methodology is made possible through the joint operations of Cluster and Swarm, which contain, in the first several months of Swarm...... operations, a number of close three-spacecraft configurations....

  12. A buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing timing optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2006-01-01

    A path-based timing optimization algorithm for buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing is proposed.Firstly, candidate buffer insertion location and buffer size for each branch in a given routing path were obtained via localized timing optimization. Then, through evaluating each potential insertion against design objectives, potential optimal buffer insertion locations and sizes for the whole routing tree were determined. At last, by removing redundant buffer insertion operations which do not maximize S ( so ), given timing requirements are finally fulfilled through minimum number of buffers.

  13. Simultaneous global coupling and vertical dispersion correction in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu C.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2012-05-20

    Residual vertical dispersion on the order of +/-0.2 m (peak to peak) has been measured at store energies for both polarized protons and heavy ion beams in RHIC. The hypothesis is that this may have impact on the polarization transmission efficiency during the energy ramp, the polarization lifetime at store and, for heavy ions, the dynamic aperture. An algorithm to correct global coupling and dispersion simultaneously using existing skew quadrupoles was developed. Measured coupling and dispersion functions acquired before and after correction are presented.

  14. The Simultaneous Additive and Relative SysRem Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofir A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the SARS algorithm, which is a generalization of the popular SysRem detrending technique. This generalization allows including multiple external parameters in a simultaneous solution with the unknown effects. Using SARS allowed us to show that the magnitude-dependant systematic effect discovered by Mazeh et al. (2009 in the CoRoT data is probably caused by an additive –rather than relative– noise source. A post-processing scheme based on SARS performs well and indeed allows for the detection of new transit-like signals that were not previously detected.

  15. Simultaneous expression of displayed and secreted antibodies for antibody screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanping Zhou

    Full Text Available The display of full-length antibody on the cell surface was achieved by fusing a transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR to the C-terminus of the heavy chain constant region. We also incorporated a furin cleavage site between the constant region and PDGFR transmembrane domain to obtain secreted antibodies. As a result, antibodies can be expressed simultaneously on the cell surface in a membrane-anchored version for screening and selecting through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis, as well as in conditioned medium in a secreted version for function analysis.

  16. Multimodality calibration for simultaneous fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Beijst, Casper; Elschot, Mattijs; van der Velden, Sandra; de Jong, Hugo W A M

    2016-01-01

    Background Simultaneous real-time fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging could benefit image-guided (oncological) procedures. To this end, a hybrid modality is currently being developed by our group, by combining a c-arm with a gamma camera and a four-pinhole collimator. Accurate determination of the system parameters that describe the position of the x-ray tube, x-ray detector, gamma camera, and collimators is crucial to optimize image quality. The purpose of this study was to develop a calibratio...

  17. Simultaneous aortic and tricuspid valve rupture after fall injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Niazi, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This case study concerns a patient with disruption of both tricuspid and aortic valves: a previously healthy, adult man, who sustained a 5-meter fall from a building under construction. The mechanism of the injury was acceleration and deceleration, acting in two different phases of the cardiac cycle, i.e. systole and diastole. Simultaneous occurrence of these injuries is exceedingly rare and in a careful literature review, we did not find any such combination of injury. The possible mechanisms of this injury, as well as surgical techniques are discussed. PMID:23511124

  18. A multicolor fluorescence immunostaining technique for simultaneous antigen targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalow, Igor B; Minin, Evgeny A; Boecker, Werner

    2005-01-01

    A general problem in immunocytochemistry is the development of a reliable multiple immunolabeling method with primary antibodies originating from the same host species. Here, we briefly outline different approaches intended to close this technological gap and focus on multiple immunolabeling with monoclonal primary antibodies. To this end, we generated a basic universal protocol for the use of secondary antibodies selectively recognizing different isotypes/subclasses of monoclonal primary antibodies. This approach is widely applicable and offers a simple procedure for simultaneously detecting two or more antigens.

  19. Video super-resolution using simultaneous motion and intensity calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    for the joint estimation of a super-resolution sequence and its flow field. Via the calculus of variations, this leads to a coupled system of partial differential equations for image sequence and motion estimation. We solve a simplified form of this system and as a by-product we indeed provide a motion field...... for super-resolved sequences. Computing super-resolved flows has to our knowledge not been done before. Most advanced super-resolution (SR) methods found in literature cannot be applied to general video with arbitrary scene content and/or arbitrary optical flows, as it is possible with our simultaneous VSR...

  20. [Simultaneous pulmonar, laryngeal and lingual affectation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Manzano, J A; Castillo Romero, J L; Padilla Romero, M J; Sánchez Laínez, J J; Castillo Aguilar, C; Cegarra Navarro, M F

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis has lately increased in developed countries. The most frequent affectation is the pulmonar one and in the ORL area the laryngeal. The lingual affectation is exceptional. We present a case of a man 39 years old, with bilateral pulmonar, left vocal cord and mobile tongue affectation, negative Mantoux, positive spit culture and presence of acido-alcohol resistent bacillus in lingual and laryngeal biopsies. After antituberculosis treatment during 6 months the laryngeal and lingual lesions disappeared. We have only found two cases published of simultaneous tuberculosis in these three localisations in the last 30 years.

  1. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse insolation, outdoor data recorded on 'cloudy' days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  2. Simultaneous Disulfide and Boronic Acid Ester Exchange in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemer, Sanna L.; Kristensen, Morten; Rasmussen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    that operate simultaneously or two reversible reactions that operate independently. Both these scenarios have advantages and disadvantages. In this contribution, we show how disulfide exchange and boronic ester transesterification can function simultaneous in dynamic combinatorial libraries under appropriate...

