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Sample records for voltage-clamped internally dialyzed

  1. Internal filtration in dialyzers with different membrane permeabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, hemodialysis with enhanced internal filtration (IF) has been investigated as an alternative to conventional dialysis. Several factors affect IF, including the geometry and permeability of hollow-fiber dialyzers. Although various studies have been performed, the association between IF and membrane permeability has not been fully examined because of the difficulty in measuring IF. Therefore, in this study, we set up an experimental circuit and attempted to directly measure IF as well as membrane permeability in five dialyzers. In the circuit, we placed two dialyzers of the same type in series, and a special sampling port between them, thereby making it possible to determine IF by measuring the extent to which blood was concentrated between the two dialyzers. We showed that a significant amount of IF occurred in this tandem-dialyzer circuit, ranging from 23.5 to 100 ml/min, which increased linearly with increasing membrane permeability. We also showed that membrane permeability was reduced in the first dialyzer to a greater extent than in the second one after four hours of circulation, suggesting that filtration caused substantial membrane fouling. In this study we practically demonstrated that membrane permeability is highly relevant to the phenomenon of IF.

  2. Calcium Release in Frog Cut Twitch Fibers Exposed to Different Ionic Environments under Voltage Clamp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui, Chiu Shuen

    1999-01-01

    Calcium release was measured in highly stretched frog cut twitch fibers mounted in a double Vaseline-gap voltage clamp chamber, with the internal solution containing 20 mM EGTA plus 0.4 or 1.8 mM added calcium...

  3. Membrane fouling and dialysate flow pattern in an internal filtration-enhancing dialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Hiwatari, Michihito; Kohori, Fukashi; Sakai, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Makoto; Hiyoshi, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    For efficient removal of large molecular weight solutes by dialysis, several types of internal filtration-enhancing dialyzers (IFEDs) are commercially available. However, in a pressure-driven membrane separation process (i.e., filtration), membrane fouling caused by adhesion of plasma proteins is a severe problem. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of internal filtration on membrane fouling based on the membrane's pure-water permeability, diffusive permeability, and sieving coefficient. Hemodialysis experiments were performed with two different dialyzers, IFEDs and non-IFEDs. Local membrane fouling in each dialyzer was evaluated by measuring the pure-water permeability, the diffusive permeability, and the sieving coefficient of native membranes and membranes treated with bovine blood. The effects of packing ratio on dialysate flow pattern were also evaluated by measuring the time required for an ion tracer to reach electrodes placed in the dialyzers. In the IFED, membrane fouling caused by protein adhesion is increased because of enhanced internal filtration only at the early stage of dialysis, and this fouling tends to occur only near the dialysate outlet port. However, enhanced internal filtration has little effect on measured membrane transfer parameters.

  4. Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted.

  5. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade Philip T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo. Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU, in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR. The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel. It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its

  6. Potassium Chloride Versus Voltage Clamp Contractures in Ventricular Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M.; Reeck, S.; Rao, M.

    1981-01-01

    In frog ventricle, developed tension was markedly larger in response to depolarization caused by a voltage clamp step than to depolarization induced by high concentrations of potassium chloride. Measurement of extracellular potassium activity at the surface and at the depth of muscle during the development of contractures showed that the diffusion of potassium is much slower than the spread of depolarization through the cross section of muscle. These two observations suggest that competition between the depolarizing and the negative inotropic effects of an increase in the extracellular potassium ion concentration may determine the time course and magnitude of contractile tension in heart muscle.

  7. Effect of blood flow rate on internal filtration in a high-flux dialyzer with polysulfone membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama, Ryoichi; Ishimori, Isamu; Akiba, Takashi; Mineshima, Michio

    2012-09-01

    Internal filtration/backfiltration (IF/BF) of a dialyzer depends on several parameters. This study evaluated the effect of the blood flow rate (Q (B)) on the internal filtration flow rate (Q (IF)) measured using Doppler ultrasonography for a high-flux dialyzer with a polysulfone membrane, APS-15E. In an in vitro study, bovine blood was circulated through the dialyzer, at a Q (B) of 100-350 mL/min. The clearances (CL) of creatinine, β(2)-microglobulin, and α(1)-microglobulin were then investigated. Q (IF) increased with the Q (B) value. A good correlation was obtained between Q (IF) and the pressure difference between the pressures at the inlet of the blood compartment and the pressure at the outlet of the dialysate compartment. The creatinine CL values strongly depended on Q (B) because molecular diffusion was dominant. The β(2)-microglobulin CL also depended on Q (B), because its removal rate seemed to be affected by both diffusive and convective transport caused by the IF/BF. An extremely low CL value was obtained for α(1)-microglobulin because of its low diffusivity and membrane fouling induced by proteins plugging the membrane. In conclusion, the IF/BF in the dialyzer strongly depends on Q (B). Furthermore, the dependence of the solute clearance on Q (B) decreased with increasing molecular size of the solute because of the decrease in diffusivity through the membrane.

  8. How cesium dialysis affects the passive properties of pyramidal neurons: implications for voltage clamp studies of persistent sodium current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleidervish, Ilya A; Libman, Lior [Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: fleider@agri.huji.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    In order to accurately understand and model neuronal integration in the brain, we must know the biophysical properties of channels that are located far from the soma, in the axonal and dendritic membranes of central nerve cells. Reliable electrophysiological measurements in these regions are difficult to obtain, because the processes are too tiny to directly study with an electrode. One common strategy is to record with a somatic electrode that contains Cs{sup +}, to dialyze the intracellular space with this K{sup +} channel blocker, and thereby to render the neuron electrotonically compact. Does this work? Here, we combine the experimental and modeling techniques to determine the extent to which a whole-cell voltage clamp, established with a Cs{sup +}-containing pipette in the soma of a cortical pyramidal cell, attains adequate voltage control of distal neuronal processes. We focus on the low-voltage-activated, slowly inactivating 'persistent' Na{sup +} current (I{sub NaP}), that plays a crucial role in determining neuronal excitability and synaptic integration.

  9. How cesium dialysis affects the passive properties of pyramidal neurons: implications for voltage clamp studies of persistent sodium current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleidervish, Ilya A.; Libman, Lior

    2008-03-01

    In order to accurately understand and model neuronal integration in the brain, we must know the biophysical properties of channels that are located far from the soma, in the axonal and dendritic membranes of central nerve cells. Reliable electrophysiological measurements in these regions are difficult to obtain, because the processes are too tiny to directly study with an electrode. One common strategy is to record with a somatic electrode that contains Cs+, to dialyze the intracellular space with this K+ channel blocker, and thereby to render the neuron electrotonically compact. Does this work? Here, we combine the experimental and modeling techniques to determine the extent to which a whole-cell voltage clamp, established with a Cs+-containing pipette in the soma of a cortical pyramidal cell, attains adequate voltage control of distal neuronal processes. We focus on the low-voltage-activated, slowly inactivating 'persistent' Na+ current (INaP), that plays a crucial role in determining neuronal excitability and synaptic integration.

  10. Suppression of Spiral Waves by Voltage Clamp Techniques in a Conductance-Based Cardiac Tissue Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lian-Chun; MA Jun; ZHANG Guo-Yong; CHEN Yong

    2008-01-01

    A new control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media, which is described by the Morris-Lecar cells model. It is confirmed that successful suppression of spiral waves can be obtained by spatially clamping the membrane voltage of the excitable cells. The low voltage clamping induces breakup of spiral waves and the fragments are soon absorbed by low voltage obstacles, whereas the high voltage clamping generates travel waves that annihilate spiral waves through collision with them. However, each method has its shortcomings. Furthermore, a two-step method that combines both low and high voltage clamp techniques is then presented as a possible way of out this predicament.

  11. Imperfect space clamp permits electrotonic interactions between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic conductances, distorting voltage clamp recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Poleg-Polsky

    Full Text Available The voltage clamp technique is frequently used to examine the strength and composition of synaptic input to neurons. Even accounting for imperfect voltage control of the entire cell membrane ("space clamp", it is often assumed that currents measured at the soma are a proportional indicator of the postsynaptic conductance. Here, using NEURON simulation software to model somatic recordings from morphologically realistic neurons, we show that excitatory conductances recorded in voltage clamp mode are distorted significantly by neighboring inhibitory conductances, even when the postsynaptic membrane potential starts at the reversal potential of the inhibitory conductance. Analogous effects are observed when inhibitory postsynaptic currents are recorded at the reversal potential of the excitatory conductance. Escape potentials in poorly clamped dendrites reduce the amplitude of excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded at the reversal potential of the other conductance. In addition, unclamped postsynaptic inhibitory conductances linearize the recorded current-voltage relationship of excitatory inputs comprising AMPAR and NMDAR-mediated components, leading to significant underestimation of the relative contribution by NMDARs, which are particularly sensitive to small perturbations in membrane potential. Voltage clamp accuracy varies substantially between neurons and dendritic arbors of different morphology; as expected, more reliable recordings are obtained from dendrites near the soma, but up to 80% of the synaptic signal on thin, distant dendrites may be lost when postsynaptic interactions are present. These limitations of the voltage clamp technique may explain how postsynaptic effects on synaptic transmission could, in some cases, be attributed incorrectly to presynaptic mechanisms.

  12. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify the design, increase...... efficiency, reduce the product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented....

  13. Novel Low Loss Active Voltage Clamp Circuit for Series Connection of RCGCT thyristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Iwata, Akihiko

    This paper describes novel low loss active voltage clamp circuits for the series connection of RCGCT thyristors. For high voltage converters the series connection of power semiconductor devices is an essential technique for direct switching of high voltages. Several protection circuits have been applied to the series connection of RCGCT thyristors such as CRD snubber circuits which suppress over-voltages across RCGCT thyristors, and voltage balancing resistors to equalize voltage sharing in steady states. However, significant losses in these protection circuits lower the converter’s efficiency. We propose novel low-loss protection circuits, which have active voltage clamp snubber circuits and static voltage balancing circuits. The clamp capacitor voltage of the active voltage clamp snubber circuits are designed to be higher than the equally divided DC-Link voltage. This method can reduce the loss of the clamp circuit to no more than 1/10 of that of the conventional CRD snubber. Also the static voltage balancing circuits compensate for the voltage imbalance generated by the difference in the leakage current between the series connection RCGCT thyristors.

  14. FPGA in-the-loop simulations of cardiac excitation model under voltage clamp conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Norliza; Adon, Nur Atiqah; Mahmud, Farhanahani

    2017-01-01

    Voltage clamp technique allows the detection of single channel currents in biological membranes in identifying variety of electrophysiological problems in the cellular level. In this paper, a simulation study of the voltage clamp technique has been presented to analyse current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of ion currents based on Luo-Rudy Phase-I (LR-I) cardiac model by using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Nowadays, cardiac models are becoming increasingly complex which can cause a vast amount of time to run the simulation. Thus, a real-time hardware implementation using FPGA could be one of the best solutions for high-performance real-time systems as it provides high configurability and performance, and able to executes in parallel mode operation. For shorter time development while retaining high confidence results, FPGA-based rapid prototyping through HDL Coder from MATLAB software has been used to construct the algorithm for the simulation system. Basically, the HDL Coder is capable to convert the designed MATLAB Simulink blocks into hardware description language (HDL) for the FPGA implementation. As a result, the voltage-clamp fixed-point design of LR-I model has been successfully conducted in MATLAB Simulink and the simulation of the I-V characteristics of the ionic currents has been verified on Xilinx FPGA Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T development board through an FPGA-in-the-loop (FIL) simulation.

  15. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify design, increase efficiency and integration level, reduce product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented. (au)

  16. Analysis of the effects of calcium or magnesium on voltage-clamp currents in perfused squid axons bathed in solutions of high potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Taylor, R E; Atwater, I; Bezanilla, F

    1969-10-01

    Isolated axons from the squid, Dosidicus gigas, were internally perfused with potassium fluoride solutions. Membrane currents were measured following step changes of membrane potential in a voltage-clamp arrangement with external isosmotic solution changes in the order: potassium-free artificial seawater; potassium chloride; potassium chloride containing 10, 25, 40 or 50, mM calcium or magnesium; and potassium-free artificial seawater. The following results suggest that the currents measured under voltage clamp with potassium outside and inside can be separated into two components and that one of them, the predominant one, is carried through the potassium system. (a) Outward currents in isosmotic potassium were strongly and reversibly reduced by tetraethylammonium chloride. (b) Without calcium or magnesium a progressive increase in the nontime-dependent component of the currents (leakage) occurred. (c) The restoration of calcium or magnesium within 15-30 min decreases this leakage. (d) With 50 mM divalent ions the steady-state current-voltage curve was nonlinear with negative resistance as observed in intact axons in isosmotic potassium. (e) The time-dependent components of the membrane currents were not clearly affected by calcium or magnesium. These results show a strong dependence of the leakage currents on external calcium or magnesium concentration but provide no support for the involvement of calcium or magnesium in the kinetics of the potassium system.

  17. How the early voltage clamp studies of José del Castillo inform "modern" neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottoli, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    The description of ionic currents that flow across the membrane of the squid giant axon during an action potential sparked an interest in determining whether there were similar currents in vertebrates. The preparation of choice was the node of Ranvier in single myelinated fibers in frog. José del Castillo spent 3 years on the United States mainland from 1956 to 1959. During that time, he collaborated with Jerome Y. Lettvin and John W. Moore. I discuss how these individuals met one another and some of their scientific discoveries using the voltage clamp to study squid giant axons and frog nodes. Much of this work was conducted at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, and I attempt to convey a sense of the unique scientific "melting pot" that existed at the Marine Biological Laboratory and the broader effect that del Castillo had on "modern" neuroscience.

  18. Profile of anemia in chronic renal failure patients: comparison between predialyzed and dialyzed patients at the Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suega, Ketut; Bakta, Made; Dharmayudha, Tjok Gde; Lukman, Jodi S; Suwitra, Ketut

    2005-01-01

    To explore the profile of anemia in pradialytic and dialytic CRF patients at the Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, from January to June 2000. There were 26 chronic dialyzed patients and 26 pradialyzed patients. Technicon H-1 was used to examine peripheral blood count; blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were examined using standard technique. MEIA (microparticle enzyme immunoassay) was used for serum folic acid and serum B12 level. Of 52 CRF patients, hemoglobin (Hb) levels ranged from 4.6 g/dl to 15.1 g/dl with a mean of 9.3 +/- 2.7 g/dl. Hematocrit levels ranged from 15.3% to 49.3%, with a mean of 29.8 +/- 7.9%. There was a significant difference in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels of chronic dialyzed and pradialyzed patients. The prevalence of anemia (according to the WHO's criteria) among CRF patients was 84.5% (45/52), with the prevalence in chronic dialyzed patients being 100% and 73.1% in pradialyzed patients. If a hemoglobin level of less than 10 g/dl is used as a cut off point, the prevalence of anemia in dialyzed patients was 96.2% and 30.8% among pradialyzed patients. The severity of anemia among 26 dialyzed patients was: severe in 2 cases (8%), moderate in 16 cases (64%) and mild in 7 cases (28%), while in pradialytic patients the severity of anemia was: moderate in 4 patients (50%) and mild in 4 (50%). The morphology of 33 anemic patients was normocrhomic normocytic in 26 (78.8%) cases, slightly macrocytic in 7 (21.2%) cases, and no hypochromic anemia was found. Two anemic patients were associated with low serum folic acid (1 patient with macrocytic anemia and the other case with normochromic normocytic anemia). The serum B12 level was found to be normal in all cases. There was no significant correlation between the severity of anemia and serum creatinine levels or duration of hemodialysis. Anemia is a hallmark for CRF patients with a high prevalence of anemia and moderate degree of anemia

  19. Substance P-mediated membrane currents in voltage-clamped guinea pig inferior mesenteric ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W H; Hills, J M; Brown, D A

    1988-01-01

    Responses to substance P (SP) and to hypogastric nerve stimulation were recorded from voltage-clamped guinea pig inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) neurons, and compared with those to muscarine. Muscarine produced a voltage-dependent inward current accompanied by a reduced input conductance and inhibition of IM a time- and voltage-dependent K+-current (Brown and Adams: Nature 283:673-676, 1980). SP also produced an inward current, accompanied by a fall in input conductance (20 out of 31 cells) or a rise in input conductance (7 out of 31 cells). The fall in input conductance was not accompanied by an inhibition of M-current (unlike frog ganglia: Adams et al.: British Journal of Pharmacology 79:330-333, 1983) or an inhibition of the inward rectifier current (unlike globus pallidus neurons: Stanfield et al.: Nature 315:498-501, 1985). Repetitive hypogastric nerve stimulation (10-20 Hz, 2-10 s) produced a slow inward postsynaptic current lasting 1-3 min, with decreases or increases of input conductance matching those produced by SP. The postsynaptic current did not show a consistent or reproducible change in amplitude on varying the holding potential between -90 and -25 mV. It is concluded that SP and hypogastric stimulation produce complex and variable changes in ionic conductance in IMG neurons.

  20. Voltage-clamp predictions by gompertz kinetics model relating squid-axon Na+-gating and ionic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Dexter M

    2005-10-01

    Gompertz kinetics is a simple, realistic, accurate, and computationally parsimonious alternative for prediction of macroscopic changes in Na+ conductance during voltage clamp. Conductance delay and time course depend on initial amplitudes and decay rates of surrogates for the macroscopic gating currents. The model is tested by the fit to published data of other authors. The proposed physical basis for the model is that membrane potential perturbation triggers motion of charged "gating" components of the axon membrane at rapid (activating) and at slow (inactivating) rates. The resulting distortion increases and more slowly diminishes the probability that conduction channels will be open.

  1. Characterization of heterologously expressed transporter genes by patch- and voltage-clamp methods: Application to cyclic nucleotide-dependent responses

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad

    2013-09-03

    The application of patch- and voltage-clamp methods to study ion transport can be limited by many hurdles: the size of the cells to be patched and/or stabbed, the subcellular localization of the molecule of interest, and its density of expression that could be too low even in their own native environment. Functional expression of genes using recombinant DNA technology not only overcomes those hurdles but also affords additional and elegant investigations such as single-point mutation studies and subunit associations/regulations. In this chapter, we give a step-by-step description of two electrophysiological methods, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC), that are routinely used in combination with heterologous gene expression to assist researchers interested in the identification and characterization of ion transporters. We describe how to (1) obtain and maintain the cells suitable for the use with each of the above-mentioned methods (i.e., HEK-293 cells and yeast spheroplasts to use with the patch-clamp methodology and Xenopus laevis oocytes with TEVC), (2) transfect/inject them with the gene of interest, and (3) record ion transport activities. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  2. Isolated PWM DC-AC SICAM with an active capacitive voltage clamp[Pulse Density Modulated; Pulse Width Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2004-03-15

    In this report an isolated PWM DC-AC SICAM with an active capacitive voltage clamp is presented. AC-DC power supply is implemented in its simplest form: diode rectifier followed by a medium-size charge-storage capacitors and possibly with an EMC filter on the mains entrance. Isolation from the AC mains is achieved using a high frequency (HF) transformer, whose voltages are not audio-modulated. The latter simplifies the design and is expected to have many advantages over the approach where the transformer voltages are modulated in regards to the audio signal reference. Input stage is built as a DC-AC inverter (push-pull, half-bridge or a full-bridge) and operated with 50% duty cycle, with all the challenges to avoid transformer saturation and obtain symmetrical operation. On the secondary side the output section is implemented as rectifier+inverter AC-AC stage, i.e. a true bidirectional bridge, which operation is aimed towards amplification of the audio signal. In order to solve the problem with the commutation of the load current, a dead time between the incoming and outgoing bidirectional switch is implemented, while a capacitive voltage clamp is used to keep the induced overvoltage to reasonable levels. The energy stored in the clamping capacitor is not wasted as in the dissipative clamps, but is rather transferred back to the primary side for further processing using an auxiliary isolated single-switch converter, i.e. an active clamping technique is used. (au)

  3. Fluid and solute transfer characteristics in a dialyzer with a high-performance membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineshima, Michio

    2011-01-01

    To date, many types of high-flux dialyzers with high-performance membranes have been developed. They seem to have a higher internal filtration flow rate (Q(IF)) because of a higher ultrafiltration coefficient. In the health reimbursement system in Japan, commercially available dialyzers are categorized into five types based on their β(2)-microglobulin clearance (K(BMG)) values. Although the K(BMG) value was not correlated strongly with the Q(IF) value for 26 types of commercially available dialyzers, almost all the dialyzers with a higher Q(IF) value had a higher KBMG value. These dialyzers seem to have a higher convective transport because of internal filtration in addition to diffusive transport. We measured the blood flow velocity in a cross-sectional plane of the dialyzer using pulse Doppler ultra-sonography to evaluate QIF. It is a useful method for the bedside monitoring because it is noninvasive to the patient and produces reliable data with a higher reproducibility. On the other hand, membrane fouling occurs more easily in higher Q(IF) dialyzers, compared with conventional dialyzers, because of the higher degree of membrane fouling. Internal filtration-enhanced hemodialysis (IFEHD) using these dialyzers, therefore, has the advantage of increasing solute removal efficiency by enhancing convective transport and the simultaneous disadvantage of decreasing solute removal efficiency by causing membrane fouling. Thus, IFEHD treatment should be performed using a dialyzer with a high-performance membrane to ensure that the advantage is superior to the disadvantage.

  4. Voltage-clamp studies of transient inward current and mechanical oscillations induced by ouabain in ferret papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagueuzian, H S; Katzung, B G

    1982-06-01

    1. We studied the effects of a toxic concentration of ouabain on transmembrane electrical activity and on mechanical behaviour of right ventricular papillary muscles from ferrets in a single sucrose-gap using current clamp and voltage clamp.2. Ouabain (1.4-1.8 muM) induced oscillatory after-potentials and after-concentrations in current-clamp experiments. Voltage clamp showed that the oscillatory after-potential was caused by a transient inward current, similar to that in Purkinje fibres.3. The transient current had a sigmoidal dependence on the preceding (activating) voltage step V1, with a treshold around -13 mV and a plateau between +10 and 20 mV. There was a decline in current amplitude for more positive clamps. When activated by a fixed V1 voltage step, and measured at different repolarization levels V2, the transient current manifested an inverse dependence on V2 between -50 and -10 mV. No outward transient current could be detected. Total replacement of Na in the bathing medium by Tris or by sucrose abolished the transient current.4. Ouabain caused an increase of phasic (twitch) tension responses to voltage steps at all potentials without shifting the curve relating these variables on the voltage axis. The drug evoked an even greater increase in the tonic tension responses.5. After prolonged exposure, oscillatory mechanical responses were frequently recorded during positive voltage steps. Unlike the after-contraction, these mechanical fluctuations were not consistently damped and were not accompanied by detectable synchronous current fluctuations. Catecholamines and dibutyryl cyclic AMP markedly reduced the amplitude of the tonic contraction and the mechanical oscillations but increased their frequency. Caffeine had no effect on the tonic contraction amplitude but abolished the fluctuations.6. These results support the proposal that Ca is transiently released from the overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum in ouabain-intoxicated muscle and may evoke oscillatory

  5. A numerical approach to ion channel modelling using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings and a genetic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meron Gurkiewicz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of trans-membrane proteins such as ion channels is the essence of neuronal transmission. The currently most accurate method for determining ion channel kinetic mechanisms is single-channel recording and analysis. Yet, the limitations and complexities in interpreting single-channel recordings discourage many physiologists from using them. Here we show that a genetic search algorithm in combination with a gradient descent algorithm can be used to fit whole-cell voltage-clamp data to kinetic models with a high degree of accuracy. Previously, ion channel stimulation traces were analyzed one at a time, the results of these analyses being combined to produce a picture of channel kinetics. Here the entire set of traces from all stimulation protocols are analysed simultaneously. The algorithm was initially tested on simulated current traces produced by several Hodgkin-Huxley-like and Markov chain models of voltage-gated potassium and sodium channels. Currents were also produced by simulating levels of noise expected from actual patch recordings. Finally, the algorithm was used for finding the kinetic parameters of several voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels models by matching its results to data recorded from layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat cortex in the nucleated outside-out patch configuration. The minimization scheme gives electrophysiologists a tool for reproducing and simulating voltage-gated ion channel kinetics at the cellular level.