  3. Simultaneous polysubstance use among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and hallucinogen users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie L; Christoffersen, Maria; Okholm, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users.......To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users....

  4. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for simultaneous smoothing and registration of functional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We consider misaligned functional data, where data registration is necessary for proper statistical analysis. This paper proposes to treat misalignment as a nonlinear random effect, which makes simultaneous likelihood inference for horizontal and vertical effects possible. By simultaneously fitting...

  5. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served as cont...

  6. Characteristics of Instructional Technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.

    A thoroughly planned program for instructional technologists--one including selection, education, and on-the-job training--must take into consideration the competencies and characteristics desirable in such technologists. Such requirements fall into three categories: attitudes or values, specialized knowledge, and intellectual skills or…

  7. Simultaneous observations of magnetopause flux transfer events and of their associated signatures at ionospheric altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McWilliams

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An extensive variety of instruments, including Geotail, DMSP F11, SuperDARN, and IMP-8, were monitoring the dayside magnetosphere and ionosphere between 14:00 and 18:00 UT on 18 January 1999. The location of the instruments provided an excellent opportunity to study in detail the direct coupling between the solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the ionosphere. Flux transfer events were observed by Geotail near the magnetopause in the dawn side magnetosheath at about 4 magnetic local time during exclusively northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. Excellent coverage of the entire dayside high-latitude ionosphere was achieved by the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN radars. On the large scale, temporally and spatially, the dayside magnetosphere convection remained directly driven by the interplanetary magnetic field, despite the highly variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, including long periods of northward field. The SuperDARN radars in the dawn sector also measured small-scale temporally varying convection velocities, which are indicative of flux transfer event activity, in the vicinity of the magnetic footprint of Geotail. DMSP F11 in the Southern Hemisphere measured typical cusp precipitation simultaneously with and magnetically conjugate to a single flux transfer event signature detected by Geotail. A study of the characteristics of the DMSP ion spectrogram revealed that the source plasma from the reconnection site originated downstream of the subsolar point. Detailed analyses of locally optimised coordinate systems for individual flux transfer events at Geotail are consistent with a series of flux tubes protruding from the magnetopause, and originating from a high-latitude reconnection site in the Southern Hemisphere. This high-latitude reconnection site agrees with plasma injected away from the subsolar point. This is the first simultaneous and independent determination from ionospheric and space-based data of the

  8. Multivariate optimization of headspace trap for furan and furfural simultaneous determination in sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Vázquez, Mayela; Blumenthal, David; Camel, Valérie; Rega, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Furan, a possibly carcinogenic compound to humans, and furfural, a naturally occurring volatile contributing to aroma, can be both found in thermally treated foods. These process-induced compounds, formed by close reaction pathways, play an important role as markers of food safety and quality. A method capable of simultaneously quantifying both molecules is thus highly relevant for developing mitigation strategies and preserving the sensory properties of food at the same time. We have developed a unique reliable and sensitive headspace trap (HS trap) extraction method coupled to GC-MS for the simultaneous quantification of furan and furfural in a solid processed food (sponge cake). HS Trap extraction has been optimized using an optimal design of experiments (O-DOE) approach, considering four instrumental and two sample preparation variables, as well as a blocking factor identified during preliminary assays. Multicriteria and multiple response optimization was performed based on a desirability function, yielding the following conditions: thermostatting temperature, 65°C; thermostatting time, 15min; number of pressurization cycles, 4; dry purge time, 0.9min; water / sample amount ratio (dry basis), 16; and total amount (water + sample amount, dry basis), 10g. The performances of the optimized method were also assessed: repeatability (RSD: ≤3.3% for furan and ≤2.6% for furfural), intermediate precision (RSD: 4.0% for furan and 4.3% for furfural), linearity (R(2): 0.9957 for furan and 0.9996 for furfural), LOD (0.50ngfuran gsample dry basis(-1) and 10.2ngfurfural gsample dry basis(-1)), LOQ (0.99ngfuran gsample dry basis(-1) and 41.1ngfurfural gsample dry basis(-1)). Matrix effect was observed mainly for furan. Finally, the optimized method was applied to other sponge cakes with different matrix characteristics and levels of analytes.

  9. Simultaneous Sampling of Flow and Odorants by Crustaceans can Aid Searches within a Turbulent Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Pravin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish use dispersing odorant molecules to determine the location of predators, prey, potential mates and habitat. Odorant molecules diffuse in turbulent flows and are sensed by the olfactory organs of these animals, often using a flicking motion of their antennules. These antennules contain both chemosensory and mechanosensory sensilla, which enable them to detect both flow and odorants during a flick. To determine how simultaneous flow and odorant sampling can aid in search behavior, a 3-dimensional numerical model for the near-bed flow environment was created. A stream of odorant concentration was released into the flow creating a turbulent plume, and both temporally and spatially fluctuating velocity and odorant concentration were quantified. The plume characteristics show close resemblance to experimental measurements within a large laboratory flume. Results show that mean odorant concentration and it’s intermittency, computed as dc/dt, increase towards the plume source, but the temporal and spatial rate of this increase is slow and suggests that long measurement times would be necessary to be useful for chemosensory guidance. Odorant fluxes measured transverse to the mean flow direction, quantified as the product of the instantaneous fluctuation in concentration and velocity, v’c’, do show statistically distinct magnitude and directional information on either side of a plume centerline over integration times of <0.5 s. Aquatic animals typically have neural responses to odorant and velocity fields at rates between 50 and 500 ms, suggesting this simultaneous sampling of both flow and concentration in a turbulent plume can aid in source tracking on timescales relevant to aquatic animals.

  10. Simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic behavior of hybrid mesoporous ZnS-SiO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna Motejadded Emrooz, Hosein; Gotor, Francisco Jose

    2017-08-01

    Mesoporous ZnS-SiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized with a facile process. At first a large pore volume (1.86 cm3·g-1), moderate pore size (about 12.8 nm) and moderate surface area (586 m2·g-1) mesoporous SiO2 was synthesized in an acidic PH using cationic surfactant. ZnS nanoparticles were infiltrated in the porosities of the synthesized SiO2, with a room temperature post grafting method. The synthesized particles have been characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), furrier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Results confirm the mesoporous characteristics of ZnS-SiO2 nanocomposite with specific surface area as high as 248 m2·g-1, pore volume of 0.89 cm3·g-1 and average pore diameter of about 14.4 nm. Simultaneous adsorption-photocatalytic behavior of this hybrid mesoporous nanocomposite for degradation of methylene blue (MB) was investigated. The efficiency of this material was compared with that of mesoporous SiO2 and also lone ZnS nanoparticles. Results showed that by using ultraviolet irradiation, ZnS-SiO2 can degrade greater than 85% of MB only after 3 min. The case for lone ZnS is less than 5% after 30 min. Degradation mechanism of MB using ZnS-SiO2 and ultraviolet radiation was explained with simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic phenomena. Ultraviolet irradiation can degrade adsorbed MB of mesoporous SiO2 which can prevent it from saturation.

  11. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  12. Simultaneous Analyses and Applications of Multiple Fluorobenzoate and Halide Tracers in Hydrologic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E

    2004-01-22

    An analytical method that employs ion chromatography has been developed to more fully exploit the use of fluorobenzoic acids (FBAs) and halides as hydrologic tracers. In a single run, this reliable, sensitive, and robust method can simultaneously separate and quantify halides (fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide) and up to seven FBAs from other common groundwater constituents (e.g., nitrate and sulfate). The usefulness of this ion chromatographic (IC) analytical method is demonstrated in both field and laboratory tracer experiments. Field experiments in unsaturated tuff featuring fractures or a fault show that this efficient and cost-effective method helps achieve the objectives of tracer studies that use multiple FBAs and/or diffusivity tracers (simultaneous use of one or more FBA and halide). The field study examines the hydrologic response of fractures and the matrix to different flow rates and the contribution of matrix diffusion in chemical transport. Laboratory tracer experiments with eight geologic media from across the United States--mostly from Department of Energy facilities where groundwater contamination is prevalent and where subsurface characterization employing tracers has been ongoing or is in need--reveal several insights about tracer transport behavior: (1) Bromide and FBAs are not always transported conservatively. (2) The delayed transport of these anionic tracers is likely related to geologic media characteristics, such as organic matter, pH, iron oxide content, and clay mineralogy. (3) Any use of iodine as a hydrologic tracer should take into account the different sorption behaviors of iodide and iodate and the possible conversion of iodine's initial chemical form. (4) The transport behavior of potential FBA and halide tracers under relevant geochemical conditions should be evaluated before beginning ambitious, large-scale field tracer experiments.

  13. Defining an optimal surgical strategy for synchronous colorectal liver metastases: staged versus simultaneous resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Wong Hoi; Chan, Albert Chi Yan; Poon, Ronnie Tung Ping; Cheung, Tan To; Chok, Kenneth Siu Ho; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to assess if simultaneous resection conferred any survival benefit in resection of synchronous colorectal liver metastases. From January 1990 to December 2008, 116 patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases were identified. Among these 116 patients, 88 underwent staged resection (SR), while the remaining 28 patients underwent simultaneous resection (SIMR). Patients' follow-up data were reviewed. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of patient and tumour characteristics. Major hepatectomy was performed in 54 patients (61%) undergoing SR, and 12 patients (43%) undergoing SIMR (P = 0.09). The median blood loss (SR 0.7 L versus SIMR 0.8 L) was similar. Post-operative morbidity rates and hospital mortality rates were not statistically different. The total length of hospital stay was shorter in SIMR patients (18.0 versus 11.5 days, P = 0.009). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival for SR were 90.7%, 47.1% and 33.3%, whilst the corresponding survival rates for SIMR were 75.0%, 25.0% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.003). However, when the disease-free survival (DFS) was stratified according to the number of hepatic metastases, the survival benefit of SR and SIMR for solitary CRM were similar (3-year DFS: 28.3% versus 11.1%, P = 0.089). Our study showed that an operative strategy of SR generally offered better survival outcome than SIMR in the surgical management of CRM. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Simultaneous Analyses and Applications of Multiple Fluorobenzoate and Halide Tracers in Hydrologic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E