  6. The past, present and future of the dialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineshima, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Several types of dialysis membranes have been developed in the history of hemodialysis therapy. Regenerated cellulose had been widely used for a long time, since the beginning of dialysis therapy. Regenerated cellulose is strongly hydrophilic, which enables lower membrane thickness and miniaturization of the dialyzer. The cellulose triacetate membrane has greater performance because of the lower thickness of the membrane and its lack of swelling due to high hydrophobicity. Many types of synthetic membranes, such as polysulfone, polyethersulfone and polyester polymer alloy membranes, have asymmetrical structures. Dialyzers with these membranes show higher capacities for water and solute transport because the actual membrane thickness, which is related to the water and solute transfer resistance, is quite small compared to that in membranes with homogeneous structures. The development of highly biocompatible membranes will be required in the future so as to prevent the development of adverse reactions and related complications. The performance of a dialyzer depends not only on the membrane permeability but also on the flow conditions of the blood and dialysate. Many types of dialyzers with high-performance membranes have been developed as a result of advances in membrane and device technologies. Recently, many types of high-flux dialyzers with high-performance membranes with a high internal filtration (IF)/backfiltration (BF) flow rate have been introduced. IF-enhanced hemodialysis using an enhanced IF dialyzer seems to be more convenient than hemodiafiltration therapy because it requires no additional equipment, such as a roller pump. In the near future, dialyzers should be developed with high capacities for the removal of low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWPs) related to complications and with low capacities for the loss of albumin and amino acid. Dialyzers with a sharp cut-off membrane between LMWPs and albumin and dialyzers with a special function, i.e., an

  7. Dialyzer reuse: justified cost saving for south Asian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhrolia, Murtaza F; Nasir, Kiran; Imtiaz, Salman; Ahmad, Aasim

    2014-08-01

    In spite of controversies, dialyzer reuse has remained an integral part of hemodialysis because of lower cost, good overall safety record, and improved membrane biocompatibility. Reuse declined in developed countries from the beginning of this century because of mass production of hemodialyzers at favourable price with better biocompatible membrane. Abandoning dialyzer reuse became challenging in South Asian region, where more than 40% of the population live below the International Poverty Line of $1.25 per day, less than 10% of end stage renal disease patients receive renal replacement therapy, and upto 70% of those starting dialysis stop treatment due to cost within the first 3 months. Dialyzer reuse is an efficient cost-saving method that allows the use of more efficient and expensive biocompatible synthetic membranes, thereby providing high-quality dialysis to individuals living in countries with limited medical resources without compromising the safety or effectiveness of the treatment.

  8. Effect of terfenadine and pentamidine on the HERG channel and its intracellular trafficking: combined analysis with automated voltage clamp and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hikaru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Iida-Tanaka, Naoko; Oka, Takayuki; Nishio, Masato; Ohtsuki, Atsushi; Namekata, Iyuki

    2014-01-01

    The effects of terfenadine and pentamidine on the human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) channel current and its intracellular trafficking were evaluated. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-linked hERG channels were expressed in HEK293 cells, and the membrane current was measured by an automated whole cell voltage clamp system. To evaluate drug effects on channel trafficking to the cell membrane, the fraction of channel present on the cell membrane was quantified by current measurement after drug washout and confocal microscopy. Terfenadine directly blocked the hERG channel current but had no effect on trafficking of hERG channels to the cell membrane after application in culture medium for 2 d. In contrast, pentamidine had no direct effect on the hERG channel current but reduced trafficking of hERG channels. The two drugs inhibited hERG channel function through different mechanisms: terfenadine through direct channel blockade and pentamidine through inhibition of channel trafficking to the cell membrane. Combined use of automated voltage clamp and confocal microscopic analyses would provide insights into the mechanisms of drug-induced QT-prolongation and arrhythmogenesis.

  9. Evaluation of dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membranes to achieve high dialysis performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Ogawa, Takehito; Yakushiji, Taiji; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances. © 2010 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2010 International Society for Apheresis.

  10. Unloaded speed of shortening in voltage-clamped intact skeletal muscle fibers from wt, mdx, and transgenic minidystrophin mice using a novel high-speed acquisition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, O; Weber, C; von Wegner, F; Chamberlain, J S; Fink, R H A

    2008-06-01

    Skeletal muscle unloaded shortening has been indirectly determined in the past. Here, we present a novel high-speed optical tracking technique that allows recording of unloaded shortening in single intact, voltage-clamped mammalian skeletal muscle fibers with 2-ms time resolution. L-type Ca(2+) currents were simultaneously recorded. The time course of shortening was biexponential: a fast initial phase, tau(1), and a slower successive phase, tau(2,) with activation energies of 59 kJ/mol and 47 kJ/mol. Maximum unloaded shortening speed, v(u,max), was faster than that derived using other techniques, e.g., approximately 14.0 L(0) s(-1) at 30 degrees C. Our technique also allowed direct determination of shortening acceleration. We applied our technique to single fibers from C57 wild-type, dystrophic mdx, and minidystrophin-expressing mice to test whether unloaded shortening was affected in the pathophysiological mechanism of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. v(u,max) and a(u,max) values were not significantly different in the three strains, whereas tau(1) and tau(2) were increased in mdx fibers. The results were complemented by myosin heavy and light chain (MLC) determinations that showed the same myosin heavy chain IIA profiles in the interossei muscles from the different strains. In mdx muscle, MLC-1f was significantly increased and MLC-2f and MLC-3f somewhat reduced. Fast initial active shortening seems almost unaffected in mdx muscle.

  11. Sites and mechanisms of antibiotic-induced neuromuscular block: a pharmacological analysis using quantal content, voltage clamped end-plate currents and single channel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiekers, J F

    1999-01-01

    Since the original observation of Vital Brazil and Corrado (1957) concerning the antibiotic induced neuromuscular block produced by streptomycin, there has been considerable interest in the mechanisms responsible for not only neuromuscular block but also the effects of antibiotics on different systems. We used the voltage clamped end-plate of transacted skeletal muscle to examine the concentration-dependent actions of several groups of antibiotics. The aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, were both more effective at reducing quantal release of acetylcholine (ACh) than interacting with the postjunctional ACh receptor-channel complex. Neomycin was approximately 10 X more potent prejunctionally than streptomycin and the prejunctional effects of each antibiotic were reversed competitively by raising extracellular calcium. Both neomycin and streptomycin also had postjunctional actions at higher concentrations. Neomycin interacted with the open state of the ACh receptor ion channel complex while streptomycin blocks the ACh receptor. The lincosamide antibiotics, lincomycin and clindamycin produced their neuromuscular block postjunctionally by interacting with the open state of the ACh-receptor channel complex. Clindamycin is approximately 20 X more effective at blocking the open channel than was lincomycin. Using cell attached patch clamp recordings in cultured rat myotubes, we demonstrated a lincosamide-induced block of open ion channels with clindamycin having a much slower unblocking rate than lincomycin. Using epimers of the lincosamides, we demonstrated that lipophilicity of the molecule, rather than stereochemical considerations, is important for open channel blockade affecting primarily the "off" rate of channel blocking. This mechanism appears important for not only the lincosamide antibiotics but also for the postjunctional actions of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, particularly neomycin.

  12. Control of gastric H,K-ATPase activity by cations, voltage and intracellular pH analyzed by voltage clamp fluorometry in Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina L Dürr

    Full Text Available Whereas electrogenic partial reactions of the Na,K-ATPase have been studied in depth, much less is known about the influence of the membrane potential on the electroneutrally operating gastric H,K-ATPase. In this work, we investigated site-specifically fluorescence-labeled H,K-ATPase expressed in Xenopus oocytes by voltage clamp fluorometry to monitor the voltage-dependent distribution between E(1P and E(2P states and measured Rb(+ uptake under various ionic and pH conditions. The steady-state E(1P/E(2P distribution, as indicated by the voltage-dependent fluorescence amplitudes and the Rb(+ uptake activity were highly sensitive to small changes in intracellular pH, whereas even large extracellular pH changes affected neither the E(1P/E(2P distribution nor transport activity. Notably, intracellular acidification by approximately 0.5 pH units shifted V(0.5, the voltage, at which the E(1P/E(2P ratio is 50∶50, by -100 mV. This was paralleled by an approximately two-fold acceleration of the forward rate constant of the E(1P→E(2P transition and a similar increase in the rate of steady-state cation transport. The temperature dependence of Rb(+ uptake yielded an activation energy of ∼90 kJ/mol, suggesting that ion transport is rate-limited by a major conformational transition. The pronounced sensitivity towards intracellular pH suggests that proton uptake from the cytoplasmic side controls the level of phosphoenzyme entering the E(1P→E(2P conformational transition, thus limiting ion transport of the gastric H,K-ATPase. These findings highlight the significance of cellular mechanisms contributing to increased proton availability in the cytoplasm of gastric parietal cells. Furthermore, we show that extracellular Na(+ profoundly alters the voltage-dependent E(1P/E(2P distribution indicating that Na(+ ions can act as surrogates for protons regarding the E(2P→E(1P transition. The complexity of the intra- and extracellular cation effects can be

  13. Iron dialyzability from hospital duplicate meals: daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Reynold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Lopez-Ga de la Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, María C

    2009-09-01

    Both total and dialyzable iron levels and corresponding dialyzability were determined in 108 duplicate meals during 36 consecutive days. Total mean iron fraction of 5.90 +/- 4.97 mg was found in the meals. The iron supplied by the meals is directly and significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with macromicronutrient content (carbohydrates, fiber, and protein). The mean iron dialyzability (4.81 +/- 3.25%) was low and not significantly different among the three primary meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Significant interactions of several minerals on iron levels were found (p < 0.05). Iron dialyzability was only statistically influenced by zinc dialyzability in meals (p < 0.05). The dialyzed iron fraction present in meals was significantly correlated with protein and ascorbic acid levels (p < 0.01). The mean iron daily dietary intake was 17.7 +/- 6.91 mg. The hospital meals provided enough iron. Foods of animal origin are primary sources of iron in diet.

  14. Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The increase in 40% and 80% of dialyzer surface area entails an increase in convective volume of 6 and 16% respectively, showing minimal differences both in convective volume and clearance capacity when UFC was greater than 45 mL/h/mmHg. It is advisable to optimise dialyser efficiency to the smallest surface area possible, adjusting treatment prescription.

  15. Dialyzer Reuse Impact on Dialyzer Efficiency, Patient Morbidity and Mortality and Cost Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of dialyzer reuse more than three decades ago, several studies have reported its safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. Reuse of hemodialyzer was prospectively studied in ten chronic hemodialysis (HD patients recruited from the renal unit, the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for three months. During the study period, 66 dialyzers were used for 408 sessions of HD, with a mean reuse of 6.2 ± 5.3 episodes per dialyser, the mean of maximum reuse episodes being 13.7 ± 8.0. The urea reduction ratio was maintained between 73 ± 5% at baseline to 71.2 ± 9.03% (p=0.53 at the maximum reuse. Similarly phosphate reduction with each HD session was maintained; mean decrease in phosphate levels was 0.67 mmol/L. Significant increase in heparin requirement was noted; however, the risk of bleeding was not increased. Hematocrit levels increased from 30.4 ± 4.1% to 33.2 ± 3.6% at the end of the study (p=0.6. Albumin leak in dialysate decreased with each reuse; baseline 8.27 ± 7.93 mg/L to 2.8 ± 0.4 mg/L at maximum reuse (p=0.04. Serum albumin levels remained stable. No short-term adverse effects on patients′ morbidity and mortality were noted. Total cost savings of 53% was achieved with the reuse of dialyzers, excluding capital equipment used for preparation for reuse. In conclusion, dialyzer reuse seems to be safe and may provide an economical and efficient dialysis. Studies involving larger number of patients is required to validate this observation.

  16. Dialyzer reuse impact on dialyzer efficiency, patient morbidity and mortality and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitwalli, A H; Abed, J; Tarif, N; Alam, A; Al-Wakeel, J S; Abu-Aisha, H; Memon, N; Sulaimani, F; Ternate, B; Mensah, M O

    2001-01-01

    Since the introduction of dialyzer reuse more than three decades ago, several studies have reported its safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. Reuse of hemodialyzer was prospectively studied in ten chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients recruited from the renal unit, the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for three months. During the study period, 66 dialyzers were used for 408 sessions of HD, with a mean reuse of 6.2 +/- 5.3 episodes per dialyser, the mean of maximum reuse episodes being 13.7 +/- 8.0. The urea reduction ratio was maintained between 73 +/- 5% at baseline to 71.2 +/- 9.03% (p=0.53) at the maximum reuse. Similarly phosphate reduction with each HD session was maintained; mean decrease in phosphate levels was 0.67 mmol/L. Significant increase in heparin requirement was noted; however, the risk of bleeding was not increased. Hematocrit levels increased from 30.4 +/- 4.1% to 33.2 +/- 3.6% at the end of the study (p=0.6). Albumin leak in dialysate decreased with each reuse; baseline 8.27 +/- 7.93 mg/L to 2.8 +/- 0.4 mg/L at maximum reuse (p=0.04). Serum albumin levels remained stable. No short-term adverse effects on patients' morbidity and mortality were noted. Total cost savings of 53% was achieved with the reuse of dialyzers, excluding capital equipment used for preparation for reuse. In conclusion, dialyzer reuse seems to be safe and may provide an economical and efficient dialysis. Studies involving larger number of patients is required to validate this observation.

  17. Dialyzer Reuse and Outcomes of High Flux Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Sattar, Abdus; Kellum, John A; Weissfeld, Lisa; Unruh, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The bulk of randomized trial evidence for the expanding use of High Flux (HF) hemodialysis worldwide comes from two randomized controlled trials, one of which (HEMODIALYSIS, HEMO) allowed, while the other (Membrane Outcomes Permeability, MPO) excluded, the reuse of membranes. It is not known whether dialyzer reuse has a differential impact on outcomes with HF vs low flyx (LF) dialyzers. Proportional Hazards Models and Joint Models for longitudinal measures and survival outcomes were used in HEMO to analyze the relationship between β2-microglobulin (β2M) concentration, flux, and reuse. Meta-analysis and regression techniques were used to synthesize the evidence for HF dialysis from HEMO and MPO. In HEMO, minimally reused (dialysis and the reuse process on dialyzers may suggest novel biomarkers for uremic toxicity and may accelerate membrane technology innovations that will improve patient outcomes.

  18. Dialyzer Reuse and Outcomes of High Flux Dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Argyropoulos

    Full Text Available The bulk of randomized trial evidence for the expanding use of High Flux (HF hemodialysis worldwide comes from two randomized controlled trials, one of which (HEMODIALYSIS, HEMO allowed, while the other (Membrane Outcomes Permeability, MPO excluded, the reuse of membranes. It is not known whether dialyzer reuse has a differential impact on outcomes with HF vs low flyx (LF dialyzers.Proportional Hazards Models and Joint Models for longitudinal measures and survival outcomes were used in HEMO to analyze the relationship between β2-microglobulin (β2M concentration, flux, and reuse. Meta-analysis and regression techniques were used to synthesize the evidence for HF dialysis from HEMO and MPO.In HEMO, minimally reused (< 6 times HF dialyzers were associated with a hazard ratio (HR of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 0.48-0.92, p = 0.015, 0.64 (95%CI: 0.44 - 0.95, p = 0.03, 0.61 (95%CI: 0.41 - 0.90, p = 0.012, 0.53 (95%CI: 0.28 - 1.02, p = 0.057 relative to minimally reused LF ones for all cause, cardiovascular, cardiac and infectious mortality respectively. These relationships reversed for extensively reused membranes (p for interaction between reuse and flux < 0.001, p = 0.005 for death from all cause and cardiovascular causes, while similar trends were noted for cardiac and infectious mortality (p of interaction between reuse and flux of 0.10 and 0.08 respectively. Reduction of β2M explained only 1/3 of the effect of minimally reused HF dialyzers on all cause mortality, while non-β2M related factors explained the apparent attenuation of the benefit with more extensively reused dialyzers. Meta-regression of HEMO and MPO estimated an adjusted HR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51-0.78 for non-reused HF dialyzers compared with non-reused LF membranes.This secondary analysis and synthesis of two large hemodialysis trials supports the widespread use of HF dialyzers in clinical hemodialysis over the last decade. A mechanistic understanding of the effects of

  19. Is it easier to dialyze women than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, F; Caridad, A; Sigüenza, F; Miralles, F; Serrato, F

    1994-01-01

    Since the urea kinetic model is used as an objective method for monitoring dialysis, it has been possible to shorten reasonably its duration. From the usual practice, we have observed that it is easier to reduce the dialysis time in women as compared to men. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason for such observation and to corroborate it. Fourty-two patients, 25 males and 17 females on 3-weekly dialysis (3 h/session) were studied. All patients were dialyzed under the same dialysis characteristics: 3-hour sessions, blood flow 350 ml/min, ultrafiltration 1.5 liters/h, 1.5-m2 cuprophane membrane and bicarbonate buffer. The dialysate was collected in a graduated tank. Urea concentration in plasma and in the dialysate was measured. Then, the urea distribution volume, dialyzer clearance, the KT/V index and protein catabolic rate were calculated. The KT/V value was higher in women with respect to men, 1,017 +/- 0.10 versus 0.82 +/- 0.14 (p < 0.001). The urea distribution volume value was significantly higher in men as compared to women, 60.04 +/- 6.6 versus 51.48 +/- 5.88% (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in dialyzer clearance, protein catabolic rate or body weight. In conclusion, under identical dialysis conditions, it is easier to dialyze women than men, because women's urea distribution volume is lower than men's.

  20. Characterization of insulin adsorption behavior of dialyzer membranes used in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masanori; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Shiro; Soma, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2011-04-01

    Although it has been reported that plasma insulin is removed by hemodialysis (HD), the mechanism for this has not been elucidated. We investigated the mechanism of insulin removal during HD treatment and the characteristics of insulin removal with three high-flux membranes. In our in vivo study, 20 stable diabetic patients on HD were randomly selected for three HD sessions with three different membranes: polysulfone (PS), cellulose triacetate (CTA), and polyester polymer alloy (PEPA). Blood samples were obtained from the blood tubing at the arterial (A) site at the beginning and end of the sixth HD session to investigate insulin reduction in patients. At 1 h after the initiation of dialysis, blood samples were obtained from both the A and venous sites of the dialyzer to investigate the insulin clearance with the different membranes. There was a significant reduction in patients' plasma insulin at each time point with each of the three membranes. The insulin clearance with the PS membrane was significantly higher than that with the CTA and PEPA membranes. Although no difference was observed in the plasma insulin reduction rate between the three membranes in the total subject group, there was a significantly higher reduction rate with the PS membrane in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. The clearance of insulin in in vitro tests was significantly higher with the PS and PEPA membranes than with the CTA membrane in both new and clinically used dialyzers. Insulin was not detected in the dialysate or ultrafiltration fluids in either the in vivo or in vitro studies. The mechanism of plasma insulin clearance by HD is mainly by adsorption, and the amount of insulin adsorbed differed depending on the dialyzer membrane used. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Technical characterization of dialysis fluid flow of newly developed dialyzers using mass transfer correlation equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Satoru; Fukuda, Makoto; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Yagi, Yutaka; Matsuda, Masato; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer rate of newly developed dialyzers were evaluated using mass transfer correlation equations of dialysis fluid-side film coefficient. Aqueous creatinine clearance and overall mass transfer coefficient for APS-15S (Asahi Kasei Kuraray) as a conventional dialyzer, and APS-15SA (Asahi Kasei Kuraray), PES-150Salpha (Nipro), FPX140 (Fresenius), and CS-1.6U (Toray) as newly developed dialyzers were obtained at a blood-side flow rate (QB) of 200 ml/min, dialysis fluid-side flow rates (QD) of 200-800 ml/min and a net filtration rate (QF) of 0 ml/min. Mass transfer correlation equations between Sherwood number (Sh) containing dialysis fluid-side mass transfer film coefficient and Reynolds number (Re) were formed for each dialyzer. The exponents of Re were 0.62 for APS-15S whereas approximately 0.5 for the newly developed dialyzers. The dialysis fluid-side mass transfer film coefficients of the newly developed dialyzers were higher than those of the conventional dialyzer. Based on the mass transfer correlation equations, introduction of short taper, full baffle of dialyzer jacket and further wave-shaped hollow fiber improves the dialysis fluid flow of the newly developed dialyzers.

  2. Modified cellulosic dialyzer membranes: an investigative tool in thrombogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M; Vienken, J; Baurmeister, U

    1988-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that chemical modification of cellulosic membranes with dimethyl-amino-ethyl (DEAE) groups significantly improves membrane properties in terms of biocompatibility. Here, we show that DEAE substitution also alters the membrane's thrombogenic properties, and cellulosic membranes with various amounts of DEAE substitution were produced. Clinical dialyzers were constructed using two experimental membrane materials: modified cellulose-low (MC-low) and MC-high; standard unsubstituted cellulose was used as a control. Six patients were treated for a period of 3 weeks with each type of dialyzer and a heparin dose of less than 6000 IU/treatment. MC-low exhibited less extracorporeal beta-thromboglobulin and thromboxane B2 release than MC-high or Cuprophan. In addition, residual blood volume after clinical use was lower in the MC-low type. MC-low and MC-high induced less complement activation than Cuprophan, as characterized by extracorporeal C5a and C3a plasma concentrations (75% less C5a generation and 50 to 70% less C3a generation than unsubstituted cellulose).

  3. The cardio-renal-anaemia syndrome predicts survival in peritoneally dialyzed patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Zbroch, Edyta; Malyszko, Jacek; Mysliwiec, Michal; Iaina, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    .... The correction of anaemia was effective in the amelioration of both cardiac and renal failure. We studied the relationship between the severity of CRA syndrome in peritoneally dialyzed patients and their survival probability...

  4. Diffusive clearance of small and middle-sized molecules in combined dialyzer flow configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloot, S; De Vos, J Y; Hombrouckx, R; Verdonck, P

    2004-03-01

    Clearance of low (LMW) and middle molecular weight (MMW) solutes was investigated in vitro for different dialyzer configurations and mutual flow directions. Single pass tests were performed with two low flux Fresenius F6HPS hemodialyzers placed in series (12 tests) and in parallel (6 tests), and results were compared with those for one single dialyzer (2 tests). Either high concentrated (45mS/cm) bicarbonate dialysis fluid (surrogate LMW) or trisodiumphosphate (surrogate MMW) concentration (31mS/cm) was used as blood substitution fluid. Standard blood and dialysate flows of 250 and 500ml/min, respectively, were prescribed. Clearance was derived from conductivity measurements in blood and dialysate compartment, correcting for the overall ultrafiltration rate of 0.1-0.5l/h. In a single dialyzer, changing the counter current flow to co-current deteriorates diffusive clearance by 14% (LMW) and 18% (MMW). Compared to one single dialyzer using counter current flow, clearance increases by 3 to 8% (LMW) and by 15 to 18% (MMW) using two dialyzers in parallel and in series, respectively. As a consequence, the benefit by using a second dialyzer is more prominent for larger molecules. Moreover, pressure profiles drawn for the different configurations show the impact of limited convection on diffusive clearance.

  5. Retention of cytokine-inducing substances inside high-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufft, V; Mahiout, A; Shaldon, S; Koch, K M; Schindler, R

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing of dialyzers is often performed with nonsterile solutions possibly contaminated with bacterial-derived cytokine-inducing substances. We investigated the retention of cytokine-inducing substances inside the dialyzer during reprocessing in a closed loop in vitro hemodialysis system using a polyamide high flux membrane. After the first in vitro circulation of human whole blood, rinse of the blood compartment (BC) and reverse ultrafiltration (RUF) was performed with either cytokine-inducing substance-free saline or saline contaminated with filtrates from Pseudomonas cultures (6 ng/ml LAL-reactive material); subsequently, dialyzers were stored in 2% formaldehyde. Dialyzers were rinsed with approximately 15 liters pyrogen-free saline before the second circulation using blood from the same donor; the effluates were free of cytokine-inducing substances and formaldehyde. Before and after the blood circulations, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and total production of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta was determined after overnight incubation. In noncirculated PBMC as well as in PBMC separated after whole blood circulation with pyrogen-free processed dialyzers, production of IL-1 beta was not detectable. After contaminated rinse of the BC, production of IL-1 beta could be observed (1,600 +/- 1,100 pg/ml, mean +/- SEM). When pyrogen-free RUF was performed after contaminated BC rinse, IL-1 beta production averaged 163 +/- 92 pg/ml when using reused dialyzers, but 1,820 +/- 880 pg/ml when using new dialyzers. After reuse with pyrogen-free BC-rinse and contaminated RUF no IL-1 beta synthesis was observed; however, when pyrogen-free BC-rinse and contaminated RUF was applied to new dialyzers, IL-1 beta synthesis averaged 1,620 +/- 1,200 pg/ml. We conclude that cytokine-inducing substances are retained inside the dialyzer, probably by adsorption to the membrane as well as to the protein layer covering the membrane and are still biologically active after

  6. Milk peptides increase iron dialyzability in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Konstantina; Tako, Elad; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2009-02-25

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether these fractions (a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells and (b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Two milk peptide fractions that solubilize iron were isolated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration of a milk digest. These peptide fractions did not affect relative gene expression of DMT-1 when incubated with Caco-2 cells for 2 or 48 h. Dialyzability was measured after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. Both peptide fractions enhanced the dialyzability of iron from ferric chloride added to PIPES buffer, but had no effect on dialyzability from milk or a vegetable or fruit meal after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. However, dialyzability from milk was enhanced by the addition of a more concentrated lyophilized peptide fraction.

  7. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, M.A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core. (au)

  8. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path du...... during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core....

  9. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nohemí Salinas-Jazmín; Sergio Estrada-Parra; Miguel Angel Becerril-García; Alberto Yairh Limón-Flores; Said Vázquez-Leyva; Emilio Medina-Rivero; Lenin Pavón; Marco Antonio Velasco-Velázquez; Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Tra...

  10. Serum somatomedin A and non-dialyzable urinary hydroxyproline in girls with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogland, L B; Miller, J A; Skottner, A; Fryklund, L

    1981-06-01

    Serum somatomedin A was determined by radioreceptor assay in 31 girls with idiopathic scoliosis and 30 controls, with ages ranging from 9.7-16.2 years. In the material as a whole no significant difference could be found between scoliotics and controls. Similarly no differences were found in the girls under 13 years of age. However, in girls older than 13 years the controls had significantly higher somatomedin A levels than the scoliotics. In the second part of the study 26 girls with idiopathic scoliosis and 22 controls were examined with regard to the urinary excretion of non-dialyzable hydroxyproline,. which has been suggested to be correlated with collagen synthesis. The percentage non-dialyzable fraction of the total hydroxyproline was found to be significantly higher in the control girls. The mean age was 12.8 years for both groups. The results suggest a higher growth rate in the controls than in the scoliotics for girls over 12 years. There is, however, no definite evidence as to the function of the somatomedins or of the relationship between non-dialyzable hydroxyproline and growth.

  11. Hydration Status of Patients Dialyzed with Biocompatible Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Chmielewski, Michał; Dudziak, Maria; Ryta, Alicja; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Biocompatible fluids for peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been introduced to improve dialysis and patient outcome in end-stage renal disease. However, their impact on hydration status (HS), residual renal function (RRF), and dialysis adequacy has been a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a biocompatible dialysis fluid on the HS of prevalent PD patients. ♦ The study population consisted of 18 prevalent PD subjects, treated with standard dialysis fluids. At baseline, 9 patients were switched to a biocompatible solution, low in glucose degradation products (GDPs) (Balance; Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). Hydration status was assessed through clinical evaluation, laboratory parameters, echocardiography, and bioimpedance spectroscopy over a 24-month observation period. ♦ During the study period, urine volume decreased similarly in both groups. At the end of the evaluation, there were also no differences in clinical (body weight, edema, blood pressure), laboratory (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NTproBNP), or echocardiography determinants of HS. However, dialysis ultrafiltration decreased in the low-GDP group and, at the end of the study, equaled 929 ± 404 mL, compared with 1,317 ± 363 mL in the standard-fluid subjects (p = 0.06). Hydration status assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy was +3.64 ± 2.08 L in the low-GDP patients and +1.47 ± 1.61 L in the controls (p = 0.03). ♦ The use of a low-GDP biocompatible dialysis fluid was associated with a tendency to overhydration, probably due to diminished ultrafiltration in prevalent PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  12. The Effect of Vitamin E-Modified Dialyzers on Acute Intra-dialytic Symptoms: A Comparative Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanimu Danlami

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a crossover study to compare the effect of vitamin E-modified dialyzers on acute intra-dialytic symptoms, with other membranes. Twenty patients on hemodialysis were studied. They were divided into two equal groups of low-flux (C15NL, E15NL and high-flux (F60, EE15NL membrane dialyzers. Within each group, a vitamin E-modified dialyzer was compared with another dialyzer in a crossover design over a two-month period. All study patients were seen during each dialysis session by a physician and the occurrence of intra-dialytic symptoms were recorded. There was a significant overall improvement in the incidence of acute intra-dialytic symptoms with the use of vitamin E-modified dialyzers as compared with the other membranes. This effect was more for cuprophane than polysulfone. The occurrence of hypotensive episodes did not differ. Our study indicates that we can achieve a reduction in the incidence of acute intra-dialytic symptoms with the use of vitamin E-modified membrane as compared to cuprophane and polysulfone.

  13. Dialyzer membranes: effect of surface area and chemical modification of cellulose on complement and platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M; Schulze, H; Baurmeister, U

    1987-04-01

    Using an ex vivo model, the effects of membrane composition and surface area on both the complement system (as reflected by plasma C3a levels) and platelets [as indicated by plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and platelet factor 4 (PF4)] were studied. In this model, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was associated with less complement activation than cuprammonium cellulose (CC). A new "modified cellulose" (MC) membrane, in which a small number of the free hydroxyl groups on cellulose are substituted with a tertiary amino compound, was also associated with a low degree of complement activation, similar to that with PAN. However, the extent of hydroxyl group substitution in four MC membrane subtypes did not correlate with the reduction in complement activation. In studies using CC, the amount of generated C3a correlated with the membrane surface area, although the relationship was curvilinear. Plasma concentrations at the "dialyzer" outlet of TXB2 and PF4 were similar with CC, PAN, and MC. In studies with the MC subtypes, increasing the extent of hydroxyl group substitution paradoxically increased, albeit slightly, the amount of TXB2 generation. In studies with CC, a linear relationship between membrane surface area and TXB2 generation was found. The results suggest a dissociation between platelet and complement effects among different dialyzer membranes, and underline the importance of membrane surface area.

  14. Nickel levels in convenience and fast foods: In vitro study of the dialyzable fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen, E-mail: carmenc@ugr.es [Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Mesias, Marta [Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Bouzas, Paula R. [Department of Statistic, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Nickel presence was determined in 170 samples of 43 different convenience and fast foods widely consumed in Spain. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used as analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked. Ni levels ranged from 18.50 to 95.00 ng g{sup -1} (fresh weight of edible portion). The most elevated Ni concentrations were found in egg- and pork-based foods and in sauces but there is a high variability inside of each one of these foods. Ni content increases in products that contain spices and aromatic herbs, whole cereals, dry fruits, cheese and mushrooms. Mean Ni dialyzable fraction estimated by in vitro assays ranged from 4.50 to 7.75%. This study shows that the probability of exposure to health risks from these foods is overall small. However, the present findings are of potential use in food composition tables and to estimate the Ni dietary intake and tolerable intake levels in accordance with the current dietary habits. - Research highlights: {yields}Ni levels in convenience and fast food range from 18.50 to 95.00 ng/g. {yields}Ni content increases in products that contain spices and aromatic herbs, whole cereals, dry fruits, cheese and mushrooms. {yields}Mean Ni dialyzable fraction estimated by in vitro assays ranges from 4.50 to 7.75%. {yields}The probability of exposure to health risks from convenience and fast food is overall small.

  15. Use of ascorbic and citric acids to increase dialyzable iron from vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, C; Freyre, M; Sambucetti, M E; Pirovani, M E

    2004-01-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is an ecologically important wild leguminous tree that grows spontaneously in Argentine deforested lands, the fruit of which is consumed by humans and animals. Because considerable iron content with low to intermediate availability has been previously reported in vinal pulps, its enhancement would be of interest. Iron availability was determined as iron dialyzability using an in vitro technique. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate iron availability increase after adding ascorbic and/or citric acids to vinal pulp at different mM acid/mM Fe ratios. Those ratios ranged from 0.05:1 to 9.95:1 and from 0.5:1 to 99.5:1 for ascorbic acid/Fe (AA:Fe) and citric acid/Fe (CA:Fe), respectively. The obtained second- and first-order polynomial equations showed that AA:Fe and CA:Fe molar ratios linear terms had a significant effect on iron dialyzability increase (P iron availability to a maximum of 4.6 times. Additional confirmatory experiments were made adding the same organic acids to different vinal pulps and to a traditional cake prepared with vinal pulp called "patay." There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between predicted values obtained by the model and experimental results.

  16. Pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity, reduces visceral fat and stimulates lipolysis in non diabetic dialyzed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Zanchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is common in dialyzed patients and is associated with increased mortality and protein-energy wasting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone (PIO, a powerful insulin sensitizer, on insulin sensitivity, body composition and adipose tissue metabolism, in dialyzed patients. A double blind randomized cross-over study was performed in non diabetic dialysis patients. Each patient followed 2 treatment phases of 16 weeks, starting either with oral PIO 45 mg/d or placebo (PL, and then switched to the other phase. At the end of each phase, patients underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, an abdominal CT, and extensive plasma biochemical analysis. Twelve patients including 8 HD (59.6±4.4 y and 4 PD patients (43.5±3.6 y were recruited. Nine patients completed both phases and 3 patients dropped out (renal transplantation/2 HD and peritonitis/1 PD. PIO was safe and well tolerated. Under PIO, insulin sensitivity improved, as assessed by increased total glucose disposal rate (1.98±0.24 for PIO versus 1.58±0.12 umol/kg/min for PL, p<0.05, and reduced glucose endogenous hepatic production. PIO did not affect post-dialysis body weight, total fat and lean body mass, but significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT area and the VAT/SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased. PIO decreased CRP (3.96±1.44 mg/l vs 7.88±2.56, p<0.05, plasma leptin, and dramatically reduced leptin/adiponectin ratio. Glycerol turnover, circulating glycerol and non esterified fatty acids were paradoxically increased. In conclusion, the improvement in insulin sensitivity by PIO, in non diabetic dialyzed patients, was associated with favorable metabolic effects, reduction in inflammation and body fat redistribution. The stimulation of systemic lipolysis was a surprising finding which may reflect adipose tissue remodeling and/or a paradoxical lypolitic

  17. Differences in perceived health status between kidney transplant recipients and dialyzed patients are based mainly on the selection process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Jaroslav; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Prihodova, Lucia; Majernikova, Maria; Nagyova, Iveta; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Roland, Robert; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation offers longer survival, less morbidity and lower costs than dialysis. It is also believed to improve quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare prospectively the perceived health status (PHS) of dialyzed patients on a waiting list with kidney transplant recipients a

  18. An experimental and numerical study of the flow and mass transfer in a model of the wearable artificial kidney dialyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfeld Moshe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published studies of the past decades have established that mass transfer across the dialyzer membrane is governed by diffusion, convection and osmosis. While the former is independent of the pressure in the liquids, the latter two are pressure dependent and are enhanced when the pressure difference across the membrane is increased. The goal of the present study is to examine the impact of pulsatile flow on the transport phenomena across the membrane of a high-flux dialyzer in a wearable artificial kidney (WAK with a novel single small battery-operated pulsatile pump that drives both the blood and dialysate in a counter-phased manner, maximizing the trans-membrane pressure. Methods Both in-vitro experimental and numerical tools are employed to compare the performance of the pulsatile WAK dialyzer with a traditional design of a single-channel roller blood pump together with a centrifugal pump that drives the dialysate flow. The numerical methods utilize the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and mass transfer equations to model the flow in the fibers of the dialyzer. Results While diffusion is still the dominating transport regime, the WAK pump enhances substantially the trans-membrane pressure and thus increases mass convection that might be as high as 30% of the overall transfer. This increase is obtained due to the design of the pulsatile WAK pump that increases ultrafiltration by increasing the trans-membrane pressure. Conclusions The experimental and numerical results revealed that when pumping at similar flow rates, a small battery-operated pulsatile pump provides clearances of urea and creatinine similar as or better than a large heavy AC-powered roller pump.

  19. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemí Salinas-Jazmín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines.

  20. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines. PMID:25984538

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Autoimmune Prostatitis: Evaluation in Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarado, Carlos; Gómez, Consuelo; Reyes, Miguel; García, Mario; Pérez, Elizabeth; Pérez de la Mora, Carlos; Sanchez, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract (DLE) in a murine model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Methods. Histopathological characterization, prostatein Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and immunohistochemical analysis for CD45, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-4 molecules were done in prostatic Wistar rats treated with DLE, placebo, or Dexamethasone. Results. Histopathological analysis of animals induced to prostatitis showed inflammatory infiltrate, mainly constituted by leucocytes and mast cells as well as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Serum prostatein concentrations were 14 times higher than those displayed by healthy animals. After DLE and Dexamethasone treatments, the inflammatory infiltrate decreased; the tissue morphology was similar to that of a normal prostate, and the prostatein decreased to the basal levels of healthy animals. DLE treatment produced a decreased expression of the cell surface marker CD45 and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17. On the other hand, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 increased in both the Dexamethasone and DLE groups. Conclusion. DLE is able to modulate the inflammatory response in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP).

  2. Vitamin K status in peritoneally dialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Kozioł, Lidia; Grzymisławski, Marian; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Moczko, Jerzy; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal vitamin K status was documented in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), especially those undergoing hemodialysis. The data related to patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) are contradictory. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to evaluate vitamin K status in patients with CKD who are treated with continuous ambulatory PD. Twenty-eight patients entered into the study. Dialysis vintage ranged from 3 to 89 months. Vitamin K status was assessed in all subjects using undercarboxylated prothrombin measurement (PIVKA-II). In addition, total protein and albumin levels, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, urea and creatinine concentrations were determined. PIVKA-II concentrations were abnormal in 13 (46.4 %) subjects. BMI values, both total and LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in patients with than those without vitamin K deficiency. Moreover, PIVKA II levels correlated with BMI values (r = 0.441, p < 0.019), LDL cholesterol (r = 0.434, p < 0.021) and creatinine (r = 0.406, p< 0.032) concentrations. However, through the use of logistic regression analysis and multiple regression analysis, no clinical factor was documented to be the independent risk factor of vitamin K deficiency. In conclusion, vitamin K deficiency is a frequent condition in peritoneally dialyzed patients. Assessment of vitamin K status should become a standard procedure in this group of patients.

  3. Hemocompatible polyethersulfone/polyurethane composite membrane for high-performance antifouling and antithrombotic dialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zehua; Cheng, Chong; Qin, Hui; Nie, Chuanxiong; He, Chao; Zhao, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Researches on blood purification membranes are fuelled by diverse clinical needs, such as hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration, hemofiltration, plasmapheresis, and plasma collection. To approach high-performance dialyzer, the integrated antifouling and antithrombotic properties are highly necessary for the design/modification of advanced artificial membranes. In this study, we propose and demonstrate that the physical blend of triblock polyurethane (PU) and polyethersulfone (PES) may advance the performance of hemodialysis membranes with greatly enhanced blood compatibility. It was found that the triblock PU could be blended with PES at high ratio owing to their excellent miscibility. The surfaces of the PES/PU composite membranes were characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle measurement, and surface ζ-potentials. The results indicated that the membrane surfaces were assembled with hydrophilic segregation layer owing to the migration of amphiphilic PU segments during membrane preparation, which might confer the composite membranes with superior hemocompatibility. The cross-section scanning electron microscopy images of the composite membranes exhibited structure transformation from finger-like structure to sponge-like structure, which indicated that the composite membrane had tunable porosity and permeability. The further ultrafiltration experiments indicated that the composite membranes showed increased permeability and excellent antifouling ability. The blood compatibility observation indicated that PES/PU composite membranes owned decreased protein adsorption, suppressed platelet adhesion, and prolonged plasma recalcification time. These results indicated that the PES/PU composite membranes exhibited enhanced antifouling and antithrombotic properties than the pristine PES membrane. The strategy may forward the fabrication of blood compatible composite membranes for

  4. Pulse and Trapezoidal Voltage Clamp Applied To Jurkat Cells: A T- Lymphocyte Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    clamp. (Upward deflection represents depolarization). Low frequency oscillations are clearly visible. Such oscillations have been described by Maltsev ...1952. (8) Maltsev , V. A. Oscillating and triggering properties of T cell membrane potential. Imun. Lett. 26:277-282, 1990. 13 (9) Gallin, E. K

  5. Active gate driver for dv/dt control and active voltage clamping in an IGBT stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2005-01-01

    For high voltages converters stacks of IGBTs can be used if the static and dynamic voltage sharing among the IGBTs can be applied. dVCE/dt should also be controlled in order not to damage insulation material. This paper describes theory and measurements of an active gate driver for stacking IGBTs...

  6. 357 Tear IL-4 is Decreased in Allergic Conjunctivitis Patients with Negative Skin Test After Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Velazquez, Gustavo; Santacruz, Concepcion; Hernandez, Pedro M; Chavez, Raul; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Mayra; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that sublingual immunotherapy induces immune regulation, however in patients with clinical ophthalmological diagnosis as allergic conjunctivitis with negative skin test reactivity (ACNST) this treatment is not useful. Dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) have been used in atopic dermatitis and asthma. The aim of this work was to evaluate treatment of ACNST with DLE and to analyze the microenvironment provided by tear and serum cytokines in patients before and a...

  7. Improvement of blood compatibility on polysulfone-polyvinylpyrrolidone blend films as a model membrane of dialyzer by physical adsorption of recombinant soluble human thrombomodulin (ART-123).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omichi, Masaaki; Matsusaki, Michiya; Maruyama, Ikuro; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    ART-123 is a recombinant soluble human thrombomodulin (hTM) with potent anticoagulant activity, and is available for developing antithrombogenic surfaces by immobilization. We focused on improving blood compatibility on the dialyzer surface by the physical adsorption of ART-123 as a safe yet simple method without using chemical reagents. The physical adsorption mechanism and anticoagulant activities of adsorbed hTM on the surface of a polysulfone (PSF) membrane containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a model dialyzer were investigated in detail. The PVP content of the PSF-PVP films was saturated at 20 wt% after immersion in Tris-HCl buffer, even with the addition of over 20 wt% PVP. The surface morphology of the PSF-PVP films was strongly influenced by the PVP content, because PVP covered the outermost surface of the PSF-PVP films. The adsorption speed of hTM slowed dramatically with increasing PVP content up to 10 wt%, but the maximum adsorption amount of hTM onto the PSF-PVP film surface was almost the same, regardless of the PVP content. The PSF-PVP film with the physically adsorbed hTM showed higher protein C activity as compared to the PSF film, it showed excellent blood compatibility due to the protein C activity and the inhibition properties of platelet adhesion. The physical adsorption of hTM can be useful as a safe yet simple method to improve the blood compatibility of a dialyzer surface.

  8. In Vivo Chemoprotective Activity of Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells against Damage Induced by 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Evangelina Coronado-Cerda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy treatments induce a number of side effects, such as leukopenia neutropenia, peripheral erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia, affecting the quality of life for cancer patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is wieldy used as myeloablative model in mice. The bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE or IMMUNEPOTENT CRP® (ICRP is an immunomodulatory compound that has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the chemoprotection effect of ICRP on bone marrow cells in 5-FU treated mice, total bone marrow (BM cell count, bone marrow colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM, cell cycle, immunophenotypification, ROS/superoxide and Nrf2 by flow cytometry, and histological and hematological analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that ICRP increased BM cell count and CFU-GM number, arrested BM cells in G0/G1 phase, increased the percentage of leukocyte, granulocytic, and erythroid populations, reduced ROS/superoxide formation and Nrf2 activation, and also improved hematological levels and weight gain in 5-FU treated mice. These results suggest that ICRP has a chemoprotective effect against 5-FU in BM cells that can be used in cancer patients.

  9. In Vivo Chemoprotective Activity of Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells against Damage Induced by 5-Fluorouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Cerda, Erika Evangelina; Franco-Molina, Moisés Armides; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Prado-García, Heriberto; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Rodríguez-Salazar, María del Carmen; Caballero-Hernandez, Diana; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes Silvestre; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatments induce a number of side effects, such as leukopenia neutropenia, peripheral erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia, affecting the quality of life for cancer patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is wieldy used as myeloablative model in mice. The bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) or IMMUNEPOTENT CRP® (ICRP) is an immunomodulatory compound that has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the chemoprotection effect of ICRP on bone marrow cells in 5-FU treated mice, total bone marrow (BM) cell count, bone marrow colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), cell cycle, immunophenotypification, ROS/superoxide and Nrf2 by flow cytometry, and histological and hematological analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that ICRP increased BM cell count and CFU-GM number, arrested BM cells in G0/G1 phase, increased the percentage of leukocyte, granulocytic, and erythroid populations, reduced ROS/superoxide formation and Nrf2 activation, and also improved hematological levels and weight gain in 5-FU treated mice. These results suggest that ICRP has a chemoprotective effect against 5-FU in BM cells that can be used in cancer patients. PMID:27191003

  10. Loss of amino acids into dialysate during hemodialysis using hydrophilic and nonhydrophilic polyester-polymer alloy and polyacrylonitrile membrane dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomatsu, Atsuko; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Shino-Kakimoto, Midori; Itoh, Yoko; Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kouichi; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Yasuda, Gen; Umemura, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    During hemodialysis, amino acid loss through the dialysate remained a significant problem and was not clear in some dialyzers; therefore, we investigated amino acid loss with hydrophilic and nonhydrophilic polyester-polymer alloy membranes and polyacrylonitrile membranes. Nine maintenance hemodialysis patients were studied to assess amino acid loss during hemodialysis with the three membranes. Total amino acid losses were 85.7 ± 27.2 mg/L, 83.3 ± 16.1 mg/L, and 72.1 ± 22.5 mg/L with the hydrophilic, nonhydrophilic polyester-polymer alloy, and polyacrylonitrile membranes, respectively. Amino acid losses were greater with the hydrophilic membrane compared with the polyacrylonitrile membrane for ornithine (2.0 ± 0.6 vs. 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/L, P = 0.025), phenylalanine (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 mg/L, P = 0.012), and tryptophan (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, P = 0.023). Amino acid losses were greater with the nonhydrophilic membrane than with the polyacrylonitrile membrane for ornithine (2.0 ± 0.4 vs. 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/L, P = 0.017), phenylalanine (2.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 mg/L, P = 0.018), tryptophan (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, P = 0.003), and cystine (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 2.0 ± 0.7 mg/L, P = 0.005). In conclusion, greater losses of ornithine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and cystine were observed with polyester-polymer alloy than with polyacrylonitrile membranes during hemodialysis. Constant attention should be paid to the amino acid loss profile to improve nutritional control in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Mathematical analysis for internal filtration of convection-enhanced high-flux hemodialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Chan; Lee, Kyungsoo; Kim, Hee Chan

    2012-10-01

    Structural modifications using a conventional hemodialyzer improved the internal filtration and clearance of middle molecular weight wastes by enhanced convection effect. In this study, we employed a mathematical model describing the internal filtration rate as well as the hemodynamic and hematologic parameters in highflux dialyzer to interpret the previous reported experimental results. Conventional high-flux hemodialysis and convection-enhanced high-flux hemodialysis were configured in the mathematical forms and integrated into the iterative numerical method to predict the internal filtration phenomena inside the dialyzers during dialysis. The distributions of blood pressure, dialysate pressure, oncotic pressure, blood flow rates, dialysate flow rates, local ultrafiltration, hematocrit, protein concentration and blood viscosity along the axial length of dialyzer were calculated in order to estimate the internal filtration volume. The results show that the filtration volumes by internal filtration is two times higher in a convection-enhanced high-flux hemodialyzer than in a conventional high-flux hemodialzer and explains the experimental result of improved clearance of middle molecular size waste in convection-enhanced high-flux hemodialyzer.

  12. Toward the treatment for Alzheimer's disease: adsorption is primary mechanism of removing amyloid β protein with hollow-fiber dialyzers of the suitable materials, polysulfone and polymethyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kazunori; Saigusa, Akira; Yamada, Shinji; Gotoh, Takehiro; Nakai, Shigeru; Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Midori; Yuzawa, Yukio; Kitaguchi, Nobuya

    2016-06-01

    The accumulation of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the brain reflects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that the rapid removal of Aβ from the blood by an extracorporeal system may act as a peripheral Aβ sink from the brain. The present study aimed to determine the optimal materials and modality for Aβ removal by hemodialyzers. In a batch analysis, hollow-fiber fragments of polysulfone (PSf) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) showed greater removal efficiency of Aβ than did other materials, such as cellulose-triacetates and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (PSf:PMMA at 30 min, 98.6 ± 2.4 %:97.8 ± 0.4 % for Aβ1-40 and 96.6 ± 0.3 %:99.0 ± 1.0 % for Aβ1-42). In a modality study, the Aβ solution was applied to PSf dialyzers and circulated in the dialysis and Air-filled adsorption-mode (i.e., the outer space of the hollow fibers was filled with air) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-filled adsorption modes. The Aβ1-40 removal efficiency of the pre/post dialyzer in the Air-filled adsorption-mode was the highest (62.4 ± 12.6 %, p = 0.007). In a flow rate study in the Air-filled adsorption-mode, 200 mL/min showed the highest Aβ1-40 reduction rate of pool solution (97.3 ± 0.8 % at 15 min) compared with 20 mL/min (p = 0.00001) and 50 mL/min (p = 0.00382). PMMA dialyzers showed similar high reduction rates. Thus, the optimal modality for Aβ removal was the adsorption-mode with PSf or PMMA hollow fibers at around 50 mL/min flow rate, which seems to be suitable for clinical use.