    2004-01-22

    An analytical method that employs ion chromatography has been developed to more fully exploit the use of fluorobenzoic acids (FBAs) and halides as hydrologic tracers. In a single run, this reliable, sensitive, and robust method can simultaneously separate and quantify halides (fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide) and up to seven FBAs from other common groundwater constituents (e.g., nitrate and sulfate). The usefulness of this ion chromatographic (IC) analytical method is demonstrated in both field and laboratory tracer experiments. Field experiments in unsaturated tuff featuring fractures or a fault show that this efficient and cost-effective method helps achieve the objectives of tracer studies that use multiple FBAs and/or diffusivity tracers (simultaneous use of one or more FBA and halide). The field study examines the hydrologic response of fractures and the matrix to different flow rates and the contribution of matrix diffusion in chemical transport. Laboratory tracer experiments with eight geologic media from across the United States--mostly from Department of Energy facilities where groundwater contamination is prevalent and where subsurface characterization employing tracers has been ongoing or is in need--reveal several insights about tracer transport behavior: (1) Bromide and FBAs are not always transported conservatively. (2) The delayed transport of these anionic tracers is likely related to geologic media characteristics, such as organic matter, pH, iron oxide content, and clay mineralogy. (3) Any use of iodine as a hydrologic tracer should take into account the different sorption behaviors of iodide and iodate and the possible conversion of iodine's initial chemical form. (4) The transport behavior of potential FBA and halide tracers under relevant geochemical conditions should be evaluated before beginning ambitious, large-scale field tracer experiments.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of reactions in microdroplets filled by concentration gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damean, Nicolae; Olguin, Luis F; Hollfelder, Florian; Abell, Chris; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2009-06-21

    This work describes a technology for performing and monitoring simultaneously several reactions confined in strings of microdroplets having identical volumes but different composition, and travelling with the same speed in parallel channels of a microfluidic device. This technology, called parallel microdroplets technology (PmicroD), uses an inverted optical microscope and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to collect images and analyze them so as to report on the reactions occurring in these microdroplets. A concentration gradient of one reactant is created in the microfluidic device. In each channel, a different concentration of this reactant is mixed with a fixed amount of a second reactant. Using planar flow-focusing methodology, these mixtures are confined in microdroplets of pL size which travel in oil as continuous medium, avoiding laminar dispersion. By analyzing the images of parallel strings of microdroplets, the time courses of several reactions with different reagent compositions are investigated simultaneously. In order to design the microfluidic device that consists in a complex network of channels having well-defined geometries and restricted positions, the theoretical concept of equivalent channels (i.e. channels having identical hydraulic resistance) is exploited and developed. As a demonstration of the PmicroD technology, an enzyme activity assay was carried out and the steady-state kinetic constants were determined.

  16. Global scale comparison of simultaneous ionospheric potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markson, R.; Ruhnke, L. H.; Williams, E. R.

    A unique series of simultaneous ionospheric potential ( VI) balloon soundings were obtained every 3 h over 2 full days at Weston, MA and Darwin, Australia, on the other side of the earth. These comparisons were to test the assumption that the ionosphere at sub-auroral latitudes is an equipotential and that a single measurement can provide a globally representative number. Another objective was to evaluate meteorological conditions affecting the measurements in a clean dry continental atmosphere (Darwin) compared with a more variable moist less clean atmosphere (Weston). The results indicate that for the Darwin data the VI measurements were within 10% of the classic Carnegie curve diurnal variation while the Weston data were more variable and often too large. The major source of error appears to be due to hydrated aerosol at Weston causing high electric fields in the exchange layer that were not fully compensated by electric fields above the inversion. The prototype instrumentation also contributed some error. The major finding of this experiment is that a layer of low conductivity air near the ground can have an unexpectedly large effect on electric field sounding data leading to error in the estimates of VI magnitude. This finding would not have been possible if simultaneous measurements in different airmasses had not been made since the individual electric field profiles appeared normal.

  17. Paper Skin Multisensory Platform for Simultaneous Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-02-19

    Human skin and hair can simultaneously feel pressure, temperature, humidity, strain, and flow—great inspirations for applications such as artificial skins for burn and acid victims, robotics, and vehicular technology. Previous efforts in this direction use sophisticated materials or processes. Chemically functionalized, inkjet printed or vacuum-technology-processed papers albeit cheap have shown limited functionalities. Thus, performance and/or functionalities per cost have been limited. Here, a scalable “garage” fabrication approach is shown using off-the-shelf inexpensive household elements such as aluminum foil, scotch tapes, sticky-notes, napkins, and sponges to build “paper skin” with simultaneous real-time sensing capability of pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and flow. Enabling the basic principles of porosity, adsorption, and dimensions of these materials, a fully functioning distributed sensor network platform is reported, which, for the first time, can sense the vitals of its carrier (body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and skin hydration) and the surrounding environment.

  18. Differential impact of simultaneous migration on coevolving hosts and parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Pascua Laura DC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of antagonistic host-parasite coevolution are believed to be crucially dependent on the rate of migration between populations. We addressed how the rate of simultaneous migration of host and parasite affected resistance and infectivity evolution of coevolving meta-populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and a viral parasite (bacteriophage. The increase in genetic variation resulting from small amounts of migration is expected to increase rates of adaptation of both host and parasite. However, previous studies suggest phages should benefit more from migration than bacteria; because in the absence of migration, phages are more genetically limited and have a lower evolutionary potential compared to the bacteria. Results The results supported the hypothesis: migration increased the resistance of bacteria to their local (sympatric hosts. Moreover, migration benefited phages more than hosts with respect to 'global' (measured with respect to the whole range of migration regimes patterns of resistance and infectivity, because of the differential evolutionary responses of bacteria and phage to different migration regimes. Specifically, we found bacterial global resistance peaked at intermediate rates of migration, whereas phage global infectivity plateaued when migration rates were greater than zero. Conclusion These results suggest that simultaneous migration of hosts and parasites can dramatically affect the interaction of host and parasite. More specifically, the organism with the lower evolutionary potential may gain the greater evolutionary advantage from migration.