  13. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  14. Effectiveness of Haemodiafiltration with Heat Sterilized High-Flux Polyphenylene HF Dialyzer in Reducing Free Light Chains in Patients with Myeloma Cast Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Rousseau-Gagnon

    Full Text Available In cases of myeloma cast nephropathy in need of haemodialysis (HD, reduction of free light chains using HD with High-Cut-Off filters (HCO-HD, in combination with chemotherapy, may be associated with better renal recovery. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of haemodiafiltration (HDF in reducing free light chain levels using a less expensive heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer (HF-HDF.In a single-centre prospective cohort study, 327 dialysis sessions were performed using a 2.2 m2 heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer (Phylther HF22SD, a small (1.1m2 or large (2.1 m2 high-cut-off (HCO dialyzer (HCOS and HCOL in a cohort of 16 patients presenting with dialysis-dependent acute cast nephropathy and elevated free light chains (10 kappa, 6 lambda. The outcomes of the study were the mean reduction ratio (RR of kappa and lambda, the proportion of treatments with an RR of at least 0.65, albumin loss and the description of patient outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using linear and logistic regression through generalized estimating equation analysis so as to take into account repeated observation within subjects and adjust for session duration.There were no significant differences in the estimated marginal mean of kappa RR, which were respectively 0.67, 0.69 and 0.70 with HCOL-HD, HCOS-HDF and HF-HDF (P = 0.950. The estimated marginal mean of the proportions of treatments with a kappa RR ≥0.65 were 68%, 63% and 71% with HCOL-HD, HCOS-HDF and HF-HDF, respectively (P = 0.913. The estimated marginal mean of lambda RR were higher with HCOL-HDF (0.78, compared to HCOL-HD and HF-HDF (0.62, and 0.61 respectively. The estimated marginal mean proportion of treatments with a lambda RR ≥0.65 were higher with HCOL-HDF (81%, compared to 57% in HF-HDF (P = 0.042. The median albumin loss were 7, 21 and 63 g/session with HF-HDF, HCOL-HD and HCOL-HDF respectively (P = 0.044. Among survivors, 9 out of 10

  15. 聚偏氟乙烯中空纤维血液透析器的研究%Study of polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber dialyzers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 郭建辉; 吕晓龙; 武春瑞; 贾悦; 王暄; 陈华艳; 高启君

    2011-01-01

    目的 目前,用于血液透析的膜材料主要有聚砜和聚醚砜,在去除β2-微球蛋白及生物相容性方面尚存在缺陷.聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)在血液透析方面尚无应用,本研究对PVDF膜材料进行了力学性能及血液透析性能的评价.方法 采用干-湿相转化法制备PVDF中空纤维膜;采用离心浇铸法将中空纤维膜封装成血液透析器,用实验室配制的模拟液代替人体血液进行血液透析实验.结果 PVDF膜断裂强力为20 cN左右,拉伸伸长率为200%左右;纤维壁厚为30μm的透析器对尿素和溶菌酶的清除率分别为90%和75%,对牛血清白蛋白的截留率可达到90%以上;添加剂聚乙二醇(PEG)质量分数为19%条件下牛血清白蛋白的截留率为91%,较其质量分数为22%的条件下截留率高;增大透析液流速,可以提高尿素和溶菌酶的清除率,但对牛血清白蛋白的截留率影响不大.结论 膜的力学性能满足透析要求,对尿素及溶菌酶的清除率有很大提高,对牛血清白蛋白的截留率比较理想,可以作为透析膜材料进一步开发利用.%Objective Currently applied membrane materials for hemodialysis are mainly polysulfone and polyethers. However, defects still remain in the removal of β2-MG and biocompatibility. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has not been put in use in hemodialysis. This study focused on the evaluation of mechanics performance and the dialysis performance of PVDF membrane material. Methods PVDF hollow fiber membranes were spun by changing the membrane forming conditions. The membranes were sealed to dialyzers by centrifugal moulding method. The simulation solution, instead of patient blood, was used to evaluate the dialysis performance of PVDF hollow fiber membrane dialyzers. Results The tensile failure strength of PVDF membrane was about 20 cN. The tensile elongation of PVDF membrane was about 200%. The clearance rates of the dialyzers prepared with the fiber whose wall thickness was 30

  16. Substrate and Inhibitor-Specific Conformational Changes in the Human Serotonin Transporter Revealed by Voltage-Clamp Fluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderhielm, Pella C; Andersen, Jacob; Munro, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    of TM6, Ala419 in the interface between TM8 and extracellular loop (EL) 4, and Leu481 in EL5. The reporter positions were used for time-resolved measurement of conformational changes during 5-HT transport and binding of cocaine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and escitalopram....... At all reporter positions, fluorescence changes observed upon substrate application were distinctly different from those observed upon inhibitor application, with respect to relative amplitude or direction. Furthermore, escitalopram, fluoxetine, and cocaine induced a very similar pattern of fluorescent...

  17. Early Differentiation of Human CD11c+NK Cells with γδ T Cell Activation Properties Is Promoted by Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ramírez, Dalia; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes Andrea; Mayani, Héctor; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Reconstitution of the hematopoietic system during immune responses and immunological and neoplastic diseases or upon transplantation depends on the emergent differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells within the bone marrow. Although in the last decade the use of dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) as supportive therapy in both infectious and malignant settings has increased, its activity on the earliest stages of human hematopoietic development remains poorly understood. Here, we have examined the ability of DLE to promote replenishment of functional lymphoid lineages from CD34+ cells. Our findings suggest that DLE increases their differentiation toward a conspicuous CD56+CD16+CD11c+ NK-like cell population endowed with properties such as IFNy production, tumor cell cytotoxicity, and the capability of inducing γδ T lymphocyte proliferation. Of note, long-term coculture controlled systems showed the bystander effect of DLE-stromal cells by providing NK progenitors with signals to overproduce this cell subset. Thus, by direct effect on progenitor cells and through activation and remodeling of the supporting hematopoietic microenvironment, DLE may contribute a robust innate immune response by promoting the emerging lymphopoiesis of functional CD11c+ NK cells in a partially TLR-related manner. Unraveling the identity and mechanisms of the involved DLE components may be fundamental to advance the NK cell-based therapy field. PMID:27847830

  18. Iron, zinc and calcium dialyzability from extruded product based on whole grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus) and amaranth/Zea mays blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa; Armada, Margarita; José, Rolando González

    2013-06-01

    Amaranth is a Native American grain appreciated for its high nutritional properties including high mineral content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of Fe, Zn and Ca from extruded products made with two varieties of amaranth and their mixtures with maize at two levels of replacement. Mineral availability was estimated using dialyzability method. The contents of Fe (64.0-84.0 mg/kg), Ca (1977.5-2348.8 mg/kg) and Zn (30.0-32.1 mg/kg) were higher in amaranth than in maize products (6.2, 19.1, 9.7 mg/kg, respectively). Mineral availability was in the range of (2.0-3.6%), (3.3-11.1%) and (1.6-11.4%) for Fe, Ca and Zn, respectively. Extruded amaranth and amaranth/maize products provide higher amount of Fe and Ca than extruded maize. Extruded amaranth products and amaranth addition to maize could be an interesting way to increase nutritional value of extruded products.

  19. New and cost effective cell-based assay for Dialyzed Leukocyte Extract (DLE)-induced Jurkat cells proliferation under azathioprine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F M; Tomkova, M; Petrovajova, D; Bubanova, M; Ragac, O; Hornakova, T

    2017-01-31

    The human Dialyzed Leukocyte Extract (DLE) is a heterogeneous mix of oligopeptides of assays exist: E-rosette test, induction of delayed type hypersensitivity in mice, leukocyte migration and IFN-γ secretion. The animal-origin materials and in vivo assays convey a considerable logistic, ethic and economic burden, meanwhile the available in vitro assays have been reported with limited reproducibility and sometimes contradictory results. Here we are reporting a new DLE biological activity cell-based assay. The A20 and Jurkat cell lines were treated with (+Aza) or without (-Aza) azathioprine, DLE (+DLE) or both (+Aza/+DLE). After 72h, the cell proliferation was analyzed by the MTT or BrdU incorporation assays. In +Aza/+DLE treated cells, we observed a significant higher proliferation, when compared with +Aza/-DLE. In the absence of Aza, cells did not present any proliferation difference between -DLE or +DLE treatments. Both assays, MTT and BrdU showed similar results, being the MTT test more cost effective and we select it for validation as DLE biological assay using Jurkat cells only. We tested three different lyophilized DLE batches and we found consistent results with acceptable assay reproducibility and linearity. The DLE capacity for rescuing Jurkat cell proliferation during +Aza treatment was consistent using different liquid and lyophilized DLE batches, presenting also consistent chromatographic profiles. Finally, DLE treatment in Jurkat cells did not result into significant IL-2 of IFN-γ secretion, and known lymphocyte proliferative drugs failed to rescue Jurkat cells viability in presence of +Aza, as +DLE treatment did in our MTT assay. In conclusion, our new cell-based MTT assay has excellent DLE biological activity consistency, robustness and is cost effective, presenting important advantages over previous DLE activity in vitro and in vivo assays.

  20. Biocompatibility and permeability of dialyzer membranes do not affect anemia, erythropoietin dosage or mortality in japanese patients on chronic non-reuse hemodialysis: a prospective cohort study from the J-DOPPS II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Takehiko; Wada, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Higashi, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Akiba, Takashi; Akizawa, Tadao; Asano, Yasushi; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Saito, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists over the impact of the biocompatibility and flux characteristics of dialyzer membranes on anemia in chronic hemodialysis patients. A subset of 1,207 subjects from the Japanese arm of DOPPS phase II was analyzed. Patient characteristics included mean age 59 years, male sex 60%, BMI 20.6, time on dialysis therapy 7.8 years, and diabetes rate 27%. Dialysis parameters were Kt/V 1.33, and normalized protein catabolic rate 1.05 g/kg/day. Initial hemoglobin level was 10.1 g/dl. 79% were treated by intravenous erythropoietin with mean weekly doses of 4,500 IU. Hemoglobin levels and erythropoietin doses during 2-year study period were not affected by dialysis membrane biocompatibility (unmodified cellulose or biocompatible) or flux (standard or high performance). The 2-year survival rate was 90.9% and was influenced by older age, presence of cardiovascular diseases and amyloidosis, lower levels of BMI and serum albumin, but not by other variables, including dialysis membranes. Use of biocompatible membranes was associated with a lower all-cause mortality (8.3 vs. 13.0% for bioincompatible, p = 0.037), but this difference was not significant in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 0.70, p = 0.17 by Cox multivariate analysis). The biocompatibility and permeability of dialyzer membranes had no effect on anemia, erythropoietin dosage or all-cause mortality in Japanese chronic hemodialysis patients treated by non-reuse dialysis. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Voltage balancing of series' connected IGBTs using voltage clamping control%采用电压箝位控制实现串联IGBT的动态均压

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春朋; 姜齐荣; 刘博超

    2009-01-01

    研究了电压箝位控制方法,它将lGBT的集-射电压变化快速反馈至门极,改变门极驱动电压的大小,从而将集一射电压实时箝位于控制阈值之内,实现串联IGBT的动态均压.通过2个和8个IGBT串联的实验,验证了该方法的有效性.

  2. Centruroides toxin, a selective blocker of surface Na+ channels in skeletal muscle: voltage-clamp analysis and biochemical characterization of the receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimovich, E.; Ildefonse, M; Barhanin, J; Rougier, O; Lazdunski, M

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of a toxin from the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus on frog skeletal muscle. The main findings are the following, (i) Centruroides toxin (CssII) blocks the early phase of the inward sodium current in the muscle that arises from influx via Na+ channels in the surface membrane, but it does not affect the late phase of the inward current that represents flux through Na+ channels in the T-tubule membranes, (ii) CssII, in marked contrast to tetrodotoxin, do...

  3. Centruroides toxin, a selective blocker of surface Na+ channels in skeletal muscle: voltage-clamp analysis and biochemical characterization of the receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimovich, E; Ildefonse, M; Barhanin, J; Rougier, O; Lazdunski, M

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes the effects of a toxin from the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus on frog skeletal muscle. The main findings are the following, (i) Centruroides toxin (CssII) blocks the early phase of the inward sodium current in the muscle that arises from influx via Na+ channels in the surface membrane, but it does not affect the late phase of the inward current that represents flux through Na+ channels in the T-tubule membranes, (ii) CssII, in marked contrast to tetrodotoxin, does not affect contraction of the muscle, (iii) Measurements of the binding of 125I-labeled CssII to a partially purified membrane preparation from the muscle indicate that the Kd of the CssII--receptor complex is approximately 0.4 nM. The half-life for the dissociation of this complex is 3 min at 22 degrees C and 16 min at 2 degrees C. Binding of the radiolabeled toxin varies markedly with pH and becomes insignificant at pH greater than 8.5. Proteolytic digestion of the membrane preparation decreases its ability to bind CssII, suggesting that the receptor is a protein. (iv) The number of binding sites for a radiolabeled derivative of tetrodotoxin on the membrane preparation was similar to that for CssII. However, neither tetrodotoxin nor any of seven other neurotoxins and some local anesthetics that alter the functioning of the Na+ channel have any effect on the binding of CssII to the muscle membrane. These results therefore indicate that CssII belongs to a different class of neurotoxins that has a different receptor on the Na+ channel.

  4. 高通量透析器在维持性血液透析患者中的应用及护理%Clinical application of high flux dialyzer in hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文静

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of high flux dialyzer on hemodialysis.Methods: 36 cases of hemodialysis took high flux hemodialysis treatment,and were given the targeted nursing measures to monitor first and 3 months of the improvement.Results: after using,greatly improved,the quality of life of patients improved significantly.Conclusion: high flux hemodialysis and the corresponding nursing measures can significantly improve the quality of life with maintenance hemodialysis.%探讨维持性血液透析患者使用高通量透析器的护理方法及效果.方法:对我院36例透析患者进行高通量血液透析治疗,并给予针对性的护理措施,监测使用前和使用后3个月在饮食、精神、活动能力等方面的改善情况.结果:使用后比使用前在饮食、精神、活动能力等方面,有极大改善,患者生活质量明显改善.结论:高通量透析和相应的护理措施能明显改善维持性透析患者的生活质量.

  5. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis.

  6. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  7. International arbejdsdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  8. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Paralyzed Monkeys Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Wounds Soft-Tissue Injuries Severed or Constricted Limbs ...

  9. 维生素C预冲透析器对维持性血液透析患者微炎症状态的影响%Impact of Pre-Rinsing of the Dialyzer with Vitamin C on Microinflammation Status of Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 刘猛

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究维生素C预冲透析器对维持性血液透析患者微炎症状态的影响.方法 选取我院维持性血液透析半年以上患者60例,根据随机数字表随机分为常规血液透析组和维生素C预冲组各30例,治疗12周后观察血高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、白介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平变化.并选取20例健康体检者作为对照组.结果 常规血液透析组和维生素C预冲组炎症指标hs-CRP、IL-6、TNF-α明显高于健康对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);维生素C预冲组治疗后各炎症指标较治疗前显著下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);而常规血液透析组治疗前后各炎症指标间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 维持性血液透析患者普遍存在微炎症状态,维生素C预冲透析器能有效改善维持性血液透析患者的微炎症状态.%Objective To investigate the impact of pre - rinsing of the dialyzer with vitamin C on the microinflamma-tion status of maintenance hemodialysis ( MHD ) patients and the application values of drug - pre - rinsing of the dialyzer. Methods Sixty patients underwent MHD for more than half a year at our dialysis center and twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. MHD patients were randomly divided into the conventional group and the pre - rinsing group, in which pre - rinsing of the dialyzer with vitamin C were carried out. Levels of high - sensitivity C - reactive protein ( hs - CRP ), interleukin ( IL - 6 ) and tumor necrosis fsctor ( TNF - a ) in serum were measured before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Serum levels of hs - CRP, IL - 6 and TNF - a were significantly higher in both the conventional group and the pre - rinsing group compared with the healthy controls ( P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Microinflammation state exists universally in MHD patients. Pre - rinsing of the dialyzer with vitamin C effectively a-meliorates the microinflammation status in MHD patients.

  10. International skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Wittendorff, Jens

    1996-01-01

    De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret.......De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret....

  11. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  12. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  13. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  14. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  15. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  16. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  17. International Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Stowe, Jennifer L.; Haycock, Ken; Dodd, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Presents three reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Canadian library trends, focusing on information technology and access to information and rights and examining provincial libraries and library education. (PEN)

  18. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  19. Internal education

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-01-01

    Research Question (RQ): The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organi...

  20. Results of the HepZero study comparing heparin-grafted membrane and standard care show that heparin-grafted dialyzer is safe and easy to use for heparin-free dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laville, Maurice; Dorval, Marc; Ros, Joan Fort; Fay, Renaud; Cridlig, Joelle; Nortier, Joelle L.; Juillard, Laurent; Debska-Slizien, Alicja; Lorente, Loreto Fernandez; Thibaudin, Damien; Franssen, Casper; Schulz, Michael; Moureau, Frederique; Loughraieb, Nathalie; Rossignol, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Heparin is used to prevent clotting during hemodialysis, but heparin-free hemodialysis is sometimes needed to decrease the risk of bleeding. The HepZero study is a randomized, multicenter international controlled open-label trial comparing no-heparin hemodialysis strategies designed to assess non-in

  1. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cyclic Nucleotides, Calcium and Protein Phosphorylation (6th) Held in Bethesda, Maryland on September 2-7, 1986. Advances in Second Messenger and Phosphorprotein Research. Volume 21A. Abstracts Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-16

    H. Fishman, Membrane Biochemistry Section, Developmental and Metabolic Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative...mM leupaptin, a protese Inhibitor, and were voltage clamped to -40 mV. The Ca channels in such patches quickly stop responding to membrane...of Neurology , Univ. of Cal. Sch. of Med., San Francisco, CA 94143. AChR-enriched membranes have been shown to contain 3 alkali-extractable

  2. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...

  3. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the wo

  4. International Business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van Delft

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking

  5. International Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  6. International Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Winston; Bender, David R.; Haycock, Ken; Horodyski, John

    2001-01-01

    Includes three annual reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Special Libraries Association, and a report on innovations in Canadian libraries that discusses electronic initiatives, partnerships, books and publishing, school libraries, national issues, local challenges, and funding. (LRW)

  7. Ascott International

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    "Heart-to-Heart" Charity Event for Hearing-Impaired Children in Beijing On June 12, Ascott International North China held a "heart-to-heart" charity event for hearing-impaired children in the Heritage Room at the Ascott Beijing.

  8. Liver International

    OpenAIRE

    Quarantini, Lucas de Castro [UNIFESP; Rodrigo A Bressan; Galvão, Amanda; Neves, Susana Batista; Raymundo PARANÁ

    2007-01-01

    p. 1098-1102 Objective: Evaluate the incidence of mental disorders using pegylated interferon plus ribavirin retreatment in nonresponder hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Method: The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to evaluate 30 hepatitis C virus-infected interferon-nonresponder patients at baseline and following 4, 12 and 24 weeks of pegylated interferon retreatment. Results: During the pegylated interferon/ribavirin retreatment, 5(16.6%) patient...

  9. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  10. [Internal migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  11. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  12. Nitric oxide activates leak K+ currents in the presumed cholinergic neuron of basal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youngnam; Dempo, Yoshie; Ohashi, Atsuko; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Sato, Hajime; Koshino, Hisashi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2007-12-01

    Learning and memory are critically dependent on basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neuron excitability, which is modulated profoundly by leak K(+) channels. Many neuromodulators closing leak K(+) channels have been reported, whereas their endogenous opener remained unknown. We here demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) can be the endogenous opener of leak K(+) channels in the presumed BFC neurons. Bath application of 1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced a long-lasting hyperpolarization, which was often interrupted by a transient depolarization. Soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitors prevented SNAP from inducing hyperpolarization but allowed SNAP to cause depolarization, whereas bath application of 0.2 mM 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclomonophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) induced a similar long-lasting hyperpolarization alone. These observations indicate that the SNAP-induced hyperpolarization and depolarization are mediated by the cGMP-dependent and -independent processes, respectively. When examined with the ramp command pulse applied at -70 mV under the voltage-clamp condition, 8-Br-cGMP application induced the outward current that reversed at K(+) equilibrium potential (E(K)) and displayed Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz rectification, indicating the involvement of voltage-independent K(+) current. By contrast, SNAP application in the presumed BFC neurons either dialyzed with the GTP-free internal solution or in the presence of 10 muM Rp-8-bromo-beta-phenyl-1,N(2)-ethenoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate sodium salt, a protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, induced the inward current that reversed at potentials much more negative than E(K) and close to the reversal potential of Na(+)-K(+) pump current. These observations strongly suggest that NO activates leak K(+) channels through cGMP-PKG-dependent pathway to markedly decrease the excitability in BFC neurons, while NO simultaneously causes depolarization by the inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) pump through ATP

  13. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  14. Increase of sodium current after pyrethroid insecticides in mouse neuroblastoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigt, G.S.F.; Neyt, H.C.; Zalm, J.M. van der; Bercken, J. van der

    1987-01-01

    The effects of 4 different pyrethroid insecticides on sodium channel gating in internally perfused, cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells (N1E-115) were studied using the suction pipette, voltage clamp technique. Pyrethroids increased the amplitude of the sodium current, sometimes by more than 200%. Ac

  15. International Conference on Separations for Biotechnology: Reading, UK,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-19

    monitor" bven used to monitor the outlet glucose with the dialyzer incorporated in the concentration of a lactase column for apparatus. 18 Another type...conditions, and the randomly contami- Harris, J.M., J"Laboratory Synthesis of nated environment. Strathmann listed Polyethylene Glycol Derivatives," J. the

  16. Total internal reflectance fluorescence imaging of genetically engineered ryanodine receptor-targeted Ca(2+) probes in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Sara; Morad, Marin

    2017-09-01

    The details of cardiac Ca(2+) signaling within the dyadic junction remain unclear because of limitations in rapid spatial imaging techniques, and availability of Ca(2+) probes localized to dyadic junctions. To critically monitor ryanodine receptors' (RyR2) Ca(2+) nano-domains, we combined the use of genetically engineered RyR2-targeted pericam probes, (FKBP-YCaMP, Kd=150nM, or FKBP-GCaMP6, Kd=240nM) with rapid total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy (resolution, ∼80nm). The punctate z-line patterns of FKBP,(2)-targeted probes overlapped those of RyR2 antibodies and sharply contrasted to the images of probes targeted to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2a/PLB), or cytosolic Fluo-4 images. FKBP-YCaMP signals were too small (∼20%) and too slow (2-3s) to detect Ca(2+) sparks, but the probe was effective in marking where Fluo-4 Ca(2+) sparks developed. FKBP-GCaMP6, on the other hand, produced rapidly decaying Ca(2+) signals that: a) had faster kinetics and activated synchronous with ICa(3) but were of variable size at different z-lines and b) were accompanied by spatially confined spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks, originating from a subset of eager sites. The frequency of spontaneously occurring sparks was lower in FKBP-GCaMP6 infected myocytes as compared to Fluo-4 dialyzed myocytes, but isoproterenol enhanced their frequency more effectively than in Fluo-4 dialyzed cells. Nevertheless, isoproterenol failed to dissociate FKBP-GCaMP6 from the z-lines. The data suggests that FKBP-GCaMP6 binds predominantly to junctional RyR2s and has sufficient on-rate efficiency as to monitor the released Ca(2+) in individual dyadic clefts, and supports the idea that β-adrenergic agonists may modulate the stabilizing effects of native FKBP on RyR2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  18. Lü Shengrong Competes Internationally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Little-known by her Chinese compatriots but wellknown in the international sports world, L(?) Shengrong,president of the International Badminton Federation (IBF) and member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), has had a legendary career.

  19. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in dialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Granata

    Full Text Available To assess whether NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that mediates the activation of caspase-1 (CASP-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β, could be involved in the chronic inflammatory state observed in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment (CKD-HD, we employed several biomolecular techniques including RT-PCR, western blot, FACS analysis, confocal microscopy and microarray. Interestingly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 CKD-HD patients showed higher mRNA levels of NLRP3, CASP-1, ASC, IL-1β, IL-18 and P2X7 receptor compared to 15 healthy subjects. Western blotting analysis confirmed the above results. In particular, active forms of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 resulted significantly up-regulated in CKD-HD versus controls. Additionally, elevated mitochondrial ROS level, colocalization of NLRP3/ASC/mitochondria in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CKD-HD patients and down-regulation of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 protein levels in immune-cells of CKD-HD patients stimulated with LPS/ATP in presence of mitoTEMPO, inhibitor of mitochondrial ROS production, suggested a possible role of this organelle in the aforementioned CKD-associated inflammasome activation. Then, microarray analysis confirmed, in an independent microarray study cohort, that NLRP3 and CASP-1, along with other inflammasome-related genes, were up-regulated in 17 CKD-HD patients and they were able to clearly discriminate these patients from 5 healthy subjects. All together these data showed, for the first time, that NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in uremic patients undergoing dialysis treatment and they suggested that this unphysiological condition could be possibly induced by mitochondrial dysfunction.

  20. Limits of mass-transfer in parallel plate dialyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, Spas D.; Linden, van der Willem E.

    1992-01-01

    The absolute limits of mass transfer across the membrane in a parallel-plate dialyser set by the flow pattern in both channels were determined on the basis of a mathematical model assuming axially dispersed plug flow. The lower limit corresponds to the case of mass transfer under laminar flow condit

  1. Dialyzer membrane permeability and survival in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Nguyen, Hiep; Combe, Christian; Chêne, Geneviève; Azar, Raymond; Cano, Noël; Canaud, Bernard; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Leverve, Xavier; Roth, Hubert; Aparicio, Michel

    2005-03-01

    We previously showed that nutritional protein concentrations were predictive of outcome, whereas variables reflecting body composition and dialysis dose were not, in a 30-month prospective follow-up of 1,610 hemodialysis patients. Information on dialysis membrane and erythropoietin use had to be evaluated in an additional follow-up. A subset of 650 patients from the initial cohort of 1,610 was analyzed for survival in a 2-year extension of follow-up. Detailed data were collected: demographics; cause of renal failure; time on dialysis therapy; type of membrane; erythropoietin treatment; body mass index (BMI); predialysis albumin, prealbumin, and bicarbonate levels; and outcome. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), dialysis adequacy, and lean body mass were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine values. Patient characteristics were age of 61 +/- 16 years, 58% men, BMI of 22.7 +/- 4.4 kg/m2 , time on dialysis therapy of 102 +/- 73 months, and 8.8% had diabetes. Dialysis parameters were duration of 247 +/- 31 minutes, Kt/V of 1.4 +/- 0.3, and nPCR of 1.2 +/- 0.3 g/kg/d. Albumin level was 3.73 +/- 0.53 g/dL (37.3 +/- 5.3 g/L), and prealbumin level was 31 +/- 8 mg/dL. The survival rate was 78.7% after 2 years. Survival was influenced by age, presence of diabetes, use of high-flux membrane, and serum albumin level, but not other variables, including Kt/V and prealbumin level. Two-year variations in values for urea, creatinine, and weight were predictive of survival in univariate, but not multivariate, analyses. In patients on dialysis therapy for a long period, better survival was observed when high-flux dialysis membranes were used.

  2. Urokinase treatment for arteriovenous fistulae declotting in dialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, G; Canavese, C; Thea, A; Segoloni, G P; Stratta, P; Salomone, M; Vercellone, A

    1984-01-01

    Urokinase treatment, previously employed with success in the declotting of deep venous thrombosis and arteriovenous shunts in patients undergoing regular dialytic treatment (RDT), was used in 23 cases of arteriovenous fistula thrombotic occlusion in 18 RDT patients. The treatment was successful in 65.2% of the cases without any negative side effects, except 1 case which may have developed a pulmonary embolism. Patients with severe hypofibrinolysis may need larger doses or may have a recurrence of the thrombotic episode. All therapeutic failures correlated with the presence of fibrosis or sclerosis.

  3. Surveying your internal customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  4. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  5. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY STATEMENT OF PURPOSE The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T... International Engagement Strategy is intended to establish clear goals and objectives to guide S&T’s international cooperative research, development... International Engagement Strategy, the 2015 White House National Security Strategy, the 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review, and the DHS Fiscal

  6. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  7. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  8. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    ). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3...

  9. Internal septorhinoplasty technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  10. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura

    2011-01-01

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By us

  11. Training for International Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Judy

    1980-01-01

    As many corporations widen their scope to international markets, there arises a need for specialized management development. To be effective in an international environment, a manager requires linguistic, social, and communication skills, functional expertise, and familiarity with cultural differences. (SK)

  12. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Mission of ITNS The International Transplant Nurses Society is committed to the promotion of excellence in ... 20-1589538 Copyright © 2006 - 2014 International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS). No materials, including graphics, may be reused, ...

  13. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  14. National and International Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  15. Improving Internal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  16. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  17. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  18. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  19. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  20. The International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different ...

  1. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  2. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  3. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  4. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...

  5. Interne eller eksterne ledere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed...

  6. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada

    2006-01-01

    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firm...

  7. International Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  8. Sovereignty in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MAFTEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at highlighting in this paper, after analyzing the transformations that took place in the international society, the importance of a particularly sensitive and current topic for public international law, namely the sovereignty. A political and legal concept at the same time, the state sovereignty remains permanently into the attention of researchers in an attempt to determine its role in international relations governed by the international law. The concept of sovereignty is complex, it can be analyzed in terms of the national law, but as a member of international society, a State participates in international relations on the basis of sovereign equality principle, which causes another meaning of sovereignty, which completes the one specific to the internal life. We have analyzed the evolution of the concept of sovereignty and we have identified the causes that led to changes in its characteristics, in order to predict the tendencies in its development. We have highlighted the aspects of the exercise of sovereignty as a result of limiting the powers of state in the favor of international bodies. In preparing this article we have used as research methods the analysis of the problems generated by mentioned subject with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in specialized papers, documentary research, and interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  9. International mercury conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg) affects human health and the environment, it calls for immediate action. Action is needed at local, regional and international level to reduce the risk associated with mercury, which is a global international problem, as it is a...

  10. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  11. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  12. Embracing an International Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new international stock board will soon be established in Shanghai,allowing foreign companies to list their businesses and tap into the China market China is moving closer to launching its own international stock board,a market for foreign companies to list their stocks in China,said Shang Fulin,

  13. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law....

  14. Intern kommunikation under forandring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Helle; Asmuss, Birte; Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove;

    , organisation og ledelse, som er relevante for arbejdet med den interne kommunikation. Bogen beskæftiger sig med intern kommunikation i bred forstand, dvs. med tekster og genrer, der ikke kun produceres af kommunikationsafdelingen, men også af ledelse, medarbejdere og HR-afdeling. Blandt bogens emner kan nævnes......, men kan læses med stort udbytte af alle, der arbejder med eller interesserer sig for, hvordan organisationer kommunikerer med sig selv, og hvordan den interne kommunikation forandrer sig. Bogen udfylder et hul i den danske faglitteratur om strategisk kommunikation, hvor der i mange år har manglet en......Intern kommunikation under forandring giver en teoretisk og praktisk indføring i de tekster, genrer og kommunikationsformer, som den interne kommunikation i private og offentlige virksomheder eller organisationer typisk omfatter. Dertil kommer en indføring i opfattelser af kommunikation...

  15. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...

  16. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  17. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  18. Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair is a new starting point. In the face of the main development trend of international and domes tic convention and exhibition industry, the fierce competition among the domestic exhibition industry, Dalian International Garment Fair sizes up the situation and the golden opportunity that China will revitalize the Northeast old industrial base and turn Dalian into the international shipping center in Northeast Asia; it takes the new Dalian Convention and Exhibition Center as a turning point. Under the leadership of Dalian Mu-nicipal Party Committee and Dalian municipal government, and under the support and assistance of the sponsors, Dalian International Garment Fair emancipates the mind and plans the future with the viewpoint of scientific development, innovative thinking and practical operation.

  19. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  20. Exploring Links between Internal and International Migration in Albania : a View from Internal Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; Van Wissen, Leo J. G.

    Over the last 20years, Albania has experienced sweeping economic and social changes, caused in part by increasing internal and international migration flows. Migration trajectories of Albanians represent a combination of internal, international, and return migration. Whereas scholars have previously

  1. Internal tide oceanic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  2. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  4. International New Venture Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during...... the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK...

  5. International Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over three million international students worldwide, and in recent years higher education institutions compete with each other in order to receive these students to their institutions. International students are now one of the most important indicator of the internationalization of the higher education systems and institutions. In this context, the detection of the status of this indicator in our higher education system and institutions is of great importance as our higher education system shows a large expansion. This study, discusses the status of international students in our country.

  6. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Personas have become a well-known method for IT-designers when developing new products. However, the vast majority of personas constructed are created from a mono-cultural (Western) perspective, representing users from a single national culture at a time. Due to the growing global market......, international companies show an increasing interest in creating international personas, but research on personas in a global context is still limited. To address this gap, this paper first offers a review on articles addressing international personas, and second it presents an empirical Danish study...

  7. International Institutions and GHG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  9. Veterinary practice internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, T E

    1996-02-01

    This chapter explores the responsive management requirements critical for effective internal controls. Internal control techniques offered include the application of segregation of function, goal-orientation, performance planning, and training objectives in five veterinary practice areas. These areas are client controls, cash controls, inventory controls, purchase controls, and stock controls. Because only trusted staff members are given access to practice assets, the veterinary leadership must have a responsive management plan to protect the life of the practice while building the practice team. Methods are shared for controlling opportunities that can lead to employee fraud while concurrently building a team approach to internal controls.

  10. National narcissism: Internal dimensions and international correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Gries, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In studies conducted in the United States and China, we explored the impact of national narcissism, grandiosity, and entitlement, demonstrating that: (a) national narcissism was distinct from both individual narcissism and collective self-esteem (patriotism); (b) national entitlement and national grandiosity constituted two distinct dimensions of national narcissism; and (c) national narcissism, national grandiosity, and national entitlement, but not individual narcissism, were uniquely predictive of political attitudes, foreign policy preferences, and purchase intentions. Together, these findings provided convergent evidence for the utility of national narcissism and its two internal dimensions, national entitlement and national grandiosity.

  11. The Internal Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  12. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  13. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  14. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  15. ASKME Enterprise Portal (internal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASKME Enterprise Portal Internal (AEPi) is envisioned to be an integrated, single-point-of-entry solution that contains modular components. The AEPi will provide...

  16. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  18. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    .... Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization...

  19. International resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  20. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory......, to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...... as they show an increasing interest in international personas. However, research on personas in a global context is limited. To address this gap, this paper provides an overview of extant research on international personas. Secondly, it presents an empirical study on challenges Danish IT companies experience...

  1. International Physiotherapy Eduication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brownb

    KEY WORDS: Physiotherapy education, future direction, international education, transnational education ... didactic and clinical teaching practices and options, and also provides .... delivery modes especially in distance education in all fields.

  2. Galaxy International Mall Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An agreement between Galaxy International Mall (hereinafter referred to as Galaxy) and its three main partners was signed on January 12, 2011, in the city of Tianjin. The partners are Lotte Department

  3. International standards in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fomina; O.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  4. The Internal Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  5. Evolutionary internalized regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R

    2001-08-01

    Roger Shepard's proposals and supporting experiments concerning evolutionary internalized regularities have been very influential in the study of vision and in other areas of psychology and cognitive science. This paper examines issues concerning the need, nature, explanatory role, and justification for postulating such internalized constraints. In particular, I seek further clarification from Shepard on how best to understand his claim that principles of kinematic geometry underlie phenomena of motion perception. My primary focus is on the ecological validity of Shepard's kinematic constraint in the context of ordinary motion perception. First, I explore the analogy Shepard draws between internalized circadian rhythms and the supposed internalization of kinematic geometry. Next, questions are raised about how to interpret and justify applying results from his own and others' experimental studies of apparent motion to more everyday cases of motion perception in richer environments. Finally, some difficulties with Shepard's account of the evolutionary development of his kinematic constraint are considered.

  6. International Cometary Explorer (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    NASA spacecraft, originally known as ISEE-3 (International Sun-Earth Explorer). First spacecraft to encounter a comet. Launched in August 1978. After completing its original mission, it was reactivated and diverted to pass through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on 11 September 1985. It also observed Halley's Comet from a distance of 28 million km in March 1986. (See also INTERNATIONAL SUN-EAR...

  7. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    167092 JPRS-UIA-87-014 7 APRIL 1987 USSR Report INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DTSTPIBÜTTON HT^TFM’oKT Ä Approved fox ou’-K- ’c<£x;se; Distribution... USSR REPORT INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS EAST-WEST RELATIONS Ambassador, Correspondents View CSCE Process, Progress (NEPSZABADSAG, 13 Feb 87...Range Program (Boris Remizov, Valdimir Proskuryakov ; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, No 10, 1986) 21 - a - Measures for

  8. Criteria for internal auditing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  9. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  10. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  11. The art of internalizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1993-10-01

    Generally speaking, there is economical and political support for the idea that road users should pay the full share of their costs, including environmental costs. The Dutch government has also made pricing a key element of its traffic policy. However, between this general aspiration and concrete policy measures there is a yawning gap. The Dutch government`s main recommendations for increasing the price of road traffic, road pricing and toll collections were voted down in parliament. Real fuel taxes in Europe probably decreased rather than increased over the years. Even the recent EC agreement on the minimum vehicle tax level for trucks and the so-called Euro vignet mean only a slight improvement in cost allocation. What is behind the described gap between general aspiration and concrete policy? This is the key question addressed in this report, that, after setting out a largely economic analysis, provides suggestions for achieving true internalization of all traffic costs. The problem of cost internalization is virtually congruent to that of abolishing or reducing subsidies. An essential step towards reducing subsidies or allocating costs is an independent analysis of the major consequences involved. In this report, first the main background and impact of internalizing transport costs are reviewed. Topics covered included economic and social effects and the need for international harmonization. Next, the policy instruments that are available for the internalization of traffic costs are discussed, partly based on the above-mentioned analysis. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs.

  12. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  13. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  14. Determinants of International Competiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as “Innovation Matrix”. Data is collected from two areas:  competitiveness and culture. After describing two sets of data, the researcher tests two hypotheses: (1 long-term economic growth is a function of government policies and (2 culture plays an insignificant role in gaining competitiveness and economic growth. In conclusion, the paper makes recommendations as how a country can improve its economic competitiveness.

  15. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...... a company’s general attitude and approach to (1) international markets and (2) user studies. Lastly, we present the theoretical ideas and concepts about culture that has informed the research....... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...

  16. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  17. International energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  18. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  19. Constructivism and International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This new book unites in one volume some of the most prominent critiques of Alexander Wendt's constructivist theory of international relations and includes the first comprehensive reply by Wendt. Partly reprints of benchmark articles, partly new original critiques, the critical chapters are informed...... critique of the realist school, the conceptualism of identity, and his teleological theory of history. Wendt's reply is not limited to rebuttal only. For the first time, he develops his recent idea of quantum social science, as well as its implications for theorising international relations. This unique...... by a wide array of contending theories ranging from realism to poststructuralism. The collected leading theorists critique Wendt's seminal book Social Theory of International Politics and his subsequent revisions. They take issue with the full panoply of Wendt's approach, such as his alleged positivism, his...

  20. Sport and International Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yimeng

    2008-01-01

    As China takes center stage for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in August, enthusiasm for the Games extends far beyond the capital city. For Chinese, the Olympics is about national pride and cultural legacy. The Chinese government hopes to make this event a morale booster for the development of the whole country. And for the world, the Olympics is not just a global sporting event, but also an important platform for promoting world harmony and communication between cultures. As editor of Contemporary International Relations, I am mindful of the connection between sport and international relations. Sport today plays a highly significant role in the world, and the impact of this global phenomenon on international relations is often underestimated.

  1. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    are defended by, e.g., Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich and Huw Price), that promises to solve the problems. According to this position, the problem of meaning can be solved by prohibiting an external perspective on meaning constituting properties. The idea is that if we stick to a perspective on meaning......The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis-Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning...

  2. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  3. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  4. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  5. International Energy Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongtu

    2007-01-01

    The international energy situation has entered a new phase of change and readjustment. On the one hand, while imbalances in petroleum market supply-demand have been alleviated , the consuming states are now focusing on demand side management and development of new and renewable energy. There has been great progress in international energy security dialogue and cooperation. On the other hand , supply-demand market balance remains fragile , and restrictions due to insufficient energy investment are more evident. The concerned states have taken a stronger grip over their own resources. Implementation of energy diplomacy has also further complicated the relationship between energy and geo-politics, causing an upsurge of competition.

  6. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  7. The international RESPO network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  8. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  9. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  10. Beredskab eller intern sikkerhed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2012-01-01

    Skal Danmark have en beredskabspolitik eller en politik for intern sikkerhed? Det er et af de spørgsmål, den internationale institutionsudvikling inden for det robuste og sikre samfund stiller til det danske beredskabspolitiske univers. På baggrund af en ekspertpraktikerworkshop beskriver denne...... at anvende den nye robusthedstænkning som basis for en intern sikkerhedsstrategi. Den klassiske helhedsorienterede beredskabsplanlægning som traditionelt har fokuseret på beredskab som noget lokalt forankret gives dermed en ny ramme på europæisk plan. Det har politisk betydning fordi et forøget sagsområde...

  11. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  12. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  13. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  14. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  15. INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE AND ANALYSIS CENTER. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ARCHIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  16. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  17. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  18. International Outreach from Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, John

    1980-01-01

    Programs at Western Kentucky University including undergraduate curricula in Latin-American and Asian studies, technical assistance projects overseas, student and faculty exchange programs, seminars and workshops, and community activities are described. "Friendship teams" (a faculty advisor, four international students, and an American…

  19. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  20. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  1. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  2. When managerialism meets internationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas; Lewis, Jenny; Bentzen, Sune Raahede

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether reform ideas that gained influence in national-level bureaucracies in the 1970s were also on the United Nations’ internal agenda. The Joint Inspection Unit (Bertrand) Report of 1971 is the focus of this analysis, as it addressed personnel problems in the UN Secretariat...

  3. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  4. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  5. International Foundry Forum 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Foundry Forum is a "Summit"of the Foundry World. It is the convention of the CEO world wide, of important casting users, ferrous and non-ferrous foundries as well as foundry equipment and consumable suppliers. Their overall goal is to increase the market opportunities for metal castings in competition with other processes and products in a global business environment.

  6. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  7. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  8. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  9. Clarifying the Internment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    Through efforts to interpret and condemn the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, the experience of internees themselves has been neglected. To clarify the experience, the author has focused on the internees in faculty seminars and in history classes at the University of California Los Angeles. (SLD)

  10. International Dictionary of Ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Describes the "International Dictionary of Ballet" and provides an activity for grades 6-9 that can be used by the school library media specialist in cooperation with the music teacher. Resource materials are listed (including books and nonprint materials), and suggestions for adaptation to other curriculum areas are offered. (LRW)

  11. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente; Levinsen, Karin

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...

  12. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FINAL FINALweb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    INTERNAL PROBLEMS OF WOMEN: A FORCE MILITATING AGAINST ... is debatable whether or not the influence of Christianity has been beneficial to the ... work . . . take up a stick and beat her soundly . . . for it is better to punish the body and ..... training and research center for women of the United Nations Commission.

  13. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu

    2017-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration, using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  14. International Summer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, June

    1979-01-01

    The article describes five summer programs for gifted and talented students offered internationally. The programs outlined are workshops in the publication arts, a study of humanistic development; computer science, writing, and photography workshops; a language study; a historical/social study of English history; and a workshop on photography,…

  15. International Business Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  16. China International Fashion Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-six young fashion designers from 17 countries and regions gathered at the Fourth Brother Cup China International Young Fashion Designers Contest in Beijing in mid-April. The designers drew ideas from colorful life and displayed their talents in art through the theme, "Splendid Attire for the Art Festival."

  17. International Relations in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    Why is the French International Relations (IR) discipline different from the transnational-American discipline? By analysing argument structures in research articles across time, this book shows how the discipline in France is caught between the American character of the discipline and the French...

  18. Decoding the International System

    CERN Document Server

    Piepers, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The International System develops according to a clear logic: By means of systemic wars organisational innovations are periodically introduced, contributing to a process of social expansion and integration, and to wealth creation. A finite-time singularity accompanied by four accelerating log-periodic cycles can be identified during the time frame 1495-1945.

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  20. Jiangsu International Apparel Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On September 7th-9th, 2007, the 9th International Apparel Festival, sponsored by the People's Government of Jiangsu province and China National Textile and Apparel Council, and organized by the Economic and Trade Commission of Jiangsu province, was held in the city of Nanjing, in Jiangsu province of China.

  1. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  2. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  3. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  4. Simulation in International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  5. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  6. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...... of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves....

  7. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...

  8. Intel International Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Wendy; Mandinach, Ellen; Kanaya, Tomoe; Culp, Katie McMillan

    2004-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary data and observations from evaluations of Intel Teach to the Future being conducted around the world, and recommendations for building and refining this evaluation portfolio to ensure that findings will be instructive at the local, national and international level. The data presented here reflect the…

  9. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  10. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  11. International kernekraftstatus 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerup, C.F.; Majborn, Benny; Ølgaard, Povl Lebeck

    1998-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1997, the report contains: -General trends in the development of nuclear power -A review of what can bedone with the plutonium stocks of the world...

  12. Medications and International Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-12

    This podcast answers a listener's question about her medications and an international trip she's planning.  Created: 4/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/12/2011.

  13. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Use for Addicts .................................................... 34 Figures Figure 1. Map of World Drug Majors in FY2009...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD ,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine). 3 LSD is the street name for lysergic acid diethylamide. 4 The most recent international effort to estimate the value of

  14. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  15. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  16. The current issues of internal control and internal audit harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Синюгіна, Наталія Вікторівна

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of topics related to a harmonization of internal control and internal audit system of internal financial control is being proved. It is high lightened the essence of harmonization period by reviewing existing thoughts on this object, a concept of 'harmonization of internal control and internal audit", and provided reasonably practical recommendations to ensure such harmonization in the modern world. The scientific impact of this research is to clarify the concept of "harmonizati...

  17. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  18. Assessing intern handover processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Robert; Block, Lauren; Silva, Kathryn Novello; Oliver, Nora; Wu, Albert; Feldman, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    New standards for resident work hours set in 2011 changed the landscape of patient care in teaching hospitals, and resulted in new challenges for US residency training programmes to overcome. One such challenge was a dramatic increase in the number of patient handovers performed by residents. As a result, there is a renewed focus for clinical teachers to develop educational strategies to optimise the patient handover process and improve the quality of patient care and safety. In order to investigate current gaps in resident handovers, we examined the handover processes performed by medicine interns at two academic medical centres in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We used trained observers to collect data on whether handovers were conducted face to face, with questions asked, in private locations, with written documentation, and without distractions or interruptions. Results were analysed using chi-square tests, and adjusted for clustering at the observer and intern levels. Interns successfully conducted handovers face to face (99.5%), asked questions (85.3%), used private locations (91%), included written handover documentation (95.8%) and did not experience distractions for the majority of the time (87.7%); however, interruptions were pervasive, occurring 41.3 per cent of the time. In order to investigate current gaps in resident handovers, we examined the handover processes performed by medicine interns Interns conducted patient handovers face to face, with questions asked, in private locations, with written documentation and without distractions the majority of the time; however, interruptions during the handover process were common. Exploring gaps at the individual programme level is a critical first step to develop effective teaching strategies to optimise handovers in residency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Internal audit consider the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela

    2004-06-01

    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  20. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  1. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  2. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  3. Global assessment of internal audit competence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    4Key words: certified internal auditor, competency assessment, internal auditing, internal .... different perceptions of internal audit competencies needed: 11 general competencies essential to perform ...... report writing, presentation) ccxxxii.

  4. The Response Clamp: Functional characterization of neural systems using closed-loop control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner eWallach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltage clamp method, pioneered by Hodgkin, Huxley and Katz, laid the foundations to neurophysiological research. Its core rationale is the use of closed-loop control as a tool for system characterization. A recently introduced method, the response clamp, extends the voltage clamp rationale to the functional, phenomenological level. The method consists of on-line estimation of a response variable of interest (e.g. the probability of response or its latency and a simple feedback control mechanism designed to tightly converge this variable towards a desired trajectory. In the present contribution I offer a perspective on this novel method and its applications in the broader context of system identification and characterization. First, I demonstrate how internal state variables are exposed using the method, and how the use of several controllers may allow for a detailed, multi-variable characterization of the system. Second, I discuss three different categories of applications of the method: (i exploration of intrinsically generated dynamics, (ii exploration of extrinsically generated dynamics and (iii generation of input-output trajectories. The relation of these categories to similar uses in the voltage clamp and other techniques is also discussed. Finally, I discuss the method’s limitations, as well as its possible synthesis with existing complementary approaches.