  19. Simultaneous detection of major pome fruit viruses and a viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surender; Singh, Lakhmir; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2014-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive two-step RT-PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of major apple viruses, namely Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd), was developed. Five specific primer pairs were tested and confirmed for these viruses and viroid together in a single tube, giving amplicons of ~198, ~330, ~370, ~547 and ~645 bp corresponding to ASGV, ASSVd, ASPV, ApMV and ACLSV, respectively. Using a guanidinium-based extraction buffer along with a commercial kit resulted in better quality RNA as compared to kit, suited for multiplex RT-PCR. A rapid CTAB method for RNA isolation from apple tissue was developed, which produce good yield and saves time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the simultaneous detection of five pathogens (four viruses and a viroid) from apple with NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) as an internal control.

  20. Simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement using a 3-component prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Total ankle replacement is an established surgical procedure in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. We analyzed complications and medium-term results in patients with simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement. Patients and methods 10 women and 16 men, mean age 60 (SD 13) years, were followed for a median of 5 (2–10) years. Results There were no intraoperative or perioperative complications, with the exception of 1 patient with prolonged wound healing. Major revision surgery was necessary in 6 of the 52 ankles, including 4 revisions of prosthetic components. The average pain score decreased from 6.9 (4−10) to 1.8 (0−4) points. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score increased from 32 (SD 14) points preoperatively to 74 (SD 12) points postoperatively. The average range of motion increased from 28° (SD 12) preoperatively to 38° (SD 9) postoperatively. All 8 categories of SF-36 score improved. Interpretation Simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement is a suitable method for restoration of function and attainment of pain relief in patients with bilateral end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. The results of this procedure, including complication rates, revision rates, and functional outcome, are comparable to those reported in patients with unilateral total ankle replacement. PMID:21999622

  1. Single flexible nanofiber to simultaneously realize electricity-magnetism bifunctionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Lv, Nan; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Dong, Xiangting; Liu, Guixia, E-mail: wenshengyu2009@sina.com, E-mail: dongxiangting888@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun (China)

    2016-03-15

    In order to develop new-typed multifunctional composite nanofibers, PANI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PVP flexible bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous electrical conduction and magnetism have been successfully fabricated via a facile electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of polyaniline (PANI) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs). The bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent electrical conductivity and magnetic properties. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10{sup -3} S·cm{sup -1}. The electrical conductivity and saturation magnetization of the composite nanofibers can be respectively tuned by adding various amounts of PANI and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. The obtained electricity-magnetism bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as electromagnetic interference shielding, special coating, microwave absorption, molecular electronics and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construct technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional nanostructures. (author)

  2. Affective evaluation of simultaneous tone combinations in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners.

  3. Simultaneous electronic and lattice characterization using coupled femtosecond spectroscopic techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2009-09-01

    High-power electronics are central in the development of radar, solid-state lighting, and laser systems. Large powers, however, necessitate improved heat dissipation as heightened temperatures deleteriously affect both performance and reliability. Heat dissipation, in turn, is determined by the cascade of energy from the electronic to lattice system. Full characterization of the transport then requires analysis of each. In response, this four-month late start effort has developed a transient thermoreflectance (TTR) capability that probes the thermal response of electronic carriers with 100 fs resolution. Simultaneous characterization of the lattice carriers with this electronic assessment was then investigated by equipping the optical arrangement to acquire a Raman signal from radiation discarded during the TTR experiment. Initial results show only tentative acquisition of a Raman response at these timescales. Using simulations of the response, challenges responsible for these difficulties are then examined and indicate that with outlined refinements simultaneous acquisition of TTR/Raman signals remains attainable in the near term.

  4. Biomimetic cilia arrays generate simultaneous pumping and mixing regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A R; Fiser, B L; Evans, B A; Falvo, M R; Washburn, S; Superfine, R

    2010-09-07

    Living systems employ cilia to control and to sense the flow of fluids for many purposes, such as pumping, locomotion, feeding, and tissue morphogenesis. Beyond their use in biology, functional arrays of artificial cilia have been envisaged as a potential biomimetic strategy for inducing fluid flow and mixing in lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report on fluid transport produced by magnetically actuated arrays of biomimetic cilia whose size approaches that of their biological counterparts, a scale at which advection and diffusion compete to determine mass transport. Our biomimetic cilia recreate the beat shape of embryonic nodal cilia, simultaneously generating two sharply segregated regimes of fluid flow: Above the cilia tips their motion causes directed, long-range fluid transport, whereas below the tips we show that the cilia beat generates an enhanced diffusivity capable of producing increased mixing rates. These two distinct types of flow occur simultaneously and are separated in space by less than 5 microm, approximately 20% of the biomimetic cilium length. While this suggests that our system may have applications as a versatile microfluidics device, we also focus on the biological implications of our findings. Our statistical analysis of particle transport identifying an enhanced diffusion regime provides novel evidence for the existence of mixing in ciliated systems, and we demonstrate that the directed transport regime is Poiseuille-Couette flow, the first analytical model consistent with biological measurements of fluid flow in the embryonic node.

  5. Simultaneous excitation system for efficient guided wave structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jiadong; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xin; Lin, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Many structural health monitoring systems utilize guided wave transducer arrays for defect detection and localization. Signals are usually acquired using the ;pitch-catch; method whereby each transducer is excited in turn and the response is received by the remaining transducers. When extensive signal averaging is performed, the data acquisition process can be quite time-consuming, especially for metallic components that require a low repetition rate to allow signals to die out. Such a long data acquisition time is particularly problematic if environmental and operational conditions are changing while data are being acquired. To reduce the total data acquisition time, proposed here is a methodology whereby multiple transmitters are simultaneously triggered, and each transmitter is driven with a unique excitation. The simultaneously transmitted waves are captured by one or more receivers, and their responses are processed by dispersion-compensated filtering to extract the response from each individual transmitter. The excitation sequences are constructed by concatenating a series of chirps whose start and stop frequencies are randomly selected from a specified range. The process is optimized using a Monte-Carlo approach to select sequences with impulse-like autocorrelations and relatively flat cross-correlations. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is evaluated by several metrics and is experimentally demonstrated with sparse array imaging of simulated damage.