  5. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  6. Celebrities in International Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    , media, and NGOs, then considers exemplary cases of Angelina Jolie in Burma, Ben Affleck in the Democractic Republic of Congo, and Madonna in Malawi. These celebrity practices as diplomats, experts, and humanitarians in international affairs illustrate the diverse and contradictory forms of engagement......Celebrity engagement in global “helping” is not a simple matter of highly photogenic caring for needy others across borders; it is a complex relationship of power that often produces contradictory functions in relation to the goals of humanitarianism, development, and advocacy. This article argues...... that celebrities are acting as other elite actors in international affairs: investing considerable capital into processes that are highly political. It traces the emergence and practices of the elite politics of celebrities in North-South relations, an evolution made possible by recent changes in aid practices...

  7. International Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  8. International operations networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Sami; Cheng, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Although the area of International Manufacturing Network (IMN) and International Operations Network (ION) has received considerable attention in the literature, most of studies appear multifaceted and interdisciplinary, and thereby require thorough investigation from both academic and practical perspectives, in order to deepen our related understanding. The book seeks advanced contributions that will combine theoretical insights and empirical experience by offering a detailed examination of IMN and, further, ION from various perspectives. This book can be used as a reference material for scholarpractitioners, business executives, and university researchers who need to deepen their understanding on the importance and influence of IMN and ION as well as their development. The book is important because there are few reference/resource materials available related to IMN and ION.

  9. SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL FAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Third Shanghai International Industrial Fair was held in New International Fair Center in Pudong Area in late November. This industrial fair titled "Information and Industrialization" aimed at highlighting China's high technology and industrial achievements in the new century. The sponsors for this session of industrial fair include China State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Foreign Economic and Trade Relations, Ministry of Information Industry, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Government.CNPC and Sinopec participated in the exhibition displaying a number of the latest technologies such as PetroChina's model for state land resources and Sinopec's model for 300,000-ton ethylene project.

  10. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible...... analysis of what Bourdieu-inspired IR might look like. This book provides the answer. It offers an introduction to Bourdieu’s thinking to a wider IR audience, challenges key assumptions, which currently structure IR scholarship – and provides an original, theoretical restatement of some of the core....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  11. Beijing International Sculpture Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inauguration of the 2002 Beijing International Urban Sculptural Art Exhibition also saw the opening of the Beijing International Sculpture Park on Yuquan Road, Beijing. The park houses 140 statues.This exhibition is aimed at promoting exchanges and cooperation among sculptors across the world, integrating urban sculpture into everyday life, and encouraging innovation in this sector. It is expected to bring inspiration to Beijing as regards new concepts in urban construction, through exchanges with other nations. This exhibition constitutes interaction between the public and art, and dialogue between China and the world.The works on display are Beijing’s latest attraction, and add a touch of modernity to this ancient city. Some are to be placed in sports stadiums during the 2008 Olympics.

  12. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-02-15

    Concerning the european community, two meetings occurred during october 2008, the group on the nuclear safety and the waste management at Brussels and the meeting of W.E.N.R.A. (Western european nuclear regulator association). At the international level, the commission on safety standards took place in september 2008 at Vienna, a general conference of IAEA and the senor regulator meeting in september at Vienna. The worldwide conference of radiation protection (International radiation protection association -I.R.P.A.) took place under IAEA aegis at Buenos Aires in october 2008. Bilateral relations between France and South Africa, Germany, China, United States and Japan took place in october 2008 and were about information exchanges. (N.C.)

  13. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...... and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From...... this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology) is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully...

  14. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  15. Geneva international synergies

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Geneva has a long history of hosting international organizations, which is part of the reason why CERN is here, and it makes the canton an ideal place to forge links between such organizations. Over recent weeks, CERN has signed agreements with the ITU, WIPO and the WMO. At first sight, there may not seem to be much common ground between CERN and, say, the World Meteorological Organization, but scratch the surface, and you’ll soon find a common thread. All of these organizations have a vocation to stimulate technological innovation, and together we’re stronger.   Let’s start with ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. There, the synergies are evident. When ITU organized the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003, CERN provided a significant side event examining the Role of Science in the Information Society. The current agreement builds on that, allowing our two organizations to work together on important societal issues such as the extension of b...

  16. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G

    2015-01-01

    the final version. RESULTS: The data set consists of nine variables: (1) Intervention/Procedure Date and start time (2) Non-surgical bed rest and external immobilization, (3) Spinal intervention-closed manipulation and/or reduction of spinal elements, (4) Surgical procedure-approach, (5) Date and time......STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS...... of the completion of the intervention or surgical closure; (6) Surgical procedure-open reduction, (7) Surgical procedure-direct decompression of neural elements, and (8 and 9) Surgical procedure-stabilization and fusion (spinal segment number and level). All variables are coded using numbers or characters. Each...

  17. The international joint commission

    OpenAIRE

    Clamens, Murray

    2005-01-01

    For over 92 years the International Joint Commission (IJC), United States and Canada, has effectively served the two nations in approving and providing continuous oversight of water resource projects along the 5000-mile common border, in assisting the governments in preventing and resolving issues and disagreements regarding the use of these waters, and in addressing other environmental issues affecting or potentially affecting one or both of the countries. During the first years of the 20th...

  18. International Monetary Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Carlberg, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the international coordination of monetary policies in the world economy. It carefully discusses the process of policy competition and the structure of policy cooperation. As to policy competition, the focus is on monetary competition between Europe and America. Similarly, as to policy cooperation, the focus is on monetary cooperation between Europe and America. The spillover effects of monetary policy are negative. The policy targets are price stability and full employment.

  19. International markets for CCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriter, J.P. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.

  20. International Masterclass at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, M

    2012-01-01

    The CMS collaboration welcomed a class of French high school students to the CERN facility in Meyrin, Switzerland on the 12 of March, 2012. Students spent the day meeting with physicists, hearing talks, asking questions, and participating in a hands-on exercise using real data collected by the CMS experiment on the Large Hadron Colider. Talks and other resources are available here: http://ippog-dev.web.cern.ch/resources/2012/ippog-international-masterclass-2012-cms

  1. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  2. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Some Thoughts on Renminbi Internationalization The objectives of RMB internationalization include less need for China to hold US dollar assets so as to avoid risking capital losses, the elimination of exchange-rate risks for Chinese firms, greater funding efficiency for Chinese financial institutions and the promotion of Shanghai as an international financial center. However, the progress in China' s RMB internationalization so far has failed to achieve the above-mentioned objectives.

  3. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-23

    newspaper JORNADA notes, "Washington has gone over to kindling a conflict between Honduras and Nicaragua, which opens the way for direct U.S...transport-economic ties are to a significant degree found in a more rational international socialist division of labor ; organization of optimal...Intensifying cooperation and increasing the effectiveness of the mutual division of labor of the CEMA nations on the whole will make a significant

  4. Internal mail envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unusual stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  5. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  6. IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH INTERNAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Dumitrescu

    2009-01-01

    The paper takes into consideration the role of internal marketing in enhancing and sustaining a company’s ability to compete: · much new thinking and practice in strategic marketing is concerned with managing relationships: with the customer, and with partners in strategic alliances. However, a further aspect of relationship management and relationship marketing is the relationship with the employees and managers, upon whose skills, commitment and performance the success of a marketing strate...

  7. Project: Internal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceived information needs of NASA Langley employees. One hundred and twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of aero-space technologists, administrative professionals, technicians. and secretarial/clerical personnel. Results of employee perceptions are analyzed and summarized using affinity diagramming. Particular strategies to maximize use of existing internal communication networks are discussed.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  9. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  10. AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the Shanghai Cooperation Organization celebrates its fifth anniversary, experts at home and abroad are invited to comment on the organization's development at a seminar co-sponsored by International Review magazine and Fudan University in Shanghai. Excerpts follow: Achievements and drawbacks Pan Guang (Consultant at the Center for Russian and Central Asian Studies, Fudan University, and Director of the Center for Shanghai Cooperation Organization Studies under the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences):...

  11. Roget's international thesaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Robert L

    2001-01-01

    A classic reference book that has been used by millions all over the world, Roget's International Thesaurus is the product of more than a century and a half of continuous expansion, reorganization, and improvement. Today, this book is not only the most time-tested and bestselling thesaurus ever, but, newly revised, it is also the most up-to-date and comprehensive reflection of the English language as it is currently used.

  12. Internal control system

    OpenAIRE

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation focuse on the internal control system in the enterprises, aims to map the control system by focusing on the purchasing department. I focused on the purchasing process, because with an increasing trends of outsourcing services and the increasing interconnectedness of enterprises increases the risk of fraud currently in the purchasing process. To the research was selected the sample of companies from the banking and non-banking environment, to which were sent a questionnaire focusi...

  13. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  14. International diversity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While the concern with demographic diversity in organizations has increased during recent years, international diversity management still remains an understudied area. This is unfortunate since the transfer of diversity management practices within multinational corporations faces particular...... challenges in balancing between global integration and local responsiveness. The aim of this paper is to illustrate some of the central problems that multinational corporations need to deal with when transferring diversity management practices from headquarters to local subsidiaries. This is illustrated...

  15. Fuzzballs with internal excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    We construct general 2-charge D1-D5 horizon-free non-singular solutions of IIB supergravity on T{sup 4} and K3 describing fuzzballs with excitations in the internal manifold; these excitations are characterized by arbitrary curves. The solutions are obtained via dualities from F1-P solutions of heterotic and type IIB on T{sup 4} for the K3 and T{sup 4} cases, respectively. We compute the holographic data encoded in these solutions, and show that the internal excitations are captured by vevs of chiral primaries associated with the middle cohomology of T{sup 4} or K3. We argue that each geometry is dual to a specific superposition of R ground states determined in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the curves defining the supergravity solution. We compute vevs of chiral primaries associated with the middle cohomology and show that they indeed acquire vevs in the superpositions corresponding to fuzzballs with internal excitations, in accordance with the holographic results. We also address the question of whether the fuzzball program can be implemented consistently within supergravity.

  16. Editorial: International Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, both the theory of internationalisation of the firm and/or the theory of international business have developed. Recent developments in international business studies prove that entrepreneurial orientation (EO emerges as one of the important potential factors contributing to the intensification of the processes of internationalisation of the firm (Etemad, 2015; Gupta & Gupta, 2015. It seems that international entrepreneurship (IE has been flourishing. The general theory of entrepreneurship indicates that market opportunities are a common and dominant link for all entrepreneurial activities. The entrepreneurship theory refers to the identification or creation opportunities, their evaluation and exploitation. The expansion into new geographic markets is undoubtedly an important market opportunity for growth and development. The internationalisation as a response to the market opportunity takes diverse paths. Based on the in-depth literature search, this issue of our journal aims to determine whether, why and how, in the context of diverse environmental conditions, the pursuit of market opportunities contributes to the increase of internationalisation of the firm (Dimitratos & Plakoyiannaki, 2003; Dimitratos, Voudouris, Plakoyiannaki & Nakos,. 2012; Wach. 2015.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  18. Dictionary of international commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, William J

    1985-01-01

    International trade is vital to the well-being of the international market. No textbook suited virtually every nation, because no nation is my purpose, so I set about to write one. capable of satisfying its material needs beyond the subsistence level entirely from domestic My first task was to define my terms-tar­ iffs, non-tariff barriers, shipping terminology, resources. As a nation's technology advances and edu­ etc. As this labor progressed over many cational levels improve, heavy industry and months, it became evident there was need for manufacturing are often supplanted by serv­ an encyclopedic reference work which fo­ ice industries, as evidenced by the economies cused upon international trade. My enquiries of Europe, North America, and Japan. The having divulged no similar work in English, I shift to a service economy increases import decided to concentrate efforts upon an reliance, especially in the areas of consumer encyclopedia. products and basic industrial commodities, In selecting entries, i...

  19. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  20. Rotary internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine assembly. It includes: a central rotor means formed with at least one peripheral fuel cavity. The cavity having a first surface defining a thrust surface and a second surface defining a contoured surface; a housing means enclosing the rotor and having an internal wall encircling the rotor. The internal wall being intercepted by at least two recesses defining cylinder means. The housing means and the rotor means being relatively rotatable; piston means individual to each the cylinder means and reciprocable therein; each piton means having a working face complementary to aid contoured surface; and power means for urging the working face into intimate areal contact with the contoured surface to create a first seal means. The housing means having at lest one fuel inlet port, at least one fuel ignition means and at least one exhaust port whereby during the course of a revolution of the rotor means relative to the housing means, the first seal means, the power means, the respective ports, the ignition means and the fuel cavity cooperate to develop fuel compression, fuel ignition and exhaust functions.

  1. International Humanitarian Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2016 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2015 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2015 CIRP were Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD (Chair); Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Silvia S. Canetto, PhD; Amanda Clinton, PhD; Melissa L. Morgan Consoli, PhD; Chryse G. Hatzichristou, PhD; Arpana G. Inman, PhD; Lori Foster Thompson, PhD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Abdulrehman, Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Thompson, and Dr. Wedding were members of the subcommittee for the 2016 award. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  3. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Explore the past, the present and help build a promising future for the world’s polio survivors. ... Polio Health International (PHI) Including International Ventilator Users Network 4207 Lindell Blvd., #110, Saint Louis, MO 63108- ...

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  5. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  6. English as an International Language: International Student and Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the literature on Asian international students, current debates surrounding English as an international language (EIL), and the conceptual tools of appropriation, this article reports the findings of a qualitative research study with eight Asian international students studying at a university in Thailand to explore their taking…

  7. New international services and the competitiveness of Tokyo International Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Matsumoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government i

  8. Optimize Internal Workflow Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia RUSU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Workflow Management has the role of creating andmaintaining an efficient flow of information and tasks inside anorganization. The major benefit of workflows is the solutions tothe growing needs of organizations. The external and theinternal processes associated with a business need to be carefullyorganized in order to provide a strong foundation for the dailywork. This paper focuses internal workflow within a company,attempts to provide some basic principles related to workflows,and a workflows solution for modeling and deploying usingVisual Studio and SharePoint Server.

  9. Tending to Internal Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As China integrates into the world economy,its economic sustainability and industrial health become more vulnerable to external factors.While China’s grain security comes under intense pressure,thefinancialsectoris confrontedwithloomingrisks.Thecountry’s manufacturingindustryleads the world,but its competitiveness is impeded by a lack of high-end production.Many economists and experts discussed these issues at the 2011 China Economic Security Forum,recently held by the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow:

  10. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  11. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  12. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The 1997 Kyoto Protocol deferred negotiations on emissions from aviation to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Also within this specialised body, agreement on how to deal with emissions from aviation has been difficult to reach.Frustrated by the lack of progress, the European...... Union (EU) decided to act unilaterally to reduce emission from aviation, by including aviation within its Emission Trading System (ETS). Initially, the EU set out to include in the ETS emissions from all major aircraft flying to or from European airports, even when these fly over the high seas...

  13. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  14. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente Tobiesen; Levinsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...... members at the interim meeting in Manchester October 6-8. The SWOT analysis was chosen for its ability to identify problem areas within an organisation or group as well as focusing on and facilitating future actions and strategies. The report contains a summary of the issues raised by the SWOT as well...

  15. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente; Levinsen, Karin

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...... members at the interim meeting in Manchester October 6-8. The SWOT analysis was chosen for its ability to identify problem areas within an organisation or group as well as focusing on and facilitating future actions and strategies. The report contains a summary of the issues raised by the SWOT as well...

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  17. International, intersectoral, or unobservable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Naveed, Amjad; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    for these methodical advances when estimating sectoral knowledge production functions for OECD countries under weak and strong cross-sectional dependence. By doing so, we are able to uncover technology- and trade-related R&D spillover channels associated with social returns to R&D, while effectively controlling...... for other types of productivity spillovers and latent macroeconomic shocks. Our results highlight the role played by international-intersectoral R&D spillovers for the social rate of return to R&D, while we get limited evidence for private returns to R&D once cross-sectional dependence is properly accounted...

  18. Internalism as Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Lohndal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the recent proposal made by Lassiter (2008 that the dichotomy between Chomskyan internalism and Dummett-type externalism is misguided and should be overcome by an approach that incorporates sociolinguistic concepts such as speakers’ dispositions to defer. We argue that Lassiter’s arguments are flawed and based on a serious misunder-standing of the internalist approach to the study of natural language, failing to appreciate its methodological nature and conclude that Lassiter’s socio-linguistic approach is just another instance of externalist attempts with little hope of scientific achievement.

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  20. International energy annual, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  1. Decentralization Calls for Internal Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCello, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Outlines internal-auditing strategies necessitated by decentralization. Describes the following areas of concern: the student activities account, student attendance, and funding delegated to the site level. Guidelines for conducting an internal audit are also included. (LMI)

  2. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text ... was evaluated by the assay of liver function biochemical ..... Tietz T. Text Book of Clinical Chemistry, W.B..

  3. The Japanese "Internment" Cases Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward T.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)

  4. SETI and International Radio Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, F.

    2010-04-01

    The use of radio in SETI is subject to international rules agreed through the International Telecommunication Union. These are summarised. An opportunity for their revision will arise in 2012. Suggestions may be made.

  5. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS) organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  6. Reflections on international medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattad, Mohammed S; Hrevtsova, Radmyla Yu

    2011-12-01

    Does international medical law exist, in the first place, as an independent area of study? If so, is it urgently required in an era of comparative studies? Namely, to what extent, if at all, international studies differ from comparative ones? Besides, what are the particular characteristics of such international discipline? Namely, what are the particular features of this field that elaborate on our legal and scientific understanding in sketching possible definition for this notion of "international medical law?" In addition, how does international medical law correlate with health, ethics and health policies in our globalized world? And finally, what are the challenges that might face the international community, once the concept of "international medical law" is acknowledged? This papers aims at establishing the conceptual grounds for these questions, thus calling for the acknowledgment of a new field of study described as "international medical law".

  7. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  8. Decentralization Calls for Internal Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCello, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Outlines internal-auditing strategies necessitated by decentralization. Describes the following areas of concern: the student activities account, student attendance, and funding delegated to the site level. Guidelines for conducting an internal audit are also included. (LMI)

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and ..... the regeneration process and production of ... Lipid peroxidation in fatty liver induced by caffeine.

  10. Learning Activities for International Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  11. Internal Audit and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Nicolae Vasile; Alexandru Georgiana

    2011-01-01

    Internal audit and risk management have the same goal: the control of risk. There are various roles for the internal audit in respect of risk management. The main limitations of internal audit in respect of risk management regards assuming risk management tasks. One of the main issues regarding risk management is to make sure that the key risks are taken into consideration and that the management and the board of the organization take action as needed. Internal audit could give advice to mana...

  12. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  13. Overview of international teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen McKoy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Teledermatology is essentially “dermatology at a distance”, using one of many communication technologies to expand the reach of a dermatologist to those in need of their specialized knowledge. Most international teledermatology is store-and-forward in nature, a method in which images are stored on a computer and then transmitted electronically to a consulting dermatologist. This system is more convenient and less costly than real-time teledermatology. This review will focus on several of the store-and-forward teledermatology systems being developed and utilized successfully internationally. This discussion of “who” is practicing teledermatology is not comprehensive, but attempts to show some of the breadth of teledermatology practice around the world, including government national health plans, commercial endeavors, and charitable work by individuals and institutions. The goal in many instances is to provide better health outcomes through increased access, efficiency, and/or cost-effectiveness. More studies ultimately need to be conducted to develop a more comprehensive and sustainable model for teledermatology.

  14. Country watch: international.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, P

    1998-01-01

    The International Tribunal for Children's Rights (ITCR) was established to conduct individual and public inquiries and propose concrete solutions to violations of children's rights. This article reports on the efforts of the ITCR to enforce extraterritorial laws in response to the international dimension of child sex exploitation. The primary message being advocated is that travelers cannot go to foreign countries to engage in sexual crimes against children, evade criminal prosecution in the countries where the crimes are committed and then expect to return home without any consequences. In its first public hearings held in Paris, France to the address the effectiveness of extraterritorial legislation, governments and nongovernmental organizations informed the ITCR about their attempts to halt child sexual exploitation. Several changes needed to make extraterritorial laws more effective were cited. These include public awareness-raising; supporting existing instruments; application of preventive approaches to child abuse; and sensitizing and motivating judicial, police and administrative authorities to provide for the needs to fight child sex tourism.

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  16. The International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Barish, Barry

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe the key features of the recently completed technical design for the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 200-500 GeV linear electron-positron collider (expandable to 1 TeV) that is based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) technology. The machine parameters and detector characteristics have been chosen to complement the Large Hadron Collider physics, including the discovery of the Higgs boson, and to further exploit this new particle physics energy frontier with a precision instrument. The linear collider design is the result of nearly twenty years of R&D, resulting in a mature conceptual design for the ILC project that reflects an international consensus. We summarize the physics goals and capability of the ILC, the enabling R&D and resulting accelerator design, as well as the concepts for two complementary detectors. The ILC is technically ready to be proposed and built as a next generation lepton collider, perhaps to be built in stages beginning as a Hig...

  17. International energy outlook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  18. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  20. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  1. OBJECTIF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL

    CERN Multimedia

    Objectif Sciences International

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL SEJOURS DE VACANCES SCIENTIFIQUES Concilier loisirs de vacances et investigations scientifiques, voilà la recette magique de l'ONG « Objectif Sciences International » qui donne la possibilité aux amateurs de sciences de 7 à 99 ans de participer à des Programmes de Recherche dédiés au Développement Durable. Les Congés Science Solidaire proposés par l'association pour les adultes émanent directement des préoccupations des populations locales pour la préservation de leur patrimoine environnemental. Les besoins et les objectifs sont définis avec les acteurs locaux pour assurer la réalisation de nos missions sur place. En cliquant sur le lien ci-dessous, vous pourrez découvrir plus en détails la liste des thèmes et destinations proposées pour ...

  2. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  5. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  7. REFLECTIONS ON PRODUCTION INTERNALIZATION AND ITS INTERNATIONAL TRADE IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLIPA RALUCA IRINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically-integrated multinational companies place the different stages of production and marketing chain in different countries, looking for advantages such as low production costs, lower taxes, abundant resources and so on, while benefiting from the advantages of economies of scale, control of supplies or outlets. In fact, this vertical integration of multinational companies has led to the expansion of intra-firm trade and "internalized" operations, thus creating their own markets for the vertically-integrated production. Internationally active firms operate in a way that replaces the different functions of an open market with internal transactions, i.e. intra-firm transactions, whenever internal transaction costs are lower than the open-market ones. The direct consequence over international trade is the increase of intra-firm share of trade flows to one third of world trade, those companies making a suppression of international market segments that act in favour of an internal market. The creation of a multinational market and the enhancement of intra-firm trade have profound quantitative and qualitative implications on the composition, geographic orientation and dynamics of international trade. This paper deals with the issue of production internalization, with an overview of the main contributions made to the theory of internalization, while tackling its relative dimension. However, we intend to highlight the implications of this phenomenon on international trade. The work methodology falls within the range of qualitative approaches: logical argumentation, critical theoretical analysis.

  8. The International Active Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    For me, internationalisation is a learning outcome, not just about international mobility. It is about ensuring that students actively participate in a learning experience that prepares them for a world that is more and more internationally and interculturally connected - that both Danish and non......-Danish students receive the basic international and intercultural skills and knowledge they need in current society....

  9. Causation and International State Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies causation in the law of international State responsibility. It is submitted that the absence of causation as an element of the internationally wrongful act owes more to the structure of international law, than to the inadequateness of causation as a conceptual and legal construct t

  10. International school of nuclear law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    This is a report about the second International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on August 26 to September 7, 2002, by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  11. International School of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  12. Sinopec International Petroleum Service Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Established in December 2003, Sinopec international Petroleum Service Corporation (SIPSC) is a fullyowned subsidiary of China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group). The company is mainly engaged in contracting international petroleum service projects and providing technical services, and is responsible for uniform management, coordination and organization of contracted international projects and labor service cooperation performed by Sinopec's upstream subsidiaries.

  13. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  14. International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the intern

  15. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right......: the European Union. Using examples from the EU’s treaty practice and from the Court of Justice of the EU, it argues that the Union does not simply represent the collective will of its Member States, but also is capable of contributing to customary international law in its own right.......In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law...

  16. VIENNA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES - FEBRUARY 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIPCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available VIPCA, the Vienna International Plant Conference Association, a non-commercial and non-profit organization consisting of academy and industry scientists from across the world, founded to support the international plant and agricultural science community by initiating several major conferences every year in Vienna. The Vienna International Plant Conference Association provides, on an international level, an opportunity for researchers to explore ideas for future innovations and collaborations. The VIPCA is organizing 4 international conferences in 2012. Meetings will be held in Vienna, the capital of Austria. Topics will cover the hottest issues in current plant science. For more details please download the full text file.

  17. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international crimi...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures.......This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...