  6. Simultaneous tracking of spin angle and amplitude beyond classical limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Giorgio; Ciurana, Ferran Martin; Bianchet, Lorena C.; Sewell, Robert J.; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2017-03-01

    Measurement of spin precession is central to extreme sensing in physics, geophysics, chemistry, nanotechnology and neuroscience, and underlies magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Because there is no spin-angle operator, any measurement of spin precession is necessarily indirect, for example, it may be inferred from spin projectors at different times. Such projectors do not commute, and so quantum measurement back-action—the random change in a quantum state due to measurement—necessarily enters the spin measurement record, introducing errors and limiting sensitivity. Here we show that this disturbance in the spin projector can be reduced below N1/2—the classical limit for N spins—by directing the quantum measurement back-action almost entirely into an unmeasured spin component. This generates a planar squeezed state that, because spins obey non-Heisenberg uncertainty relations, enables simultaneous precise knowledge of spin angle and spin amplitude. We use high-dynamic-range optical quantum non-demolition measurements applied to a precessing magnetic spin ensemble to demonstrate spin tracking with steady-state angular sensitivity 2.9 decibels below the standard quantum limit, simultaneously with amplitude sensitivity 7.0 decibels below the Poissonian variance. The standard quantum limit and Poissonian variance indicate the best possible sensitivity with independent particles. Our method surpasses these limits in non-commuting observables, enabling orders-of-magnitude improvements in sensitivity for state-of-the-art sensing and spectroscopy.

  7. Solution of Chemical Dynamic Optimization Using the Simultaneous Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinggao; CHEN Long; HU Yunqing

    2013-01-01

    An approach of simultaneous strategies with two novel techniques is proposed to improve the solution accuracy of chemical dynamic optimization problems.The first technique is to handle constraints on control variables based on the finite-element collocation so as to control the approximation error for discrete optimal problems,where a set of control constraints at element knots are integrated with the procedure for optimization leading to a significant gain in the accuracy of the simultaneous strategies.The second technique is to make the mesh refinement more feasible and reliable by introducing length constraints and guideline in designing appropriate element length boundaries,so that the proposed approach becomes more efficient in adjusting elements to track optimal control profile breakpoints and ensure accurate state and control profiles.Four classic benchmarks of dynamic optimization problems are used as illustrations,and the proposed approach is compared with literature reports.The research results reveal that the proposed approach is preferable in improving the solution accuracy of chemical dynamic optimization problem.

  8. Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities.

  9. Simultaneous contrast and gamut relativity in achromatic color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2012-09-15

    Simultaneous contrast refers to the respective whitening or blackening of physically identical image regions surrounded by regions of low or high luminance, respectively. A common method of measuring the strength of this effect is achromatic color matching, in which subjects adjust the luminance of a target region to achieve an achromatic color match with another region. Here I present psychophysical data questioning the assumption--built into many models of achromatic color perception--that achromatic colors are represented as points in a one-dimensional (1D) perceptual space, or an absolute achromatic color gamut. I present an alternative model in which the achromatic color gamut corresponding to a target region is defined relatively, with respect to surround luminance. Different achromatic color gamuts in this model correspond to different 1D lines through a 2D perceptual space composed of blackness and whiteness dimensions. Each such line represents a unique gamut of achromatic colors ranging from black to white. I term this concept gamut relativity. Achromatic color matches made between targets surrounded by regions of different luminance are shown to reflect the relative perceptual distances between points lying on different gamut lines. The model suggests a novel geometrical approach to simultaneous contrast and achromatic color matching in terms of the vector summation of local luminance and contrast components, and sets the stage for a unified computational theory of achromatic color perception. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  10. Simultaneous ISAR imaging of group targets flying in formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jie; Xiao Huaitie; Song Zhiyong; Fan Hongqi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging method based on second-order keystone transform (KT) and Sandglass transform for group targets flying in a formation with constant accelerated rectilinear motion in the same radar beam. First, range cur-vature and range walk of each sub-target among group targets are corrected by the second-order KT combined with the quadratic phase term compensation. After range alignment, the signals in each range frequency cell can be modelled as multiple chirp signals and then the Sandglass transform is uti-lized to cross-range imaging, which transforms the time–frequency distribution of the signals in each range frequency cell into beelines parallel to the slow time axis simultaneously. Finally, cross-range profiles of group targets in each range frequency cell are obtained via a projection of the perk of every scatterer in the two-dimensional accumulation plane onto the frequency axis. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can align range profiles of each sub-target simultaneously and image cross-range profiles directly without separating the returned signals, which simplifies the operation procedure. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation for simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Haibo; ZHENG; Chuguang

    2006-01-01

    The process of dynamic evolution in dispersed systems due to simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition is described mathematically by general dynamic equation (GDE). Monte Carlo (MC) method is an important approach of numerical solutions of GDE. However, constant-volume MC method exhibits the contradictory of low computation cost and high computation precision owing to the fluctuation of the number of simulation particles; constant-number MC method can hardly be applied to engineering application and general scientific quantitative analysis due to the continual contraction or expansion of computation domain. In addition, the two MC methods depend closely on the "subsystem" hypothesis, which constraints their expansibility and the scope of application. A new multi-Monte Carlo (MMC) method is promoted to take account of GDE for simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition. MMC method introduces the concept of "weighted fictitious particle" and is based on the "time-driven" technique. Furthermore MMC method maintains synchronously the computational domain and the total number of fictitious particles, which results in the latent expansibility of simulation for boundary condition, the space evolution of particle size distribution and even particle dynamics. The simulation results of MMC method for two special cases in which analytical solutions exist agree with analytical solutions well, which proves that MMC method has high and stable computational precision and low computation cost because of the constant and limited number of fictitious particles. Lastly the source of numerical error and the relative error of MMC method are analyzed, respectively.

  12. Multichannel waveguides for the simultaneous detection of disease biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Price, Dominique Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The sensor team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor that has previously been used for the detection of biomarkers associated with diseases such as tuberculosis, breast cancer, anthrax and influenza in complex biological samples (e.g., serum and urine). However, no single biomarker can accurately predict disease. To address this issue, we developed a multiplex assay for the detection of components of the Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin on single mode planar optical waveguides with tunable quantum dots as the fluorescence reporter. This limited ability to multiplex is still insufficient for accurate detection of disease or for monitoring prognosis. In this manuscript, we demonstrate for the first time, the design, fabrication and successful evaluation of a multichannel planar optical waveguide for the simultaneous detection of at least three unknown samples in quadruplicate. We demonstrate the simultaneous, rapid (30 min), quantitative (with internal standard) and sensitive (limit of detection of 1 pM) detection of protective antigen and lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis in complex biological samples (serum) using specific monoclonal antibodies labeled with quantum dots as the fluorescence reporter.

  13. An efficient simultaneous reconstruction technique for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio

    2009-10-01

    To date, Tomo-PIV has involved the use of the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), where the intensity of each 3D voxel is iteratively corrected to satisfy one recorded projection, or pixel intensity, at a time. This results in reconstruction times of multiple hours for each velocity field and requires considerable computer memory in order to store the associated weighting coefficients and intensity values for each point in the volume. In this paper, a rapid and less memory intensive reconstruction algorithm is presented based on a multiplicative line-of-sight (MLOS) estimation that determines possible particle locations in the volume, followed by simultaneous iterative correction. Reconstructions of simulated images are presented for two simultaneous algorithms (SART and SMART) as well as the now standard MART algorithm, which indicate that the same accuracy as MART can be achieved 5.5 times faster or 77 times faster with 15 times less memory if the processing and storage of the weighting matrix is considered. Application of MLOS-SMART and MART to a turbulent boundary layer at Re θ = 2200 using a 4 camera Tomo-PIV system with a volume of 1,000 × 1,000 × 160 voxels is discussed. Results indicate improvements in reconstruction speed of 15 times that of MART with precalculated weighting matrix, or 65 times if calculation of the weighting matrix is considered. Furthermore the memory needed to store a large weighting matrix and volume intensity is reduced by almost 40 times in this case.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of PIP and POP in Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 李学刚; 宋金明

    2004-01-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) and particulate organic phosphorus (POP) in seawater was improved. After using cellulose acetate membrane to filter the seawater samples and washing the membrane with 1mol/L hydrochloric acid, PIP was extracted into hydrochloric acid phase and POP was left on the membrane. POP was oxygenated at 120℃, 0.12MPa with potassium persulphate. Phosphomolybdate blue spectrophotometry was used in the determination. The proper volume of seawater sample for simultaneously determining PIP and POP was 100-150ml, containing PIP≥0.27μg, POP≥0.69μg. Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of the determination of PIP and POP was 5.8% and 4.3% respectively. This method was used to determine POP and PIP in the surface water of Huiquan Bay, Qingdao, China. PIP content there averaged at 69.0μg/L and POP at 3.3μg/L. PIP is the main form (>93%) of particulate phosphorus (PP). Maximum PIP coincided with flood tide, indicating that PIP mainly originated from disturbance of surface sediments. At the offshore area, maximum of PIP appeared at flood tide and minimum of PIP appeared at ebb-tide. The maximum of POP presented at about 10:00am, which suggests that POP is closely related to biological metabolism. The control factor of POP in seawater was concluded to be biological metabolization.

  15. Enrichment process of biogas using simultaneous Absorption - Adsorption methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, Eny; Lukita, Maya; Gozan, Misri; Susanto, Bambang Heru; Nasution, Dedy Alharis; Rahman, Arif; Gunawan, Cindy

    2017-03-01

    Removal of CO2 in biogas is an essential methods to the purification and upgrading of biogas. Natural Clinoptilolite zeolites were evaluated as sorbents for purification of biogas that produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by anerobic-digestion method. The absorption and adsorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed two column adsorption unit by simultaneous absorption-adsorption method. The Ca(OH)2 solution with concentration of 0.062 M was used as absorption method. Sorbent for removal of CO2 in biogas have been prepared by modifying of Clinoptilolite zeolites with an acid (HCl, 2M) and alkaline (NaOH, 2M), calcined at 450°C and then coated using chitosan (0.5 w/v%) in order to increase their adsorption capacity. The removal of CO2 in biogas was achieved about ˜83% using 2.5 g of sorbent zeolite (2M)/chitosan dosage for each column, breakthrough time of 30 min, and flow rate of 100 mL/min. Clinoptilolite zeolites with modifications of an acid-alkaline and chitosan (zeolite (2M)/chitosan) are promising sorbents due to the amine groups from chitosan and high surface-volume ratio are one of important factors in a simultaneous absorption-adsorption method.