  18. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  19. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    the different purposes of theory, how theory can be used to shape your analytical strategy and some of the pitfalls you need to be aware of. Throughout I refer to theories and concepts from across the module that you will be fairly familiar with by now. But I will also make some new distinctions to give...... a better understanding of what theories are, a clearer sense of what they can be used for, and a greater awareness of their differences, strengths and limitations. The chapter proceeds as follows: In Section 1 I look at what theories are and how they work – either by simplifying reality or complicating...... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  20. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  1. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  2. International Conference UMC 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Rasing, Theo; Chantrell, Roy

    2015-01-01

    This volume on Ultrafast Magnetism is a collection of articles presented at the international “Ultrafast Magnetization Conference” held at the Congress Center in Strasbourg, France, from October 28th to November 1st, 2013. This first conference, which is intended to be held every two years, received a wonderful attendance and gathered scientists from 27 countries in the field of Femtomagnetism, encompassing many theoretical and experimental research subjects related to the spins dynamics in bulk or nanostructured materials. The participants appreciated this unique opportunity for discussing new ideas and debating on various physical interpretations of the reported phenomena. The format of a single session with many oral contributions as well as extensive time for poster presentations allowed researchers to have a detailed overview of the field. Importantly, one could sense that, in addition to studying fundamental magnetic phenomena, ultrafast magnetism has entered in a phase where applied physics and eng...

  3. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new...... of advanced offshoring, exploring what causes firms to offshore some of their more advanced tasks. Our findings indicate that while the lower cost of unskilled, labor-intensive processes is the main driver for firms that offshore less advanced tasks, the offshoring of advanced tasks is part of firms’ strategy...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  4. Control Techtronics International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  5. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  6. International Logistics Science Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hompel, Michael; Meier, J

    2014-01-01

    The importance of logistics in all its variations is still increasing. New technologies emerge, new planning methods and algorithms are developed, only to face a market with a growing complexity and the need of weighting monetary costs against ecological impact. Mastering these challenges requires a scientific viewpoint on logistics, but always with applications in mind. This volume presents up-to-date logistics research in all its diversity and interconnectedness. It grew out of the “International Logistics Science Conference” (ILSC) held in Dortmund in September 2013, bringing together leading scientists and young academics from nine different countries. The conference was jointly organized by the “Efficiency Cluster Logistics” and the “Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics”. The Program Committee used a double blind review process to choose the 12 strongest contributions, which were then grouped in four areas: - Sustainability logistics, including electric mobility, smart inform...

  7. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Hoagland, M.C.; Hubbard, R.L.; Schaub, F.S.

    1981-12-22

    A method of combusting natural gas fuel in a two cycle, turbocharged internal combustion engine substantially reduces the production of nitrogen-oxygen emissions. An improved turbocharger design provides increased air charging pressure, produces a controlled lean air/fuel mixture and lowers peak combustion temperatures. A jet cell ignition device ensures uniform, reliable ignition of the lean air/fuel mixture under all operating conditions and the lean air/fuel mixture in turn encourages complete fuel combustion and provides excellent combustion characteristics with methane, ethane and heavier paraffinic hydrocarbon fuels. These structural modifications and adjustment of other operating parameters combine to reduce nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) emissions by as much as 75% while effecting only a negligible increase in fuel consumption.

  8. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible...... analysis of what Bourdieu-inspired IR might look like. This book provides the answer. It offers an introduction to Bourdieu’s thinking to a wider IR audience, challenges key assumptions, which currently structure IR scholarship – and provides an original, theoretical restatement of some of the core...... concepts in the field. The book brings together a select group of leading IR scholars who draw on both theoretical and empirical insights from Bourdieu. Each chapter covers one central concept in IR: Methodology, Knowledge, Power, Strategy, Security, Culture, Gender, Norms, Sovereignty and Integration...

  9. International RILEM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Birgisson, Björn; Frost, David; Wang, Linbing

    2013-01-01

    The micro- and nano-modification of infrastructure materials and the associated multi-scale characterization and simulation has the potential to open up whole new uses and classes of materials, with wide-ranging implications for society. The use of multi-scale characterization and simulation brings the ability to target changes at the very small scale that predictably effect the bulk behavior of the material and thus allowing for the optimization of material behavior and performance.   The International RILEM Symposium on Multi-Scale Modeling and Characterization of Infrastructure Materials (Stockholm, June 10-12, 2013) brought together key researchers from around the world to present their findings and ongoing research in this field in a focused environment with extended discussion times. From asphalt to concrete, from chemistry to mechanics, from nano- to macro-scale: the collection of topics covered by the Symposium represents the width and depth of the currently ongoing efforts of developing more sustain...

  10. International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet; InterM; INTERM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress (INTERM2013) was organized on October 10-13, 2013. The aim of the congress was to bring together scientists from various branches to discuss the latest advances in the field of microscopy. The contents of the congress have been broadened to a more "interdisciplinary" scope, so as to allow all scientists working on related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 39 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 12 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 39 papers are grouped into the following sections: - Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences - Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences

  11. Planetary internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I; Fortney, J; Sotin, C

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most recent advancements on the topic of terrestrial and giant planet interiors, including Solar System and extrasolar objects. Starting from an observed mass-radius diagram for known planets in the Universe, we will discuss the various types of planets appearing in this diagram and describe internal structures for each type. The review will summarize the status of theoretical and experimental works performed in the field of equation of states (EOS) for materials relevant to planetary interiors and will address the main theoretical and experimental uncertainties and challenges. It will discuss the impact of new EOS on interior structures and bulk composition determination. We will discuss important dynamical processes which strongly impact the interior and evolutionary properties of planets (e.g plate tectonics, semiconvection) and describe non standard models recently suggested for our giant planets. We will address the case of short-period, strongly irradiated exoplanets and critica...

  12. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  13. NOMA 2013 International Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier-Prunaret, Danièle; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Grácio, Clara

    2015-01-01

    In the field of Dynamical Systems, nonlinear iterative processes play an important role. Nonlinear mappings can be found as immediate models for many systems from different scientific areas, such as engineering, economics, biology, or can also be obtained via numerical methods permitting to solve non-linear differential equations. In both cases, the understanding of specific dynamical behaviors and phenomena is of the greatest interest for scientists. This volume contains papers that were presented at the International Workshop on Nonlinear Maps and their Applications (NOMA 2013) held in Zaragoza, Spain, on September 3-4, 2013. This kind of collaborative effort is of paramount importance in promoting communication among the various groups that work in dynamical systems and networks in their research theoretical studies as well as for applications. This volume is suitable for graduate students as well as researchers in the field.

  14. China International Cultural Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    China International Cultural Association (hereafterreferred to as the association)was founded on July3,1986.It is a nationwide social group engaged inexternal cultural exchange between peoples.Its purpose isto develop cultural exchange and cooperation with allcountries in the world,promote culturJ ullderkings.im-prove understanding and friendship between the Chinesepeople and peoples of the world,promote social progress,and defend world peace.On the basis of equality andmutual benefit we hope to conduct exchange and coopera-tion with all countries through visits,the exchange of booksand reference materials,the holding of theatrical perform-ances and exhibitions,and the study of literature and art.The president of the association is Zu Muzhi; vice-presidents,Yu Wen,Chen Xinren,Zhou Weizhi,YaoZhongming,Wang Lanxi,L(?) Zhixian,Zeng Jianhui,LiuDeyou and Luo Jun; secretary,Wu Chunde.

  15. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  16. Internal constitution of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the internal structure of Mars consistent with the mass, radius and moment of inertia of the planet are constructed. The models assume that the radius of the core is between 0.36 and 0.60 of the radius of the planet, that the zero-pressure density of the mantle is between 3.54 and 3.49 g/cu cm, and that the planet contains 25 to 28% iron. Meteorite models of Mars containing 25 wt % iron and 12 wt % core are also proposed. It is maintained that Mars in contrast to the earth is an incompletely differentiated planet with a core substantially richer in sulfur than the core of the earth. The absence of a magnetic field on Mars is possibly linked with lack of lunar precessional torque and the small size and high resistivity of the Martian core.

  17. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  18. MULTILATERAL DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENEA Ciprian-Beniamin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of diplomacy can by divided in three main periods: one is that of occasional diplomacy peculiar to Middle Ages, while other belong to permane diplomacy, peculiar to modern times. But this one can be divided in two parts, too: one with a bilateral character, previos to 1st World War, and one with a multilateral character, manifested especially after the end on 1st World War. This third type is the focus of present paper. And it cannot be separated from the newly international constructs: international regimes, and international organizations. International instritutions the area where international regimes are belonging to – are legal constructs which provide the formal (and legal framework for continous negotiations. They are the most visible part of the new diplomacy – the one which has a permanent character, and it has an more open face. Anyway, the most important connection has to do with the international institutions, international regimes, and multilateral international negotiations. In the era of the new diplomacy, they all have a permanent character. International institutions help international negotiations carring on; while in their turn, they provide the base for international regimes’ creation, and especially for their evolution. The international regimes’ evolution is an inseparable part of a permanent international framework. And if there is missing a permanent international framework (international organization connected to a specific regime, this regime is a difuse one, its members have only informal relations among them, while they survey each other, looking at their behavior, but they don’t have a formal relationship among them, which could help them solving their future common interests, and protect them from their common fears. International regimes are very important in the era when evrithing touches, and influences everything. In the same time, the complexity of our present world can be successfully

  19. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  20. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  1. 100 years of international arbitration and adjudication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KEITH, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    ...) - peaceful means of settlement of international disputes - processes for clarification and development of international law - Hague Academy on International Law - arbitration and adjudication within...

  2. Impacts of Culture on International Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides practical suggestions for developing a healthy and complete working relationship between the system safety practitioner and international business partners, international vendors and international customers.

  3. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  4. International Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two directions. One strand of the literature examines the idea of common exogenous shocks that affect economies simultaneously. In addition to that economic interdependencies such as trade in goods and services or capital account transactions may serve as the channels through which disturbances spill over across countries.The observed degree of output co movement reflects both the nature of the shocks that have occurred and the degree of economic interdependence. In the periods when common shocks prevail level of synchronization is usually higher than in times of transmission dominance.

  5. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  6. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  7. Biometrics and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address.

  8. Update in Internal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  9. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskaris, M.A.; Broitman, K.; Natale, S.E.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes improvement in a two-stroke internal combustion engine adapted to run on a diesel or a kerosene type of fuel, and including a piston connected to the crankshaft of the engine to move within a cylinder through a first stroke from a top dead center position to a bottom dead center position and through a second stroke from the bottom dead center position back to the top dead center position. The improvement comprises: means providing a cylinder head at the top end of the engine cylinder in the shape of an open bowl having a generally cup-shaped configuration including a sidewall portion, a spark plug positioned centrally within the bowl at the top end of the cylinder, and means for injecting fuel into the top end of the engine cylinder at a location between the spark plug and the sidewall portion, the fuel injecting means including an injection nozzle having a plurality of nozzle openings therein, the nozzle openings being constructed and arranged to discharge a plurality of plume-like sprays into the top end of the cylinder at a location within the bowl, two of the sprays being directed from the nozzle to diverge and pass along opposite sides of the spark plug, and additional sprays being directed from the nozzle against the sidewall portion or the cylinder head to be deflected therefrom back toward the piston and the spark plug to thereby form a cloud of fuel over the spark plug for good ignition.

  10. [International cohort studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, W; Pigeot, I

    2012-06-01

    Among observational studies, cohort studies, i.e. longitudinal observations of selected population groups, provide the highest possible evidence of a causal association between specific risk factors (exposure) and the occurrence of disease in populations. Besides the fact that many exposures cannot be investigated in experimental designs, cohort studies have the advantage over randomized clinical trials that they are conducted in free living populations and not in restrictive, clinical settings. In this paper we describe the aims and features of international cohorts that have been selected because of their impact, their size or their endpoints. We do not only present the study designs and survey instruments used but we also highlight some of the most important results gained by these studies. Most of these prospective studies investigated common chronic diseases in the elderly, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis and ophthalmologic disorders. Newer cohorts and recent reassessments of existing cohorts almost always include the collection and storage of biological samples. In recent years technological developments allowed the implementation of cutting edge measurement procedures, such as imaging techniques for phenotyping. Finally, we discuss on the one hand whether these designs can be transferred to the German situation and on the other hand to what degree the results obtained from foreign cohorts can be generalized for the German population. We conclude with recommendations for future cohort studies.

  11. Internal auditors meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    What does CERN have in common with INTERPOL? The answer: the challenge of managing a complex international organisation operating outside national regulations. Participants of the internal audit conference had the opportunity to visit ATLAS.On 17th &18th April CERN hosted a meeting for the Internal Audit Heads of some of the most famous international organisations in the world. Sixteen organisations were represented at the conference, including the European Commission, INTERPOL, the European Central Bank, the OECD, the European Space Agency (ESA), NATO and the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO). The objective of this annual meeting is to share best practices and benchmark performance in the fields of auditing, organizational governance, risk management and internal controls. International organisations, due to their specific legal status and the absence of applicable national legisl...

  12. International negotiations on bioenergy sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Andre Aranha Correa do

    2012-07-01

    Energy is one of the economy largest and most relevant sectors today for contemporary international relations. As an indispensable source for development, the continued access to energy is crucial to all countries and is often the cause of international disputes. Furthermore, energy is closely related to other themes of primary importance on the international agenda, such as global warning and, increasingly, access to modern forms of energy for billions of people. In spite of the undeniable importance in so many areas, the energy sector is perhaps the subject of greatest global relevance that does note have a specific forum where it can be internationally discussed. Due to the lack of international forum dedicated to this issue, Brazil has sought, over the last few years, to develop initiative of various forms to promote international understanding of the theme.

  13. International Transmission Under Bretton Woods

    OpenAIRE

    Alan C. Stockman

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the main channels of international transmission of economic disturbances under the Bretton Woods System and presents evidence on the short-run international transmission of inflation under that system. There appears to have been little short-run international transmission of inflation. Countries with one-percent higher money-growth rates subsequently had one-fourth to one-half percent higher inflation and a (predictably) lower real interest rate. This probably reflects eff...

  14. Making International Organizations More Democratic

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S.; Alois Stutzer

    2017-01-01

    World governance today is characterized by international organizations lacking democratic legitimacy and control by the citizens they claim to represent. They are also criticized for being inefficient. This leads to violent protests and to NGOs having great influence. To address these problems, we propose international governance based on the democratic idea of citizen participation: All citizens of the member countries of international organizations have the potential right to participate in...

  15. Methodology of International Law1

    OpenAIRE

    Dominicé, Christian

    2014-01-01

    I. DEFINITION Methodology seeks to define the means of acquiring scientific knowledge. There is no generally accepted definition of the methodology of international law. In this article it will be taken to comprise both its wider meaning of the methods used in the acquisition of a scientific knowledge of the international legal system and its narrower and more specialized meaning, the methods used to determine the existence of norms or rules of international law. The correlation of these two ...

  16. Internal migration transition in Romania?

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, István

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the shifts in the internal migration patterns in Romania for the last six decades. In the first part a literature-based brief overview of the trends and patterns of internal migration during communism will be presented. In the second (more extensive) part, a statistical-data based analysis of the internal migration trends and patterns over the last 25 years will be provided.

  17. Understanding the Current International Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Andrew, “Taking Preferences Seriously: A Liberal Theory of International Politics,” International Organization, Vol. 51, No. 4, Autumn 1997, pp...296. Snyder, Quddus Z., “Integrating Rising Powers: Liberal Systemic Theory and the Mechanism of Cooperation,” Review of International Studies, Vol. 39...institutions, bilateral and regional security organizations, and liberal political norms; these ordering mechanisms are often collectively referred to as

  18. Environmental protection and international law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, W.; Neuhold, H.; Zemanek, K. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    The main threats to the environment requiring international action are described: climate change, ozone depletion, acidification, deforestation and toxification. The special characteristics of international legal norms in selected issue areas are illustrated, such as air and water pollution, hazardous waste and climatic change. The last two chapters are devoted to a critical appraisal of responsibility and liability, as well as dispute settlement procedures and international institutions in the environmental field. Two chapters are abstracted separately.

  19. Shame and the Internalized Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2015-01-01

    -evaluation that is mediated by an internalized other. In this paper, I examine Williams’ conception of the internalized other and contrast it with other ways of conceiving the role of others in shame. I argue that, although Williams’ views contain many important insights, much is to be gained by conceiving the role of others...... in Sartrean terms instead. The other’s perspective is not merely internalized; it is constitutive of the kind of selfhood that has a capacity for shame....

  20. Time, history and international law

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Matthew; Vogiatzi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and practical issues concerning the relationship between international law, time and history. Problems relating to time and history are ever-present in the work of international lawyers, whether understood in terms of the role of historic practice in the doctrine of sources, the application of the principle of inter-temporal law in dispute settlement, or in gaining a coherent insight into the role that was played by international law in past events. But very little has been written about the various different ways in which international lawyers approach or unders

  1. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  2. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  3. Morality, care, and international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Held

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the thinking of Kant, Locke, and Rawls, among others and shows how arguments against respect for international law can be answered. It questions arguments based on the analogy between states and individuals, and between international law as it has developed and law based on an ideal social contract between individuals. It then turns to the ethics of care, a recent addition to moral theory, and examines its major characteristics and recommendations. It considers how the ethics of care would view international law and the guidance this moral approach could provide for international relations. The article shows how the ethics of care is compatible with various current trends, and how thinking about globalization and greater international interdependence would benefit from greater attention to it. The article argues that the ethics of care would clearly support respect for international law as it has developed, but that it would even more strongly support addressing current problems in ways that would, in the longer term, make appeals to law and its enforcements ever less necessary.

  4. Core competencies in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, José Manuel; Casademont, Jordi; Conthe, Pedro; Pinilla, Blanca; Pujol, Ramón; García-Alegría, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The working group on Competencies of Internal Medicine from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) proposes a series of core competencies that we consider should be common to all European internal medicine specialists. The competencies include aspects related to patient care, clinical knowledge, technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, cost-awareness in medical care and academic activities. The proposal could be used as a working document for the Internal Medicine core curriculum in the context of the educational framework of medical specialties in Europe.

  5. International Students and Mental Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helen Forbes-Mewett; Anne-Maree Sawyer

    2016-01-01

    .... Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international...

  6. International journal of food contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    The International Journal of Food Contamination publishes baseline, monitoring data, indicating the qualitative and quantitative presence of microbiological and chemical contaminants in foods, animal...

  7. Internal Audits of QMS (COTS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This is an internal audit workflow application used to automate business processes that support the AVS Quality Management System (QMS) and several Flight Standards...

  8. Stigma Management in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical approach to stigma in international relations and resituates conventional approaches to the study of norms and international order. Correcting the general understanding that common values and norms are the building blocks of social order, this article claims...... that international society is in part constructed through the stigmatization of “transgressive” and norm-violating states and their ways of coping with stigma. Drawing on Erving Goffman, this article shows that states are not passive objects of socialization, but active agents. Stigmatized states cope strategically...... avenues for research on norms, identities, and international order....

  9. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  10. Environment international law; Droit international de l`environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavieille, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    The characteristics of the environment international law are analyzed in a first part: nature, aim, history, stakes, sources and institutions. The content of the environment international law is analyzed in the second part: principles, conventions relative to the air, climates, marine and surface waters, soils, forests, nature conservation at a regional and global scale, chemical compounds and noxious wastes. (J.S.)

  11. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  12. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  13. World news; Actualite international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-06-01

    The 21. of April 2005, was held in Paris the 6. international petroleum meeting whose main theme was: the supply and demand. The participants of this summit have in majority argued for a greater opening of the productive countries to the international investments which are indispensable to face with a world demand of oil in full expansion. Total has announced the approval by the British authorities of the development of the gas and condensates deposit of north Forvie, located at about 440 km at the nord-east of Aberdeen. Technip and Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corp., have received the prestigious price of the Offshore Technology Conference 2005. The Norway and the United Kingdom have signed a cooperation treaty for stimulating the development of petroleum and natural gas deposits in North sea. The petroleum groups Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil think to sale their shares in three fields in the North sea. Total and Lubrifin, one of the main manufacturers and distributors of lubricants and greases on the Romanian market, have just finalize an agreement for the establishment of a common firm: Total Lubrifin. The IEA has published a study for the governments to rapidly reduce the petroleum consumption in transports in the case of crisis or breakdown of the supply. In order to avoid an accident risk which could have disastrous environmental consequences, by the important transit in the Bosphore pass, a plan (dating from 1995) provides that the petroleum of the Caspian sea transiting by the Russian harbour of Novorossiisk, on North sea, be conveyed by sea way to the Bulgarian harbour of Bourgas, to be transported by pipeline on 320 km to the Alexandroupolis harbour. Vladimir Poutine has received last April to the Kremlin John Browne, general director of the British firm BP, came ask for its investment in Russia in the common firm: TNK-BP. The Algerian petroleum firm Sonatrach is in the 12. world place among the hundred first petroleum firms in the world. Shell Ivory Coast

  14. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.

    1986-06-03

    A variable power internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a separate air compressor for receiving and compressing a flow of air to a given pressure, the compressor having an inlet valve introducing a flow of air into the compressor and an outlet valve for exhausting compressed air out of the compressor into a compressed air storage means, at least one expander having a cylinder, a cylinder head closing an end of the cylinder, a piston reciprocally mounted in the cylinder for movement away from the cylinder head in a power stroke from an initial position defining a combustion chamber within the cylinder between the cylinder head and the piston, the compressed air storage means receiving the pressurized flow of air from the compressor and being of a volume adequate to provide compressed air in the combustion chamber essentially at the given pressure essentially over the power output of the engine, means for introducing an amount of combustible fuel in the compressed charge to be present with compressed air in the combustion chamber and providing combustion of the amount of fuel in the cylinder with the inlet and exhaust valves closed, cam shaft means in contact with the piston for absorbing and storing the energy of the power stroke of the piston and controlling movement of the piston within the cylinder during the exhaust stroke; the means for varying the volume of the combustion chamber being controlled in accordance with power requirements to provide variable power output and improved efficiency of the engine at power outputs reduced relative to a given design power output of the engine by providing a variable expansion ratio of a minimum of at least about 30 to 1 at the given design power output and higher with reduced power output.

  15. Landsat's international partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite 40 years ago, International Cooperators (ICs) have formed a key strategic alliance with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to not only engage in Landsat data downlink services but also to enable a foundation for scientific and technical collaboration. The map below shows the locations of all ground stations operated by the United States and IC ground station network for the direct downlink and distribution of Landsat 5 (L5) and Landsat 7 (L7) image data. The circles show the approximate area over which each station has the capability for direct reception of Landsat data. The red circles show the components of the L5 ground station network, the green circles show components of the L7 station network, and the dashed circles show stations with dual (L5 and L7) status. The yellow circles show L5 short-term ("campaign") stations that contribute to the USGS Landsat archive. Ground stations in South Dakota and Australia currently serve as the primary data capture facilities for the USGS Landsat Ground Network (LGN). The Landsat Ground Station (LGS) is located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Alice Springs (ASN) ground station is located at the Geoscience Australia facility in Alice Springs, Australia. These sites receive the image data, via X-band Radio Frequency (RF) link, and the spacecraft housekeeping data, via S-band RF link. LGS also provides tracking services and a command link to the spacecrafts.

  16. Uruguay in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on the analysis of the program of the third government of “Broad Front” article shows the goals and objectives of the country in the processes of regional integration, the problems and prospects of these processes. The author notes that the Government of Uruguay is looking for creating common political and economic institutions for the united Latin American continent. In the new political and economic conditions Uruguay becomes important partner for the BRICS countries as well as for the EU and the United States. The article shows the prospects for Uruguay in the BRICS in the context of changing the place of developing countries in the architecture of the global world, as well as in the context of the participation of ex-President Jose Mujica in the BRICS summit 2014. Currently, Uruguay is standing in front of a political choice, because the country has people who want the development of relations with the United States as economic partner and political center of the region. Also in Uruguay are supporters of the development of relations with the EU. The paper shows the tasks and objectives of Uruguay's foreign policy towards the US and the EU, as well as a place of Uruguay in the foreign policy of major actors of international relations. The article says the prospects for the foreign policy of Uruguay in the context of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014, a new government and the conservation status of Uruguay as a country of “left turn

  17. Essays in International Market Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of methodological

  18. International Comparisons and Educational Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C., Ed.

    Increasingly over the past decade there have appeared in the press bar graphs comparing the performance of U.S. students with their counterparts in other countries. Usually these graphs have been accompanied by dire warnings and pointing fingers. The main source of the data on international comparisons has been the International Association for…

  19. The stagnation of international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelyn, Joost; Wessel, Ramses A.; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Traditional international law and its instruments are stagnating both in terms of quantity and quality. New, alternative forms of cross-border cooperation, in particular processes of informal international lawmaking, have emerged and gained prominence since the 2000s in response to an increasingly

  20. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  1. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  2. Contemporary Theories and International Lawmaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.; Brölmann, C.; Radi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many contemporary theories approach international law-making with a shift in emphasis from the sources of law towards the communicative practices in which a plethora of actors use, claim and speak international law. The contribution proceeds by sketching the move from sources to communicative practi

  3. International. Go8 Backgrounder 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    International education, particularly study in Australia, provides significant economic benefits for Australia. It is both a major export industry and a source of domestic economic growth. If Australia can attract talented international students through scholarships and a reputation for quality, they will return to their home countries to become…

  4. International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to ... Those of high quality (not previously ... Quick service and ... taste, satisfaction with service and the perceived ... private hospitals, the quality of services, the .... correctly filled, returned and therefore analyzed.