  16. Simultaneous detection of HBV and HCV by multiplex PCR normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Xue-Qin Gao; Jin-Xiang Han

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To design and establish a method of multiplex PCR normalization for simultaneously detecting HBV and HCV.METHODS: Two pairs of primers with a 20 bp joint sequence were used to amplify the target genes of HBV and HCV by two rounds of amplification. After the two rounds of amplification all the products had the joint sequence. Then the joint sequence was used as primers to finish the last amplification. Finally multiplex PCR was normalized to a single PCR system to eliminate multiplex factor interference. Four kinds of nucleic acid extraction methods were compared and screened. A multiplex PCR normalization method was established and optimized by orthogonal design of 6 key factors. Then twenty serum samples were detected to evaluate the validity and authenticity of this method.RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic index and efficiency were 83.3%, 70%, 153.3% and 72.2%,respectively for both HBsAg and anti-HCV positive patients,and were 78.6%, 80%, 258.6% and 79.2%, respectively for HBsAg positive patients, and were 75%, 90%, 165%and 83.3%, respectively for anti-HCV positive patients.CONCLUSION: The multiplex PCR normalization method shows a broad prospect in simultaneous amplification of multiple genes of different sources. It is practical, correct and authentic, and can be used to prevent and control HBV and HCV.

  17. Simultaneous integration of multiple genes into the Kluyveromyces marxianus chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Paul; Yang, Tae-Jun; Chung, Soon-Chun; Cheon, Yuna; Kim, Jun-Seob; Park, Jun-Bum; Koo, Hyun Min; Cho, Kwang Myung; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Jae Chan; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2013-09-10

    While Kluyveromyces marxianus is a promising yeast strain for biotechnological applications, genetic engineering of this strain is still challenging, especially when multiple genes are to be transformed. Sequential gene integration, which takes advantage of repetitive insertion/excision of the URA3 gene as a marker, has been the best option until now, because the URA3-deletion mutant is the only precondition for this method. However, we found that the introduced gene is co-excised during the URA3 excision step for next gene introduction, resulting in a very low cumulative probability (<1.57×10⁻⁶ % for 4 genes) of integrating all genes of interest. To overcome this extremely low probability, and to reduce labor and time, all 4 genes were simultaneously transformed. Surprisingly, the infamously high 'non-homologous end joining' activity of K. marxianus enabled simultaneous integration of all 4 genes in a single step, with a probability of 7.9%. Various K. marxianus strains could also be similarly transformed. Our finding not only reduces the labor and time required for such procedures, but also removes a number of preconditions, such as pre-made vectors, selection markers and knockout mutants, which are needed to introduce many genes into K. marxianus.

  18. Simultaneous electronic and lattice characterization using coupled femtosecond spectroscopic techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2009-09-01

    High-power electronics are central in the development of radar, solid-state lighting, and laser systems. Large powers, however, necessitate improved heat dissipation as heightened temperatures deleteriously affect both performance and reliability. Heat dissipation, in turn, is determined by the cascade of energy from the electronic to lattice system. Full characterization of the transport then requires analysis of each. In response, this four-month late start effort has developed a transient thermoreflectance (TTR) capability that probes the thermal response of electronic carriers with 100 fs resolution. Simultaneous characterization of the lattice carriers with this electronic assessment was then investigated by equipping the optical arrangement to acquire a Raman signal from radiation discarded during the TTR experiment. Initial results show only tentative acquisition of a Raman response at these timescales. Using simulations of the response, challenges responsible for these difficulties are then examined and indicate that with outlined refinements simultaneous acquisition of TTR/Raman signals remains attainable in the near term.

  19. Does simultaneous bilingualism aggravate children's specific language problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Stenroos, Maria; Mickos, Annika; Westman, Martin; Ekholm, Pia; Byring, Roger

    2012-09-01

    There is little data on whether or not a bilingual upbringing may aggravate specific language problems in children. This study analysed whether there was an interaction of such problems and simultaneous bilingualism. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old children with specific language problems (LANG group, N = 56) or who were typically developing (CONTR group, N = 60). Seventy-three children were Swedish-Finnish bilingual and 43 were Swedish-speaking monolingual. Assessments (in Swedish) included tests of expressive language, comprehension, repetition and verbal memory. Per definition, the LANG group had lower scores than the CONTR group on all language tests. The bilingual group had lower scores than the monolingual group only on a test of body part naming. Importantly, the interaction of group (LANG or CONTR) and bilingualism was not significant on any of the language scores. Simultaneous bilingualism does not aggravate specific language problems but may result in a slower development of vocabulary both in children with and without specific language problems. Considering also advantages, a bilingual upbringing is an option also for children with specific language problems. In assessment, tests of vocabulary may be sensitive to bilingualism, instead tests assessing comprehension, syntax and nonword repetition may provide less biased methods. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Hotchi, Toshi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lee, Seung-Min; Liff, Shawna M.; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2003-05-22

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly used by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. We designed and constructed four energy-efficient RCs for this study to demonstrate technologies with the potential to simultaneously improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two RCs (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each had two HVAC systems, operated on alternate weeks, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The IDEC system provides continuous outside air ventilation at {sup 3}15 CFM (7.5 L s-1) person-1, efficient particle filtration while using significantly less energy for cooling. School year long measurements included: carbon dioxide (CO2), particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. IEQ monitoring results indicate that important ventilation-relevant indoor CO2 and health-relevant VOC concentration reductions were achieved while average cooling and heating energy costs were simultaneously reduced by 50 percent and 30 percent, respectively.