  6. International Ventilation Cooling Application Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzer, Peter; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; OSullivan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The currently running International Energy Agency, Energy and Conservation in Buildings, Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling (VC) project, is coordinating research towards extended use of VC. Within this Annex 62 the joint research activity of International VC Application Database has been carried out, ...

  7. International Honor for YCIS Director

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Director of Yew Chung International Schools(YCIS),Dr.Betty Chan Po-King,has received an international honor for her pioneering work in early childhood education and advocacy for excellence in all levels of education.On May 16,Dr.Chan was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign(UIUC).

  8. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    go on without concern for the environment. The international agenda for the environment influences the life of everyone: it determines the price for gasoline, where we can build summer houses, and what food we can buy. This chapter will describe how international cooperation for the environment has...

  9. Trusting Relationships in International Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Ruzicka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    How can trusting relationships be identified in international politics? The recent wave of scholarship on trust in International Relations answers this question by looking for one or the combination of three indicators – the incidence of cooperation; discourses expressing trust; or the calculated...

  10. Internal communication in corporate groups

    OpenAIRE

    Grzesik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to internal communication in corporate groups. It discusses internal communication systems operating in the explored corporate groups and their significance for effective human resources management in those organisations. The chapter presents both the theoretical analysis based on the results of literature studies, and empirical research carried out in the explored groups. Narodowe Centrum Nauki Katarzyna Grzesik

  11. Teaching international students at UCN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Berit Elsebeth; Miller, Tanja; Hammershøy, Anna

    2016-01-01

    has been collected among the lecturers who teach at one of the international two-year Academic Professional (AP) programmes that UCN currently offers. Within the Study program, the education is offered in two streams, Danish (with Danish as the teaching medium) and international (with English...

  12. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    against a background coloured by national legal traditions. International lawyers did not overcome the optimist and evolutionary tradition based on the assumption that international law is but an ever closer approximation of national legal systems; nor did lawyers escape the fl ip side of this tradition...

  13. International Disability Educational Alliance (IDEAnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    Professionalism. Journal of General Internal Medicine . July; 23(7): 954-957. 34 Ibid. 35 Kamel Boulous, Maged N. and Wheeler, Steve (2007). Page 11 of 57...Paradise (2008). The Intersection of Online Social Networking with Medical Professionalism. Journal of General Internal Medicine . July; 23(7): 954

  14. Geography in the International Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Stuart; Dawson, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) is doing much to promote the teaching of geography in schools. Since its establishment in 1968 to provide a common curriculum and university entrance credential for children of a geographically mobile international community, it has evolved and now includes schools in national systems all over the…

  15. Improving international e-Customs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stijn, Eveline van; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Razmerita, Liana

    2007-01-01

    , applications, and systems technologies in a digital society. The proceedings focuses on services, mobility, performance and new IPTV services, as well as challenges in global economy for technology adoption. ICDS 2007 featured two workshops that complemented the general topics: EKNOW 2007: The First...... International Workshop on Information and Knowledge Management; TELEMED 2007: The First International Workshop on Telemedicine....

  16. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  17. Diary of a poultry intern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, William

    2015-05-16

    In his post as poultry intern, William Garton is finding that CPD takes up a large proportion of his time. This, he says, can be quite enjoyable, particularly when events are sponsored by international pharmaceutical companies. This month, he has been on two training courses, one in Spain and the other in Belgium. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  19. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  20. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  1. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.

    2005-01-01

    hydration and strength development, reduced autogenous shrinkage and cracking, reduced permeability, and increased durability. The impact of internal curing begins immediately with the initial hydration of the cement, with benefits that are observed at ages as early as two days. Internal curing...

  2. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  3. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  4. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  5. Business and International Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Business and International Education Program of the International Education Programs Service (IEPS). This program provides funds to institutions of higher education that enter into an agreement with a trade association, a business, or both for the purpose of improving business curriculum and as a means of…

  6. The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.C.; Gibbard, P.L.; Fan, J.-X.

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) has a long tradition of producing international charts that communicate higher-order divisions of geological time and actual knowledge on the absolute numerical ages of their boundaries. The primary objective of ICS is to define precisely a global

  7. Contemporary Theories and International Lawmaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.; Brölmann, C.; Radi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many contemporary theories approach international law-making with a shift in emphasis from the sources of law towards the communicative practices in which a plethora of actors use, claim and speak international law. The contribution proceeds by sketching the move from sources to communicative

  8. An Accounting International Experience Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh Redd; Rudolph, Holly R.; Seay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Accounting students need practical opportunities to personally experience other cultures and international business practices if they are to effectively compete in today's global marketplace. In order to address this need, the Department of Accounting at Murray State University offers an international experience course which includes a short-term…

  9. International Spin Physics 2014 Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Milner, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    The Stern-Gerlach experiment and the origin of electron spin are described in historical context. SPIN 2014 occurs on the fortieth anniversary of the first International High Energy Spin Physics Symposium at Argonne in 1974. A brief history of the international spin conference series is presented.

  10. International Education and the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, James, Ed.

    This collection of 15 essays discusses the integration of international education into higher education, focusing on the role of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and specific international education programs and activities at various institutions. Essays include: (1) "UNESCO's Approaches to…

  11. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  12. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students....

  13. INTERNAL AUDIT AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The existence of risk in economic activity can not be denied. In fact, the risk is a concept which exists in every activity, the term of risk being identified with uncertainty, respectively the (unchance to produce an undesirable event. Internal audit and risk management aim at the same goal, namely the control of risks. Internal Audit performs several roles in risk management plan. The objectives of the internal audit function varies from company to company, but in all economic entities internal audit department aims to improve performance management, enterprise performance and thus improve the internal control system. This paper aims to demonstrate, among other things, that any event that may result in failure is unquestionably classified as risk.

  14. ASSESSMENT METHODS OF INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit services are more and more needed within economic entities, because on one hand they are directly subordinated to the general manager, on the other hand there is an increase in credit to its recommendations, estimating that internal audit is more than just a simple compliance check based on an established referral system. Our research focuses on evaluating the impact of theory and practice in the application of internal audit process. The added value brought by internal audit function to the economic entity it is pretty difficult to establish and requires effective ways and criteria of measured. In this regard, we will try to present ways to analyze internal audit’s activity by reference to some performance indicators or other specific methods. We used as research techniques: literature review, applied research and constructive research.

  15. International law and communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases.

  16. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  17. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ASPECTS ON THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL PERSONALITY OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PURDA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An international organization is an association of states, holder of rights and duties which it acquires by the will of the founding states and which acts as an entity which is distinct and independent from the states that form it. The constituent instrument of the organization proclaims the establishment of such, as well as its character of being a subject of international law, but at the same time it delimitates the domain in which the international legal personality can manifest and also the content of its capacity.

  19. Legal regulation of the governmental internal control in the Internal Affairs system of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Борець, Л. В.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the problems of organizational and legal providing of implementation of the governmental internal control in the system of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, whose elements are internal control and internal audit.The basic principle of the governmental internal financial control is a clear distinction between internal control and internal audit.The internal audit should determine how to carry internal control.The basis of internal control is responsibility of hea...

  20. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal.

  1. International cooperation in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  2. International Documents on Landscape Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pouperová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theory and practice of cultural monuments protection, including garden art monuments and landscape protection, it has been often referred to international conventions and other international documents relating to this protection. Necessary condition for these documents to be adequately used in the practice is the precise understanding of their legal nature and a question arising therefrom, if and to what extent and to whom are those documents binding.The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the international documents relating to the landscape restoration. Following the analysis, the authors explore the scope and way of transposition of these documents and obligation arising therefrom into the Czech legal order. In the general part the authors analyse knowledge of the current jurisprudence on treaties and other international documents. They focus on the issue of the legal force of such documents, both on the international and national level. In the following part the authors deal with international documents on landscape restoration, explain legal nature of those documents and explicate whether the documents are formally legally binding or whether they may have other practical effects. The legally binding international treaties on the landscape protection include in particular the Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Paris, 1972 and the European Landscape Convention (Florence, 2000. As regard legally non-binding acts of international non-governmental organizations, the paper discusses the charters of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS, the Venice Charter of 1964 and the Florence Charter of 1981. Mentioned is also the Athens Charter (1933, respectively the New Athens Charter of 1998 dealing with the landscape in terms of the principles of urban planning.

  3. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  4. 16th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Cryocoolers 16 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 16th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 17-20, 2010. The program of this conference consisted of 116 papers; of these, 89 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  5. International Konfliktløsning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Isabel; Boye Nielsen, Jørn; Vindeløv, Vibeke

    konfliktløsningstilgange fra forebyggelse og fredsbevaring til mægling, fredsopbygning og forsoning. Endelig fremhæves særligt relevante temaer om medier, køn, civilsamfund og globalt ansvar i forhold til international konfliktløsning. Undervejs eksemplificeres der med relevante cases og præsenteres forskellige teoretiske...... synspunkter fra psykologi, sociologi, antropologi, jura og statskundskab. International Konfliktløsning er væsentlig læsning til undervisning, oplysning og arbejde indenfor fred, konflikt, sikkerhed, journalistik og international politik....

  6. International organizations before national courts

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2000-01-01

    This book presents a radical, empirical investigation of how national courts "react" to disputes involving international organizations, analyzing in particular whether such organizations should be immune to national jurisdictions. Under the headings "domestic legal personality" and "immunity" of international organizations, some of the issues covered have already been treated in international legal scholarship, mostly in the form of short articles or case notes. This study, however, provides a thorough comparative analysis and the largest compilation of relevant decisions on the subject, making it indispensable for practitioners as well as academics in the field.

  7. International oil law; Le droit international du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkzad, B

    1997-07-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  8. Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The publication of the Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations, began July 1, 1875, with daily maps added in 1877. It was published for distribution...

  9. Dynamics of International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunz, Werner; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of the field of international business (IB) research based on a relational cluster analysis of co-citations in the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) from 1982 to 2011. Particularly, we examine the changing role of theory in relation to empirical IB...... research. Based on a factor and network analysis, we identify distinct clusters of IB research and their relations over time. We show that the initial focus of IB research on issues of international expansion has shifted towards issues of governance and implementation. In this process, debates on foreign...... entry mode and culture have served as important integrating themes. At the same time, theory debates in IB have expanded from a narrow focus on explaining international expansion, to a rather heterogeneous conglomerate of approaches which have assisted increasingly differentiated empirical research. Our...

  10. Astronomy and international science diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Claus

    2015-08-01

    Since WW2, science has played an important, if sometimes overlooked, role in international relations and international diplomacy. The founding of CERN in 1954 and the more recent establishment of SESAME as a major research infrastructure in the Middle East are examples of this. The IAU has played its own role in the field of science diplomacy ranging from quietly fostering interaction between the antagonists of the Cold War period to the world-uniting initiative of the International Year of Astronomy. Beyond the IAU, yet still with clear links to it, we have seen ESO as an example as well as the more recent one of SKA as a vehicle for development and for strengthening international relations.

  11. International environmental policy; Internasjonal miljoepolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Boasson, Elin Lerum; Hoenneland, Geir (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The global climate crisis has brought the questions on environment forward to top level in international politics. 'International environmental policy' gives an overview over the most central international cooperation directed on solving the environmental problems of the world, such as problems connected to climatic changes, marine pollution and loss of the diversity of nature. The authors describe the problems, how they are sought solved in agreements, which results are achieved globally and in Norway. They explain why cooperation varies in success and discuss how to improve them. How can reality get closer to ideals? This book is the first total exposition of international environmental policy in Norwegian. It is aimed for students in social studies and science, to participants in environmental debate and others interested in the theme. (AG). 50 refs

  12. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  13. International comparisons in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Huntly, Ian; Luna, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This text explores international comparisons in mathematics education and highlights strengths and weaknesses in various systems world-wide, allowing teachers, researchers and academics to compare and contrast different approaches.

  14. International Affairs Sector (NAICS 928120)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA laws and regulatory information for international agreements, including import and export, Montreal Protocol for Ozone depleting substances, ocean vessels, MARPOL, and port and border compliance assistance centers.

  15. An international biodiversity observation year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall; Adams; Mooney; Boxshall; Dobson; Nakashizuka

    2001-01-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY), which took place between July 1957 and December 1958, helped us to rethink the world. At a time when there was a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the physical world, the international collaboration of the IGY helped to reset the discipline. The International Biodiversity Observation Year (IBOY) is now occurring at a time when our dependence on, and understanding of, biodiversity is being acknowledged as a paradigm shift in our present view of the world. Although the benefits of IGY were initially intellectual with practical effects remaining unknown until many years later, the benefits of greater knowledge of biodiversity will support efforts towards sustainability and affect the quality of life, both now and in the future. By providing the framework for international collaborations between scientists involved in every aspect of life on Earth, IBOY has the potential to redefine our current understanding of biodiversity in a manner similar to how IGY helped redefine the geophysical world.

  16. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  17. BGP BEEFS UP INTERNATIONAL OPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Ye

    2001-01-01

    @@ Bureau of Geophysical Prospecting under CNPC (BGP) sponsored an international technical seminar in Beijing in mid-October 2001. Participants from 22 oil companies from Sudan, Iran, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Yemen, Italy and Peru attended the seminar.

  18. Procedural Aspects regarding International Arbitration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berlingher, Remus Daniel; Cret, Daniela Cristina

    2015-01-01

    ... no. 105/1992 on the regulation of private international law. Among the institutions that have undergone these reconfigurations in the regulation of the Code of Civil Procedure, which entered into force in 2013, one that stands out is arbitration...

  19. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  20. International Companies in Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patey, Luke; Kragelund, Peter

    Denmark must not fail to promote corporate social responsibility in fragile states. International companies remain active in these environments, and often worsen rather than alleviate poor governance. Financial transparency and human rights initiatives offer the first step in ensuring...

  1. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Agostinho; Cadenas, José; Dourado, António; Madani, Kurosh; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the sixth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2014), held in Rome, Italy, from 22 to 24 October 2014. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 210 submissions, from 51 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 15% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience in...

  2. The Third International Timetabling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard; Di Gaspero, Luca; Kingston, Jeffrey H.; McCollum, Barry; Schaerf, Andrea; Kjenstad, D.; Riise, A.; Nordlander, T.E.; McCollum, B.; Burke, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the organizers’ report on the Third International Timetabling Competition (ITC2011), run during the first half of 2012. Its participants tackled 35 instances of the high school timetabling problem, taken from schools in 10 countries.

  3. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jr., Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2016-12-06

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and an electron transporting layer comprising inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix.

  4. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Dourado, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the fifth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2013), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 20 to 22 September 2013. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 111 submissions, from 30 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, only 24 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 22%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after ...

  5. Christianity in the International law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavinina-Kalashyan Diana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the role of Christianity in the development and establishment of the international law, as well as in the development and humanization of the individual in the society. It separately considers the problems of our time which have arisen under the influence of globalization, and are manifested in the deformation of the person’s humanistic orientation. We describe the interconnection and interdependence of Christianity and the international law with a focus on the category that adequately reflects various aspects of this influence. The levels of influence of Christianity on the development and humanization of the individual, as well as on the international law are defined. The necessity of forming a new doctrine of development and humanization of the individual in the society and, accordingly, the humanization of the international law are grounded.

  6. THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    understanding of the social dynamics of the world we live in. Theoretical approaches are also instrumental in shaping perceptions of what matters in international politics ... This implies that, as a technique of last resort, the military instrument.

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management ... tablet manufacturing because the process avoids.

  8. Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing.

  9. [Decision procedures and international law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiou, A

    1992-01-01

    This work examines the significance of international spaces in the ocean, the polar regions, the air, and beyond the atmosphere; the importance of their resources; and the prospects for communal management of them in the future. International spaces and resources are considered those over which 1 country cannot exercise any right of appropriation and over which all countries exercise exactly the same rights. International spaces are more extensive than national spaces, and their extension and potential richness of resources incite nations to attempt to exercise control over them. Concerns about the environment have contributed to development of the notion of a common patrimony of humanity and the consequent rejection of traditional concepts of total freedom of action of states in regard to common spaces and resources. The existing governance of international spaces and resources was guided by a few simple principles that assured free access, with only the problems of harmonizing the uses and interests of the concerned countries. The idea of a common patrimony of humanity is closely linked to development of the law of the sea, in which it received its most complete expression to date. The emergence and recognition of juridical principles relative to common spaces and resources has been a long and controversial process, and not all such principles have attracted the same degree of support among nations. Even when consensus has been achieved regarding 1 of the principles, divergent interpretations have been made concerning the content and scope of the principle or the regulations that should result from it. 6 principles can be identified concerning nonappropriation, the oldest and long the only principle regulating use of international spaces; peaceful utilization; rational utilization; equitable utilization; protection of spaces and resources; and joint international administration or management. An important question concerning the development of a structure for

  10. International Collaboration for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, James; Limaye, Sanjay; Zasova, Ludmila; Wilson, Colin; Ocampo, Adriana; Glaze, Lori; Svedhem, H.; Nakamura, Masato; Widemann, Thomas

    The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. From the outset, VEXAG has been open to the international community participation and has followed the progress of the ESA Venus Express Mission and the JAXA Akasuki mission as well exploring potential broad international partnerships for Venus exploration through coordinated science and missions. This paper discussed three mechanisms through which these collaborations are being explored in which VEXAG members participate One pathway for international collaboration has been through COSPAR. The International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) was formed during the 2012 COSPAR general assembly in Mysore, India. Another potentially significant outcome has been the IVEWG’s efforts to foster a formal dialog between IKI and NASA/PSD on the proposed Venera D mission resulting in a meeting in June 2013 to be followed by a discussion at the 4MS3 conference in October 2013. This has now resulted in an agreement between NASA/PSD and IKI to form a joint Science Definition Team for Venera D. A second pathway has been through an international focus on comparative climatology. Scientists from the established space faring nations participated in a first international conference on Comparative Climatology for Terrestrial Planet (CCTP) in Boulder Colorado in June 2012 sponsored by several international scientific organizations. A second conference is planned for 2015. The Planetary Robotics Exploration Coordinating Group (PRECG) of International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) the IAA has been focusing on exploring affordable contributions to the robotic exploration by non-space-faring nations wishing to get involved in planetary exploration. PRECG has sponsored a two year study of Comparative Climatology for which Venus is the focal point and focused on engaging nations without deep space exploration capabilities. A third

  11. Precise Quantification of Nanoparticle Internalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gottstein, Claudia; Wu, Guohui; Wong, Benjamin J.; Zasadzinski, Joseph Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have opened new exciting avenues for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in human disease, and targeted nanoparticles are increasingly used as specific drug delivery vehicles. The precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization is of importance to measure the impact of physical and chemical properties on the uptake of nanoparticles into target cells or into cells responsible for rapid clearance. Internalization of nanoparticles has been measured...

  12. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  13. Publishing papers in international journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTIONThere is increasing pressure for scientists in all countries, including China,to publish their research in international journals.This is necessary for personal careers,as well as for the reputations of universities and other research organizations.Additionally,with the continued growth in international scientific research and the speed with which advances are being made,and active and successful researcher needs to take part in the global circulation of results and information on new technologies.

  14. International research networks in pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Rake, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge production and scientific research have become increasingly more collaborative and international, particularly in pharmaceuticals. We analyze this tendency in general and tie formation in international research networks on the country level in particular. Based on a unique dataset...... over time. Using network regression techniques to analyze the network dynamics our results indicate that accumulative advantages based on connectedness and multi-connectivity are positively related to changes in the countries' collaboration intensity whereas various indicators on similarity between...

  15. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act) was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law). Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subje...

  16. International trade with electric power

    OpenAIRE

    Årdal, Frode

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced the Directive 2003/54/EC and Regulation 1228/2003/EC which increased the focus on the liberalization of the European electricity market. The international electricity trade has increased and created new challenges related to cross-border transmission and compensation mechanisms. The focus of the report has been to discuss the development of the electricity market in Europe, and the status of international exchange. The report also discusses the con...

  17. International Business: cooperation within networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Delft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking international activities. Internationalisation has been shown to be very beneficial for firms. Cross-border activities are an important means through which SMEs are able to create value, generate gro...

  18. Internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint; Internal Derangement des Temporomandibulargelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, C.; Lomoschitz, F.; Puig, S.; Robinson, S. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Zentrales Inst. fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2001-09-01

    Internal Derangement is one of the most common disorders of the Temporomandibular joint. It is defined as an abnormal anatomical relationship between the discus articularis and the other structures of the temporomandibular joint. More than 2/3 of patients with clinical symptoms of the temporomandibular joint have an internal derangement. The most frequent finding in internal derangement is an anterior dislocation of the disc with reduction after mouth opening. In more severe cases a complete anterior dislocation is found without reduction of the disc. Internal derangement is a risk factor for developing osteoarthritis with remodeling of the condylus and the fossa mandibularis. The most important modalities of radiologic diagnosis are arthrography, CT and MRI. The diagnosis of craniofacial dysfunction has been improved dramatically by modern imaging techniques, which have become essential tools for primary diagnostic and evaluation after conservative or surgical therapy. MRI has become the gold standard. (orig.) [German] Das Internal Derangement ist eine der haeufigsten Erkrankungen des Temporomandibulargelenks. Es ist definiert als eine abnorme anatomische Beziehung des Discus articularis zu den uebrigen gelenkbildenden Strukturen. Bei mehr als 2/3 der Patienten mit Kiefergelenkbeschwerden kann ein Internal Derangement nachgewiesen werden. Die haeufigste Form ist die Ventralverlagerung des Diskus bei erhaltener Reduktion waehrend der Mundoeffnung. Bei schwereren Formen kommt es zu totalen Ventralverlagerungen ohne Reduktion. Das Internal Derangement beguenstigt die Entwicklung einer Arthrose mit entsprechenden Veraenderungen am Caput mandibulae sowie an der Fossa mandibularis. Die Palette der bildgebenden Diagnostik reicht von der Arthrographie ueber die CT zur MRT. Durch die modernen Schnittbildverfahren wurde die Abklaerung der kraniofazialen Dysfunktion revolutioniert und sind heute essentieller Bestandteil der Initialdiagnostik sowie der Verlaufsbeurteilung

  19. Factors associated with intern fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lindsay D; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Baron, Robert B; Katz, Patricia P

    2008-12-01

    Prior data suggest that fatigue adversely affects patient safety and resident well-being. ACGME duty hour limitations were intended, in part, to reduce resident fatigue, but the factors that affect intern fatigue are unknown. To identify factors associated with intern fatigue following implementation of duty hour limitations. Cross-sectional confidential survey of validated questions related to fatigue, sleep, and stress, as well as author-developed teamwork questions. Interns in cognitive specialties at the University of California, San Francisco. Univariate statistics characterized the distribution of responses. Pearson correlations elucidated bivariate relationships between fatigue and other variables. Multivariate linear regression models identified factors independently associated with fatigue, sleep, and stress. Of 111 eligible interns, 66 responded (59%). In a regression analysis including gender, hours worked in the previous week, sleep quality, perceived stress, and teamwork, only poorer quality of sleep and greater perceived stress were significantly associated with fatigue (p 80 h was not significantly associated with perceived stress, quality of sleep, or fatigue. Simply decreasing the number of duty hours may be insufficient to reduce intern fatigue. Residency programs may need to incorporate programmatic changes to reduce stress, improve sleep quality, and foster teamwork in order to decrease intern fatigue and its deleterious consequences.

  20. Individual Consequences of Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Remus Ionut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the concept of internal marketing in the literature there have been almost 40 years. This period was marked by a constant increase of the concerns in the internal marketing area, these efforts being evidenced by the publication of a consistent number of articles (conceptual and empirical which analyze this subject. Considering the previous empirical studies, most of them have focused on studying the relationship between internal marketing and employee satisfaction and / or organizational commitment. However, the relationship between internal marketing and its consequences has been less analyzed in the context of emergent economies. In this paper we aimed to analyze the individual consequences of the internal marketing in the Romanian economy context, focusing our attention on three constructs: employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. The research was conducted on a sample of 83 medium and large companies in various sectors of the Romanian economy. In order to proceed with the statistical data analyses we followed these steps: verifying the scales reliability, determining factor loadings and research hypotheses testing. Our research results are consistent with results of previous studies showing that the adoption of internal marketing practice has a positive effect on employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior