WorldWideScience

Sample records for voltage protection equipment

  1. ASPECTS OF SURGE ARRESTERS’ MAXIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE CHOICE FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT INSULATION PROTECTION IN 6-35 KV MAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Shumilov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that, in 6-35 kV mains, application of a non-linear surge arrester (SA with the maximum continuous admissible operating voltage which is 10% higher than the mains’ maximum operating voltage results in the SA protection from overheating and subsequent breakdown at nonnormable lifetime of single-phase arc faults.

  2. 30 CFR 77.704-5 - Installation of protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... high-voltage surface lines is begun, protective equipment shall be used to cover all bare conductors.... Such protective equipment shall be installed from a safe position below the conductors or...

  3. 30 CFR 77.810 - High-voltage equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage equipment; grounding. 77.810... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.810 High-voltage equipment; grounding. Frames, supporting structures, and enclosures of stationary, portable, or mobile high-voltage equipment shall...

  4. Challenges for High Voltage Testing of UHV Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernst Gockenbach

    2011-01-01

    The increase of voltage level for AC and DC transmission systems requires some changes in the high voltage testing for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) equipment. After a short description of the coordination work in the standard- ization bodies the requirements for UHV equipment are mentioned. The main points concerning high voltage testing of UHV equipment are the impulse shape of standard lightning impulse voltage, the evaluation of the test voltage for impulses with oscillations or overshoot near the peak and the time parameter of switching impulses. The linearity check of the measuring devices, the proximity effect, the wet tests and the atmospheric correction factors are further points to be discussed concerning testing of UHV equipment.

  5. Decentralized Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Medium Voltage Maritime Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    control unit. The new adaptive protection method is based on communication between the overcurrent relays and the equipment that could affect the protection system, such as circuit breakers and generators. Using PSCAD, the proposed method is implemented in a test medium voltage maritime power system...

  6. Over-voltage protection system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Song; Dong, Dong; Lai, Rixin

    2017-05-02

    An over-voltage protection system includes an electronic valve connected across two terminals of a circuit and an over-voltage detection circuit connected across one of the plurality of semiconductor devices for detecting an over-voltage across the circuit. The electronic valve includes a plurality of semiconductor devices connected in series. The over-voltage detection circuit includes a voltage divider circuit connected to a break-over diode in a way to provide a representative low voltage to the break-over diode and an optocoupler configured to receive a current from the break-over diode when the representative low voltage exceeds a threshold voltage of the break-over diode indicating an over-voltage condition. The representative low voltage provided to the break-over diode represents a voltage across the one semiconductor device. A plurality of self-powered gate drive circuits are connected to the plurality of semiconductor devices, wherein the plurality of self-powered gate drive circuits receive over-voltage triggering pulses from the optocoupler during the over-voltage condition and switch on the plurality of semiconductor devices to bypass the circuit.

  7. Protection Distance of Surge Protective Devices in Low Voltage Distribution Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong; FU Zheng-cai; ZHAO Gang; SUN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Protection distance of surge protective devices (SPDs) is an important problem in designing a good location scheme of SPDs in low voltage distribution systems for protecting electrical equipments against overvoltage caused by lightning stroke. The simplified lumped-parameter circuit model and the circuit method were used to study the protection distance problem of SPDs. The analytical solutions of the load voltage and generale quations of the protection distance of SPDs under different load conditions were given. Simulation results of examples proved the validity of the proposed analytical method.

  8. Protection of Low Voltage CIGRE distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    the inverters used for Photovoltaic (PV) and battery applications. The disconnection of the PV solar panels when in island mode is made by proposing switch dis-connecting devices. ABB is currently using these kinds of disconnection devices for the purpose of protecting solar panels against over voltages...

  9. Donning and Doffing Personal Protective Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to properly put on and take of personal protective equipment (PPE) when conducting surveillance or sampling...

  10. IGBT Fuses for Protection Against Explosion in Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Rasmussen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of electrical faults can be severe; not only to the equipment, but also in the worse case, to people if safety principles are not observed. Every year new applications based on DC-link Voltage Source Converters are added and the demand for protection of power electronics increases...... regarding the high-power IGBT modules. Due to the fact that the power level increases more energy is stored in the DC-link and even with an active protection, a high-power IGBT still has a risk of case rupture (explode) when a circuit failure condition occurs. A possible solution is a protection...... of the converter with standard High Speed Fuses or High Speed IGBT fuses. It is discussed that protection can be achieved by introduction of IGBT fuse located in the DC-link. Experiments show that explosion can be avoided by use of High Speed Fuse protection and the added inductance of standard High Speed...

  11. Days individual equipment of protection and professional risks; Equipements de protection individuelle et risques professionnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The personal protection equipment is studied in the legal way (legal liabilities, certification, European texts), technical way (ergonomics, painfulness of ventilated equipment wearing, reliability of a respirable air line, protection gloves against the chemical risk, exposure to nano particulates, working in hot area), human factors (hostile area and emotion management), studies on personal equipment such evaluation, efficiency, conception of new equipment, physiological tolerance, limit of use, and some general safety studies on the working places. (N.C.)

  12. The first equipment for protection from nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Louis-Paul; Bombardier, Pierre; Reinwalt, Jean-Marie

    2009-05-01

    How can we guarantee the containment of ultrafine particles but also implement the ergonomic and handling constraints voiced by researchers? This is the equation that the engineers at FAURE INGENIERIE had to resolve to develop the first barrier protection equipment for nanoparticle research.

  13. 30 CFR 75.511 - Low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution circuits and equipment; repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.511 Low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution circuits and equipment; repair. No electrical work shall be performed on low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution circuits or...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage powerlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage powerlines. 57.12071 Section 57.12071 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...-voltage powerlines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines...

  15. 30 CFR 77.807-3 - Movement of equipment; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... high-voltage lines. 77.807-3 Section 77.807-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-3 Movement of equipment; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. When any part of any equipment operated on the surface of...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage power lines. 56.12071 Section 56.12071 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than...

  17. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. Frames, supporting structures...

  18. Surge protective device response to steep front transient in low voltage circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuz, J.; Binczak, S.; Bilbault, J.M. [Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)], Emails: jerome.marcuz@ laposte.net, stbinc@u-bourgogne.fr, bilbault@u-bourgogne.fr; Girard, F. [ADEE Electronic, Pont de Pany (France)

    2007-07-01

    Surge propagation on cables of electrical or data lines leads to a major protection problem as the number of equipment based on solid-state circuits or microprocessors increases. Sub-microsecond components of real surge waveform has to be taken into account for a proper protection even in the case of surges caused by indirect lightning effects. The response of a model of transient voltage suppressor diode based surge protection device (SPD) to fast front transient is analytically studied, then compared to simulations, including the lines connected to the SPD and to the protected equipment. (author)

  19. Artifical Excitation of Ferro-Resonance for Testing Electrotechnical Equipment in Distribution Devices with Increased Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dmitriev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the developed device for protection against of ferro-resonant and high-frequency cumulative over-voltages an algorithm for obtaining a voltage imitating ferro-resonant over-voltages is proposed in the paper. This algorithm presupposes to apply a voltage to the secondary transformer side from an extraneous source is proposed.

  20. Characteristics of Overvoltage Protection with Cascade Application of Surge Protective Devices in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULOVIC, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Surge Protective Devices (SPDs are widely used for protection of the equipment in low-voltage AC power circuits against wide variety of surges. Cascade application of SPDs starting at the service entrance of a building and downstream toward near sensitive equipment is intended to ensure optimal energy distribution among installed SPDs, as well as proper equipment protection against surges. Characteristics of overvoltage protection with two-stage application of SPDs have been analyzed in the paper through performed measurements, followed by simulations and numerical modeling using the ATP/EMTP and MATLAB Simulink. Parametric analysis of the protection's characteristics in wide range of influencing factors has been performed in order to define a set of applicable solutions for proper selection and performance of SPDs.

  1. Voltage dips generated by user`s equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruest, D. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    A three year project was conducted by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) and Hydro-Quebec to measure voltage dips and short interruptions at 36 industrial sites across Canada (26 in Quebec, 3 in Nova Scotia, 2 in Ontario, and 3 in Manitoba). These disturbances are among the most harmful for power supply networks. This project was initiated in response to a request by the Union Internationale d`Electrothermie`s (UIE). The UIE is an international standards organizations which has set limits for voltage dips and short interruptions for utilities. In this study, an equivalent of 6.45 site-years of data was acquired and the results were compared against other surveys. Although the results could not be compared against other measurements because of different isokeraunic zones and network designs, they were, nevertheless, comparable. Other disturbances that were also measured included phase variation, frequency variation, and voltage swells. tabs., figs.

  2. Some trial methods of plant protection equipments in Turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Erimgüner, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Plant Protection Equipments Laboratory of the: Institute for the Plant Protection Chemicals and Equipments in Ankara is handling the mechanical and practical testing of; the equipments intended to be put in Turkey's markets. The testing is carried out as a part of the procedure of the approval scheme. In this article the detailed information's covering the mechanical and practical features required from the «equipments is given.

  3. Study of seismic response and vibration control of High voltage electrical equipment damper based on TMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Wang, Chongyang; Mao, Long; Zha, Chuanming

    2016-11-01

    Substation high voltage electrical equipment such as mutual inductor, circuit interrupter, disconnecting switch, etc., has played a key role in maintaining the normal operation of the power system. When the earthquake disaster, the electrical equipment of the porcelain in the transformer substation is the most easily to damage, causing great economic losses. In this paper, using the method of numerical analysis, the establishment of a typical high voltage electrical equipment of three dimensional finite element model, to study the seismic response of a typical SF6 circuit breaker, at the same time, analysis and contrast the installation ring tuned mass damper (TMD damper for short), by changing the damper damping coefficient and the mass block, install annular TMD vibration control effect is studied. The results of the study for guiding the seismic design of high voltage electrical equipment to provide valuable reference.

  4. Features of the European legislation on the safety of radio, telecommunications and low voltage equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Kashtanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine is in the process of integration with the European Union, it needs to reform the existing system of industrial safety in accordance with European standards. The basic features of the functioning and application of European law for the safety of low voltage equipment, radio and telecommunications equipment are discussed in this paper. The main regulations materials of the European Union on safety for low voltage equipment, radio– and telecommunications equipment (Directive 2014/35/EU, Directive 2014/53/ЕU and Directive 1999/5/EC are considered and analyzed. The main regulation materials for waste utilization of electrical and electronic equipment (Directive 2002/96/EC and Directive 2011/65/EU are considered and analyzed also. As a result, the main features of the functioning of the Directive are identified and appropriate recommendations for their applying are given.

  5. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: matsuonm@usp.br, nelsonk@pea.usp.br; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  6. Voltage surges induced in transformer secondaries with loads characterized by sensitive electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [GSI Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Taubate, SP (Brazil)], Email: gsi@gsiconsultoria.com.br; Dommel, Hermann Wilhelm [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], Email: hermannd@ece.ubc.ca

    2007-07-01

    The grounding of sensitive electronic equipment such as computers, programmable logic controllers (PLC), process control systems, and other electronic equipment is one of the most important considerations towards obtaining an efficient operation of such systems. Such equipment, which for the purposes of this work is called 'Sensitive Electronic Equipment - SEE' is very sensitive to faults and low intensity random voltages which have no effect upon the electrical power equipment and upon human beings. In this work, the grounding problem is evaluated, to guide the user on the proper installation of SEEs, so as to prevent them from being damaged. The following items will be discussed: voltages which SEEs are subject to during incidence of atmospheric surges in the distribution overhead lines to which they are connected; sustained voltage that the high voltage supply of SEEs must be able to withstand during line-to-ground faults that originate from atmospheric surges that reach the transmission lines which are connected to the electrical power self producers (or electrical power independent producers). (author)

  7. Modeling and Verification of Distributed Generation and Voltage Regulation Equipment for Unbalanced Distribution Power Systems; Annual Subcontract Report, June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M. W.; Broadwater, R.; Hambrick, J.

    2007-07-01

    This report summarizes the development of models for distributed generation and distribution circuit voltage regulation equipment for unbalanced power systems and their verification through actual field measurements.

  8. Implementationof Single Phasing, Over Voltage, Under Voltage, Protection of Three Phase Appliances without Using Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Thakur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to develop for protection for costly appliances which require three-phase AC supply for operation. Failure of any of the phases or sudden change in voltage makes the appliance prone to erratic functioning and may even lead to failure. Hence it is of paramount importance to monitor the availability of the three-phase supply and proper voltage supply and switch off the appliance in the event of failure of one or two phases or if required voltage level is not available. The power to the appliance should resume with the availability of all phases of the supply with proper voltage level. The main advantage of this protector circuit is that it protects three-phase appliances from failure of any phase as well as from fluctuation of voltage. The concept in future can be extended to developing a mechanism to send message to the authority via SMS by interfacing GSM modem. Details description of all types of faults is given below.

  9. Personal protective equipment for registration purposes of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in North America, Europe and Australia use different approaches for the estimation of exposure reduction effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) in registration processes of agrochemical pesticides. TNO has investigated current views and facts for the use of

  10. Automatic Distance Monitoring System of Contact Connections in High Voltage Equipment of Electric Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diachenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed automatic distance monitoring system of contact connections in high voltage equipment is based on technology of sensor circuits. The paper shows application of control methodology for contact connections in accordance with time rate of conductor temperature changes and contact connection and also direct measurement of transient resistance.

  11. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  12. Control and Protection Cooperation Strategy for Voltage Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2012-01-01

    Most cascaded blackouts are caused by unexpected backup relay operations due to low voltage or overload state caused by post fault load restoration dynamics. If such state can be sensed and adjusted appropriately prior to those relay actions, system stability might be sustained. This paper proposed...... a control and protection cooperation strategy to prevent post fault voltage instability. The multi-agent technology is applied for the strategy implementation; the criteria based on wide area measured apparent impedances are defined to choose the control strategy, such as tap changer adjusting or load...

  13. Personal protective equipment with integrated POF sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, J.; Schukar, M.; Krebber, K.; Pažoutová, H.; Demuth, J.; Santostefano, N.; Mäkinen, H.; Pietrowski, P.

    2013-05-01

    Within the EU project i-Protect fibre optic sensors for measuring heart rate, respiratory rate and skin temperature are being developed. The plastic optical fibre (POF) sensors are based on macrobending effects, photoplethysmography and fluorescence thermometry. The sensors and monitoring units are integrated into underwear and are communicating wireless via body area network and communication unit with the rescue command centre. All sensors can be removed from the underwear to allow washing the textile. First prototypes of the fibre optic sensors were tested in comparison to commercial reference sensors.

  14. 30 CFR 75.900 - Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900 Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit breakers...

  15. Systematic approach in protection and ergonomics testing personal protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog. E.A. den

    2009-01-01

    In the area of personal protection against chemical and biological (CB) agents there is a strong focus on testing the materials against the relevant threats. The testing programs in this area are elaborate and are aimed to guarantee that the material protects according to specifications. This

  16. 30 CFR 77.901 - Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of low- and medium-voltage three... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901 Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits. (a) Low- and medium-voltage circuits supplying...

  17. 30 CFR 77.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices. High-voltage...

  18. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Krzemińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail or e-mail to oncology hospitals and pharmacies preparing cytostatic drugs. Responses were received from 94 people employed in these workplaces. The main questions concerned the forms of cytostatics; job activities; types of personal protective equipment used and working time under exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Results: The majority (over 90% of the healthcare personnel declared the use of personal protective equipment when working under conditions of exposure to cytostatic drugs. Depending on the type of protection, 15–35% of people reported that the most frequent time of their single use of the apron, the overalls, the gloves, the cap, the goggles or the respirators did not exceed few minutes. Gloves were changed most frequently. However, half of the responses indicated that the time after which the respondents removed protection equipment greatly differed. Conclusions: Almost the whole group of respondents applied personal protective equipment when working under exposure to cytostatics. However, personal protective equipment was not used every time in case of exposure. The medical and pharmaceutical staff worked under exposure to cytostatics for a few or even dozen hours during the working day. Med Pr 2016;67(4:499–508

  19. Voltage Stability of Medium Transmission Line Equipped with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power-Voltage curve provides very important information for voltage stability analysis. The exact medium transmission line model consists of the resistance and the reactance. The resistance causes in the active line loss. It is not an easy task to achieve the power-voltage curve characteristics of power system with the exact medium line model equipped with a. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC. Approach: This study applies the concept of the Newton-Raphson method to iteratively solve the nonlinear power flow equations. The Power-Voltage (P-V curve characteristic of the system without line loss and with line loss are plotted and compared with various cases. Results: It is found from the study that the resistance of the line obviously provides the negative effects on the voltage stability. The line loss causes in the decrement of the critical point. In addition, it is found that the leading power factor can increase the critical point of P-V curve. Conclusion: The exact medium line model should be considered for voltage stability analysis of the system with the medium transmission line.

  20. Protective equipment for emergency rescue in alpine-cold region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tian; Feng Xinxing; Wang Qizhi; Hao Limin

    2013-01-01

    Alpine-cold regions are characterized as hypoxia,strong wind,heavy rain,cold climate,huge temperature difference between day and night,and vertical climate.All these make it difficult for an emergency rescue when a natural disaster such as earthquake happens.Based on the characteristics of emergency rescue in alpinecold region,several multifunctional protective equipments have been developed by the Quartermaster Equipment Institute of General Logistics Department (GLD) of the Chinese People' s Liberation Army (CPLA).These equipments are lightweight,durable and environment adaptable.

  1. A Primary and Backup Protection Algorithm based on Voltage and Current Measurements for HVDC Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Abedrabbo, Mudar; Van Hertem, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    DC grids are susceptible to DC side faults, which lead to a rapid rise of the DC side currents. DC side faults should be detected in a very short time before fault currents cause damage to the system or equipment, e.g., exceed the maximum interruptible limits of DC circuit breaker. This paper presents a primary and backup protective data-based algorithm. The proposed algorithm depends on the local voltage and current measurements to detect and identify various kinds of faults in the HVDC grid...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1503 - Augering equipment; overhead protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1503 Augering equipment; overhead protection. (a) Auger machines which are exposed to highwall hazards, together with all those parts of any coal elevating conveyors... connecting or disconnecting auger sections under a highwall, at least one person shall be assigned to...

  3. Personal protective equipment for registration purposes of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in North America, Europe and Australia use different approaches for the estimation of exposure reduction effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) in registration processes of agrochemical pesticides. TNO has investigated current views and facts for the use of defau

  4. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P., E-mail: GusevYP@mpei.ru; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun [National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed.

  5. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Michael G; Cawthon, David

    2015-02-01

    Accurate identification of the hazardous material is essential for proper care. Efficient hospital security and triage must prevent contaminated victims from entering the emergency department (ED) and causing secondary contamination. The decontamination area should be located outside the ambulance entrance. Decontamination priorities are protection of the health care worker, utilization of Level C personal protective equipment, and proper decontamination of the exposed patient. Decontamination proceeds in a head-to-toe sequence. Run-off water is a hazardous waste. Hospital and Community Management Planning for these emergencies is essential for proper preparation and effective response to the hazardous materials incident.

  6. Calibration for Radiation Protection Equipment for the Measuring Airborne Tritium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; SHEN; En-wei; WEI; Ke-xin; WANG; Kong-zhao; LI; Hou-wen; GE; Jian-an; LV; Xiao-xia

    2012-01-01

    <正>Monitoring airborne tritium is an important routine work in heavy water reactor nuclear power stations and the units related with tritium. Nowadays direct measuring instruments like hand carrying tritium monitors are more often used in routine workshop environment check. Need for calibrating such monitors was suggested. A trial work about the calibration for radiation protection equipment for measuring airborne tritium was carried out with a domestic standard EJ/T 1077-1998 equivalent that of IEC 710.

  7. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Krzemińska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Małgorzata Szewczyńska

    2016-01-01

    Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail o...

  8. Study on Miniaturized UHF Antennas for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingcun; Zhang, Guogang; Dong, Jinlong; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-11-20

    Detecting partial discharge (PD) is an effective way to evaluate the condition of high-voltage electrical equipment insulation. The UHF detection method has attracted attention due to its high sensitivity, strong interference resistance, and ability to locate PDs. In this paper, a miniaturized equiangular spiral antenna (ESA) for UHF detection that uses a printed circuit board is proposed. I-shaped, L-shaped, and C-shaped microstrip baluns were designed to match the impedance between the ESA and coaxial cable and were verified by a vector network analyzer. For comparison, three other types of UHF antenna were also designed: A microstrip patch antenna, a microstrip slot antenna, and a printed dipole antenna. Their antenna factors were calibrated in a uniform electric field of different frequencies modulated in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell. We performed comparison experiments on PD signal detection using an artificial defect model based on the international IEC 60270 standard. We also conducted time-delay test experiments on the ESA sensor to locate a PD source. It was found that the proposed ESA sensor meets PD signal detection requirements. The sensor's compact size makes it suitable for internal installation in high-voltage electrical equipment.

  9. Study on Miniaturized UHF Antennas for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detecting partial discharge (PD is an effective way to evaluate the condition of high-voltage electrical equipment insulation. The UHF detection method has attracted attention due to its high sensitivity, strong interference resistance, and ability to locate PDs. In this paper, a miniaturized equiangular spiral antenna (ESA for UHF detection that uses a printed circuit board is proposed. I-shaped, L-shaped, and C-shaped microstrip baluns were designed to match the impedance between the ESA and coaxial cable and were verified by a vector network analyzer. For comparison, three other types of UHF antenna were also designed: A microstrip patch antenna, a microstrip slot antenna, and a printed dipole antenna. Their antenna factors were calibrated in a uniform electric field of different frequencies modulated in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell. We performed comparison experiments on PD signal detection using an artificial defect model based on the international IEC 60270 standard. We also conducted time-delay test experiments on the ESA sensor to locate a PD source. It was found that the proposed ESA sensor meets PD signal detection requirements. The sensor’s compact size makes it suitable for internal installation in high-voltage electrical equipment.

  10. Anthropometric Procedures for Protective Equipment Sizing and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. Background While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product designs. Methods For this study, 100 farm tractor operators, 3,718 respirator users, 951 firefighters, and 816 civilian workers participated in four studies on the design of tractor roll-over protective structures (ROPS), respirator test panels, fire truck cabs, and fall-arrest harnesses, respectively. Their anthropometry and participant-equipment interfaces were evaluated. Results Study 1 showed a need to extend the 90-cm vertical clearance for tractor ROPS in the current industrial standards to 98.3 to 101.3 cm. Study 2 indicated that current respirator test panel would have excluded 10% of the male firefighter population; a systematic adjustment to the boundaries of test panel cells was suggested. Study 3 provided 24 principal component analysis-based firefighter body models to facilitate fire truck cab design. Study 4 developed an improved gender-based fall-arrest harness sizing scheme to supplant the current unisex system. Conclusions This article presented four anthropometric approaches and a six-step design paradigm for ROPS, respirator test panel, fire truck cab, and fall-arrest harness applications, which demonstrated anthropometric theories and practices for defining protective equipment fit and sizing schemes. Applications The study provided a basis for equipment designers, standards writers, and industry manufacturers to advance anthropometric applications for product design and improve product efficacy. PMID:23516791

  11. Adaptive Voltage Stability Protection Based on Load Identification Using Phasor Measurement Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Bak, Claus Leth; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    collapse. In this paper, the online load identification using measurement-based approach based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) was proposed to evaluate the proximity to voltage instability in order to prevent voltage collapse. In the scenarios of disturbances, the proximity to voltage collapse...... with respect to load characteristics was evaluated. Based on different load characteristics, different control and protection schemes were implemented, i.e. shunt capacitor connection, on-load tap changer blocking and load shedding. The results showed that load-based adaptive voltage control and protection...... scheme based on PMUs is promising, as it prevented the voltage collapse and minimized the load shedding area....

  12. A Generalised Fault Protection Structure Proposed for Uni-grounded Low-Voltage AC Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duong Minh; Chen, Shi-Lin; Lien, Keng-Yu; Jiang, Jheng-Lun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents three main configurations of uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrids. Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage (LV) AC microgrid (MG) are simulated through various fault tests and operation transition tests between grid-connected and islanded modes. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. In addition, concept of a generalised fault protection structure of uni-grounded LVAC MGs is mentioned in the paper. As a result, main contributions of the paper are: (i) definition of different uni-grounded LVAC MG configurations; (ii) analysing transient responses of a uni-grounded LVAC microgrid through line-to-line faults, line-to-ground faults, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test, (iii) proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded microgrids, such as: non-directional or directional overcurrent protection, under/over voltage protection, differential current protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other fault protection principles not based on phase currents and voltages (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of currents and voltages, using sequence components of current and voltage, 3I0 or 3V0 components), and (iv) developing a generalised fault protection structure with six individual protection zones to be suitable for different uni-grounded AC MG configurations.

  13. A NOVEL OVER—VOLTAGE PROTECTION METHOD FOR 600V SPIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanLei; YeXingning

    2002-01-01

    A novel over-voltage protection method for 600V BPIC(Smart Power IC) is proposed in this paper.The combining FFLRs(Floating Field Limiting Rings) system is designed to be a voltage detector.The detector's voltage can turn off the switch of the APFC(Active Power Factor Correction )Circuit and the bus voltage would fall from 600VDC to 300VDC,so the SPIC and power devices can be protected.The advantages of this design are that the total protection circuits are integrated in SPIC and technologically compatible with CMOS or BCD(Bipolar CMOS-DMOS) technology.

  14. A NOVEL OVER-VOLTAGE PROTECTION METHOD FOR 600V SPIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Lei; Ye Xingning

    2002-01-01

    A novel over-voltage protection method for 600V SPIC (Smart Power IC) is proposed in this paper. The combining FFLRs (Floating Field Limiting Rings) system is designed to be a voltage detector. The detector's voltage can turn off the switch of the APFC (Active Power Factor Correction) circuit and the bus voltage would fall from 600VDC to 300VDC, so the SPIC and power devices can be protected. The advantages of this design are that the total protection circuits are integrated in SPIC and technologically compatible with CMOS or BCD(BipolarCMOS-DMOS) technology.

  15. Ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor for on-chip ESD protection without extra process cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shan; Jun, He; Wenyi, Huang

    2009-07-01

    A new thyristor is proposed and realized in the foundry's 0.18-μm CMOS process for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Without extra mask layers or process steps, the new ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor (ULVT thyristor) has a trigger voltage as low as 6.7 V and an ESD robustness exceeding 50 mA/μm, which enables effective ESD protection. Compared with the traditional medium-voltage-trigger thyristor (MVT thyristor), the new structure not only has a lower trigger voltage, but can also provide better ESD protection under both positive and negative ESD zapping conditions.

  16. Ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor for on-chip ESD protection without extra process cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Yi [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); He Jun; Huang Wenyi, E-mail: iamshanyi@163.co, E-mail: yi.shan@gracesemi.co [Grace Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A new thyristor is proposed and realized in the foundry's 0.18-{mu}m CMOS process for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Without extra mask layers or process steps, the new ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor (ULVT thyristor) has a trigger voltage as low as 6.7 V and an ESD robustness exceeding 50 mA/{mu}m, which enables effective ESD protection. Compared with the traditional medium-voltage-trigger thyristor (MVT thyristor), the new structure not only has a lower trigger voltage, but can also provide better ESD protection under both positive and negative ESD zapping conditions.

  17. GLOVEBOX DISMANTLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Stallings, Ellen; Wilburn, Dianne W.

    2003-02-27

    It has been revealed from the experiences of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities that even a small improvement in performance can result in significant risk reduction and cost savings. For example, Race Scan Ear Mic System, which was originally developed for communications between racecar drivers and crews in loud environments, has been successfully applied to D&D work and proved to enhance worker safety and communications. Glovebox dismantlement is an important and costly process in D&D activities of nuclear facilities. Adequate decontamination and size reduction of the gloveboxes are especially important in this activity because they have the potential to reduce risks and costs significantly. This paper presents some simple approaches to support D&D tasks and discusses their potential advantages. Examples discussed include: Repeated shear wiping of large pipes and ducts; Application of thin layers on radiological counters for uninterrupted use; and Partial use of robotics for glovebox dismantling. The paper also discusses schematics for protecting equipment interiors and/or glovebox inner surfaces from contamination, which may result in significant savings and waste minimization upon future dismantlement. Examples discussed include: Smart coating for contamination prevention; and Protecting equipment by geometrically simple cover.

  18. Localization of equipment for digital plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K. and others

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this project lies on the development of design requirements, establishment of structure and manufacture procedures, development of the software verification and validation(V and V) techniques of the digital plant protection system. The functional requirements based on the analog protection system and digital design requirements are introduced, the processor and system bus for safety grade equipment are selected and the interface requirements and the design specification have been developed in order to manufacture the quick prototype of the digital plant protection system. The selection guidelines of parts, software development and coding and testing for digital plant protection system have been performed through manufacturing the quick prototype based on the developed design specification. For the software verification and validation, the software review plan and techniques of verification and validation have been researched. The digital validation system is developed in order to verify the quick prototype. The digital design requirements are reviewed by the software safety plan and V and V plans. The formal methods for verifying the safety-grade software are researched, then the methodology of formal analysis and testing have been developed.

  19. Guidance on the use of respiratory and facial protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, J E; Ritchie, L; Adisesh, A; Makison Booth, C; Bradley, C; Bunyan, D; Carson, G; Fry, C; Hoffman, P; Jenkins, D; Phin, N; Taylor, B; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J S; Zuckerman, M

    2013-11-01

    Infectious micro-organisms may be transmitted by a variety of routes, and some may be spread by more than one route. Respiratory and facial protection is required for those organisms that are usually transmitted via the droplet/airborne route, or when airborne particles have been artificially created, such as during 'aerosol-generating procedures'. A range of personal protective equipment that provides different degrees of facial and respiratory protection is available. It is apparent from the recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza that healthcare workers may have difficulty in choosing the correct type of facial and respiratory protection in any given clinical situation. To address this issue, the Scientific Development Committee of the Healthcare Infection Society established a short-life working group to develop guidance. The guidance is based upon a review of the literature, which is published separately, and expert consensus. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the instantaneous protection reliability of low voltage circuit breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-guo; DU Tai-hang; LUO Yan-yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of enhancing the instantaneous protection reliability of low voltage circuit breakers and describes their main failure modes. The instantaneous failure mechanism of low voltage circuit breakers was analyzed so that measures to improve instantaneous protection reliability can be determined. Furthermore, the theory of the instantaneous characteristics Calibration device for low voltage circuit breakers and the method of eliminating the non-periodic component of test current are given in detail. Finally, the test results are presented.

  1. Protection of information communication equipment against thunderbolt and thunderbolt observation. Protection of communication equipment for power supply against thunderbolt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Mitsuo (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-08-25

    Protection of communication equipment for power supply against thunderbolt is explained quoting a part of investigations and studies made from 1984 to 1987 in connection with thunderbolt resisting design of wireless stations for power supply. Investigations and studies have been made on the ideal way of thunderbolt resisting design, based on the damages made to communication equipment for power supply, measurement carried out at actual wireless stations, and simulation. Summaries of the investigations are introduced which were made from 1974 to 1983 on the situation of communication facilities at wireless stations, state of adopted thunderbolt resisting measures, and the actual state of damages suffered from thunderbolts. The damage rate was the highest with relatively small relay stations located at high altitudes. The majority of the damages at wirelss stations were done to devices connected to outside equipment. From the measured result at relay stations, it was found that the shunt of serge current can be satisfactorily simulated by a model described by the inductance constituents of the main metallic parts and the distribution of grounding resistance. It is important for thunderbolt resisting design not to propagate serge energy which may cause damages to devices, and a solution considered to be effective is introduced. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Review of personal protection equipment used in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, Jon; Gammon, John; Cutter, Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Standard precautions offer a consistent approach to infection control that does not rely on knowledge or suspicion of infection, and contributes to staff and patient safety by reducing the risk of exposure to potentially infectious material. One of the cornerstones of standard precautions is the appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) whenever contact with blood or body fluids is anticipated. However, evidence suggests that compliance with standard precautions including correct use of PPE is inadequate. Demographic and epidemiological changes in the U.K., and the drive to provide more complex patient care outside acute hospitals may lead to increased infection risks for both patients and community healthcare workers. This review examines the importance and use of PPE by community nurses and discusses the implications for practice of poor compliance with standard precautions. Recommendations for practice will be made aimed at improving compliance with this important element of standard precautions.

  3. Personal protective equipment provision in prehospital care: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanicki, D A; Porter, K M

    2009-12-01

    Safety in prehospital practice is a paramount principle. Personal protective equipment (PPE) use is intrinsic to safe practice. There is varied guidance as to what constitutes effective PPE. No evidence is available of what current provision encompasses. A questionnaire-based study directed to all ambulance trusts, British Association for Immediate Care (BASICS) schemes and air ambulance operations in England, Scotland and Wales. Total response rate was in excess of 66%. A specific protocol for PPE use was issued by 81%, 89% and 38% of ambulance trusts, air ambulance and BASICS schemes, respectively. There was a wide variation in provision of PPE both within and between different groups of providers. Fewer than 55% of providers had an evaluation system in place for reviewing PPE use. Many reasons account for the differences in provision. There is a clear need for a standard to be set nationally in conjunction with locally implemented evaluation and re-accreditation processes.

  4. Folding retractable protective dome for space vehicle equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul R. (Inventor); Messinger, Ross H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A folding, retractable dome for protecting a feature, such as a docking mechanism, a hatch or other equipment at an exterior surface of a space vehicle, includes a plurality of arcuate ribs, each having opposite ends respectively pinioned at opposite sides of the feature at the surface of the vehicle for rotational movement about an axis of rotation extending through the opposite ends and through an arcuate path of revolution extending over the feature, and a flexible cover attached to each of the ribs such that, in a deployed configuration of the dome, in which adjacent ribs are rotated apart from each other at a maximum relative angle therebetween, the cover is stretched generally tangentially between the adjacent ribs to form a generally arcuate shield over the feature, and in a retracted position of the dome, in which adjacent ribs are rotated together at a minimum relative angle therebetween, the cover is collapsed to define folded pleats between the adjacent ribs.

  5. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  6. 30 CFR 18.51 - Electrical protection of circuits and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical protection of circuits and equipment... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.51 Electrical protection of circuits and equipment. (a) An...

  7. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection....

  8. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  9. 30 CFR 75.901 - Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits used underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of low- and medium-voltage three... Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.901 Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits used underground. (a) Low- and medium-voltage three-phase alternating-current...

  10. Sustainable Product: Personal Protective Equipment Manufactured with Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Aparecido Boa Vista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the case of manufacturing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE using as raw material biopolymers produced from ethanol from sugar cane, known as green polypropylene, produced since 2008 by BRASKEM. This article studied the PPE for the employee’s head protection, named helmet by NR 6, which is used in situations of exposure to weather and work scenarios in places where there is risk of impact from falling or projecting objects, burns, electric shock, and solar radiation. The MSA, green helmet manufacturer, made an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by comparing the two manufacturing processes of the helmet shell, covering the January 1 to December 31, 2011 period. It concluded that the sustainable helmet (green polyethylene and pigments robs 231g of CO2 from the atmosphere per produced unit, while the helmet’s production with traditional raw materials (polyethylene and petrochemical pigments found that, for each unit produced, 1029g of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere. The study showed that substitution of raw materials has led to reduction in the impact generated in the helmets’ production.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this one-year investigation is to perform a technology integration/search, thereby ensuring that the safest and most cost-effective options are developed and subsequently used during the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sites. Issues of worker health and safety are the main concern, followed by cost. Two lines of action were explored: innovative Personal Cooling Systems (PCS) and Personal Monitoring Equipment (PME). PME refers to sensors affixed to the worker that warn of an approaching heat stress condition, thereby preventing it. Three types of cooling systems were investigated: Pre-Chilled or Forced-Air System (PCFA), Umbilical Fluid-Chilled System (UFCS), and Passive Vest System (PVS). Of these, the UFCS leads the way. The PVS or Gel pack vest lagged due to a limited cooling duration. And the PCFA or chilled liquid air supply was cumbersome and required an expensive and complex recharge system. The UFCS in the form of the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) performed exceptionally. The technology uses a chilled liquid circulating undergarment and a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) external pump and ice reservoir. The system is moderately expensive, but the recharge is low-tech and inexpensive enough to offset the cost. There are commercially available PME that can be augmented to meet the DOE's heat stress alleviation need. The technology is costly, in excess of $4,000 per unit. Workers easily ignore the alarm. The benefit to health & safety is indirect so can be overlooked. A PCS is a more justifiable expenditure.

  12. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground. 75.802 Section 75.802 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground. (a) Except as...

  13. Retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures: perspective of equipment dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, S M; Donham, K J; Leedom-Larson, K; Sanderson, W; Purschwitz, M

    2009-10-01

    This study was one of a cluster of studies that originated via requests for proposals from the NIOSH National Agricultural Tractor Safety Initiative. The present study design consisted of several steps: (1) formation of an advisory group, (2) development and testing of a standard paper self-responding survey instrument, (3) sample selection of farm equipment dealers, (4) administration of the survey, (5) assessment and analysis of the survey, and (6) in-person response panel of dealers (n = 80) to review results of the questionnaire for further definition and sharpening of the recommendations from the survey. A key finding is that most dealers do not currently sell or install ROPS retrofit kits. Barriers cited by dealers included (1) actual or perceived lack of farmer demand, (2) injury liability, (3) expensive freight for ordering ROPS, (4) lack of dealer awareness of the magnitude of deaths from tractor overturns and the high life-protective factor of ROPS, and (5) difficulty and incursion of non-recoverable expenses in locating and obtaining specific ROPS. Despite not currently selling or installing ROPS, dealers responded favorably about their future potential role in ROPS promotion and sales. Dealers were willing to further promote, sell, and install ROPS if there was demand from farmers. Recommendations include establishing a ROPS "clearing house" that dealers could contact to facilitate locating and obtaining ROPS orders from customers. Additional recommendations include education and social marketing targeting farm machinery dealers as well farmers, manufacturers, and policy makers.

  14. 29 CFR 1910.137 - Electrical protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test is made at a frequency other than 60 hertz, the permissible proof-test current shall be computed... produced by ozone on rubber under mechanical stress into a series of interlacing cracks); (C) An embedded... system that may be safely worked. The nominal design voltage is equal to the phase-to-phase voltage...

  15. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  16. Farmers' use of personal protective equipment during handling of plant protection products: Determinants of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2016-11-15

    Understanding factors affecting the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during handling of plant protection products (PPPs) is of major importance for the design of tailored interventions to minimize exposure among farmers. However, data regarding this issue are highly limited. Factors related to the use of PPE during handling of PPPs were explored in a survey of cotton farmers in northern Greece. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the farmers based on a questionnaire with structured items on the frequency of use of various personal protective devices during handling of PPPs. New evidence on patterns of PPE use and potential exposure of farmers to PPPs is provided. Most farmers (49.3%) showed potentially unsafe behaviour with respect to PPE use. Hat and boots were the most commonly used protective items during PPPs use, but most of the farmers surveyed reported low frequency of use for gloves, goggles, face mask, coveralls, and respirator. Especially the respirator was reported to be the least used PPE item amongst farmers. Farmers who perceived PPPs as harmful substances or those who had an episode of intoxication in the past reported more frequent use of several PPE items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the variable episode of intoxication in the past exerted the strongest positive influence on PPE use, followed by the perception of PPPs being hazardous substances, upper secondary education, previous training on PPPs (i.e., spraying equipment, application parameters, risks to human health and environment, safety issues) and farm size under cultivation. Old age exerted a significant negative influence on PPE use, namely, elderly farmers tended not to use PPE. Strategies to maximize the protection of applicators of PPPs from hazardous exposures still require innovation to achieve increased effectiveness. Emphasis on lifelong training and education of farmers about hazards and risks of PPPs is crucial for changing

  17. Ultra-High Voltage DC Convertor Station Equipment Condition Data Access Technology Based on multi-Source Heterogeneous Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Shuai; Ren, Wei; Xu, Hai-jun; Fu, Long-ming

    2017-07-01

    With the large-scale construction of special high-voltage project, as well as power supply reliability, security, economic and other increasingly demanding, state monitoring equipment involved in more and more monitoring projects and more and more monitoring data, because these data exist in multiple isolated systems in the Ultra-High Voltage(UHV) AC-DC substation, there is no data sharing mechanism, so a holistic analysis, application and sharing approach for the data set will need a deep consideration. In this paper, the equipment condition monitoring system frame of the UHV converter station and the scheme of the equipment state data access of UHV converter station based on the multi-source and heterogeneous data fusion are presented. Then, data exchange technology of UHV equipment state early warning center was introduced, and a data access and conversion device in the Zhongzhou converter station was deployed to solve the timeliness and functionality difficult of the existing system to meet the requirements of UHV operation and maintenance support.

  18. Novel substrate trigger SCR-LDMOS stacking structure for high-voltage ESD protection application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金荣; 乔明; 张波

    2015-01-01

    A novel substrate trigger semiconductor control rectifier-laterally diffused metal–oxide semiconductor (STSCR-LDMOS) stacked structure is proposed and simulated using the transimission line pulser (TLP) multiple-pulse simulation method in a 0.35-µm, 60-V biploar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process without additional masks. On account of a very low holding voltage, it is susceptible to latch-up-like danger for the semiconductor control rectifier-laterally diffused metal–oxide semiconductor (SCR-LDMOS) in high-voltage electro-static discharge (ESD) protection applications. Although the conventional stacking structure has achieved strong latch-up immunity by increasing holding voltage, excessive high trigger voltage does not meet requirements for an ESD protection device. The holding voltage of the proposed stacked structure is proportional to the stacking number, whereas the trigger voltage remains nearly the same. A high holding voltage of 30.6 V and trigger voltage of 75.4 V are achieved.

  19. 30 CFR 57.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... MINES Electricity § 56.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over power conductors, unless...

  1. Behavioural interventions to promote workers' use of respiratory protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong Thanh, Bao Yen; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Koh, David; Sakunkoo, Pornpun; Moe, Hla

    2016-12-07

    Respiratory hazards are common in the workplace. Depending on the hazard and exposure, the health consequences may include: mild to life-threatening illnesses from infectious agents, acute effects ranging from respiratory irritation to chronic lung conditions, or even cancer from exposure to chemicals or toxins. Use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is an important preventive measure in many occupational settings. RPE only offers protection when worn properly, when removed safely and when it is either replaced or maintained regularly. The effectiveness of behavioural interventions either directed at employers or organisations or directed at individual workers to promote RPE use in workers remains an important unanswered question. To assess the effects of any behavioural intervention either directed at organisations or at individual workers on observed or self-reported RPE use in workers when compared to no intervention or an alternative intervention. We searched the Cochrane Work Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 07), MEDLINE (1980 to 12 August 2016), EMBASE (1980 to 20 August 2016) and CINAHL (1980 to 12 August 2016). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before and after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) comparing behavioural interventions versus no intervention or any other behavioural intervention to promote RPE use in workers. Four authors independently selected relevant studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted investigators to clarify information. We pooled outcome data from included studies where the studies were sufficiently similar. We included 14 studies that evaluated the effect of training and education on RPE use, which involved 2052 participants. The included studies had been conducted with farm, healthcare, production line, office and coke oven workers as well as nursing students and people with mixed occupations. All

  2. Modeling of Wind Turbines Equipped with Induction Machines for Voltage Profile Studies Using PSCAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abedinzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing environmental concern, more and more electricity is generated from wind turbines. Therefore, adequate models to study the impact of wind turbines on electrical power system behavior are needed. One of the most important considerations is the effect of wind turbines on the voltage profile, i.e. the induced slow voltage variations, which are the subject of this paper. The wind turbines can be operated in two modes: constant-speed and variable-speed. Each one of these cases has different impact on steady state voltage of distribution grids. For evaluation of these impacts, SCIG generator has been simulated that works in constant-speed operation and DFIG generator that is used in a variable-speed turbine. Variable-speed wind turbines can be controlled in two ways. They can produce power with constant power factor or they control magnitude of voltage of PCC. PSCAD/EMTDC simulation program is used to investigate the impact of these turbines on a distribution grid. The outcomes of the simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed simulation and control schemes. Also, it is shown that voltage control scheme has better results and improves the voltage profile considerably.

  3. Voltage Stability of Long Transmission Line Equipped with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power-Voltage curve provides very important information for voltage stability analysis. The exact long transmission line model consists of the resistance and the reactance. The resistance causes in the active line loss. It is not easy task to achieve the power-voltage curve characteristics of power system with the exact long line model equipeed with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC. Approach: This study applies the concept of the Newton-Raphson method to iteratively solve the nonlinear power flow equations. The Power-Voltage (P-V curve charateristic of the system without line loss and with line loss are plotted and compared on various cases. Results: It is found from the study that the resistance of the line obviously provides the negative effects on the voltage stability. The line loss causes in the decrement of the critical point. In addition, it is found that the leading power factor can increase the critical point of P-V curve. Conclusion: The exact long line model should be considered for voltage stability analysis of the system with the long transmission line.

  4. Voltage control and protection in electrical power systems from system components to wide-area control

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Based on the author’s twenty years of experience, this book shows the practicality of modern, conceptually new, wide area voltage control in transmission and distribution smart grids, in detail. Evidence is given of the great advantages of this approach, as well as what can be gained by new control functionalities which modern technologies now available can provide. The distinction between solutions of wide area voltage regulation (V-WAR) and wide area voltage protection (V-WAP) are presented, demonstrating the proper synergy between them when they operate on the same power system as well as the simplicity and effectiveness of the protection solution in this case. The author provides an overview and detailed descriptions of voltage controls, distinguishing between generalities of underdeveloped, on-field operating applications and modern and available automatic control solutions, which are as yet not sufficiently known or perceived for what they are: practical, high-performance and reliable solutions. At th...

  5. The System Impact of Air-Conditioner Under-voltage Protection Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhenyu; Bravo, Richard

    2009-03-31

    This paper presents simulation results of evaluating an under-voltage protection scheme designed to take stalled air-conditioner (a/c) units offline such that the slow voltage recovery phenomena can be solved on areas heavily loaded with a/c motors during summer peak periods. A three feeder test-bed has been first used to quantify the effectiveness of the protection scheme and the sensitivity of the under-voltage relay settings. Then two real system events of the Western US power grid have been studied to evaluate the area impact of the protection scheme proposed by Southern California Edison. The study demonstrates that by taking all or most of the stalled a/c unit offline, the feeder voltage will recover in a few seconds, much quicker than the tens of seconds that the standard thermal relays imbedded in the motors need to trip the units. The drawback of the control scheme is that after the voltage recover, it settled at a higher voltage than before the faults because a large chuck of load has been shed.

  6. Plasma facilities measuring equipment and high-voltage systems for basic research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W. [eds.] [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The report presents short description and the main technical data of various devices and systems designed and constructed at the Thermonuclear Research Dept. of the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) in Swierk n. Warsaw, Poland. Different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities of energy ranging from several kJ to 360 kJ, as well as the Ion Implosion Facilities of energy equal to 400 kJ, are shortly described. We present different cameras and analyzers used for studies of ions and X-rays. We also describe e.g. IONOTRONs used for material engineering. High-Voltage Pulse Generators developed for the voltage range from 40 kV to 2.4 MV, various Data Acquisition Systems, and special Vacuum Stands. Some selected technical units used in high-voltage systems are also presented. (author). 32 figs.

  7. A Protection Circuit for DC-DC Converter with Voltage Doubler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Elangovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to obtain a protected voltage gain by employing a protection circuit for the voltage doubler or multiplier circuit in an isolated tyde DC-DC Converter. The entire set up consists of a phase shift converter with a protected bridge/voltage doubler rectifier on the output side. The operating frequency of the phase shift converter is 20-25kHz (depending on the requirement of the application which is high enough to improve the efficiency. Ferrite core transformer is used in place of ordinary air core transformer, which is small in size with number of turns of the transformer is reduced and the overall power density is increased. The doubler circuit consists of electrolytic capacitors, which are rated at 400V in order to comply with IEC65 requirements. This paper proposes an “electrolytic capacitor protection circuit”, which enables the voltage rating of the electrolytics to be reduced to 250V. This circuit results in cost savings of more than 50% in the price of the electrolytic filter capacitors. The circuits were simulated using PSPICE SOFTWARE and the following results were obtained. For an input voltage of 200V, an output of 200V and400V were obtained in bridge mode and doubler mode respectively.

  8. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beryllium, regardless of measured exposure levels. (b) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910... and equipment. (c) The responsible employer must establish procedures for donning, doffing, handling... that contain beryllium with contamination on their bodies or their personal clothing; and (2)...

  9. Leakage current measurement of protective equipment insulating materials used in electrical installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buică, G.; Dobra, R.; Păsculescu, D.; Tătar, A.

    2016-06-01

    This research describes the behaviour of equipment and safety devices during use in extreme environmental conditions, in order to establish the technical conditions and additional health and safety requirements during operation, to ensure the health and safety of users, regardless of conditions and working environment in which they are use. The studies have been conducted both on new equipment and means of protection used in electrical installations. There has been evaluated protective equipment made of insulating rubber, reinforced fiberglass or PVC. They have been followed the technical characteristics and protection against electric shock by measuring the leakage current of different insulating materials.

  10. VOLTAGE STABILITY OF SHORT TRANSMISSION LINE EQUIPPED WITH A THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly important to fully utilize the existing transmission system assets due to environmental legislation, rights-of-way issues, costs of construction and deregulation policies that introduced in recent years. The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC has been proposed for the better control power flow and dynamic performance. The exact short transmission line model consists of the resistance and reactance. Most of previous researches studies voltage stability performance of the TCSC in SMIB System with neglecting the resistance of the line. Thus the fully capability of the TCSC on voltage stability improvement of power system may not be applied. The consideration of the resistance causes in the difficulty of deriving the mathematical model. This study investigates the effect of the TCSC on voltage stability of the power system with consideration the exact short transmission line mode. The concept of two-port network is applied to simplify the mathematical model of the power system. The proposed method is tested on sample system and compared on various cases. The first swing of rotor angle curve of the faulted system without resistance is obviously higher than that of with resistance whereas the second swing of the faulted system without resistance is slightly less than that of with resistance. The system with a TCSC can improve voltage stability of power system. It was found from this study that the TCSC and resistance of the line can improve first swing of rotor angle. However, the resistance of the line provides the negative effect on second swing of rotor angle. The simulation results indicate that for practical short line, the resistance is very import parameters for evaluating voltage stability of power system.

  11. 29 CFR 1918.106 - Payment for protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pay for non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.951 - Tools and protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and... other than rubber shall provide equal or better electrical and mechanical protection. (2) Protective... “Double Insulated”; or (iii) Be connected to the power supply by means of an isolating transformer,...

  13. Short-circuit protection of LLC resonant converter using voltages across resonant tank elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Igorovych Zaikin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for the short-circuit protection of the LLC resonant converter. One of them uses the voltage across the capacitor and the other uses the voltage across the inductor of the resonant tank. These voltages can be processed (integrated or differentiated to recover the resonant tank current. The two circuits illustrated in the described methods make it possible to develop a robust LLC converter design and to avoid using lossy current measurement elements, such as a shunt resistor or current transformer. The methods also allow measuring resonant tank current without breaking high-current paths and connecting the measuring circuit in parallel with the inductor or capacitor of the resonant tank. Practical implementations of these indirect current measurements have been experimentally tested for the short-circuit protection of the 1600 W LLC converter.

  14. An improved GGNMOS triggered SCR for high holding voltage ESD protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Dong, Shu-Rong; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Zeng, Jie; Zhong, Lei; Wu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Developing an electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection device with a better latch-up immunity has been a challenging issue for the nanometer complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, an improved grounded-gate N-channel metal-oxide semiconductor (GGNMOS) transistor triggered silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) structure, named GGSCR, is proposed for high holding voltage ESD protection applications. The GGSCR demonstrates a double snapback behavior as a result of progressive trigger-on of the GGNMOS and SCR. The double snapback makes the holding voltage increase from 3.43 V to 6.25 V as compared with the conventional low-voltage SCR. The TCAD simulations are carried out to verify the modes of operation of the device.

  15. An improved GGNMOS triggered SCR for high holding voltage ESD protection applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅; 董树荣; 吴晓京; 曾杰; 钟雷; 吴健

    2015-01-01

    Developing an electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection device with a better latch-up immunity has been a challeng-ing issue for the nanometer complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, an improved grounded-gate N-channel metal-oxide semiconductor (GGNMOS) transistor triggered silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) structure, named GGSCR, is proposed for high holding voltage ESD protection applications. The GGSCR demonstrates a double snapback behavior as a result of progressive trigger-on of the GGNMOS and SCR. The double snapback makes the holding voltage increase from 3.43 V to 6.25 V as compared with the conventional low-voltage SCR. The TCAD simulations are carried out to verify the modes of operation of the device.

  16. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... existing fixed gas fire extinguishing system that is in excess of the required fire protection equipment..., alteration, or new installation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must meet the...

  17. Measurements of gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings for high voltage equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Henriksen, Mogens; Nielsen, E

    1988-01-01

    the partial-discharge inception voltage. Data show that gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings can be determined by use of an ultrasound test method. A relationship between the void gas pressure and the epoxy curing pressure is also found. This investigation is part of an effort to predict the inception......An investigation of samples of epoxy each containing one void, which were produced at different pressures, is reported. The samples were of the disk type with the void located in the center. The gas in the voids has a pressure somewhat related to the curing pressure, thereby directly influencing...

  18. 40 CFR 170.240 - Personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shirts, long pants, short pants, shoes, socks, and other items of work clothing are not considered... outside the chemical-resistant gloves under which they are worn. Chemical-resistant gloves with non... long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, socks, chemical-resistant apron, and any protective...

  19. 40 CFR 156.212 - Personal protective equipment statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (body protection statement); (glove statement, if applicable); (footwear statement, if applicable... shall be based on the more toxic (lower numbered) category. 2 For labeling language for chemical-resistant gloves, see paragraph (f) of this section. 3 For labeling language for respiratory...

  20. Polymer composite coatings to protect parts of oil field equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislyy, P.S.; Alekseyenko, A.A.; Dzyadykevich, Yu.V.; Kalba, Ye.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of using polymer composite coating for protection from corrosion and wear of working wheels of oil pumping pumps. A study was made of the physicomechanical properties of the polymer matrix. Technology was developed for applying the coating based on a polymer matrix and refractory filler which was introduced at the UMN ''Druzhba.''

  1. 29 CFR 1917.96 - Payment for protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employer at no cost to employees. (b) The employer is not required to pay for non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and non-specialty prescription safety... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.95 - Criteria for personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and non-specialty prescription safety eyewear, provided that the... 1926.95 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and...

  3. ELABORATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE INSTALLATIONS AND PROVIDING THEIR OPERATION PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Hashimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents design engineering methods for the high-voltage pulse installations of technological purpose for disinfection of drinking water, sewage, and edible liquids by high field micro- and nanosecond pulsing exposure. Designing potentialities are considered of the principal elements of the high-voltage part and the discharge circuit of the installations towards assuring the best efficient on-load utilization of the source energy and safe operation of the high-voltage equipment. The study shows that for disinfection of drinking water and sewage it is expedient to apply microsecond pulse actions causing the electrohydraulic effect in aqueous media with associated complex of physical processes (ultraviolet emission, generation of ozone and atomic oxygen, mechanical compression waves, etc. having detrimental effect on life activity of the microorganisms. In case of disinfecting edible liquids it is recommended to use the nanosecond pulses capable of straight permeating the biological cell nucleus, inactivating it. Meanwhile, the nutritive and biological values of the foodstuffs are saved and their organoleptic properties are improved. It is noted that in elaboration process of high-frequency pulse installations special consideration should be given to issues of the operating personnel safety discipline and securing conditions for the entire installation uninterrupted performance. With this objective in view the necessary requirements should be fulfilled on shielding the high- and low-voltage installation parts against high-frequency electromagnetic emissions registered by special differential sensors. Simultaneously, the abatement measures should be applied on the high-voltage equipment operational noise level. The authors offer a technique for noise abatement to admissible levels (lower than 80 dB A by means of coating the inside surface with shielded enclosure of densely-packed abutting sheets of porous electro-acoustic insulating

  4. BREATHING PROTECTION EQUIPMENT CONSUMPTION: CONTRIBUTION FROM AN EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Corrêa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an experimental protocol for calculatingthe breathable air consumption on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA used by firefighters during operations in smoke environment, especially in firefighting operations. The actual protocol is based on particularities forvaried Fire Departments. Even though the Fire Departments are similar in their activities and collaborative spirit, each institution has different equipment, works under a specific ambient temperature, and has peculiar training programs, representing a unique organism. Creating a simple protocol makes it possible to be easily repeated, establishing, that way,the air consumption during SCBAuse by any Fire Department. One case study in a significant sample of on Battalion of Recife – PE, Brazil, will be presented, creating a reference of air consumption for firefighters during low, middle and high effort during firefighting.

  5. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  6. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between ind

  7. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the...

  8. 30 CFR 57.9302 - Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against moving or runaway railroad... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND..., Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9302 Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment...

  9. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between

  10. [Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly.

  11. A PMOS multipled LVTSCR device for ESD protection with a higher holding voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tong-quan; WANG Yang; HUANG Wei; LUO Qi-yuan; JIN Xiang-liang

    2014-01-01

    A novel LVTSCR structure for 5 V on-chip protection against Electrostatic Discharge(ESD) stress at input or output pads is presented. Silvaco 2D TCAD software is used to simulate the device including electrical and thermal characteristics. The new device exchanges the diffusion region of N+ and P+ in N-WELL and introduces a PMOS-like structure to discharge ESD current before Low Voltage Triggering SCR(LVTSCR) starting to work. And the device simulation results show that it obtains a higher holding voltage(10.51 V) and a faster turn on speed(1.05×10-10 s) compared with LVTSCR, with the triggering voltage only increasing slightly from 12.45 V to 15.35 V. Also, in order to make sure that the PMOS structure will trigger first and will not cause thermal breakdown problem, nearly the same channel length as NMOS should be chosen for PMOS structure.

  12. Distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages. Part I: Fault current magnitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-circuit transmission lines combining different voltage levels in one tower present extra challenges when setting a protection philosophy, as faults between voltage levels are possible. This paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of such combined faults, including the development...... of a formula for estimating the magnitude of the short-circuit current. It is demonstrated that if the faulted phase from the higher voltage level leads the faulted phase from the lower voltage level, a distance relay at the higher voltage level sees the fault in the forward direction, whereas a distance relay...... at the lower voltage level sees the fault in the reverse direction. The opposite happens if the lower voltage level leads the higher voltage level. It is also demonstrated that the magnitude of fault currents of combined faults is normally slightly larger than of equivalent single-phase-to-ground fault...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....14130 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts for surface equipment. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors..., that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and performance requirements of...

  14. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements... minimum requirements for protection of electric circuits and equipment of the National Electric Code, 1968....

  15. 75 FR 28861 - Walking-Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... OSHA under 29 CFR part 1910. There are many causal factors for slips, trips, and falls, such as ice... can be grouped into three (often interrelated) factors: Equipment, human, and environmental. Examples of some equipment factors include improper footwear, uneven surfaces, foreign substances on...

  16. [Personal protective equipments: considerations on the requirements and characteristics of selection and use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, C

    2010-01-01

    The choice of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) required two steps: the first related to the security features and the second related to ergonomics assessments and acceptance by the user. For the first aspect the legislation and technical regulations set clear requirements PPE, but choose a PPE's supplier means, of course, also make an assessment on the cost for PPE and service providers related. We will consider the technical, structural and ergonomic for PPE, to understand how to move towards the right solution. An important reference is the Ministerial Decree 2 maggio 2001: Criteria for identification and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), which describes the criteria for selection of proper protective equipment only for certain types of PPE for other the references is the European legislation or some guidelines.

  17. Evaluation of the practical peak voltage quantity for clinical equipment in diagnostic radiology; Avaliacao da grandeza tensao de pico pratica em equipamentos clinicos utilizados em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Joao dos Santos Justo

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the calculation of the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) from the voltage waveform and the kerma contrast for two kinds of X-ray equipment: a single phase clinical equipment, a three phase clinical equipment. The PPV from a mammography system voltage waveform will also be established. The development of this work involves intermediate objectives that indicate the quality of the used methods to calculate the PPV. One of these intermediate objectives is the comparison between the invasive calculations of PPV (using a voltage divider) with the response of kVp meter that calculate the PPV. Another intermediate objective is to compare the PPV with the Contrast Equivalent Voltage (the original non-invasive PPV definition). The variation of the PPV with quantities that influence in the voltage waveform like ripple and sample rate will also be contemplated in this work. The results showed that the PPV quantity could be invasive determined trustworthy. Therefore, the ripple quantity is the mainly influence to determinate the PPV that affecting the non-invasive determination. This fact suggest that the non-invasive instruments manufacturers must reevaluate the calculation of the PPV quantity in their instruments. (author)

  18. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    . Based on the farmers' working behavior, compounds used, intensity and exposure duration we conclude that Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment does not provide additional protection during usual work practices. However, our Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment might offer protection...

  19. Personal Protective Equipment for Filovirus Epidemics: A Call for Better Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Armand G; Caluwaerts, An; Draper, Mike; Feldmann, Heinz; Frey, Clifford P; Funk, Renée H; Kobinger, Gary; Le Duc, James W; Spiropoulou, Christina; Williams, Warren Jon

    2015-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an important part of worker protection during filovirus outbreaks. The need to protect against a highly virulent fluid-borne pathogen in the tropical environment imposes a heat stress on the wearer that is itself a safety risk. No evidence supports the choice of PPE employed in recent outbreaks, and standard testing procedures employed by the protective garment industry do not well simulate filovirus exposure. Further research is needed to determine the appropriate PPE for filoviruses and the heat stress that it imposes.

  20. [Radioprotection norms and the use of individual protection equipments from the view of surgeon-dentists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo Andrade; Miranda, Antônio Carlos de; Silva, Edna da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Although the odontology professional recognizes the existence of norms most of them had not demonstrated to perceive the fair and precise need of clarification. The perception lack displays to some problems as: lack of information on the necessity of accomplishment of periodic medical examinations of the professionals, lack of knowledge in the correct use of the equipment of x-rays, unfamiliarity of the necessity of periodic calibration of the device of x-rays, the inefficiency in the fulfillment of the radiation protection norms, the inadequate use of the equipment of individual protection (EPI) and absence of a manual of norms of the professional activities. Based in these results it can be concluded that the surgeon-dentists do not withhold the necessary knowledge on the norms of radiation protection and the correct use of the equipment of individual protection. Thus the implementation of a continued education program based on the reality of the dentist professional will be able to solve chronic problems identified in this study in the fulfillment of the requirements of the similar norms of radiation protection, and providing safe manuscript of the equipment of x-rays in the dentistry offices.

  1. Distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages. Part II: Fault loop impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-circuit transmission lines combining different voltage levels in one tower present extra challenges when setting a protection philosophy, as faults between voltage levels are possible. In this paper, the fault loop impedance of combined faults is compared with the fault loop impedance...... of single-phase-to-ground faults at the higher voltage level of the multiple-circuit line and it is demonstrated that they are similar for high short-circuit powers; however, the fault loop impedance of a combined fault may increase substantially as the short-circuit power of the system decreases......-phase-to-ground faults are also capable of protecting the line against combined faults, being only advisable to increase the resistive limit of the protection zone if the network has lower short-circuit power. If the length of the line at lower voltage level is less than of the lien at higher voltage level...

  2. Protective equipment as treatment for stereotypic hand mouthing: sensory extinction or punishment effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaleski, J L; Iwata, B A; Rodgers, T A; Vollmer, T R; Zarcone, J R

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing exhibited by 2 individuals with profound mental retardation. Results of a functional analysis assessment revealed that neither subject's self-injury was maintained by social reinforcement: One subject's self-injury was cyclical in nature; the other's occurred during all assessment conditions but most frequently when left alone. In the noncontingent-equipment condition, oven mitts were placed on the individual's hands at the beginning of a session and remained on throughout. In the contingent-equipment condition, the mitts were briefly placed on the individual's hands following occurrences of hand mouthing. For 1 subject, noncontingent mitts produced a large decrease in the rate of hand mouthing and contingent mitts produced similar results following a return to baseline. Hand mouthing was also reduced in the 2nd subject, but this individual was exposed only to the contingent-equipment condition (i.e., there was no prior history with the noncontingent-equipment condition). These results suggest either a punishment or a time-out interpretation rather than an extinction interpretation to account for the behavior-reducing effects of contingent protective equipment on self-injury.

  3. [Exposure to mineral oils at worksites and novel solutions for polymer protective materials in selected personal protective equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Irzmańska, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of workers to health hazards due to contact with mineral oils occurs primarily in the chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgic and car industries. Under worksite conditions, the respiratory system and the skin are the primary routes of entry of mineral oils into the human body. Long-term exposure of the skin to oily substances may lead not only to irritation and allergic lesions. The studies conducted in this area have confirmed a significant increase in the incidence of skin cancers in persons chronically exposed to mineral oils. Protection of workers' health at worksites associated with the risk of contact with mineral oils requires, in addition to collective protective and organizational solutions, personal protective equipment with appropriate protection and utility parameters confirmed by laboratory tests. The essential preventive measures include protection of the human skin by means of appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which provide an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemical compounds present in mineral oils. Knowledge of polymer materials is the prerequisite for designing more and more effective and functional protective clothing and gloves. Studies aimed at obtaining higher levels of skin protection against varied toxic substances, including mineral oils, have been conducted, among others, to develop modern glove and clothing materials ensuring resistance to oils. The rapid progress of nanotechnology and the use of nanoadditives in polymer materials has made it possible to undertake works aimed at developing modern polymer nanostructures designed for construction of oil-resistant protective clothing and gloves. In this review paper the authors have presented the current knowledge of polymer materials, from traditional ones to polymer nanostructures, used in personal equipment protecting against mineral oils.

  4. Diagnosis system for nozzles in high voltage equipment; Sistema de diagnostico para boquillas en equipos de alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Nino, Jose; Escorsa Morales, Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez Azamar, Ernesto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The nozzles used in high voltage electrical equipment, such as power transformers and circuit breakers, constitute the elements that present greater fault risk. On the other hand, the faults in the nozzles cause, in most of the cases catastrophic damages, that expose to risk the maintenance personnel of the plant and the peripheral equipment. With the purpose of contributing with on-line monitoring techniques that indicate the nozzles condition and allow to anticipate their possible fault, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) performed for the laboratory of tests of equipment and materials (LAPEM) of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), a project for the development of a system for the measurement of capacitive currents in these equipments. This system allows to determine the variation in capacitance and dielectric losses, and to determine the presence of internal partial discharges in nozzles of 115, 230 and 400 kV. With this information it is possible to determine the condition of the internal isolation of the nozzles and retire them from service before deterioration takes place that puts in danger the integrity of the equipment. The management of electrical equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas developed for LAPEM a system that measures capacitive currents of power transformer nozzles. This system was designed with the purpose of installing it in a transformer of a 400 kV machine, in the fossil power station of Tula, Hidalgo, of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. [Spanish] Las boquillas empleadas en los equipos electricos de alta tension, como transformadores de potencia e interruptores, constituyen los elementos que presentan mayor riesgo de falla. Por otro lado, las fallas en las boquillas provocan en la mayoria de los casos danos catastroficos que ponen en riesgo al personal de mantenimiento de la planta y al equipo periferico. Con la finalidad de aportar tecnicas de monitoreo en linea que indiquen el estado de las

  5. Protective Equipment as Treatment for Stereotypic Hand Mouthing: Sensory Extinction or Punishment Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaleski, Jodi L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing by two women with profound mental retardation. Behavior change appeared to be effected in both conditions. Results suggest either a punishment or a timeout interpretation, rather than an extinction interpretation, for the…

  6. Virus Transfer from Personal Protective Equipment to Healthcare Employees’ Skin and Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa; Alfano-Sobsey, Edie; Rutala, William A.; Weber, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a personal protective equipment removal protocol designed to minimize wearer contamination with pathogens. Following this protocol often resulted in virus transfer to hands and clothing. An altered protocol or other measures are needed to prevent healthcare worker contamination. PMID:18680659

  7. Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3)

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Oliver; Kuhne, Mirjam; Nair, Pat; Verlander, Neville Q.; Preece, Richard; McDougal, Marianne; Zambon, Maria; Reacher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of the State of California, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, or the Bureau of Reclamation of the... loaders, and motor graders, with or without attachments, that are used in construction work. This... meeting certain existing governmental requirements. Any machine in use, equipped with rollover protective...

  9. Evaluation of X-Ray Protective Measurements in Intraoral Radiography Equipped Centers in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Goodarzi Pour

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: A few decades have past from using radiographic technology as an accurate paraclinical method and always protective measurements is applicated against ionizing radiation. As dentalradiography is a routine procedure in dentistry the importance of protective strategies is clear.Propose: The aim of this descriptive study is to evaluate the protection principles in centers which haveintraoral radiographic devices in Yazd.Material and Methods: We have considered all three aspects of practitioner, environment and patientprotection using questionnaire and visiting those centers.Results: 33/7% of dental offices ,10 clinics ,3 institution and faculty of dentistry had intraoral radiographicequipments. Stablishment of protection principles for radiographer was favorable. 7.7% of centers had x-ray room with leaded walls, 23.1% had curtain , in 69/2% of centers radiographers stood in correct position anddistance while taking radiograph. Regarding to protection of environment, beams leakage control in 23.1% dental offices, 70% of clinics, all institution and faculty of dentistry have done.Conclusion: Non of the centers used rectangular localizator, thyroid shield, film holder and just some centers used leaded apron in specific circumstances. We have concluded that patient protection constitute less consideration. Generally lack of protective consideration is related to deficient knowledge of operators. Lackof information about protection equipments causes decrease of demanding of these tools and ultimately lack of these equipments in the market.

  10. Reliability of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for over-voltage protection exposed to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread use of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for non-linear over-voltage protection results in a variety of possible working conditions. It is therefore essential to have a thorough insight into their reliability in exploitation environments which imply exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of irradiation on over-voltage diode characteristics by exposing the diodes to californium-252 combined neutron/gamma radiation field. The irradiation of semiconductor over-voltage diodes causes severe degradation of their protection characteristics. On the other hand, gas-filled over-voltage diodes exhibit a temporal improvement of performance. The results are presented with the accompanying theoretical interpretations of the observed changes in over-voltage diode behaviour, based on the interaction of radiation with materials constituting the diodes.

  11. Effects of Energy Storage Systems Grid Code Requirements on Interface Protection Performances in Low Voltage Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing penetration of local generation in distribution networks and the large diffusion of energy storage systems (ESSs foreseen in the near future are bound to affect the effectiveness of interface protection systems (IPSs, with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage (MV and low voltage (LV systems. With the scope of preserving the main network stability, international and national grid connection codes have been updated recently. Consequently, distributed generators (DGs and storage units are increasingly called to provide stabilizing functions according to local voltage and frequency. This can be achieved by suitably controlling the electronic power converters interfacing small-scale generators and storage units to the network. The paper focuses on the regulating functions required to storage units by grid codes currently in force in the European area. Indeed, even if such regulating actions would enable local units in participating to network stability under normal steady-state operating conditions, it is shown through dynamic simulations that they may increase the risk of unintentional islanding occurrence. This means that dangerous operating conditions may arise in LV networks in case dispersed generators and storage systems are present, even if all the end-users are compliant with currently applied connection standards.

  12. 30 CFR 75.518-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 75.518-1 Section 75.518-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.518-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload...

  13. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  14. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  15. Effects of Wind Turbines Equipped with Doubly-fed Induction Generators on Distance Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy resource in the world. The problems of integrating wind farms are caused by changes of wind speed during a day. Moreover, the behaviors of wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators differ fundamentally from synchronous generators. Therefore, more considerations are needed to analyze the performances of the distance protection relays. The protection of a wind farm with distance relay is inspected. By changing the conditions of the wind farm, the characteristics of the distance relay are studied.

  16. Safety of nursing staff and determinants of adherence to personal protective equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Heliny Carneiro Cunha Neves; Souza,Adenícia Custódia Silva e; Marcelo Medeiros; Denize Bouttelet Munari; Luana Cássia Miranda Ribeiro; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in a teaching hospital with 15 nursing professionals. Attempted to analyze the reasons, attitudes and beliefs of nursing staff regarding adherence to personal protective equipment. Data were collected through focus groups, analyzed by the method of interpretation of meanings, considering Rosenstock’s model of health beliefs as a reference framework. Data revealed two themes: Occupational safety and Interpersonal Relationship. We identified several barriers that i...

  17. Personal Protective Equipment and Antiviral Drug Use during Hospitalization for Suspected Avian or Pandemic Influenza1

    OpenAIRE

    Swaminathan, Ashwin; Martin, Rhea; Gamon, Sandi; Aboltins, Craig; Athan, Eugene; Braitberg, George; Catton, Michael G.; Cooley, Louise; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Edmonds, Deidre; Eisen, Damon P.; Hosking, Kelly; Hughes, Andrew J; Johnson, Paul D.; Maclean, Andrew V

    2007-01-01

    For pandemic influenza planning, realistic estimates of personal protective equipment (PPE) and antiviral medication required for hospital healthcare workers (HCWs) are vital. In this simulation study, a patient with suspected avian or pandemic influenza (API) sought treatment at 9 Australian hospital emergency departments where patient–staff interactions during the first 6 hours of hospitalization were observed. Based on World Health Organization definitions and guidelines, the mean number o...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke and the use of personal protective equipment 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Caroline Vieira; Ribeiro, Renata Perfeito; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Solci, Maria Cristina; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke in operating rooms and the use of personal protective equipment by the intraoperative team when exposed to hydrocarbons. Method: exploratory and cross-sectional field research conducted in a surgery center. Gases were collected by a vacuum suction pump from a sample of 50 abdominal surgeries in which an electrocautery was used. A form was applied to identify the use of personal protective equipment. Gases were analyzed using chromatography. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's test were used to treat data. Results: there were 17 (34%) cholecystectomies with an average duration of 136 minutes, while the average time of electrocautery usage was 3.6 minutes. Airborne hydrocarbons were detected in operating rooms in 100% of the surgeries. Naphthalene was detected in 48 (96.0%) surgeries and phenanthrene in 49 (98.0%). The average concentration of these compounds was 0.0061 mg/m3 and a strong correlation (0.761) was found between them. The intraoperative teams did not use respirator masks such as the N95. Conclusion: electrocautery smoke produces gases that are harmful to the health of the intraoperative team, which is a concern considering the low adherence to the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:28301033

  19. 30 CFR 77.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 77.800... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits supplying power to portable or mobile equipment shall be protected by suitable...

  20. Voltage gated calcium channels negatively regulate protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Gupta

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates levels and activity of key intracellular second messengers to evade protective immune responses. Calcium release from voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC regulates immune responses to pathogens. In this study, we investigated the roles of VGCC in regulating protective immunity to mycobacteria in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting L-type or R-type VGCC in dendritic cells (DCs either using antibodies or by siRNA increased calcium influx in an inositol 1,4,5-phosphate and calcium release calcium activated channel dependent mechanism that resulted in increased expression of genes favoring pro-inflammatory responses. Further, VGCC-blocked DCs activated T cells that in turn mediated killing of M. tuberculosis inside macrophages. Likewise, inhibiting VGCC in infected macrophages and PBMCs induced calcium influx, upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and resulted in enhanced killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis. Importantly, compared to healthy controls, PBMCs of tuberculosis patients expressed higher levels of both VGCC, which were significantly reduced following chemotherapy. Finally, blocking VGCC in vivo in M. tuberculosis infected mice using specific antibodies increased intracellular calcium and significantly reduced bacterial loads. These results indicate that L-type and R-type VGCC play a negative role in M. tuberculosis infection by regulating calcium mobilization in cells that determine protective immunity.

  1. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L

    2008-02-01

    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  2. Modified Polymer Materials for Use in Selected Personal Protective Equipment Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzmańska Emilia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the methods of modification of melt-blown polymer materials by the addition of a bactericidal agent or superabsorbent directly to the fibre-forming area during the melt-blown production process. It also presents tests of textile composites designed for use in selected types of personal protective equipment worn in the workplace. One example of the application of textile composites is the protective footwear insole. The insole composites contain specially developed variants of melt-blown nonwovens made from PP, PC, and PA fibres. Microbiological, hygienic, and mechanical tests have shown that the optimum insoles for all-rubber protective footwear are those made of bioactive composites containing a PC melt-blown nonwoven. Another example of composite application is the air-purifying half mask. Filter composites contain polymer nonwovens with the addition of different quantities of a superabsorbent. They have been tested for particle penetration, airflow resistance, and moisture sorption.

  3. Intubation performance using different laryngoscopes while wearing chemical protective equipment: a manikin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Zoremba, N; Rossaint, R; Deusser, K; Stoppe, C; Coburn, M; Rieg, A; Schälte, G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare visualisation of the vocal cords and performance of intubation by anaesthetists using four different laryngoscopes while wearing full chemical protective equipment. Setting Medical simulation center of a university hospital, department of anaesthesiology. Participants 42 anaesthetists (15 females and 27 males) completed the trial. The participants were grouped according to their professional education as anaesthesiology residents with experience of 5 years. Interventions In a manikin scenario, participants performed endotracheal intubations with four different direct and indirect laryngoscopes (Macintosh (MAC), Airtraq (ATQ), Glidescope (GLS) and AP Advance (APA)), while wearing chemical protective gear, including a body suit, rubber gloves, a fire helmet and breathing apparatus. Primary and secondary outcome measures With respect to the manikin, setting time to complete ‘endotracheal intubation’ was defined as primary end point. Glottis visualisation (according to the Cormack-Lehane score (CLS) and impairments caused by the protective equipment, were defined as secondary outcome measures. Results The times to tracheal intubation were calculated using the MAC (31.4 s; 95% CI 26.6 to 36.8), ATQ (37.1 s; 95% CI 28.3 to 45.9), GLS (35.4 s; 95% CI 28.7 to 42.1) and APA (23.6 s; 95% CI 19.1 to 28.1), respectively. Intubation with the APA was significantly faster than with all the other devices examined among the total study population (pevaluated as an easily manageable device for anaesthetists with varying degrees of experience (low to high), providing good visualisation in scenarios that require the use of chemical protective equipment. PMID:27008688

  4. Evaluation of Electrical Characteristics of Protective Equipment - a Prerequisite for Ensuring Safety and Health of Workers at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buică, G.; Beiu, C.; Antonov, A.; Dobra, R.; Păsculescu, D.

    2017-06-01

    The protecting electrical equipment in use are subject to various factors generated by the use, maintenance, storage and working environment, which may change the characteristics of protection against electric shock. The study presents the results of research on the behaviour over time of protective characteristics of insulating covers of material of work equipment in use, in order to determine the type and periodicity of safety tests. There were tested and evaluated safety equipment with plastic and insulating rubber covers used in operations of verifying functionality, safety and maintenance of machinery used in manufacturing industries and specific services from electric, energy and food sector.

  5. Impacts of Individual Protective Equipment on Active Range of Motion and Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    consists of a shirt , trousers, and boots. Some missions may also include wear of ballistic protective helmets and vests. During operations in a...respirator (APR) similar to the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy MCU-2/P gas mask. The active wear clothing conditions involved wear of T- shirts , shorts, socks...FGoN C)) LL 04 C. 6 00 C 0 Fn~ CD X 3 0 L) ? 0)F cn a) 0- Z C.L6L C) . (D (1 tEE 6- 6- r 6- 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 E E E co co CO E E 0 o 00 0_ 11)I< 21

  6. [Use of individual protection equipment among nursing workers injured by puncture-cutting tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, L M; Felli, V E

    2000-01-01

    The present study analyzed work related accidents involving nursing personnel from a public hospital in the state of São Paulo. The study population comprised the entire nursing staff. The results obtained showed a high incidence of accidents with puncture-cutting instruments, particularly among the auxilliary nursing staff, which indicates that these workers don't often use individual protection equipment, even when it is made available at the work place. Due to the manipulation of sharp instruments, nursing personnel are especially vulnerable to suffer biological risks and serious diseases. These results indicate the need to prevent the occurrence of such accidents.

  7. Vibration Protection of Sensitive Components of Infrared Equipment in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Veprik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the principles of optimal vibration protection of the internal sensitive components of infrared equipment from harsh environmental vibration. The authors have developed an approach to the design of external vibration isolators with properties to minimise the vibration-induced line-of-sight jitter which is caused by the relative deflection of the infrared sensor and the optic system, subject to strict constraints on the allowable sway space of the entire electro-optic package. In this approach, the package itself is used as the first-level vibration isolation stage relative to the internal highly responsive components.

  8. Study on Secondary Equipment Lightning Protection for Traction Power Supply System%牵引供电系统二次设备防雷保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温建民

    2012-01-01

    针对铁路牵引供电系统二次回路防雷问题进行研究和分析,提出在所用变压器、交直流电源回路、UPS电源回路、弱电回路等应采取分级防护方案以防过电压。%Study and analysis are made with respect of the problems of the secondary equipment lightning protection for the railway traction power supply system,the paper puts forward the graded protection plan for the auxiliary transformer circuit,AC or DC power circuit,UPS circuit and low voltage circuit so as to prevent the overvoltage.

  9. Adaptive Voltage Stability Protection Based on Load Identification Using Phasor Measurement Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Bak, Claus Leth; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    collapse. In this paper, the online load identification using measurement-based approach based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) was proposed to evaluate the proximity to voltage instability in order to prevent voltage collapse. In the scenarios of disturbances, the proximity to voltage collapse...

  10. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  11. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  12. Calibration voltage test of non invasive meter for radiodiagnostic on equipment of constant potential X-ray; Teste de calibracao de medidor nao invasivo de tensao para radiodiagnostico em equipamentos de raios X de potencial constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Peixoto, J. Guilherme P., E-mail: mmoramos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Marco A.G.S., E-mail: guedes@iee.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the utilization of the non invasive voltage meter PTW Diavolt Universal in industrial X ray equipment of constant potential. With the performed measurements, the conclusion is that conclusion is possible, once his use limits are identified

  13. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: survey of inverter and related protection equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T

    2002-12-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme reports on a survey made on inverter and related protection equipment. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This report summarises the data obtained from survey of recent inverter technology and inverter protection equipment for grid interconnected PV systems. The results are based on the surveys using a questionnaire to identify the current status of grid-interconnection inverters. This report is to serve as a reference for those interested in installing grid-connected PV systems, electric utility company personnel, manufacturers and researchers. The results of the survey are presented and discussed. Technical and financial data is reviewed and two appendices provide details on the results obtained and those institutions involved in the survey.

  14. Pediatric craniomaxillofacial injuries after road traffic crashes: characteristics of injuries and protective equipment use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Siti Salmiah Mohd; Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Ramli, Roszalina

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the pattern of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries among children involved in road traffic crashes was performed. The association of protective equipment use with the CMF injuries was evaluated. Retrospective records of children treated in the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, after road traffic crashes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were reviewed, and, after that, telephone interviews were made. Seventy-one children were included in this study. Fifty-two (73.6%) were involved in a motorcycle injury and 19 (23.4%) in a car crash. Their mean age was 6.02 years; SD, 3.46 (range between 0 to 13 years old). More male children were observed (52.1%) compared with females (47.9%). Thirty-nine point four percent of the children sustained CMF injuries, 33.8% body injuries, and 23.9% had both CMF and other body parts injuries. The highest injury severity score was 26, whereas the lowest was 0. Many children did not use protective equipment during traveling, 44.2% of children among motorcycle pillion riders, and 78.9% among car passengers. The association between helmet use and CMF injuries was shown to be statistically significant (P belt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina-Maria Ikinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.

  16. Lightning protection of mobile phone stations in high voltage towers; Blitzschutz bei Mobilfunkstationen auf Mittel- und Hochspannungsmasten. Schutz vor Ueberspannungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer, G. [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Richter, B. [ABB Hochpannungstechnik, Baden (Switzerland); Schmitt, O. [RWE Net AG, Siegen (Germany)

    2002-12-02

    Transmitter units for mobile phone networks are often installed in existing high voltage towers. In these cases a strict separation of the grounding systems is essential to avoid interferences between the high voltage area and the low voltage energy supply for the mobile phone transmitter station. In order to protect the safety transformer of the mobile phone installation against lightning surges a metall-oxide (MO-) surge arrester is necessary, which furthermore has to withstand the power frequency voltage in case of a single-phase fault in the high voltage power line. For a 110 kV system the power frequency voltage in case of a single-phase short circuit as well as the lightning current stress for a MO-surge arrester is calculated. (orig.) [German] Der weltweit zunehmende Ausbau der Mobilfunknetze erfordert eine grosse Anzahl von Standorten fuer Sende- und Empfangsanlagen. Dabei werden neben neuen Mobilfunkmasten auch Mittel- und Hochspannungsmaste genutzt. Zum Schutz der in den Mobilfunkanlagen eingesetzten Trenntransformatoren gegen moegliche Blitzeinwirkungen werden Metalloxid-Ueberspannungsableiter (MO-Ableiter) eingesetzt. Die Verfasser erlaeutern die geeignete Dimensionierung anhand praktischer Anwendungsbeispiele. (orig.)

  17. 400 V Equipment and Experiments with Capacitor Var Compensation of Thyristor Series Voltage Regulation%400V晶闸管串联调压电容无功补偿装置及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王民慧; 李民族; 王武; 王世蓉

    2011-01-01

    The prototype of 400 V small capacity equipment is built and the tests are done on this equipment betore thyristor controlled reactance series compensation by adjustable coupling being put into practical application.The primary wiring device and the control and protection device with real function is developed.The steady-state parameters changes of corresponding voltage and current are tested during regulating process. The dynamic curves of thyristor current and compensation current are obtained when the device is switched on changing stage. Automatic voltage regulation and automatic power factor change experiments are done under large step changes.The test results show that this equipment can compensate reactive power in large scale and multi-stages with small impact current (rush current,surge current) when switched on. The time of changing stage is half cycle. It can automatically regulate voltage and power factor frequently.This equipment has full dynamic reactive power compensation function.%为使晶闸管串联调压电容无功补偿装置进入实用,对400V小容量装置样机进行了制作和试验.设计制作了一次接线装置和具有实际功能的控制保护装置;测试了升降级调节过程中有关电压、电流的稳态参数变化;测试了投入和换级操作过程中晶闸管电流和补偿电流的暂态波形;当负荷进行大幅度阶跃变化时,进行了自动调压和自动调节功率因数试验.测试和试验结果表明:装置能多级、大范围调节容性补偿无功;投入换级时冲击电流小,换级时间为0.5周波;能实现快速频繁的电压及功率因数等多种自动调节功能,完全具有动态无功补偿装置的技术性能.

  18. Protective equipment of radiological protection and the worker wear; Equipamento de protecao radiologica e o desgaste do trabalhador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassia, Flor Rita de; Huhn, Andrea, E-mail: flor@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lima, Gelbcke Francine, E-mail: fgelbcke@ccs.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (PEN/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Enfermagem

    2013-11-01

    This qualitative research with workers of seven hemodynamic service of Santa Catarina, Brazil aimed to analyze the use of radiological protection equipment (RPE), as well as wear to the health of workers who use these causes. The study was conducted between March 2010 and November 2010, totaling approximately 30 hours of observations. Results showed resistance to the use of RPE and also showed wear to workers' health, mainly due to the weight and discomfort they cause, as may weigh 7-9 pounds, depending on the model used. Evidenced also the absence of workers due herniated disc, back pain, and other musculo skeletal problems. These complaints, in addition to being related to the use of these protective gear also related with the time that workers remain standing for long periods on certain procedures, such as angioplasty. Given these results, the research recommended the use of these devices with materials, that are already being produced, making lighter aprons, thus avoiding fatigue and back pain and also provide greater comfort by reducing workers' resistance to its use and its adverse consequences.

  19. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  20. Radiation protection and the safe use of X-ray equipment: Laws, regulations and responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Petrus Herbst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, South Africa’s regulatory framework for electromagnetic medical devices has come under considerable pressure. In this article the legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure are scrutinized, by looking at how the legislature has given form to protective measures against ionizing radiation. Although the Hazardous Substances Act provides for effective protection against radiation, poor administration led to insufficient staffing levels, uncertainty about Regulations and licensing conditions and therefore undermines a sound radiation protection infrastructure. The legal basis of enforcing licensing conditions through a website without proper consultation with interested and affected parties is questionable and ineffective in controlling radiation levels. Effective and legal radiation control is possible by activating the National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products provided for in Regulation R326 published in 1979, but never implemented. The possible impact of annual quality assurance tests currently enforced through licensing conditions on the radiation dose of the population is not cost effective as new training and accreditation structures had to be created. The fact that generally more than 80% of overexposures are caused by human error is a clear indication that training of the daily users of X-ray equipment should be emphasized and not the training and accreditation of the technicians responsible for a single quality assurance test per year. Constructive engagement with the professional bodies involved in the medical use of X-rays through a National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products may be a cost effective solution for lowering radiation dose to the population.

  1. Protection of transformers and low voltage secondary circuits; Protecao de transformadores e circuitos secundarios em baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Alexandre Francisco Maia; Bouissou, Jean Jacques [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work discusses two themes related to equipment and circuit protection, both of which are components of overhead electric power transmission networks. Two CEMIG`s, the electric power company of Minas Gerais State - Southeast Brazil, experiences are presented. The work also discusses the technical reliability of these two protection conceptions. The results obtained results are also presented and discussed 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF POWER EQUIPMENT WITH THE AID OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of possible variants of reconstruction of the power equipment is fulfilled and the conclusion concerning the prospects of such work with the use of composite materials is reached. The data on the technical characteristics of composite repair materials for various purposes are presented, the results of repairs of power equipment, in particular the technology for the recovery of the boarding surfaces of the diffuser rings and protection of the pumps D1250 casings are provided. The technology of the recovery pneumatic cylinder, hydraulic cylinder rod, as well as the unique technology of restoration of working surfaces of the impeller vanes of transfer pump, that had been destroyed by corrosion in conjunction with the cavitation processes and were considered as not restorable is described. The restored impeller was in operation during a year and only thereafter it was removed for restoration. Another composite material discussed in the article – diagum – makes it possible to perform a series of repairs associated with restoration of the rubber-covered surfaces of pump casings as well as with restoration of various surfaces of the conveyor belts. Taking the excellent adhesive properties of this composite into account, restoration of worn stainless steel sieve screens to remove abrasive material was fulfilled with the aid of it. The restoration was accomplished via the use of the conveyor belt which application time had expired, that was glued to a metal sieve with diagum. The use of the composites is economically justified, because the application of them in repairs reduces, firstly, terms of restoration work and, secondly, the price of repairs. Third, equipment that was damaged beyond repair is being commissioned by the use of the mentioned composites. 

  3. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  4. Circuits protection against interferences in high voltage substations; Protecao de circuitos contra interferencias em subestacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Massayuki [Consultas e Aplicacoes de Engenharia Eletrica Ltda. (CAEEL) (Brazil)

    1989-12-01

    This paper makes a brief analysis of the different phenomena which may cause electromagnetic interference in high voltage substations and suggests adequate solutions to the problem according to the different events that may occur. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Assessment of Self-Contamination During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment for Ebola Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Teal, Lisa J; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Anderson, Deverick J; Sexton, Daniel J; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Ebola virus disease (EVD) places healthcare personnel (HCP) at high risk for infection during patient care, and personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical. Protocols for EVD PPE doffing have not been validated for prevention of viral self-contamination. Using surrogate viruses (non-enveloped MS2 and enveloped Φ6), we assessed self-contamination of skin and clothes when trained HCP doffed EVD PPE using a standardized protocol. METHODS A total of 15 HCP donned EVD PPE for this study. Virus was applied to PPE, and a trained monitor guided them through the doffing protocol. Of the 15 participants, 10 used alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) for glove and hand hygiene and 5 used hypochlorite for glove hygiene and ABHR for hand hygiene. Inner gloves, hands, face, and scrubs were sampled after doffing. RESULTS After doffing, MS2 virus was detected on the inner glove worn on the dominant hand for 8 of 15 participants, on the non-dominant inner glove for 6 of 15 participants, and on scrubs for 2 of 15 participants. All MS2 on inner gloves was observed when ABHR was used for glove hygiene; none was observed when hypochlorite was used. When using hypochlorite for glove hygiene, 1 participant had MS2 on hands, and 1 had MS2 on scrubs. CONCLUSIONS A structured doffing protocol using a trained monitor and ABHR protects against enveloped virus self-contamination. Non-enveloped virus (MS2) contamination was detected on inner gloves, possibly due to higher resistance to ABHR. Doffing protocols protective against all viruses need to incorporate highly effective glove and hand hygiene agents. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke and the use of personal protective equipment 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Caroline Vieira; Ribeiro, Renata Perfeito; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Solci, Maria Cristina; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2017-03-02

    analyze the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke in operating rooms and the use of personal protective equipment by the intraoperative team when exposed to hydrocarbons. exploratory and cross-sectional field research conducted in a surgery center. Gases were collected by a vacuum suction pump from a sample of 50 abdominal surgeries in which an electrocautery was used. A form was applied to identify the use of personal protective equipment. Gases were analyzed using chromatography. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's test were used to treat data. there were 17 (34%) cholecystectomies with an average duration of 136 minutes, while the average time of electrocautery usage was 3.6 minutes. Airborne hydrocarbons were detected in operating rooms in 100% of the surgeries. Naphthalene was detected in 48 (96.0%) surgeries and phenanthrene in 49 (98.0%). The average concentration of these compounds was 0.0061 mg/m3 and a strong correlation (0.761) was found between them. The intraoperative teams did not use respirator masks such as the N95. electrocautery smoke produces gases that are harmful to the health of the intraoperative team, which is a concern considering the low adherence to the use of personal protective equipment. analizar las concentraciones de hidrocarburos policíclicos aromáticos provenientes del humo del electrocauterio en salas quirúrgicas y el uso de equipamientos de protección individual por parte del equipo intraoperatorio, cuando expuestos a los hidrocarburos. investigación de campo, exploratoria y transversal realizada en un centro quirúrgico. En la muestra, compuesta por 50 cirugías abdominales con uso de electrocauterio, los gases fueron recolectados con una bomba de succión de vacío. Se aplicó un formulario para identificar el uso de los equipamientos de protección. Se realizó la lectura de los gases por medio de cromatografía. Los datos fueron analizados con la estadística descriptiva y el test de

  7. In situ direct observation of photocorrosion in ZnO crystals in ionic liquid using a laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ishioka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ZnO photocatalysts in water react with environmental water molecules and corrode under illumination. ZnO nanorods in water can also grow because of water splitting induced by UV irradiation. To investigate their morphological behavior caused by crystal growth and corrosion, here we developed a new laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope and observed crystal ZnO nanorods immersed in ionic liquid. Exposing the specimen holder to a laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, we observed the photocorrosion in situ at the atomic scale for the first time. This experiment revealed that Zn and O atoms near the interface between the ZnO nanorods and the ionic liquid tended to dissolve into the liquid. The polarity and facet of the nanorods were strongly related to photocorrosion and crystal growth.

  8. 高压输变电设备污闪防范措施%The High-voltage Power Transmission Equipment Contamination Flashover Precautions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红黎

    2012-01-01

    During the Spring Festival in 2011, the Jiaodong region experienced rare sea fog weather invasion, the occurrence of a large area of contamination flashover power outages in some areas. This paper introduced pollution flashover characteristics, and through the accident analysis, it proposed the antifouling flash measures for high-voltage power transmission equipment.%2011年春节期间,胶东地区遭遇少见的海雾天气侵袭,部分地区发生大面积的污闪停电事故。介绍了污闪特点,通过事故分析,提出高压输变电设备防污闪措施。

  9. High- voltage Pulsed Electric Field Sterilization Equipment and Flow Control%高压脉冲电场灭菌设备及其流量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林荣华; 李伟光

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the sterilization effect of high-voltage pulsed electric field sterilization equipment, this paper analyzes its function according the tactors of the enfluence on the system, designs the overall structure and PLC-based flow control system by the way of frequency control of motor speed, describes the structure and principle of high-voltage pulse generator and the theory and realization of the flow control based on frequency control as well as the realization of communication between inverters and PLC with RS-485. The result shows that the equipment is able to control and adjust key process parameters well, comtro the flow by a simple and reliable way, and achieve high effective and fast sterilization.%为优化高压脉冲电场灭菌设备的灭菌效果,根据其影响因素进行了系统功能需求分析,设计了设备的总体架构,采用变频调速的方法,设计了基于PLC的流量控制系统.简述了高压脉冲发生器的结构及原理,重点介绍了基于变频调速的流量控制原理与实现,变频器与PLC的RS - 485通信的实现.实验表明,设备实现了关键工艺参数可调可控,运行效果良好,简单可靠地实现了流量的控制,实现了快速高效灭菌.

  10. Personal Protective Equipment In Animal Research Back To The Basics (A review paper) Running title: Personal Protective equipment in Animal Research A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    including the hazardous materials or equipment they will be working with as well as any special medical conditions like pregnancy , immune status, and ill...produced when the threads are interlocked around the material edges for a strong stress -resistant seam. In contrast, in ultrasonic welded seams, there...durable enough to withstand typical stresses applied during wear or use, such that garments may tear during kneeling, reaching, or bending

  11. Application of HFCT and UHF Sensors in On-Line Partial Discharge Measurements for Insulation Diagnosis of High Voltage Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS compartment.

  12. Persuasion to use personal protective equipment in constructing subway stations: application of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mahmoud; Pariani, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Soleymani-nejad, Marzieh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of an intervention based on social marketing to persuade workers to use personal protective equipment (PPE) in constructing subway stations in Isfahan, Iran. This was a quasi-experimental study. Two stations were selected as intervention and control groups. Intervention was designed based on results of a formative research. A free package containing a safety helmet with a tailored message affixed to it, mask and gloves and an educational pamphlet was delivered to the intervention group. After 6 weeks, behaviours in the intervention and control stations were measured using an observational checklist. After the intervention, the percentage of workers who used PPE at the intervention station increased significantly. OR for helmet and mask usage was 7.009 and 2.235, respectively, in the intervention group. Social marketing can be used to persuade workers to use PPE in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Ebola virus disease: The use of fluorescents as markers of contamination for personal protective equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Bell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has created interest in personal protective equipment (PPE content and usage. PPE testing has historically been done by individual component, rather than as a bundle for contact isolation. Fluorescent agents are commonly used in training for infection control techniques. The purpose of our study was to compare 2 PPE bundles and to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescent markers as an assessment tool for PPE effectiveness. Eight healthcare providers volunteered for this preliminary study. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 PPE bundles that meet current (October 20, 2014 CDC recommendations. One PPE bundle utilized commercial EVD-recommended components. The other PPE bundle used components already available at local hospitals or retail stores. Participants were also randomized to standard or high volume exposures (HVE to simulate fluid splash. Each participant was assisted in PPE donning and doffing by an experienced trainer. A training mannequin was contaminated with fluorescent agents to simulate bodily fluids. Participants were then given clinical tasks to care for the EVD “patient.” De-gowned participants were examined under “black light” for fluorescence indicative of contamination. One participant in each PPE arm had evidence of contamination. One of the contamination events was suspected during the patient care exercise. The other contamination event was not suspected until black light examination. In spite of a large difference in cost of PPE, the two bundle arms performed similarly. Bundle testing using fluorescent markers could help identify optimal PPE systems.

  14. Situational Pressures that Influence Firefighters' Decision Making about Personal Protective Equipment: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Michael A; Scott, Cliff; Davis, Andrea L; Allen, Joseph; Taylor, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Firefighters are exposed to hazardous conditions as a result of their occupation and often understand the dangers of these toxic exposures; yet, it remains unclear why some refrain from wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) in dangerous situations. We were intrigued by the gap between demonstrated safety knowledge and lack of connection to observed or self-reported safety behaviors, an issue about which there is limited consensus among scholars. In a national study of fire service safety climate, 123 firefighters across 12 fire departments participated in 62 interviews and 10 focus groups. Firefighter identity, goal seduction, and situation aversion were the strongest factors of PPE non-compliance, whereas PPE empowerment and individual will promoted PPE use within a fire department. Understanding situations where PPE use is both practiced and neglected is imperative to improving fire service safety culture. Peer-pressure and leading by example at the peer and organizational levels appear to be essential considerations firefighters undertake when choosing whether or not to engage in safety behavior.

  15. Factors Surgical Team Members Perceive Influence Choices of Wearing or Not Wearing Personal Protective Equipment during Operative/Invasive Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuming, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to certain bloodborne pathogens can prematurely end a person's life. Healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those who are members of surgical teams, are at increased risk of exposure to these pathogens. The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during operative/invasive procedures reduces that risk. Despite this, some HCWs fail…

  16. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  17. Factors Surgical Team Members Perceive Influence Choices of Wearing or Not Wearing Personal Protective Equipment during Operative/Invasive Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuming, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to certain bloodborne pathogens can prematurely end a person's life. Healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those who are members of surgical teams, are at increased risk of exposure to these pathogens. The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during operative/invasive procedures reduces that risk. Despite this, some HCWs fail…

  18. A micro-power LDO with piecewise voltage foldback current limit protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hailong; Liu Youbao; Guo Zhongjie; Liao Xue

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a constant current limit,low power consumption and high driving capability,a micro-power LDO with a piecewise voltage-foldback current-limit circuit is presented.The current-limit threshold is dynamically adjusted to achieve a maximum driving capability and lower quiescent current of only 300 nA.To increase the loop stability of the proposed LDO,a high impedance transconductance buffer under a micro quiescent current is designed for splitting the pole that exists at the gate of the pass transistor to the dominant pole,and a zero is designed for the purpose of the second pole phase compensation.The proposed LDO is fabricated in a BiCMOS process.The measurement results show that the short-circuit current of the LDO is 190 mA,the constant limit current under a high drop-out voltage is 440 mA,and the maximum load current under a low drop-out voltage is up to 800 mA.In addition,the quiescent current of the LDO is only 7 μA,the load regulation is about 0.56% on full scale,the line regulation is about 0.012%/V,the PSRR at 120 Hz is 58 dB and the drop-out voltage is only 70 mV when the load current is 250 mA.

  19. Isolated Fast High-Voltage Switching Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Electrically isolated switching circuit supplies pulses at potentials up to 6.5 kV and currents up to 6.5 A, lasting as long as few microseconds. Turn-on time about 40 ns; turn-off time about 3 microseconds. Electrically isolated from control circuitry by means of fiber-optic signal coupling and isolated power supply. Electrical isolation protects both technician and equipment. This and similar circuits useful in such industrial and scientific applications as high-voltage, high-frequency test equipment; electrostatic-discharge test equipment; plasma-laboratory instrumentation; spark chambers; and electromagnetic-interference test equipment.

  20. Mapping of sites facing aqueous environment of voltage-gated proton channel at resting state: a study with PEGylation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Hv1 (also named, voltage-sensor only protein, VSOP) lacks an authentic pore domain, and its voltage sensor domain plays both roles in voltage sensing and proton permeation. The activities of a proton channel are intrinsic to protomers of Hv1, while Hv1 is dimeric in biological membranes; cooperative gating is exerted by interaction between two protomers. As the signature pattern conserved among voltage-gated channels and voltage-sensing phosphatase, Hv1 has multiple arginines intervened by two hydrophobic residues on the fourth transmembrane segment, S4. S4 moves upward relative to other helices upon depolarization, causing conformational change possibly leading to the formation of a proton-selective conduction pathway. However, detailed mechanisms of proton-selectivity and gating of Hv1 are unknown. Here we took an approach of PEGylation protection assay to define residues facing the aqueous environment of mouse Hv1 (mHv1). Accessibilities of two maleimide molecules, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 4-acetamido-4'-maleimidylstilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (AMS), were examined on cysteine introduced into individual sites. Only the first arginine on S4 (R1: R201) was inaccessible by NEM and AMS in mHv1. This is consistent with previous results of electrophysiology on the resting state channel, suggesting that the accessibility profile represents the resting state of mHv1. D108, critical for proton selectivity, was accessible by AMS and NEM, suggesting that D108 faces the vestibule. F146, a site critical for blocking by a guanidinium-reagent, was accessible by NEM, suggesting that F146 also faces the inner vestibule. These findings suggest an inner vestibule lined by several residues on S2 including F146, D108 on S1, and the C-terminal half of S4. © 2013.

  1. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2016-07-06

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  2. Disinfection of football protective equipment using chlorine dioxide produced by the ICA TriNova system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DuBois John D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks have occurred in individuals engaged in athletic activities such as wrestling and football. Potential disease reduction interventions include the reduction or elimination of bacteria on common use items such as equipment. Chlorine dioxide has a long history of use as a disinfectant. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of novel portable chlorine dioxide generation devices to eliminate bacteria contamination of helmets and pads used by individuals engaged in football. Methods In field studies, the number of bacteria associated with heavily used football helmets and shoulder pads was determined before and after overnight treatment with chlorine dioxide gas. Bacteria were recovered using cotton swabs and plated onto trypticase soy agar plates. In laboratory studies, Staphylococcus aureus was applied directly to pads. The penetration of bacteria into the pads was determined by inoculating agar plates with portions of the pads taken from the different layers of padding. The ability to eliminate bacteria on the pad surface and underlying foam layers after treatment with chlorine dioxide was also determined. Results Rates of recovery of bacteria after treatment clearly demonstrated that chlorine dioxide significantly (p 3 recoverable bacteria colonies before chlorine dioxide treatment and 1.3 × 102 recoverable colonies after treatment. In addition, the gas was capable of penetrating the mesh surface layer and killing bacteria in the underlying foam pad layers. Here, 7 × 103 to 4.5 × 103 laboratory applied S. aureus colonies were recovered from underlying layers before treatment and 0 colonies were present after treatment. Both naturally occurring bacteria and S. aureus were susceptible to the treatment process. Conclusion Results of this study have shown that chlorine dioxide can easily and safely be used to eliminate bacteria

  3. Training retention of Level C personal protective equipment use by emergency medical services personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northington, William E; Mahoney, G Michael; Hahn, Michael E; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, Dave

    2007-10-01

    To assess the six-month training retention for out-of-hospital providers donning and doffing Level C personal protective equipment (PPE). In this prospective observational study, 36 out-of-hospital providers enrolled in a paramedic program were trained in Level C (chemical-resistant coverall, butyl gloves, and boots and an air-purifying respirator) PPE use. A standardized training module and checklist of critical actions developed by a hazardous materials (hazmat) technician were used to evaluate donning and doffing. Students were trained until they were able to correctly don and doff the Level C PPE. An investigator used the checklist accompanying the training module to assess proficiency and remediate mistakes. Six months after initial training, the subjects were reassessed using the same investigator and checklist. Errors were designated as either critical (resulted in major self-contamination of the airway, such as early removal of the respirator) or noncritical (potentially resulted in minor self-contamination not involving the airway). Only five subjects (14.3%) were able to don and doff PPE without committing a critical error. The most common critical errors were premature removal of the respirator (65.7%; n = 23) and actions allowing the contaminated suit to touch the body (54.3%; n = 19). The most common noncritical error was possible self-contamination due to the boots not being removed before exposing other body parts (37.1%; n = 13). Of the seven subjects (20%) with additional prior hazmat training, only two donned and doffed PPE without committing a critical error. Retention of proper donning and doffing techniques in paramedic students is poor at six months after initial training. Even in subjects with previous hazmat, firefighter, and emergency medical services training, critical errors were common, suggesting that current training may be inadequate to prevent harmful exposures in emergency medical services personnel working at a hazmat or weapons of

  4. 30 CFR 77.403-1 - Mobile equipment; rollover protective structures (ROPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.403-1 Mobile equipment... number, if any, the machine make, model or series number that the structure is designed to fit, and... professional engineer that: (1) The ROPS complies with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J 397...

  5. A State-of-the-Art Review of Enhanced Personal Protection Equipment Options (Analyse de Pointe des Options en Matiere D’equipement de Protection Individuelle Accrue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    cell extractions, or other tactical applications. The ExoTech™ provides substantial protection from blunt force trauma. The contour molded PE outer...shell features impact ridges that disperse the brunt of the blows , while EVA foam inner padding cushions the body. Soft brush tricot and mesh lines the...Inner PE (polyethylene) shell • Commercial grade elastic adjusters and connectors Hard-Shell Shin Guards • PVC (polyvinyl carbonate) knee cap • EVA

  6. 47 CFR 32.2362 - Other terminal equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided to meet the needs of the disabled, over-voltage protection equipment, multiplexing equipment to deliver multiple channels to customers, etc. (b) Each company shall prepare a list of other terminal... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2362...

  7. Control and Protection in Low Voltage Grid with Large Scale Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam

    of renewable energy based DGs are reduced CO2 emission, reduced operational cost as almost no fuel is used for their operation and less transmission and distribution losses as these units are normally built near to the load centers. This has also resulted in some operational challenges due to the unpredictable...... of the wind speed and solar irradiation fluctuations are tackled. The CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) network comprising two solar PV generating units of 3 kW and 4 kW, one 5.5 kW fixed-pitch fix speed WTG and two battery units each producing energy of 30kwh and 21kwh has been chosen for the study. The study...... the distribution system and the transmission grid has been proposed here. The algorithms, models and methodologies developed during this research study have been tested in a CIGRE low voltage distribution network. The simulation results show that they are able to correctly identify the states of the distribution...

  8. Research of equipment possession and gas and electric power habits of commercial and industrial consumers of low voltage; Pesquisa de posse de equipamentos e habitos de consumo de energia eletrica e gas de consumidores comerciais e industriais em baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardini, Jose Antonio; Casolari, Ronaldo Pedro; Angrisano, Alexandre; Araujo, Dalva Souza de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports a survey conducted by the Departamento de Energia e Automacao Eletrica, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, on the possession of electric and gas equipment, and the habits of consumption which were applied to a consumers attended in low voltage commercial class and industrial class services, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  9. Disinfection of football protective equipment using chlorine dioxide produced by the ICA TriNova system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Anthony L; DuBois, John D; Tenney, Joel D

    2009-01-01

    Backround Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks have occurred in individuals engaged in athletic activities such as wrestling and football. Potential disease reduction interventions include the reduction or elimination of bacteria on common use items such as equipment. Chlorine dioxide has a long history of use as a disinfectant. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of novel portable chlorine dioxide generation devices to eliminate bacteria contamination of helmets and pads used by individuals engaged in football. Methods In field studies, the number of bacteria associated with heavily used football helmets and shoulder pads was determined before and after overnight treatment with chlorine dioxide gas. Bacteria were recovered using cotton swabs and plated onto trypticase soy agar plates. In laboratory studies, Staphylococcus aureus was applied directly to pads. The penetration of bacteria into the pads was determined by inoculating agar plates with portions of the pads taken from the different layers of padding. The ability to eliminate bacteria on the pad surface and underlying foam layers after treatment with chlorine dioxide was also determined. Results Rates of recovery of bacteria after treatment clearly demonstrated that chlorine dioxide significantly (p < 0.001) reduce and eliminated bacteria found on the surface of pads. For example, the soft surface of shoulder pads from a university averaged 2.7 × 103 recoverable bacteria colonies before chlorine dioxide treatment and 1.3 × 102 recoverable colonies after treatment. In addition, the gas was capable of penetrating the mesh surface layer and killing bacteria in the underlying foam pad layers. Here, 7 × 103 to 4.5 × 103 laboratory applied S. aureus colonies were recovered from underlying layers before treatment and 0 colonies were present after treatment. Both naturally occurring bacteria and S. aureus were susceptible to the treatment process

  10. Contamination of firefighter personal protective equipment and skin and the effectiveness of decontamination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W; Alexander, Barbara; Roberts, Jennifer; Robertson, Shirley; Toennis, Christine; Sammons, Deborah; Bertke, Stephen; Kerber, Steve; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin

    2017-06-21

    Firefighters' skin may be exposed to chemicals via permeation/penetration of combustion byproducts through or around personal protective equipment (PPE) or from the cross-transfer of contaminants on PPE to the skin. Additionally, volatile contaminants can evaporate from PPE following a response and be inhaled by firefighters. Using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as respective markers for non-volatile and volatile substances, we investigated the contamination of firefighters' turnout gear and skin following controlled residential fire responses. Participants were grouped into three crews of twelve firefighters. Each crew was deployed to a fire scenario (one per day, four total) and then paired up to complete six fireground job assignments. Wipe sampling of the exterior of the turnout gear was conducted pre- and post-fire. Wipe samples were also collected from a subset of the gear after field decontamination. VOCs off-gassing from gear were also measured pre-fire, post-fire, and post-decon. Wipe sampling of the firefighters' hands and neck was conducted pre- and post-fire. Additional wipes were collected after cleaning neck skin. PAH levels on turnout gear increased after each response and were greatest for gear worn by firefighters assigned to fire attack and to search and rescue activities. Field decontamination using dish soap, water, and scrubbing was able to reduce PAH contamination on turnout jackets by a median of 85%. Off-gassing VOC levels increased post-fire and then decreased 17-36 minutes later regardless of whether field decontamination was performed. Median post-fire PAH levels on the neck were near or below the limit of detection (< 24 micrograms per square meter [µg/m(2)]) for all positions. For firefighters assigned to attack, search, and outside ventilation, the 75(th) percentile values on the neck were 152, 71.7, and 39.3 µg/m(2), respectively. Firefighters assigned to attack and search had higher

  11. Aetiology of injuries and the need for protective equipment for surfers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodacre, Timothy; Waydia, Shree Eesh; Wienand-Barnett, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Surfing is a popular UK water-sport. Previous studies investigating surfing injuries have been principally based on trauma from large waves and reef breaks in the US and Australia. Subsequent conclusions and recommendations for the use of protective equipment in surfing may therefore not be relevant in the UK. This study examines the aetiology of surfing injuries in the UK. Data was collected in 2012 using a web-based survey distributed to UK surfing clubs. Surfers recorded time/experience as a surfer, number of episodes spent surfing per month, different breaks surfed and type, frequency and method of any injuries sustained whilst surfing in the UK, including treatment received. Completed surveys were obtained from 130 individuals, M:F division 85:45, median age 28 (range 17-65). 122 surfers reported a total of 335 injuries. Head injuries were the most common (24%) followed by ankle (19%), knee (13%), back (10%), hand/wrist (9%), elbow/shoulder (7%), trunk (7%), neck (4%), hip (4%) and genitalia (3%) injuries. Surfers collided most often with their own boards (31%). The other collisions were with rocks/coral (15%), the sea (11%), other surf boards (10%) the sea bed (7%), other water vessels (2%) and by paddle-boards (1%). Of 327 injuries, cuts/lacerations (31%) were the commonest type of injury, followed by bruises/peri-orbital ecchymoses (24%), joint/ligament sprains (15%), muscle or tendon tears/ruptures (9%), concussion (5%), fractures (3%) and teeth injuries (1%). The remaining 8 injuries were not categorized. 65% of the surfers never required professional medical treatment for their differing injuries. There were no skull fractures and no head injuries required neurosurgical intervention. Surfing injuries in the UK are common. They appear of a similar aetiology to those reported in the literature in countries with a high surfing population, but generally of a lower severity, with few requiring professional treatment, hospital admission or operative

  12. Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

  13. Special report. Upgrading security: hospitals opt for new equipment; new approaches; heavy investments in additional patient, employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are taking steps to prevent the violence that plagues both urban and rural areas from spilling over into their emergency rooms and nursing units. Four facilities--Duke Medical University Center, Durham, NC; Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; Ingalls Hospital, Harvey, IL; and University Medical Center, Las Vegas, NV--have recently installed new equipment or implemented innovative security procedures in an effort to better protect patients and employees. Although the price tag for additional protection is often high, officials at the hospitals agree that providing a safe environment is worth the investment.

  14. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Filovirus Disease: A Rapid Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hersi

    Full Text Available A rapid review, guided by a protocol, was conducted to inform development of the World Health Organization's guideline on personal protective equipment in the context of the ongoing (2013-present Western African filovirus disease outbreak, with a focus on health care workers directly caring for patients with Ebola or Marburg virus diseases.Electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched. Eligibility criteria initially included comparative studies on Ebola and Marburg virus diseases reported in English or French, but criteria were expanded to studies on other viral hemorrhagic fevers and non-comparative designs due to the paucity of studies. After title and abstract screening (two people to exclude, full-text reports of potentially relevant articles were assessed in duplicate. Fifty-seven percent of extraction information was verified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework was used to inform the quality of evidence assessments.Thirty non-comparative studies (8 related to Ebola virus disease were located, and 27 provided data on viral transmission. Reporting of personal protective equipment components and infection prevention and control protocols was generally poor.Insufficient evidence exists to draw conclusions regarding the comparative effectiveness of various types of personal protective equipment. Additional research is urgently needed to determine optimal PPE for health care workers caring for patients with filovirus.

  15. 高压输电线路设备红外诊断与检测技术分析%Analysis of high voltage transmission line equipment of infrared diagnosis and detection technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昳昀

    2013-01-01

    近年来,电力项目工程规模不断扩大,高压输电线路设备也在不断完善,输电线路设备红外诊断在高压输电中的应用,极大地提升了高压输电线路维护工作的质量和效率。本文主要介绍高压输电线路设备红外诊断与检测原理,同时还分析了设备故障发热对高压输电线路的危害,然后介绍了几种高压输电线路红外诊断与检测技术,希望能帮助相关工作人员提升工作质量和效率。%In recent years,the electric power project of the expanding scale,high voltage transmission line equipment is being perfected,application of electric equipment of infrared diagnosis in high voltage power transmission line in high voltage transmission line,improve work great maintenance work quality and efficiency.This paper mainly introduces the high voltage transmission line equipment of infrareddiagnosis and detection principle,and also analyses the harm of equipment fault heating on high voltage transmission line,and then introducedthe infrared detection and diagnosis technology of high voltage transmission line, the hope can help staff to improve work quality and efficiency.

  16. Evaluation of collective protection equipment in a hemodynamic room; Avaliacao dos equipamentos de protecao coletiva em uma sala de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, Saman; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: saman.casagrande@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Real, Jessica Villa; Luz, Renata Matos da, E-mail: jessica.real@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Interventional radiology has high occupational dose rates. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and collective protection (ECP) help to reduce the dose delivered to the individuals occupationally exposed (IOE). In order to minimize the exposure of IOE's in interventionists procedures, evaluated the attenuation of the secondary radiation produced by collective protection equipment (CPE), was used a chest non-anthropomorphic phantom of polymethylmethacrylates (PMMA), with column simulator in aluminum, with variable thicknesses and kerma rate measures the air by varying the frequency tables 15 and 30 frames / s and different exposure modes. Data were acquired initially at the height of 1.25 m, using the following combinations of the ECP: (I) unshielded, (II) with plumbum display, (III) combining skirt + display. Measured at a height of 0.5 m were acquired with and without skirt. The attenuation ranged from 83.8% to 95.4% for a thickness of 25 cm. The maximum attenuation occurred with the combination of display and skirt. There was a 5 time increase in air kerma rate to be used cine display mode, when compared to the low mode. By analyzing the frequency of the frames were obtained differences up to 3 times higher for 30 frames / s, when compared with 15 frames / s. The results show the importance of using ECP in hemodynamics services, which together with the PPE, ensure adequate protection for IOEs.

  17. A facile approach to derive binder protective film on high voltage spinel cathode materials against high temperature degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Yu; Jin, Yi-Chun; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liao, Shih-Chieh

    2015-11-01

    The electrochemical performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode combined with different binders at elevated temperature is firstly investigated. The water soluble binder, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate (SA), is compared with the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF) binder used in non-aqueous process. The aqueous process can meet the need of Li-ion battery industry due to environmental-friendly and cost effectiveness by replacing toxic organic solvent, such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this study, a significantly improved high temperature cycling performance is successfully obtained as compared to the traditional PVdF binder. The aqueous binder can serve as a protective film which inhibits the serious Ni and Mn dissolution especially at elevated temperature. Our result demonstrates a facile approach to solve the problem of capacity fading for high voltage spinel cathodes.

  18. Evaluation of X-Ray Protective Measurements in Intraoral Radiography Equipped Centers in Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    D.Goodarzi Pour; S.Ebrahimi Moghaddam

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: A few decades have past from using radiographic technology as an accurate paraclinical method and always protective measurements is applicated against ionizing radiation. As dentalradiography is a routine procedure in dentistry the importance of protective strategies is clear.Propose: The aim of this descriptive study is to evaluate the protection principles in centers which haveintraoral radiographic devices in Yazd.Material and Methods: We have considered all three asp...

  19. Increasing the Usage of Personal Protective Equipments in Constructing Subway Stations: An Application of Social Marketing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Although the relationship between the use of personal protective equipment and the reduction of workplace injuries is well-known the use of these devices during operation by the staff is not so desirable. This study was based on a model of social marketing interventions to increase the use of safety devices and personal protection on the subway-station staff. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was based on the results of a formative research consisted of a qualitative (exploring employees’ views through focus group discussions and a quantitative study (measuring attitudes and behaviors by questionnaire and checklist. Based on the formative research findings, a free package includes a helmet with a label containing the message, an anti-cut safety gloves, a dust mask, and an educational pamphlet were delivered to intervention group. After four weeks, the check list of observational behaviors in two constructing stations was completed and the results were compared with before intervention. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, t-test and logistic regression. Results: Three common behaviors were observed among staff not using caps, masks and gloves. The odds ratio for helmet and mask usage in the intervention group was more than other groups. After the intervention, the use of safety helmets and masks significantly increased (p < 0.05. The odds ratio for the use of helmets and masks after intervention in the intervention group was significantly higher than other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The experimental basis of the safety devices and personal protection needs and demands of the audience, material and immaterial costs of the equipment, supplies, and promoting their use in the right place, can encourage the staff to continuously use the safety devices at workplace. Key Words: Workplace, Injuries, Personal Protective Equipment, Social Marketing

  20. Injuries from traffic accidents and use of protection equipment in the Brazilian population, according to a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Gomes, Nayara; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; de Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio; dos Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro; Nardi, Antônio Carlos Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    The article aims to describe the injuries in traffic according to demographic characteristics, use of protective equipment, use of health services, activity limitations and disabilities. The percentage involvement in traffic accidents with injuries, the percentage of use of protective equipment, use of health services, limitation of daily activities, disability and sequelae, according to educational level, race, color, sex, age and region of residence it estimated.The use of safety belt in the adult population was 79.4%and 50.2% in the front seats and back, respectively; the helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers were respectively 83.4 and 80.1. Safety equipment are less used in the North and Northeast and in the countryside. Reported car accident last month 3.1%, being higher in males 4.5%, the people of complete primary schooling and School graduate, young adult and the brown race-color. Among the injured received some form of health care due to this accident 52.4%, were admitted 7.7%. They reported having had limitation of daily activities, disabilities and consequences arising from traffic accidents 14.1%. Car accidents are high in the country.

  1. 10 CFR 20.1703 - Use of individual respiratory protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions of use. This must be demonstrated either by licensee testing or on the basis of reliable test... respirator use in the event of equipment malfunction, physical or psychological distress, procedural or... require such relief. (e) The licensee shall also consider limitations appropriate to the type and mode of...

  2. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  3. The principle of elaboration of the relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of high voltage electrical line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiorsak M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the elaboration of the principle of relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation, based on the six phase’s symmetrical components. It is shown that the unsymmetrical short circuits between the closely placed phases are characterized by appearance of zero and tertiary sequences of symmetrical components. This fact can be used to choose them for relay protection. The electrical basic circuits and formulas for calculation of the passive parameters of zero and tertiary filters of currents (voltages are done. It is presented the structural-functional basic circuit scheme for relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation.

  4. Concepts of skin protection: Considerations for the evaluation and terminology of the performance of skin protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Aitken, R.J.; Oppl, R.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a common language for better understanding processes involved in dermal exposure and skin protection. A conceptual model has been developed that systematically describes the transport of agent mass from sources, eventually resulting in "loading" of the skin surface or the skin

  5. Concepts of skin protection: Considerations for the evaluation and terminology of the performance of skin protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Aitken, R.J.; Oppl, R.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a common language for better understanding processes involved in dermal exposure and skin protection. A conceptual model has been developed that systematically describes the transport of agent mass from sources, eventually resulting in "loading" of the skin surface or the skin

  6. The use of the neutronic calculation code CORNER for evaluating the protection of fast neutron reactor and CNFC equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhanova, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method of using neutronic calculation code CORNER to the analysis of experiments on the protection of fast neutron reactor and CNFC equipment. An example of Winfrith Graphite Benchmark experiment calculation using this approach is presented. This task can be considered as one step in the general theme of the safety analysis of FR with liquid metal coolant, their fuel cycles and related equipment. CORNER implement a solution of the kinetic equation with a source in the three-dimensional hexagonal geometry based on Sn-method. The purpose of this paper is a demonstration of the application of CORNER’s possibilities for the analysis of the actual reactor problems.

  7. An Unassisted Low-Voltage-Trigger ESD Protection Structure in a 0.18-µm CMOS Process without Extra Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Shan, Yi

    In order to quickly discharge the electrostatic discharge (ESD) energy, an unassisted low-voltage-trigger ESD protection structure is proposed in this work. Under transmission line pulsing (TLP) stress, the trigger voltage, turn-on speed and second breakdown current can be obviously improved, as compared with the traditional protection structure. Moreover there is no need to add any extra mask or do any process modification for the new structure. The proposed structure has been verified in foundry's 0.18-µm CMOS process.

  8. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites: Best Management Practice Case Study #12 - Laboratory/Medical Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakley, H.

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA's ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  10. The European Conformity Assessment Procedures and the Quality Assurance Instruments for Personal Protective Equipment in the Internal Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Conformity assessment procedures prescribed by European legislation are presented and their concrete implementation is illustrated by the example of personal protective equipment (PPE). The different categories of PPE defined by Council Directive 89/686/EEC are explained with reference to the applicable conformity assessment elements. Quality assurance of production is presented as the central element of the conformity assessment procedure for complex PPE. Special emphasis is put on the necessity of having a regular exchange of views and information among notified bodies in Europe. Ways in which third countries can eventually carry out conformity assessment on the basis of a contract with the European Community Commission are explained.

  11. Medium voltage SF{sub 6} equipment: an optimized solution for MV/LV substations; L'appareillage moyenne tension au SF{sub 6}: une solution optimisee pour les postes MT/BT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Perrissin, G. [Schneider Electric S.A., 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2000-02-01

    The development of SF{sub 6} technology has resulted in cost effective Medium Voltage switchgear, more compact than conventional air equipment and much safer than oil equipment. The study of the impact on environment of Ring Main Units (RMU) has been carried out, comparing a standard solution (RM6) with an alternative solution without SF{sub 6}. The results of technical-economical studies show that SF{sub 6} use leads to significant mass and cost reductions, and this confirms the interest to keep on developing this economy which is the optimum and respectful towards environment. (authors)

  12. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  13. Low voltage lightning arresters. Components. Low voltage grids; Parafoudres basse tension. Composants. Reseaux basse tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, A. [Assistance Protection System SAS, 94 - Cachan (France)

    2003-08-01

    Electrical equipments used in domestic and industrial applications are more and more sensible to overvoltages because of the massive use of electronic components in these equipments and appliances. Overvoltages do not propagate only with power lines but also through phone lines, coaxial cables, data networks, and even through grounding circuits. The informations about low voltage grids, useful for the selection of lightning arresters are presented in this article. In the ideal case, each possible way of input for overvoltage currents must be protected. The components used in lightning arresters have improved for a better reliability, a better energy resistance and a better protection level. These components are also presented in this article: 1 - technical and standard evolution: improvement of the understanding of low voltage phenomena, standards evolution, recall of basic definitions and data about lightning protection; 2 - components: varistors, spark gaps, silicon-based solid components, aging and end of life, decoupling components (thermistors, resistors, inductors); 3 - low voltage grids: different types of energy networks, transmission of overvoltages on low voltage networks (overvoltages due to lightning, or power station actuating, temporary overvoltages), influence of lightning conductors and lightning strikes close to the building structure, statistical data about lightning overvoltages on low voltage grids, protection and risk analysis. (J.S.)

  14. Efficacy of Selected Respiratory Protective Equipment Challenged with Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, B; Martin, D.D.; Resnick, I G

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of powered air-purifying respirators, surgical masks, dust/mist respirators, and high-efficiency respirators were tested with a biological aerosol under simulated breathing conditions. Protective ability ranged from 67 to 99.95%. The majority of penetration in negative-pressure respirators occurred at the face-mask interface rather than through the filter material.

  15. Balancing Speech Intelligibility versus Sound Exposure in Selection of Personal Hearing Protection Equipment for Chinook Aircrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Rots, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Aircrews are often exposed to high ambient sound levels, especially in military aviation. Since long-term exposure to such noise may cause hearing damage, selection of adequate hearing protective devices is crucial. Such devices also affect speech intelligibility. When speech

  16. Balancing Speech Intelligibility versus Sound Exposure in Selection of Personal Hearing Protection Equipment for Chinook Aircrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Rots, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Aircrews are often exposed to high ambient sound levels, especially in military aviation. Since long-term exposure to such noise may cause hearing damage, selection of adequate hearing protective devices is crucial. Such devices also affect speech intelligibility. When speech intelligibi

  17. The effect of protective football equipment on alignment of the injured cervical spine. Radiographic analysis in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, M A; Hulstyn, M J; Fadale, P D; O'Brien, T; Shall, L

    1996-01-01

    No universally accepted management protocol is available for dealing with the protective equipment worn by a neck-injured football player. The purpose of this cadaveric study was to determine the effects of the helmet and shoulder pads on the alignment of 1) the intact lower cervical spine and 2) the partially destabilized C5-6 motion segment. In Group I cadavers (N = 15), the lower cervical spine was tested in an intact condition. In Group II (N = 8), the C5-6 motion segment was tested in both an intact and a partially destabilized condition. Each cadaver was placed supine on a backboard and four lateral cervical radiographs were obtained as follows: no protective equipment, helmet only, helmet and shoulder pads, and shoulder pads only. Results for Group I showed that wearing both helmet and shoulder pads did not result in a significant change in cervical lordosis when compared with the neutral position (i.e., the no-equipment test). Cervical lordosis was significantly decreased in the helmet-only category (mean, 9.6 degrees) and significantly increased in the shoulder pads-only category (mean, 13.6 degrees). In Group II, destabilized specimens under the helmet test situation showed a significant mean increase in C5-6 forward angulation (16.5 degrees), posterior disk space height (3.8 mm), and dorsal element distraction (8.3 mm). Immobilizing the neck-injured football player with only the helmet or only the shoulder pads in place violates the principle of splinting the cervical spine in neutral alignment, according to our findings. We support the concept that removal of the helmet and shoulder pads should be an all-or-none proposition.

  18. Study on the Grounding Protection of the Medical Equipment and Informationalized Equipment in the Field Rescue%野战救援医疗设备和信息化设备的接地保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温剑; 崔晓培; 樊毫军; 侯世科

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the grounding method so as to improve the performance of grounding protection of the medical equipment and informationalized equipment in the field rescue. Methods Referred to relative technical specifications and parameters of medical equipment and informationalized equipment, the grounding methods were tested and compared, and further optimized under different circumstances. Results The stability, practicality and safety of grounding protection of the medical equipment and informationalized equipment in the field rescue were improved. Conclusion It can extend the service life of the equipment and improve the safety of personnel and optimize the grounding method.%目的 优化医疗设备接地方法,提高野战条件下医疗设备和信息化设备接地保护的性能.方法 参照医疗设备和信息化设备有关技术规范和设备参数,在不同环境下进行测试对比,优化接地方法.结果 提高了野战救援医疗设备和信息化设备接地保护的稳定性、实用性和安全性.结论 优化设备接地,可提高设备的使用年限和人员的安全.

  19. Nanotechnology based surface treatments for corrosion protection and deposit control of power plant equipment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Nanotechnology can provide possibilities for obtaining new valuable information regarding performance and corrosion protection in power plants. In general the desired performance of the contact surfaces is an easy-to-release effect. This is in order to prolong the time interval between cleaning periods or make the cleaning procedures easier and less expensive. Corrosion protection is also desired in order to extend the life time of various parts in the power plants and thus optimize the energy output and overall efficiency of the plant. Functional sol-gel coating based on nanotechnology is tested in a variety of conditions. Applications of functional sol-gel coatings were performed in the condenser and on seven air preheaters at Fynsvaerket, Odense, with corrosion protection as the main issue. Coatings with easy-to-clean effects were tested in the Flue Gas Desulphurization plant at Nordjyllandsvaerket, Aalborg, with the aim of reducing gipsum deposit. Thermo stabilized coatings were tested on tube bundles between in the passage from the 1st to 2end pass and on the wall between 1st and 2end pass at Amagervaerket, Copenhagen, and in the boiler at Haderslev CHP plant. The objective of this test were reducing deposits and increasing corrosion protection. The tested coatings were commercial available coatings and coatings developed in this project. Visual inspections have been performed of all applications except at Nordjyllandsvaerket. Corrosion assessment has been done at DTU - Mechanical Engineering. The results range from no difference between coated and uncoated areas to some improvements. At Amagervaerket the visual assessment showed in general a positive effect with a sol-gel hybrid system and a commercial system regarding removal of deposits. The visual assessment of the air preheaters at Fynsvaerket indicates reduced deposits on a sol-gel nanocomposite coated air preheater compared to an uncoated air preheater. (Author)

  20. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. PMID:25060072

  1. A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive and active imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Pan; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2012-12-01

    HgCdTe electrons initiated avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) in linear multiplication mode can be used for high speed applications such as active imaging. A readout integrated circuit of e-APD FPA is designed for dual mode passive/active imaging system. Unit cell circuit architecture of ROIC includes a high voltage protection module, a Sample-Hold circuit module, a comparator, output driver stage and a integrator module which includes a amplifier and three capacitors. Generally, APD FPA works at reversed bias such as 5V-15V in active imaging mode, and pixels' dark currents increase exponentially as the reverse-bias voltage is increased. Some cells of ROIC may be short to high voltage because of avalanche breakdown of diodes. If there is no protection circuit, the whole ROIC would be burnt out. Thus a protection circuit module introduced in every ROIC cell circuit is necessary to make sure the rest units of ROIC can still work. Conventional 5V CMOS process is applied to implement the high voltage protection with the small area other than LDMOS in high voltage BCD process in the limited 100μm×100μm pitch area. In integrator module, three integration capacitors are included in the ROIC to provide switchable well capacity. One of them can be shared in two modes in order to save area. Constraints such as pixel area and power lead us design toward a simple one-stage cascade operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) as pre-amplifier which can avoid potential instability caused by inaccuracy of MOSFET Model at 77K.

  2. Application of Spacesuit Glove Requirements Tools to Athletic and Personal Protective Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Melsoh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of ongoing improvement, astronauts must still struggle with inhibited dexterity and accelerated fatigue due to the requirement of wearing a pressurized Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Recent research in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center has focused on developing requirements for improvements in the design of the next generation of EVA glove. In the course of this research, it was decided to expand the scope of the testing to include a variety of commercially available athletic and consumer gloves to help provide a more recognizable comparison for investigators and designers to evaluate the current state of EVA glove mobility and strength. This comparison is being provided with the hope that innovative methods may help commercial development of gloves for various athletic and personal protective endeavors.

  3. A new double layer epoxy coating for corrosion protection of Petroleum Equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A. El Sockarya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous epoxy coating containing polymer nanocomposite (PNC was successfully synthesized and applied on carbon steel substrates by room temperature curing of fully mixed epoxy slurry. (PNC containing both ZNO nanoparticles and epoxy hyper branched polymer (EHBP, a new double layer thin film which comprises ZNO-epoxy as a primer coat and ZNO-EHBP-epoxy as a top coat offers better corrosion protection compared to the purely inorganic ZNO-epoxy coating and hybrid ZNO-EHBP-epoxy coating. Chemical structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, H1NMR spectroscopy and GPC. The surface morphology and phase structure of the produced Zno nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy SEM, transmission electron microscopy TEM and X-ray diffraction. Chemical resistance of theses coatings to NaOH and HCL was investigated. The effect of incorporating polymer nanocomposite and new double layer coating on corrosion resistance of epoxy coated steel was investigated by salt spray test.

  4. [Evaluation of personal protective equipment used by malathion sprayers in dengue control in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Thais Salomão; Papini, Solange; Vieira, Eliane; Luchini, Luiz Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Malathion insecticide in vegetable oil is used to control Aedes aegypti and is applied by spraying, which requires the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The current study assessed the capacity of PPE suits to retain malathion. The study monitored field spraying in São Paulo, Brazil. Before each spraying, feminine sanitary napkins were placed under and upon the PPE suit in the chest, back, and forearms. After spraying, the sanitary napkins were removed, labeled, and submitted to extraction under mechanical agitation. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Presence of malathion in sanitary napkins under PPE suits was observed after spraying and before washing the suits. The findings indicate that sprayers are exposed to malathion, even when they use new PPE suits.

  5. Individual protection equipment for use in the construction civil sector - case study in the city of Medianeira in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Roberto Rockenbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety at work is defined as a set of measures that are based on technical standards and aimed at accident prevention, in Brazil it is governed by Decree-Law No. 5,452 of May 1, 1943, approving the Consolidation of Labor Laws - CLT. The construction is the sector that suffers most from industrial accidents and is labeled as the champion as the rates of work accidents. This study aimed to carry out a survey of the works of the construction industry situation in the city of Medianeira in Brazil about using Security Personal Protective Equipment (PPE and relate to the use of such equipment with the occurrence of accidents. To carry out the research were used 40 works, and for the data used in the survey, a questionnaire was applied to each work, which was answered by the foreman. With this research found up those 50% of employers in this sector in the city are not complying with the legislation as the provision of PPE and only 10% of employees are using all PPE required for their safety.

  6. Adequate performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques during simulated cardiac arrest over and under protective equipment in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninger, Kevin N; Goodbred, Andrew; Vanic, Keith; Hauth, John; Onia, Joshua; Stoltzfus, Jill; Melanson, Scott

    2014-07-01

    To investigate (1) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) adequacy during simulated cardiac arrest of equipped football players and (2) whether protective football equipment impedes CPR performance measures. Exploratory crossover study performed on Laerdal SimMan 3 G interactive manikin simulator. Temple University/St Luke's University Health Network Regional Medical School Simulation Laboratory. Thirty BCLS-certified ATCs and 6 ACLS-certified emergency department technicians. Subjects were given standardized rescuer scenarios to perform three 2-minute sequences of compression-only CPR. Baseline CPR sequences were captured on each subject. Experimental conditions included 2-minute sequences of CPR either over protective football shoulder pads or under unlaced pads. Subjects were instructed to adhere to 2010 American Heart Association guidelines (initiation of compressions alone at 100/min to 51 mm). Dependent variables included average compression depth, average compression rate, percentage of time chest wall recoiled, and percentage of hands-on contact during compressions. Differences between subject groups were not found to be statistically significant, so groups were combined (n = 36) for analysis of CPR compression adequacy. Compression depth was deeper under shoulder pads than over (P = 0.02), with mean depths of 36.50 and 31.50 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found with compression rate or chest wall recoil. Chest compression depth is significantly decreased when performed over shoulder pads, while there is no apparent effect on rate or chest wall recoil. Although the clinical outcomes from our observed 15% difference in compression depth are uncertain, chest compression under the pads significantly increases the depth of compressions and more closely approaches American Heart Association guidelines for chest compression depth in cardiac arrest.

  7. High-Field Quench Behavior and Protection of $Bi_2 Sr_2 Ca Cu_2 O_x$ Coils: Minimum and Maximum Quench Detection Voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tengming [Fermilab; Ye, Liyang [NCSU, Raleigh; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Li, Pei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    Small insert coils have been built using a multifilamentary Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire, and characterized in background fields to explore the quench behaviors and limits of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconducting magnets, with an emphasis on assessing the impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection. Using heaters of various lengths to initiate a small normal zone, a coil was quenched safely more than 70 times without degradation, with the maximum coil temperature reaching 280 K. Coils withstood a resistive voltage of tens of mV for seconds without quenching, showing the high stability of these coils and suggesting that the quench detection voltage shall be greater than 50 mV to not to falsely trigger protection. The hot spot temperature for the resistive voltage of the normal zone to reach 100 mV increases from ~40 K to ~80 K with increasing the operating wire current density Jo from 89 A/mm2 to 354 A/mm2 whereas for the voltage to reach 1 V, it increases from ~60 K to ~140 K, showing the increasing negative impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection with increasing Jo and the need to limit the quench detection voltage to < 1 V. These measurements, coupled with an analytical quench model, were used to access the impact of the maximum allowable voltage and temperature upon quench detection on the quench protection, assuming to limit the hot spot temperature to <300 K.

  8. [Fabrication of improved multi-slit equipment to obtain the input-output characteristics of computed radiography systems: correction of the heel effect, and application to high tube-voltage experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehata, Itsumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Takegami, Kazuki; Ujita, Syohei; Kimoto, Natsumi; Konishi, Yuki; Fukuda, Ikuma

    2014-09-01

    Multi-slit equipment is a new experimental apparatus that can measure the input-output characteristics of a CR (computed radiography) system with limited influence of the fading effect. Kimoto et al. recently proposed a new type of multi-slit apparatus in which the multi-slit setup, the insertion region of the phosphor plate, and plate shielding are integrated to create a single handy-type item (an all-in-one type multi-slit apparatus). However, some problems remained unsolved. The aims of this study were to devise a setup for application to high tube voltage conditions, and to improve the all-in-one type multi-slit equipment so as to correct the heel effect. We examined the capabilities of our improved multi-slit equipment using diagnostic X-ray apparatus and found that it can obtain input-output characteristics with 5% accuracy for tube voltages of 40-140 kV and SID (source to image receptor distances) of 50-200 cm.

  9. Photon type ultraviolet detection management system in the application of high voltage electrical equipment%光子型紫外检测管理系统在高压电气设备的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣辉; 张宏钊; 姚森敬; 向阳; 段生鹏

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of grid, power load requirements are constantly improve, the corresponding preventive maintenance requirements and continuously improve. Electrical equipment work in atmospheric environment, with the loss of the insulation performance, can produce corona discharge phenomenon, electrochemical corrosion in the equipment surface, its long time effect on will pose a threat to the safe operation of lines or equipment. At the same time, the abnormal of corona discharge of small discharge phenomenon and the early signs of failure part defects. Electrical equipment in the process of discharge, the radiation of ultraviolet photons outward. Quantitative detection of corona discharge intensity can be used to indirectly assess the status of the equipment operation, real-time control of electric power equipment running status. Photon type ultraviolet imaging system was applied to high voltage electrical equipment inspection work, can make the high voltage electrical equipment maintenance staff to find loopholes, and help the maintenance staff on-site maintenance, has the very good application value.%随着电网规模的不断扩大,电力负荷要求的也不断提高,相应预防性维护的要求也不断提高。电气设备在大气环境下工作,随着绝缘性能的降低,会产生电晕放电现象,使设备表面发生电化学腐蚀,其长时间作用对线路或设备的安全运行会造成威胁。同时,异常的电晕放电发生的微弱放电现象又是部分缺陷故障的早期征兆。电气设备在放电过程中,会向外辐射大量紫外光子。可以利用定量检测电晕放电强度来间接评估运行设备的状况,实时掌握电力设备的运行状态。将光子型紫外成像管理系统应用于高压电气设备的检测工作当中,可使高压电气设备检修工作人员及时发现设备漏洞,并帮助检修工作人员进行现场维修,具有很好的应用价值。

  10. Safety standards of electrical equipment in surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, V.O.; Il' in, Yu.N.; Neyaskin, D.V.

    1985-03-01

    Modified safety regulations developed by the VostNII Institute are discussed. The safety regulations for electrical equipment used in surface coal mines are modifications of general safety regulations in coal surface mining. The modified regulations cover: improved protection from short circuits and grounds in electrical systems with voltage higher than 1000 V, protection systems for heavy-duty electric motors and motors with thyristor control, operation of power shovels on benches with contact systems (hazards of damage to electric cables caused by moving mining equipment), operation of electrical equipment and contact systems on benches at which trucks are used for mine haulage (hazards of damage to electric cables by moving trucks).

  11. Evaluation of peak voltage, irradiation time, output and half value layer in computed tomography equipment;Avaliacao da tensao de pico, tempo de irradiacao, rendimento e camada semi-redutora em equipamentos de tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nersissian, Denise Y.; Santos, Lucas R. dos; Saito, Ricardo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Silva, Marcia C. [Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the voltage peak, the irradiation time, output and half value layer were evaluated in two multislice computed tomography equipment. These evaluations are commonly done in conventional, fluoroscopic and mammographic equipment, but not in computed tomography. The results have depicted that accuracy and reproducibility meet the 10% limit established by Portaria SVS MS 453/1998 and by Guia de Radiodiagnostico - RE 1016/2005. The half value layer is between (6.55 +- 0.31) mmAl and (7.70 +- 0.39) mmAl for 120 kVp on three bow tie filter positions. The output obtained for the isocenter position was 0.097, 0.158, 0.227 and 0.286 mGy/mAs for 80, 100, 120 e 135 kVp, respectively; being similar between two tomography equipment. Such evaluations have only been possible due to the intervention on the CT equipment, stopping the rotation of the X-ray tube inside the gantry. (author)

  12. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  13. Prevalence of roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors on Hispanic-operated farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John R

    2010-04-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, but not enough tractors are equipped with them in the United States to reduce the rate of these deaths to levels seen in several European countries. Recent literature has defined the use of ROPS on US farms in general, but little is known about ROPS use on Hispanic farm operations. Data from a national survey for the calendar year 2003 were used to assess the prevalence of ROPS use on Hispanic-operated farms. Farm characteristics previously identified to be associated with low ROPS prevalence rates on other farming operations were examined for these Hispanic farming operations. The overall ROPS prevalence rate on Hispanic farms was 52.2%. Adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors found that the region where the farm was located and the acreage of the farm appeared to be the most significant indicators of the prevalence of ROPS on Hispanic farms. In addition, the age of the farm operator, the farm status as a full- or part-time operation, and the type of farm operation were also important factors. These findings were similar to those seen for racial minority farms and the general farming population. These results can be used to target ROPS promotion programs for Hispanic farmers across the United States.

  14. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  15. 浅析哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防设计%Analysis of fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马友梅

    2016-01-01

    There are lots of differences between the fire protection requirements of petrochemical equip-ments in China and Kazakhstan which mentioned in the codes and routines for fire protection design. The code for fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan was introduced; besides, the differences be-tween the codes and routines for fire protection of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan and China were ana-lyzed and compared from aspects of fire-fighting cooling water system; foam extinguishing system, steam-smoth-ering system;dry powder extinguishing system;automatic gas extinguishing system and fire demand determination.%在石油化工装置的消防设计上,哈萨克斯坦与国内在设计规范及设计惯例等方面存在诸多差异。介绍了哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防规范,并从消防冷却水系统、泡沫灭火系统、蒸汽灭火系统、干粉灭火系统、自动气体灭火系统及消防用水量确定等方面,分析比较了哈萨克斯坦与国内石油化工装置消防设计规范及设计惯例的不同之处。

  16. Design of Power Supply Monitoring System for Fire Protection Equipment%消防设备电源监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春丽

    2015-01-01

    对消防设备电源监控系统相关规范及标准进行分析及梳理,分析归纳消防设备电源、消防设备电源监控系统的定义及作用,结合某大型城市综合体工程,介绍消防设备电源监控系统的设置场所、范围、部位、布线等设计。%Relevant national regulations and standards regarding power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Definitions and functions of power supply for fire protection equipments and power supply monitoring systems for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Based on a large urban complex project, the setting place, range, location, wiring and other designs of power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are introduced.

  17. 紫外成像检测技术在高压电力设备带电检测中的应用%Application of Ultraviolet Imaging Detection Technology in Electrification Detection for High Voltage Power Equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱金菊; 王锐; 黄振; 彭向阳; 林茂

    2016-01-01

    Combining vast data information obtained from ultraviolet imaging detection in present years,this paper discusses characteris-tics of ultraviolet imaging detection technology in fault diagnosis for power system.Proceeding from basic principles of ultraviolet ima-ging detection technology,it analyzes main factors affecting ultraviolet imaging detection results and states operational approach of using ultraviolet imaging detection technology to detect corona discharge defect of high voltage power equipment.It also analyzes main rea-sons for causing corona discharge by combining actual cases of ultraviolet imaging detection for power transmission and transformation equipments and proposes corresponding overhaul suggestions.Actual application cases indicate that this method is able to effectively complete electrification detection for high voltage power equipments.%结合近年来获得的大量紫外成像检测诊断的数据资料,探讨了紫外成像检测技术在电力系统故障诊断应用中的特点。基于此,从紫外成像检测技术的基本原理出发,分析影响紫外成像检测结果的主要因素,并阐述了利用紫外成像检测技术检测高压电力设备电晕放电缺陷的操作方法;结合输变电电力设备紫外成像检测的实际案例,分析了引起设备电晕放电的主要原因,并给出相应的检修建议。实际应用案例表明该方法可有效地对高压电力设备进行带电检测。

  18. Networking sampling busbar protection based on voltage phase lock%基于电压锁相网络化采样的母线保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰; 汤汉松; 刘斌; 周东顶; 郑发林

    2015-01-01

    设计一种既具备结构简单、资源共享、扩展性好等优点,又不依赖于外部全局同步系统的采样值组网传输的母线保护,在数字化变电站的建设中具有十分重要的意义。介绍了数字化变电站母线保护的采样值传输系统,描述了基于绝对延时的点对点母线保护技术,提出了一种基于电压锁相的网络化母线保护方案。利用母线电压天然的同步性能特征,通过数字锁相环及采样重插值技术,消除网络化采样对同步信号的依赖性。测试表明,基于电压锁相的网络化母线保护采样同步性好,动作快速可靠,是数字化变电站母线保护的一种新思路。%A sampling value network transmission bus protection independent of outside global synchronization system is designed. The protection has the advantages of simple structure, resource sharing and good expansibility, so it has very important significance in the construction of digital substation. This paper introduces the sampling transmission system of bus protection in digital substation, describes a point-to-point bus protection technology based on absolute delay, and proposes a network bus protection using voltage phase lock. The synchronization performance of bus voltage, digital phase locked loop and resampling interpolation are used to eliminate the synchronization dependence in network sampling system. Experiments show that the bus protection based on voltage phase lock is well synchronous, fast and reliable. This method is a new solution for the bus protection of digital substation.

  19. High field MRI: safety and protection problems related to the installation and the management of a 4T equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, A.; Speranza, A. [National Research Council, Institute of Bioimaging and Biostructures- Dep.of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences - University Federico II, Napoli (Italy); DELIA, R. [University of Rome - Medicine and Surgery Faculty - La Sapienza Sez. Rieti (Italy); ANTOLINI, R. [University of Trento - Department of Physics, Trento (Italy); FERRARI, P. [University of Trento - Direction of Polo di Rovereto, Trento (Italy); FILIPPI, M. [University of Trento Prevention and Protection Service, Trento (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The Physics Department of Trento University (Italy), in collaboration with Bruker Biospin decided to set up a 4 T MR system for research in the neurological field as well as on the biological effects of high field MRI. Nowadays the number of similar apparatus set up in the world is very low, several of these operate in the USA, some in Australia and one in Israel. Due to the very low diffusion of these equipments and to the few knowledge today available about the biological effects by clinical application of high field MRI, the problems related to the installation of the apparatus from the safety point of view are not well standardized. Therefore, in Trento, it has been necessary to deal with many problems regarding the set up of the MRI apparatus, taking also into account the current law in Italy with respect the safety and protection in MRI applications. In the present paper the Authors show the carried out studies and analyses, in relation to the organization of the safety aspects. These studies have resulted in arranging specific guidelines for: working in controlled way; emergency procedures for the patient advanced life support; procedures for the protocol of patient protection; rules for the safety of the operators, patients and general public. The carried out analyses have mainly taken into account the danger identification and the risk evaluation. For this reason it was set up a test protocol regarding:the performing tests, the very detailed test modalities for their periodic performance and the test sequence. For the patient safety and protection it has been necessary to put care, in the first step of the survey, to the subjects in critical situations, due to: working activity, clinical history, health conditions of the patient at the moment of the examination. So it has been necessary to set up an anamnesis questionnaire for the patient, finalized to spot: (1) the patients with particular contraindications for the MR examination; (2) the patients which

  20. Co-ordinated voltage control of DFIG wind turbines in uninterrupted operation during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Michalke, G.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    is implemented in the power system simulation toolbox PowerFactory DIgSILENT. The DFIG wind farm ride-through capability and contribution to voltage control in the power system are assessed and discussed by means of simulations with the use of a transmission power system generic model developed and delivered......-side converter as long as it is not blocked by the protection system, otherwise the grid-side converter takes over the voltage control. Moreover, the article presents a DFIG wind farm model equipped with a grid fault protection system and the described co-ordinated voltage control. The whole DFIG wind farm model...... by the Danish Transmission System Operator Energinet.dk. The simulation results show how a DFIG wind farm equipped with voltage control can help a nearby active stall wind farm to ride through a grid fault, without implementation of any additional ride-through control strategy in the active stall wind farm....

  1. 30 CFR 18.47 - Voltage limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voltage limitation. 18.47 Section 18.47 Mineral... § 18.47 Voltage limitation. (a) A tool or switch held in the operator's hand or supported against his... particular voltage(s) are provided in the design and construction of the equipment, its wiring,...

  2. Design of Hydraulic Protection Equipment Served the Disabled Weight-lifting%残疾人举重液压伺服保护装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪功明

    2015-01-01

    A kind of hydraulic protection equipment served the disabled weight⁃lifting was designed. The equipment consisted of guide rail, hydraulic following unit and hydraulic lifting unit. It mainly depended on hydraulic servo theory to work. The technical pro⁃posal and the model designs of the core structure of the equipment were stated.%设计一种残疾人举重保护装置,该装置由导轨、液压跟随单元、液压托举单元等三部分组成,主要依据液压伺服原理工作。阐述了该装置的技术方案,并对装置的核心结构做了选型设计。

  3. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  4. Sidelobe Judging for Telemetry Equipment by Using AGC Voltage Prediction and Priori Tracking Information%利用AGC电压预测及先验跟踪信息的遥测设备副瓣判决

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞岳峰; 杜勇; 牛攀峰

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to identify the sidelobe tracking on telemetry equipment without guide antenna. To solve this problem, a new automatic sidelobe tracking judgment method is presented in this paper which combines the prediction of automatic gain control( AGC) voltage,the judgment of tracking stability and tac-king angle difference. A formula for predicting the AGC voltage is derived. Through the measured data vali-dation,prediction formula has better precision. Besides,by analyzing the features of sidelobe tracking,the tracking stability and angle difference criterion on telemetry equipment is put forward. Finally,the automatic process of sidelobe judgment is designed. The validated results indicate that the method proposed in this pa-per saves 48 percent of the time compared with the manual judgment.%针对无引导天线遥测设备副瓣判决难的问题,提出了一种结合自动增益控制( AGC )电压预测、跟踪稳定性判决及跟踪角度判定的副瓣自动判决方法。采用拟合方法建立了AGC电压预测公式并通过实测数据验证了其准确性。在分析遥测设备副瓣跟踪特点基础上,提出了遥测设备跟踪稳定性及角度差判定准则,最后设计判决软件实现自动副瓣判决。实验验证结果表明在判定准确度相同的条件下,采用该方法的耗时比人工判定缩短了48%。

  5. Airway Management in Disaster Response: A Manikin Study Comparing Direct and Video Laryngoscopy for Endotracheal Intubation by Prehospital Providers in Level C Personal Protective Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Sami; Machan, Jason T; Alaska, Yasser; Suner, Selim

    2017-03-20

    Introduction Airway management is one of many challenges that medical providers face in disaster response operations. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular, was found to be associated with higher failure rates and a prolonged time to achieve airway control. Hypothesis/Problem The objective of this study was to determine whether video laryngoscopy could facilitate the performance of endotracheal intubation by disaster responders wearing Level C PPE.

  6. Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H; Ijaz, Sharea; Mischke, Christina; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Mäkelä, Erja; Neuvonen, Kaisa; Edmond, Michael B; Sauni, Riitta; Kilinc Balci, F Selcen; Mihalache, Raluca C

    2016-04-19

    In epidemics of highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) or SARS, healthcare workers (HCW) are at much greater risk of infection than the general population, due to their contact with patients' contaminated body fluids. Contact precautions by means of personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the risk. It is unclear which type of PPE protects best, what is the best way to remove PPE, and how to make sure HCWs use PPE as instructed. To evaluate which type or component of full-body PPE and which method of donning or removing (doffing) PPE have the least risk of self-contamination or infection for HCWs, and which training methods most increase compliance with PPE protocols. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed up to 8 January 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL up to 20 January 2016), EMBASE (embase.com up to 8 January 2016), CINAHL (EBSCOhost up to 20 January 2016), and OSH-Update up to 8 January 2016. We also screened reference lists of included trials and relevant reviews, and contacted NGOs and manufacturers of PPE. We included all eligible controlled studies that compared the effect of types or components of PPE in HCWs exposed to highly infectious diseases with serious consequences, such as EVD and SARS, on the risk of infection, contamination, or noncompliance with protocols. This included studies that simulated contamination with fluorescent markers or a non-pathogenic virus.We also included studies that compared the effect of various ways of donning or removing PPE, and the effects of various types of training in PPE use on the same outcomes. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included trials. We intended to perform meta-analyses but we did not find sufficiently similar studies to combine their results. We included nine studies with 1200 participants evaluating ten interventions. Of these, eight trials simulated the exposure with a fluorescent marker or virus or bacteria

  7. Radiation protection in hemodynamics work process: the look of the multidisciplinary team; Protecao radiologica no processo de trabalho em hemodinamica: o olhar da equipe multidisciplinar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Laurete Medeiros; Klauberg, Daniela; Huhn, Andrea; Melo, Juliana Almeida Coelho de, E-mail: laurete@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: danielaklauberg@hotmail.com, E-mail: andrea.huhn@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: julianac@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The study was conducted in a hemodynamics service of a public hospital in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Qualitative research with the participation of 13 professionals from a multidisciplinary team: doctors, technicians, technologists in radiology and nurses. The research material was extracted from the observations, semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. The responses were grouped into three categories relating to: training of hemodynamic professionals and the perception of radiological protection in the work process; occupational exposure and safety of the professionals of Hemodynamics; and continuing education in hemodynamic service. Professionals are daily exposed to ionizing radiation, and for being long procedures, lead to high levels of exposure in workers. In hemodynamic services the risk of biological effects are cumulative, because radiodiagnostic procedures include issuing the higher doses of ionizing radiation in which the personnel exposure is critical. The workforce in the service researched mostly consists of technical professionals who reported little knowledge of radiation protection and ionizing radiation and that this issue was not addressed during their training. However, despite mention little knowledge about radiological protection, participants demonstrated understand the biological effects, especially with regard to pathologies caused by frequent exposure without protection to ionizing radiation. These professionals said they have no knowledge of the proper use of radiological protection equipment and the dosimeter, and that the institution does not provide all individual protective equipment required for the procedures performed in the hemodynamic service. Permanent education in hemodynamic service is very important part in the work process, though, cited by participants as little effectiveness in the institution, even when the professionals show interest in the area. Knowledge of the team providing hemodynamic service calls

  8. Protection of Accelerator Hardware: RF systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S-H

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) system is the key element that generates electric fields for beam acceleration. To keep the system reliable, a highly sophisticated protection scheme is required, which also should be designed to ensure a good balance between beam availability and machine safety. Since RF systems are complex, incorporating high-voltage and high-power equipment, a good portion of machine downtime typically comes from RF systems. Equipment and component damage in RF systems results in long and expensive repairs. Protection of RF system hardware is one of the oldest machine protection concepts, dealing with the protection of individual high-power RF equipment from breakdowns. As beam power increases in modern accelerators, the protection of accelerating structures from beam-induced faults also becomes a critical aspect of protection schemes. In this article, an overview of the RF system is given, and selected topics of failure mechanisms and examples of protection requirements are introduced.

  9. 矿用高压开关柜的弧光监测与保护系统%Online monitoring and protection system for the arc fault of the mining high-voltage switchgear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 马宏伟

    2013-01-01

      煤矿工业现场特殊的生产环境对电气设备的安全运行提出了更高的要求,尤其是以故障电弧为主的电气故障蕴含着巨大的安全隐患。传统的故障电弧监测和保护手段一般基于电流、电压、弧光等单一信号的提取和判断,虽然组合式监测方法已被提出,但往往实现复杂,成本较高。提出电流和弧光双判据的监测方法,通过光敏三极管阵列的传感措施,结合专家系统的评估方法,可以有效判断并定位高压开关柜中的故障电弧,及时切除故障,进而提高设备的工作寿命和安全可靠性,为煤矿电力系统的安全稳定运行提供保障。%The specific on-site environment of the mining industry field puts forward higher request to the safe operation of electrical equipment. Especially the arc-fault is one of the most important causes of disasters in distribution system. The traditional methods of the arc-fault detection and protection are based on the extraction and diagnosis of the single signals such as electric current, voltage, arc light, etc. Though the combined methodology has been proposed, it is difficult to implement and the cost is increased. On the basis, a double-criterion monitoring and protection method is proposed, which takes both electric current and arc light as the monitoring parameters. By use of the sensing measures of photosensitive dynatron matrix and expert system evaluation method, arc-fault in the high-voltage switch cabinet can be effectively judged and located and the fault can be cut timely, then the service life and safety and reliability of switch apparatus can be enhanced, ensuring the safe and stable operation of the mining power system.

  10. Uncertainty Assessment on Failure Accident of Voltage-Sensitive Equipment Due to Voltage Sag by Maximum Hybrid Entropy%敏感设备电压暂降失效事件不确定性的最大混合熵评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖; 肖先勇; 杨达

    2012-01-01

    敏感设备电压暂降失效事件是混合不确定事件,对其评估需考虑混合不确定性.以混合熵作为评价测度,建立敏感设备电压暂降失效事件不确定性的最大混合熵评估模型,并用以逆积法为基础的多阶段改进近似规划法进行模型求解.在评估过程中,将混合不确定性分解为随机性、模糊性和两者的交叉不确定性,并用随机商、模糊熵和交叉熵进行量化.以计算机(personal computer,PC)为例,考虑到PC机在电压暂降发生前可能处于全速、空载和正常等运行状态,电压暂降发生后可能出现完全死机、运算出错和“假死”等不同严重程度的失效状态,对实测样本进行评估,并与概率法、模糊法比较,结果证明,该方法所得结果客观、可行,克服了现有方法过估计或欠估计等不足,结果更符合实际.%The failure accident of voltage-sensitive equipments due to voltage sag is a hybrid uncertainty accident. Taking hybrid entropy as assessment measure a maximum hybrid entropy-based uncertainty assessment model for failure accident of voltage-sensitive equipments due to voltage sag is established and solved by multi-stage improved approximate programming. During the assessment the hybrid uncertainty is decomposed to stochastic uncertainty, fuzzy uncertainty and the crossed certainty of the both, and these uncertainties are quantized by stochastic entropy, fuzzy entropy and crossed entropy. Taking personal computer (PC) as the case and considering possible operation conditions of PC before the occurrence of voltage sag, namely full speed running, no-load and normal operation, after the occurrence of voltage sag following failure states in different severities such as PC system halt, calculation error and false system halt may occur. The measured samples are assessed and the assessment results are compared with those assessed by probabilistic assessment and fuzzy assessment. Comparison results show that

  11. Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Department's Excess Weapons Inventories and Selected Sensitive Equipment used by Protective Forces"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the Department of Energy has, on several occasions, revised its security posture based on identified threats and adversaries. These revisions in security posture have driven Departmental sites to upgrade their defensive and tactical equipment. Subsequent changes in the perceived threats have, in some cases, led to a reduction in the need for certain types of weapons, thus creating a pool of surplus equipment. These surplus weapons could potentially be used by other Department sites and Federal law enforcement agencies. Recent Office of Inspector General reports have raised concerns with the adequacy of controls related to defensive and tactical equipment. For example, our report on Management Controls Over Defense Related High Risk Property (OAS-M-08-06, April 2008) found that administrative controls over certain defense related high risk property were not sufficient for providing accountability over these items. Because of prior reported weaknesses in controls over defensive and tactical equipment, we initiated this audit to determine whether the Department and its contractors were properly managing excess weapons inventories and selected sensitive equipment used by protective forces. Our review disclosed that the Department was not always properly managing its inventories of excess weapons and selected sensitive equipment. We identified issues with the retention of unneeded weapons at many locations and with the identification and tracking of sensitive items. More specifically: Sites maintained large inventories of weapons that were no longer needed but had not been made available for use by either other Departmental sites or other Federal law enforcement agencies. For instance, at six of the locations included in our review we identified a total of 2,635 unneeded weapons with a total acquisition value of over $2.8 million that had not been officially declared as excess - an action that would have made them available for others to use

  12. Over-voltage surge arrester for lightning protection; Einsatz von Ueberspannungsableitern beim Blitzschutz. Notwendige Strombelastbarkeit von Varistoren in induktiv gekoppelten Schleifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlin, H. [Berner Fachhochschule, Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur (HTA), Burgdorf, (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The article discusses the necessary loading characteristics of varistors that are used in inductively coupled loops to provide protection against over-voltages produced by lightning strikes. An overview of various types of commercially available surge arresters is presented; their function and their use in photovoltaic installations is discussed in detail. The calculation of the inductively induced currents is discussed in depth for loops with and without varistors. Diagrams with graphs of current against time and mathematical solutions for the representation of the induced currents are presented in detail. The article is supplemented by examples of the calculation of varistor current and a simplified procedure is presented for the definition of the varistor currents necessary for a particular application.

  13. Radiology preparedness in ebola virus disease: guidelines and challenges for disinfection of medical imaging equipment for the protection of staff and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Palmore, Tara N; Folio, Les R; Bluemke, David A

    2015-05-01

    The overlap of early Ebola virus disease (EVD) symptoms (eg, fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue) with symptoms of other more common travel-related diseases (eg, malaria, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and meningococcemia) may result in delayed diagnosis of EVD before isolation of infected patients. Radiology departments should consider policies for and approaches to decontamination of expensive and potentially easily damaged radiology equipment. In addition, the protection of radiology personnel must be considered during the work-up phase of undiagnosed EVD patients presenting to emergency departments. The purpose of this article is to consider the effect of EVD on radiology departments and imaging equipment, with particular consideration of guidelines currently available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be applicable to radiology. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  14. 敏感设备电压暂降严重程度可信性评价测度与方法%Credibility measure and assessment method of sensitive equipment voltage sag severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭娜; 肖先勇; 徐方维; 魏晓天; 杨景岗

    2013-01-01

    In order to accurately describe the equipments’ severity caused by voltage sag, the credibility measure which meets the conditions of non-additive is proposed based on their physical properties of responses. This assessment measure can avoid the deficiencies that classical probability measure needs a large number of samples and the non-duality of fuzzy measure. The membership function of sensitive equipment voltage tolerance capability corresponding to the characteristic quantities in the status uncertain area is determined by fuzzy statistical method and polynomial fitting method. Then the joint credibility distribution function is deduced based on uncertainty theory. Hence, the assessment model of severity of equipments failure is constructed. Based on practical samples, the PCs are simulated using the proposed method. Comparing the simulation results with those of methods using classical probability measure and possibility measure, it proves that the proposed method is proper and credible and can reflect practical condition more objectively. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50877049).%  为准确刻画电压暂降对敏感设备的严重程度,从设备响应的物理属性出发提出了满足设备响应状态不可加性时评价暂降严重程度的可信性测度,弥补经典概率测度和模糊测度需要大量样本、具有非对偶性等问题。利用模糊统计和多项式拟合法构造设备响应状态不确定区域内各暂降特征对应的设备耐受能力隶属函数,基于不确定性理论得到联合可信性分布函数,以此建立设备电压暂降严重程度评估模型。以实测样本为依据,对个人计算机(personal computers,PC)进行仿真,并与经典概率测度和可能性测度评估结果进行比较,证明了可信性测度的正确性和可信性,评估结果更符合实际。

  15. Suppression of Aluminum Current Collector Dissolution by Protective Ceramic Coatings for Better High-Voltage Battery Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Andreas; Krott, Manuel; Streipert, Benjamin; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2017-01-04

    Batteries based on cathode materials that operate at high cathode potentials, such as LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LNMO), in lithium-ion batteries or graphitic carbons in dual-ion batteries suffer from anodic dissolution of the aluminum (Al) current collector in organic solvent-based electrolytes based on imide salts, such as lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In this work, we developed a protective surface modification for the Al current collector by applying ceramic coatings of chromium nitride (Crx N) and studied the anodic Al dissolution behavior. By magnetron sputter deposition, two different coating types, which differ in their composition according to the CrN and Cr2 N phases, were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their electronic conductivity. Furthermore, the anodic dissolution behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry measurements in two different electrolyte mixtures, that is, LiTFSI in ethyl methyl sulfone and LiTFSI in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate 1:1 (by weight). These measurements showed a remarkably reduced current density or cumulative charge during the charge process, indicating an improved anodic stability of the protected Al current collector. The coating surfaces after electrochemical treatment were characterized by means of SEM and XPS, and the presence or lack of pit formation, as well as electrolyte degradation products could be well correlated to the electrochemical results.

  16. Performance of Doubly-Fed Wind Power Generators During Voltage Dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio, N.; Chen, Zhe; Beltran, H.

    ) can regulate easily the reactive power generated in steady state. However, difficulties appear when reactive power has to be generated during voltage dips. Simulations have been carried out in order to check whether DFIG wind turbines can fulfill the reactive power requirements. Protection system......The growing of wind generation in Spain has forced its Transmission System Operator (TSO) to release new requirements that establish the amount of reactive power that a wind turbine has to supply to the grid during a voltage dip. Wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG...... acting as STATCOM helps to improve the voltage profile sufficiently to permit rotor-side converter reconnection....

  17. Several issues in protective earth impedance measurement of medical electrical equipment%医用电气设备的保护接地阻抗测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓鹏; 梁振士; 任新颖; 魏红霞

    2015-01-01

    Several issues in protective earth impedance measurement of medical electrical equipment are addressed in this article. It is intended to help the test engineers to understand the requirements of the standard much better and perform the test correctly.%本文阐述了医用电气设备保护接地阻抗测试中需要注意的几个问题,旨在帮助测试人员更好地理解标准要求并进行正确的测试。

  18. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Blackwelder, Mark; Bollman, Andrew; Ross, Christine; Campbell, Angela; Jones, Catherine; Norman, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The development of a wholly superconducting turboelectric distributed propulsion system presents unique opportunities for the aerospace industry. However, this transition from normally conducting systems to superconducting systems significantly increases the equipment complexity necessary to manage the electrical power systems. Due to the low technology readiness level (TRL) nature of all components and systems, current Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) technology developments are driven by an ambiguous set of system-level electrical integration standards for an airborne microgrid system (Figure 1). While multiple decades' worth of advancements are still required for concept realization, current system-level studies are necessary to focus the technology development, target specific technological shortcomings, and enable accurate prediction of concept feasibility and viability. An understanding of the performance sensitivity to operating voltages and an early definition of advantageous voltage regulation standards for unconventional airborne microgrids will allow for more accurate targeting of technology development. Propulsive power-rated microgrid systems necessitate the introduction of new aircraft distribution system voltage standards. All protection, distribution, control, power conversion, generation, and cryocooling equipment are affected by voltage regulation standards. Information on the desired operating voltage and voltage regulation is required to determine nominal and maximum currents for sizing distribution and fault isolation equipment, developing machine topologies and machine controls, and the physical attributes of all component shielding and insulation. Voltage impacts many components and system performance.

  19. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure. PMID:27669278

  20. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Korpinen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE, which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure.

  1. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-09-23

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure.

  2. New lightning current resistant low voltage limiting device for DC railway systems; Neue blitzstromtragfaehige Niederspannungsbegrenzungseinrichtung zum Potenzialschutz von Gleichstrombahnsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocks, A.; Hinrichsen, V. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik; Richter, B. [ABB Schweiz AG, Wettingen (Switzerland); Zayer, H. [ESN Bahngeraete GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In dc railway systems, low voltage limiters are applied to limit potential rises in case of failures by forming a permanent short-circuit between return circuit and Earth. These devices can usually carry only moderate lightning currents without permanent failure. In this contribution, a new concept is introduced which provides personal as well as equipment protection by combining a surge arrester and a low voltage limiter in a suited way. (orig.)

  3. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 33: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND PROTECTION FROM ACTION OF POWERFUL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF RADIOELECTRONIC, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of basic scientific and technical achievements in area of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and protection from destabilizing and striking action of powerful electromagnetic interference (PEMI of natural and artificial origin of radioelectronic, electrical engineering and electric power equipment. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in a sphere EMC and such areas of knowledge’s as radioelectronics, electrical engineering and electric power engineering. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted modern positions problems EMC and protection of equipment from action on them PEMI. It is shown that PEMI can result in failures in-process and death of examined equipment. Annual harm in the industrially developed countries of the world from the striking affecting of PEMI modern equipment with integral microcircuits and semiconductor devices can make ten of milliards of USD. The basic methods of protection of equipment are resulted from PEMI and protective devices (PD, intended for the increase of effectiveness of modern equipment to the action of external PEMI. Principles of work of the resulted PD and their basic technical descriptions are described. Originality. On the basis of materials of scientific monographs, journal publications, normative documents and internet-reports systematization of basic PD, in-use presently in an area EMC and protection of different equipment from the hazard agency of external PEMI is executed. Practical value. Popularization of scientific and technical knowledge’s in an area EMC and protection of modern equipment from a dangerous action on them PEMI. Formulation of important for society scientific and technical problems and tasks, arising up in an area EMC and providing of the reliable functioning of modern equipment in power electromagnetic interference.

  4. Anthrax lethal factor (LF) mediated block of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) ion channel: effect of ionic strength and voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Tobias; Tonello, Fiorella; Dal Molin, Federica; Schiffler, Bettina; Orlik, Frank; Benz, Roland

    2006-03-07

    The anthrax toxin complex consists of three different molecules, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). The activated form of PA, PA(63), forms heptamers that insert at low pH in biological membranes forming ion channels and that are necessary to translocate EF and LF in the cell cytosol. LF and EF are intracellular active enzymes that inhibit the host immune system promoting bacterial outgrowth. Here, PA(63) was reconstituted into artificial lipid bilayer membranes and formed ion-permeable channels. The heptameric PA(63) channel contains a binding site for LF on the cis side of the channel. Full-size LF was found to block the PA(63) channel in a dose- and ionic-strength-dependent way with half-saturation constants in the nanomolar concentration range. The binding curves suggest a 1:1 relationship between (PA(63))(7) and bound LF that blocks the channel. The presence of a His(6) tag at the N-terminal end of LF strongly increases the affinity of LF toward the PA(63) channel, indicating that the interaction between LF and the PA(63) channel occurs at the N terminus of the enzyme. The LF-mediated block of the PA(63)-induced membrane conductance is highly asymmetric with respect to the sign of the applied transmembrane potential. The result suggested that the PA(63) heptamers contain a high-affinity binding site for LF inside domain 1 or the channel vestibule and that the binding is ionic-strength-dependent.

  5. Amyloid Precursor Protein Protects Neuronal Network Function after Hypoxia via Control of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Dimitri; Kaiser, Martin; Weyer, Sascha W; Papageorgiou, Ismini E; Both, Martin; Kann, Oliver; Müller, Ulrike C; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-08-10

    Acute cerebral ischemia and chronic neurovascular diseases share various common mechanisms with neurodegenerative diseases, such as disturbed cellular calcium and energy homeostasis and accumulation of toxic metabolites. A link between these conditions may be constituted by amyloid precursor protein (APP), which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, but has also been associated with the response to acute hypoxia and regulation of calcium homeostasis. We therefore studied hypoxia-induced loss of function and recovery upon reoxygenation in hippocampal slices of mice lacking APP (APP(-/-)) or selectively expressing its soluble extracellular domain (APPsα-KI). Transient hypoxia disrupted electrical activity at the network and cellular level. In mice lacking APP, these impairments were significantly more severe, showing increased rise of intracellular calcium, faster loss of function, and higher incidence of spreading depression. Likewise, functional recovery upon reoxygenation was much slower and less complete than in controls. Most of these deficits were rescued by selective expression of the soluble extracellular fragment APPsα, or by pharmacological block of L-type calcium channels. We conclude that APP supports neuronal resistance toward acute hypoxia. This effect is mediated by the secreted APPsα-domain and involves L-type calcium channels. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, but its normal function in the brain remains elusive. Here, we describe a neuroprotective role of the protein in acute hypoxia. Functional recovery of mouse hippocampal networks after transient reduction of oxygen supply was strongly impaired in animals lacking APP. Most protective effects are mediated by the soluble extracellular fragment APPsα and involve L-type calcium channels. Thus, APP contributes to calcium homeostasis in situations of metabolic stress. This finding may shed light on the physiological

  6. High Voltage Design Guide for Airborne Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    ima t er 1 undor~ ’,pe( if itzc:! ord it.i on. Toýnsi lo Strencqth . T he pal 11 iu ictr i ’cci, irei t Lrc,6: I givrn :npec 1ror. Ther,ý.l Cnn.’ ict ...of tie rc.’ isLance of a Iluid to flow (usually through a specific orifice). Vol t. Unit of( elt ,,troroft~ve force. It is the difference of potential...t. ., f i icte ii ’’• rd tt• id , t r: a on re- a c tr o n t , , t< f . ’ , , ’ .I v .,’ , t . .’ A E u r , 1 it u ,d . in the at S ,•. f I cI

  7. Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis.

  8. 洁净厂房夹层电击防护措施应用%Application of Protection Measures against Electric Shock at Equipment Layer of Clean Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶语

    2016-01-01

    Due to multiple pipelines and narrow space, the electric shock risk of equipment layer of clean workshop is rather high. From the aspect of protection against electric shock, several suggestions are proposed as follows: ①For fix installed lightings, Class Ⅰ luminaire shall be generally adopted. Both the SELV power and 220 V power can be adopted for power supply. When SELV is adopted, power type selection and wiring system shall meet with the requirements of relevant specifications. ②For portable lamp, portable electric equipment and stationary electric equipment, full consideration shall be given to the risks of electric shock and suitable protection measures against electric shock like SELV, electrical separation and RCD shall be adopted.%洁净厂房设备夹层内管线多,空间狭小,电击危险性较高,从电击防护的角度提出一些建议:①固定安装的照明灯具一般采用Ⅰ类灯具,可采用特低电压(SELV),也可以采用220 V供电,当采用SELV供电时电源选型及布线系统应满足相关规范要求;②手提行灯、移动式用电设备、固定用电设备应充分考虑其电击危险性,选取适当的电击防护措施,如特低电压(SELV)、电气分隔、 RCD附加保护措施等。

  9. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E., E-mail: evsin@plasma.mephi.ru; Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  10. Federal Research on Chemical Protective Clothing and Equipment: A summary of Federal Programs for Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    provide a penetration barrier equal to Tyvek . In thermal comfort laboratory testing, weight and thickness of woven fabrics were found to influence thermal...addition, much of the data and information generated by Federal agencies may be useful to non -Federal groups or individuals who use protective clothing and...conductivity, thermal conductivity, etc., also will be investigated. STATUS/RESULTS: For volatile hydrocarbons, a non -specific gas detector tube method of

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility between secondary and high voltage circuits; Compatibilidade eletromagnetica entre circuitos secundarios e de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Mario Fabiano [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-11-01

    Electromagnetic fields generated by high voltage circuits may affect the performance of sensible loads in an electric power substation. In order to reduce such interferences, and guarantee the adequate performance of the equipment, this work proposes some measures which may be applied to the project during the installation phase, such as the equalization of high frequency power, and the utilization of protective equipment as well as the integration of grounding systems 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Analyzing of Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Series Compensation Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Parhizgar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a series-connected compensator to generate a controllable voltage to against the short-term voltage disturbances. The technique of DVR is an effective and cost competitive approach to improve voltage quality at the load side. This study presents a single-phase and threephase DVR system with reduced switch-count topology to protect the sensitive load against abnormal voltage conditions. Most basic function, the DVR configuration consist of a two level Voltage Source Converter (VSC, a dc energy storage device, a coupling transformer Connected in shunt with the ac system This study presents the application of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR on power distribution systems for mitigation of voltage sag at critical loads. DVR is one of the compensating types of custom power devices. The DVR, which is based on forced-commutated Voltage Source Converter (VSC has been proved suitable for the task of compensating voltage sags/swells. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and understand the performances of DVR in supporting load voltages under voltage sags/swells conditions.

  13. Voltage Swells Improvement in Low Voltage Network Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Voltage disturbances are the most common power quality problem due to the increased use of a large numbers of sophisticated electronic equipment in industrial distribution system. The voltage disturbances such as voltage sags, swells, harmonics, unbalance and flickers. High quality in the power supply is needed, since failures due to such disturbances usually have a high impact on production cost. There are many different solutions to compensate voltage disturbances but the use of a DVR is considered to be the most cost effective method. The objective of this study is to propose a new topology of a DVR in order to mitigate voltage swells using a powerful power custom device namely the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR. Approach: New configuration of a DVR with an improvement of a controller based on direct-quadrature-zero method has been introduced to compensate voltage swells in the network. Results: The effectiveness of the DVR with its controller were verify using Matlab/Simulinks SimPower Toolbox and then implemented using 5KVA DVR experimental setup. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the effective dynamic performance of the proposed configuration. Conclusion: The implimentation of the proposed DVR validate the capabilities in mitigating of voltage swells effectiveness.During voltage swells, the DVR injects an appropriate voltage to maintain the load voltage at its nominal value.

  14. 高压输配电线路在线监测设备供电电源的研究%Research on power supply of online monitoring equipment for high-voltage transmission and distribution line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志远; 毕亭亭; 金慧莹; 李亚康

    2016-01-01

    A new design scheme of power supply is proposed to solve the problems existing in current power supply of online monitoring equipment for high voltage transmission and distribution lines .We adopt two cores of different mate-rials in parallel, and choose appropriate core to work according to the scope of current and combine the induction pow -er supply with the lithium battery power supply .By comparing properties of different core materials , the nanocrystal-line alloy and silicon steel are selected , and the power supply circuit is designed .Experimental results show that the power supply can provide sable power between zero to one thousand amperes and have no power dead -band.%针对目前高压输配电线路在线监测设备供电电源的缺点,提出了一种新型供电电源设计方案.采用两个不同材质的取能磁芯并行工作,根据电流范围选择合适的磁芯进行取能,同时将感应取能供电与锂电池供电相结合.通过对比不同磁芯材料的特性,选定了铁基纳米晶合金与硅钢片制作磁芯,并设计了电源电路.实验测试结果表明:该供电电源可在电流为0 A~1000 A范围内稳定供电,无电源死区.

  15. Trends of high-voltage technology at the CIGRE 2002; Trends der Hochspannungstechnik: Berichte von der CIGRE 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, T.; Degen, W.; Eckholz, K.; Glaunsinger, W.; Hussels, D.; Kirchesch, P.; Kirchner, M.; Lips, P.; Schwinne, M.; Slupinski, A.

    2002-12-01

    Meeting with the following topics: Study Committees, Rotating Electrical Machines, Transformers, High Voltage Equipment, Insulated Cables, Overhead Lines, Substations, HVDC and Power Electronics, Protections and Automations, System Development and Economics, System Control and Operation, System Environmental Performance, System Technical Performance, Electricity Markets and Regulation, Distribution Systems and Dispersed Generation, Materials and Emerging Technologies, Information Systems and Telecommunications. (orig.)

  16. Protective equipment and player characteristics associated with the incidence of sport-related concussion in high school football players: a multifactorial prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  17. Power management and distribution equipment developed for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, R. D.

    Some of the current developments in the area of dc power switching and conversion equipment are described for Space Station Freedom. The equipment includes 120-Vdc remote power controllers (RPCs) rated at 1 kW, 5 kW, and 15 kW; 25-kW and 50-kW remote bus isolators (RBIs), both uni- and bi-directional; a 1-kW 120-Vdc/28-Vdc converter; and a 250-Adc differential fault protection module. Most of this equipment was designed to allow communication with a power system controller via a full MIL-STD-1553B data bus interface. The standard interface/data acquisition card developed for the described hardware allows remote control of the equipment as well as monitoring of system loads and voltages.

  18. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  19. Comparison of self-healing ionomer to aluminium-alloy bumpers for protecting spacecraft equipment from space debris impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, A.; Giacomuzzo, C.; Grande, A. M.; Mudric, T.; Zaccariotto, M.; Etemadi, E.; Di Landro, L.; Galvanetto, U.

    2013-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact behavior of a self-healing ionomeric polymer and compares its protection capability against space debris impacts to that of simple aluminium-alloy bumpers. To this end, 14 impact experiments on both ionomer and Al-7075-T6 thin plates with similar surface density were made with 1.5 mm aluminium spheres at velocity between 1 and 4 km/s.First, the perforation extent in both materials was evaluated vis-à-vis the prediction of well known hole-size equations; then, attention was given to the damage potential of the cloud of fragments ejected from the rear side of the target by analysing the craters pattern and the momentum transferred to witness plates mounted on a ballistic pendulum behind the bumpers.Self-healing was completely successful in all but one ionomer samples and the primary damage on ionomeric polymers was found to be significantly lower than that on aluminium. On the other hand, aluminium plates exhibited slightly better debris fragmentation abilities, even though the protecting performance of ionomers seemed to improve at increasing impact speed.

  20. Safety and protection problems in the management of a plant with cyclotron, radiopharmacy laboratory and PET/CT equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, A.; Speranza, A.; Panico, M. [University Federico-2, National Research Council - Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging and Dept. of Bio-morphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Delia, R. [University La Sapienza - sez. Rieti, Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Casale, M. [University Federico-2, Dept. of Physics - Health Physics School, Napoli (Italy); Salvatore, M. [University Federico-2 and National Research Council - Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Dept. of Bio-morphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The importance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is spreading and increasing in many clinical diagnostic fields, as well as the oncology, the cardiology, the neurology and so on. A strong input to the diffusion of this imaging technique from the research field to clinical one has been given either by the development of knowledge about PET or the modern technologies, which allow to set up at very suitable prices and in very little volumes, like in an hospital site, complete systems, which consist of: Cyclotron; Radiopharmacy Laboratory; one or more either PET or PET/CT. Such set-up arrangement allows to carry out highly innovative diagnostic examinations with a remarkable achievement of diagnostic quality and large number of daily examinations. In this paper the authors show the achieved know-how with respect to radioprotection for the set-up and running management of two systems such as PET/CT tomography unit, cyclotron and radiopharmacy laboratory, installed one in the Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Hospital of Naples University and used only for medical and research purposes, and the other one in A.C.O.M. (Advanced Center of Oncology in Macerata), used for commercial and research purposes. The following safety problems have been considered: the facility lay-out; the optimisation of the paths either for the operator, or the patients and the radiotracers; the guide lines for the protection and the safety of the patients, operators and general population, in relation to the utilization and the management of either the more common radiotracers (18 F and 11 C) or those in research progress, for example 64 Cu and 124 I; the protocol set up for the image quality control in relation to the patient protection and safety. The above problems have also been considered, taking into account the Italian regulation and the International Recommendations. (authors)

  1. 硫磺回收装置的腐蚀及防护措施%Corrosion of Equipment in Sulfur Recovery of Coke Oven Gas Unit and Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯江华; 李慧敏; 张继明; 张方

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of coke oven gas desulfurization production process with vacuum carbonate method,corrosion and its mechanism in the form of important devices,morphology and characteristics of metal sulfide corrosion layers,and made against the different forms of corrosion problems of the improved process control,equipment,appropriate protection measures.%分析了焦炉煤气采用真空碳酸盐法脱硫的生产过程中,重要装置存在的腐蚀形式及其发生的机理,金属硫化腐蚀层的形态与特征,并针对不同形态的腐蚀问题提出了工艺控制、设备改进等相应的防护措施。

  2. Ion chamber-electrometer measurement system for radiation protection tests in X-ray equipment for interventional procedures; Sistema de medicao camara de ionizacao-eletrometro para ensaios de protecao radiologica em equipamentos de raios X para procedimentos intervencionistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio

    2012-07-01

    A new parallel plate ionization chamber with volume of 500 cc and an electrometer with digital interface for data acquisition, configuring an ion chamber electrometer measurement system, were developed to comply with specific requirements for compulsory radiation protection tests in interventional X-ray equipment. The ion chamber has as main characteristics: low cost, mechanical strength and response variation with beam energy of less than 5% in the 40 kV to 150 kV range. The electrometer has a high gain (5x10{sup 8} V/A) transimpedance amplifier circuit and a data acquisition and control system developed in LabVIEW Registered-Sign platform, including an integrated power supply for the ion chamber bias with adjustable DC voltage output from O to 1000 V and an air density correction system. Electric field calculations, laboratory measurements in standard beams and computational simulations of radiation interactions in chamber volume with Monte Carlo Method were employed in the elaborated methodology of the ion chamber development, which was tested and validated. It was also developed a simplified methodology for electrometer calibration that assures metrological trustworthiness of the measurement system. Tests for the system performance evaluation as environmental influence response, energy response, angular dependency, linearity and air kerma and air kerma rate dependency were performed according to international standards and requirements. Additionally, for a detailed evaluation of the developed ion chamber, simulations with various scattered radiation spectra were performed. The system was applied in leakage radiation, residual radiation and scattered radiation tests, being compared with other reference systems and validated for laboratorial test routine. (author)

  3. 压力式电梯超载保护装置检测仪%A Pressure Type Testing Equipment for Lift Overload Protection Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞涛; 祝新伟; 苏万斌; 朱建新

    2015-01-01

    A pressure type testing equipment for lift overload protection device was presented, which included an adjustable cas⁃ing suit, a bottom board, a universal level, a hydraulic mechanism, a suspension mechanism, etc. Through contacting with the related components of lift, the equipment passed the pressure produced by the hydraulic mechanism to the rope end suit on the side of car, to simulate the force of the rope end suit when the car was loaded, the pressure value was shown on the pressure gauge, to evaluate wheth⁃er the device met the standards, with the consideration of the parameters of lift, the movements of the lift overload protection device. The design theory, structure, and specific testing procedure were described, and a prototype was manufactured. The trial result shows the testing accuracy of the testing equipment meets the national standards, with simple structure, easy to bring and operate, which can replace the loading testing method, the testing cost and labor intensity are reduced largely, the testing efficiency is improved.%提出一种压力式电梯超载保护装置检测仪,由可调套管组、底板、万向水平仪、液压机构及悬架机构等部件组成,通过与电梯相关部件的联接,将液压机构产生的力施加到轿厢侧的绳头组上,以此模拟轿厢加载时绳头组的受力情况,在压力表上显示压力值,结合电梯自身参数及超载保护装置的动作情况等判断超载保护装置是否符合标准要求。给出了检测仪的设计原理、结构组成及具体的检测流程,并研制出了样机。试用结果表明:检测仪检测精度满足国家标准的要求,结构轻巧易携带,操作简单,代替了加载试验的方法,极大地降低了检测成本、劳动强度,检测效率大幅提高。

  4. CGP37157, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, protects neurons from excitotoxicity by blocking voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A; Alberdi, E; Matute, C

    2014-04-10

    Inhibition of the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX) by CGP37157 is protective in models of neuronal injury that involve disruption of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, the Ca(2+) signaling pathways and stores underlying neuroprotection by that inhibitor are not well defined. In the present study, we analyzed how intracellular Ca(2+) levels are modulated by CGP37157 (10 μM) during NMDA insults in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. We initially assessed the presence of NCLX in mitochondria of cultured neurons by immunolabeling, and subsequently, we analyzed the effects of CGP37157 on neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis using cameleon-based mitochondrial Ca(2+) and cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) live imaging. We observed that NCLX-driven mitochondrial Ca(2+) exchange occurs in cortical neurons under basal conditions as CGP37157 induced a decrease in [Ca(2)]i concomitant with a Ca(2+) accumulation inside the mitochondria. In turn, CGP37157 also inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux after the stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. In contrast, CGP37157 strongly prevented depolarization-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase by blocking voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), whereas it did not induce depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores. Moreover, mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload was reduced as a consequence of diminished Ca(2+) entry through VGCCs. The decrease in cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload by CGP37157 resulted in a reduction of excitotoxic mitochondrial damage, characterized here by a reduction in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxidative stress and calpain activation. In summary, our results provide evidence that during excitotoxicity CGP37157 modulates cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics that leads to attenuation of NMDA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death by blocking VGCCs.

  5. Personal protective equipment use among students with special health care needs reporting injuries in school-sponsored vocational, career, and technical education programs in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Eric; Shendell, Derek; Eggert, Brain C; Marcella, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Students with special health care needs (SHCNs) and individualized education plans (IEPs) may be injured more often in vocational, career, and technical education (CTE) programs. No research to date considers personal protective equipment (PPE) use among students with SHCNs in school-based programs reporting injuries to agencies. Data from 1999 to 2011 on PPE use among injured students in CTE programs in public schools and private secondary schools for the disabled were analyzed; students with SHCNs were distinguished by IEP status within New Jersey Safe Schools surveilance data. Among students with IEPs using PPE, 36% of injuries occurred to body parts PPE was meant to protect. Likely injury types were cuts-lacerations and burns for students with IEPs using PPE and cuts-lacerations and sprains for students with IEPs not using PPE. Females with IEPs using PPE were injured less often than males across ages. Results suggested students with SHCNs with IEPs need further job-related training with increased emphasis on properly selecting and fitting PPE.

  6. 信息技术设备电磁泄漏建模与防护%Modeling and security protection on electromagnetic compromising emanations of information technology equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利涛; 郁滨

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic compromising emanations of information technology equipment and its protection are researched with the help of modeling. Electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compromising emanations are comparatively analyzed. And it is found that electromagnetic interference emphasized the consequence of electromagnetic energy transfer, while electromagnetic compromising emanations pay more attention to the unintentional information leakage via electromagnetic waves. Modeling of electromagnetic compromising emanations is done with reference to the communication system. The concept of channel capacity is introduced and the conditions that should be met for information eavesdropping and recovery are given. On this basis , the security protection of electromagnetic compromising emanations is studied from the aspects of source and path. Research conclusions can give directions to the security protection and provide comprehensive insurance to information security.%通过建模方法对信息技术设备存在的电磁泄漏及其安全防护问题开展了研究.对比分析了电磁干扰和电磁泄漏两类问题,确定两者区别在于电磁干扰注重电磁能量转移造成的后果,而电磁泄漏则侧重于电磁波形式无意的信息传输.通过与通信系统进行对照分析,建立电磁泄漏模型,引入信道容量的概念并给出了窃收还原需要满足的条件.在此基础上深入分析了泄漏源与泄漏路径上的防护方法,研究结果可指导电磁泄漏防护的实践,为信息安全提供更全面的保障.

  7. 通信机房设备直流电源端口电压瞬变防护%Protection of the Voltage Transient on DC Power Port in Telecommunication Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝捷

    2012-01-01

    The voltage transient on DC power port may cause equipment outage in telecommunication site.The related requirements defined in NEBS,ETSI and GB standards are all analyzed.Meanwhile,according to practical experiences,some suggestions on the related equipment design and engineering are provided.%直流电源端口的电压瞬变会导致通信现场设备退出服务。文章比较了美标、欧标和国标相关的规范要求。根据实践经验给出了现场工程实施方面的一些建议。

  8. 风力发电机增速机的保护装置%Protection Equipment of Wind Generator Booster Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜庆禄; 吉晓界

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the bear damage and broken gear of wind generator running, introduce the protection equipment of wind generator booster engine based on input axis branching hydraulic machine transmission technology. The equipment adopts hydraulic torque converter input axis branching hydraulic machine transmission technology, branch power on wind generator main axis, one passing the hydraulic element, the other passing booster engine to avoid booster engine fatigue loading, and prolong life length of booster engine. The test results show that the parameter design of planet gear transmission system and hydraulic torque converter system is reasonable.%  针对风力发电运行中产生轴承损坏和断齿问题,提出一种采用输入轴分路液力机械传动技术的风力发电机增速机保护装置。该装置采用液力变矩器输入轴分路液力机械传动技术,在风力发电机主轴上发生功率“分路”,一路通过液力元件,另一路直接通过增速机,避免了增速机疲劳加载的状况,延长了增速机的使用寿命。实践结果证明,行星齿轮传动系统和液力变矩器系统的各类参数设计是合理的。

  9. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  10. Association between Workplace and Housing Conditions and Use of Pesticide Safety Practices and Personal Protective Equipment among North Carolina Farmworkers in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are inconsistencies about the effects of farmworker housing and workplace conditions and use of self-protective behavior practices and personal protective equipment (PPE. Objective: To investigate the association between workplace and housing conditions and farmworker use of pesticide safety practices and PPE. Methods: This study was conducted in 4 counties in North Carolina, USA, from July to October, 2010, during the agricultural growing season. Farmworkers working in agriculture aged 18 to 62 (n=187 were administered a structured questionnaire to collect self-reported measures on housing and workplace conditions. Use of pesticide safety and PPE were examined by asking questions about wearing gloves, wearing socks, and wearing a hat. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results: Farmworkers reporting availability of enough hot and cold water for bathing and doing laundry were 13.6 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 13.6, 95% CI: 1.4–135.4, whereas, those who reported that soap for handwashing was always or usually available while doing agricultural work were 7.8 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.3–18.5. Farmworkers that reported access to water to wash their hands with while performing agricultural work were more likely to use PPE (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3–9.2. Conclusions: Some migrant farmworker labor camps are not supplying acceptable housing conditions such as 1 handwashing sink per 6 people (n=10, 5.4%. Use of pesticide safety practices and PPE is greater when farmers provide decontamination supplies. Improvement of housing and workplace conditions are crucial to increase use of pesticide safety practices and PPE.

  11. [Analysis of use of personal protective equipment among rural-to-urban migrant workers in small and medium enterprises in Zhongshan and Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi; Lu, Liming; Rao, Zhanhong; Han, Lu; Shi, Jingrong; Ling, Li

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the current supply and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among rural-to-urban migrant workers in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Zhongshan and Shenzhen, China and the influential factors for the use of PPE, and to provide a basis for better occupational health services and ensuring the health of migrant workers. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 856 migrant workers from 27 SMEs in Zhongshan and Shenzhen, and face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in these subjects. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Of all migrant workers, 38.67%were supplied with free PPE by the factory, and this rate varied across industries (furniture industry: 45.81%; electronic industry: 31.46%) and SMEs (medium enterprises: 42.13%; small enterprises: 39.20%; micro enterprises: 22.16%); 22.43% insisted on the use of PPE. The logistic regression analysis showed that factors associated with the use of PPE included sex, age, awareness of occupational health knowledge, and the size of enterprise. The rates of supply and use of PPE among migrant workers are low. The larger the enterprise, the better the supply of PPE. Male gender, being elder, and high occupational health knowledge score were favorable factors for the use of PPE, while small enterprise size was the unfavorable factor for the use of PPE.

  12. The moral universe of injecting drug users in the era of AIDS: sharing injecting equipment and the protection of moral standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, E; Chetwynd, J

    1998-12-01

    Recent work on HIV counselling suggests that the protection of the moral status of the recipient is a key factor in the successful uptake of advice. This study suggests it may be equally important in the uptake of health promotion messages. A discourse analysis of the talk of 20 young injecting drug users (IDUs) identified a contradiction between their asserted self-identity as careful and socially responsible injectors, and their admission of risky lending and borrowing of injecting equipment. This contradiction was resolved by the production of discourses of exoneration, differentially tailored to the moral implications of lending and of borrowing. Lenders argued a form of 'market morality' wherein it was the duty of each to accept the consequences of his/her decisions. Lenders were therefore morally exonerated since moral failure was the 'borrowers'. Borrowing was usually depicted as 'desperate measures' for which moral culpability was disavowed because of 'powerlessness'. The exception of routine borrowing, acknowledged as risky and against community norms, was accounted for in a nihilistic discourse of indifference to infection and death. The need for a 'counter discourse' around notions of community is discussed.

  13. Analysis Security and Protection of Mobile Intelligent Equipment%移动智能设备安全分析及防护策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓莲; 甄彦虎

    2012-01-01

    随着移动智能设备的普及,硬件性能的不断提升,移动智能终端越来越多地被用来处理各种重要的数据信息。iOS是苹果公司开发的iPhone、iPod Touch、iPad等终端产品的核心操作系统。文章首先分析了iOS的安全特征,继而总结了威胁手机安全的各类问题,最后提出了一些防护策略。%Mobile intelligent equipment are becoming very popular and its hardware performance keeps being enhanced. Today intelligent mobile terminal are often used to process critical data. lOS operating system?developed and distributed by?Apple Inc.?can support iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad and other Apple devices. This paper firstly analyzes security features of lOS, then summarizes some frequendy occurred threats to smart phone security, finally presents some protection strategies.

  14. Modeling and Analysis of Holding Voltage in BJT-based ESD Protection Device%基于BJT的ESD保护器件中维持电压的建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海莲; 杨兵; 顾晓峰; 柯逸辰; 高国平

    2012-01-01

    The electro-static discharge (ESD) protection device based on the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure has been widely used due to its good bi-directional conduction ability and excellent protection performance. Since there is a little in-depth research on the production mechanism and modeling of the holding voltage under the negative resistor effect in such ESD protection device, we propose a modeling method for the holding voltage. By analyzing the impact of various modulation effects on the holding voltage, the modeling parameters are optimized first. Then, the structure and the electrical properties of NPN BJT are studied by simulation under the 0. 6 μm BiCMOS process, and a holding voltage estimation model is established by data fitting. Finally, two different BJT-based ESD protection devices are prepared and tested. The relative error range between the estimated and the measured data is about 12%~15%, indicating that the established holding voltage model is quite reliable.%基于双极晶体管(BJT)结构的静电放电(ESD)保护器件具有双向导通特性和良好的保护性能,在ESD保护中应用广泛.鉴于该类器件在负阻效应下维持电压的产生机理和建模方面的研究较少,提出了一种维持电压的数学建模方法.首先分析了多种调制效应对维持电压的影响,优化了模型参数;其次,基于0.6 μm BiCMOS工艺对NPN型BJT的结构及电学性能进行了仿真分析,通过数据拟合得到了维持电压的估算模型;最后,制备了两种不同结构的样品并进行了测试,实测数据与估算值的相对误差范围约12%~15%,表明建立的维持电压模型具有较高的可靠性.

  15. Study of protection devices against the effects of electric discharges inside a very high voltage generator: the Vivitron accelerator; Etude de dispositifs de protection contre les effets des decharges electriques au sein d`un generateur de tres haute tension: l`accelerateur Vivitron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolot, E.

    1996-10-31

    The Vivitron tandem is a large electrostatic accelerator comprising a Van de Graaff generator designed to reach terminal voltages of around 30 MV. The machine is limited at rather lower nominal voltages (about 20 MV) due to the sensitivity of the insulating column structure to transient overvoltages. These are induced by electrical discharges in compressed SF{sub 6}. This thesis first aims at analysing the fundamental reasons of electrical discharges in order to limit the probability of their occurrence. Then we simulate the transient overvoltages induced and present some improvements which may lead to a stable behaviour of the Vivitron at nominal voltages higher than 20 MV. Initially we deduce discharge onset voltages and actual breakdown field limitations in the different gap geometries from analysis of possible breakdown mechanisms in compressed SF{sub 6}. In a second part, some electrical characteristics of the insulating column structure are measured at high voltage. Fast rising oscillating waves induced by sparking in the Vivitron, along with the associated energies,are determined in the third part. The last part deals with new surge protections of the insulating column structure. Spark gaps with precise onset voltage and optimized shielding electrodes are discussed. ZnO-based varistors designed for operation at very high fields have also been developed in order to reduce transient overvoltage values. (author). 122 refs.

  16. Research on Voltage Sag Protection Based on DC Power Supply Technology%基于直流供电技术的电压暂降保护系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江龙; 王丽; 陈文波

    2015-01-01

    The inverter is widely used for its obvious advantages in soft start, variable frequency speed control, optimal design, economic operation and so on. During voltage sag, the inverter will be tripped because of low voltage protection, which would cause the important motor driven by inverter to stop working. This will result in non planned outage in the continuous production enterprises, leading to huge economic losses and even personal safety accidents and environment problems. According to the characteristics of inverter’s AC-DC-AC structure and combining power electronics technology two kinds of voltage sag protection (VSP) systems are researched and developed based on DC power supply technology which take network residual voltage and batteries as energy source respectively. And through Boost DC/DC converter, the VSP system outputs a constant DC voltage, supporting inverter’s DC bus. Experimental data and field applications show that the two kinds of VSP system can ensure the normal operation of inverter during voltage sag which greatly improves the reliability on demand side and saves a lot of economic loss for users.%变频器在软启动、变频调速、优化设计、经济运行等方面具有明显优势,得到广泛应用。在电压暂降期间,变频器会因低压保护而跳闸,造成连续性生产企业非计划停运,带来巨大的经济损失和事故。根据变频器交-直-交的特性,结合电力电子技术,研究开发了两种基于直流供电技术的电压暂降保护系统。两种保护系统分别利用电网残压和蓄电池组作为能量来源,通过Boost DC/DC变换器,输出恒定的直流电压,为变频器直流母线提供恒定的直流电。实验数据和现场应用表明,该两种电压暂降保护系统可以确保变频器在电压暂降期间正常运行,大大提高了供电可靠性,为用户避免了大量的经济损失。

  17. Voltage-sharing Characteristics and Protection Value Setting of Modular Multilevel Converter at Static DC Charging State%MMC静态直流充电时电容均压特性研究和保护定值整定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 唐志军; 林国栋; 邹焕雄; 翟博龙; 陈锦山

    2016-01-01

    A common problem in the static DC charging process of modular multilevel converter is voltage polarization.Some sub-modules”voltage sags even cause startup and shutdown repeatedly.In order to analyze the voltage-sharing characteristics of MMC,firstly,equivalent impedance of energy-absorbing source is introduced into the simulation model of sub-module;secondly,the mechanism of voltage polarization is studied based on the improved model;finally,a setting process of static DC charging tolerance time protection is proposed which can reduce the degree of voltage polarization.The static DC charging experiment and single tower test are conducted at Xiamen HVDC flexible transmission project and the results show consistence between simulation and experiment,which prove the feasibility of the improved simulation model of the sub-module,the mechanism analysis result of voltage polarization,the correction of static DC charging tolerance time protection value setting method.%模块化多电平换流器在静态直流充电时存在电容电压两极分化的问题,部分子模块甚至因电压跌落导致反复启动。先通过引入取能电源等效阻抗动态参数改进子模块等效模型,然后根据改进后模型仿真分析了电容电压两极分化的机理,最后在仿真基础上提出了静态直流充电耐受时间定值整定方法,通过优化保护定值降低电容电压两极分化程度。依托厦门柔性直流输电工程进行了静态直流充电和单个阀塔加压试验,试验结果与仿真结果基本一致,验证了所提子模块等效模型、电容电压两极分化机理分析和保护定值整定方法的正确性。

  18. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  19. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  20. Variations in status of preparation of personal protective equipment for preventing norovirus gastroenteritis in long-term care facilities for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Saori; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-05-16

    Residents of long-term care facilities are highly susceptible to norovirus gastroenteritis, and each facility is concerned about the need to implement norovirus infection control. Among control measures, personal protective equipment (PPE), such as disposable gloves and masks, plays a major role in reducing infectious spread. However, the preparation status of PPE in facilities before infection outbreaks has not been reported. The aim was to clarify the implementation status of preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis and the cost of preparing the necessary PPE in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire survey of facilities affiliated with the Kyoto Prefecture and Osaka Prefecture branches of the Japan Association of Geriatric Health Services Facilities was conducted. The survey items were the characteristics of the facility, whether preventive measures had been implemented for norovirus gastroenteritis from October through the following March in both 2009 and 2010, and the quantities and unit prices of PPE prepared for preventive measures. Twenty-six (11.2%) of 232 surveyed facilities (as of August 2011) answered the survey. Among them, 24 (92.3%) in 2009 and 25 (96.2%) in 2010 reported having implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis, while 21 facilities (80.8%) in 2009 and 22 facilities (84.6%) in 2010 had prepared PPE. The median total cost for preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures was US $2601 (range US $221-9192) in 2009 and US $3904 (range US $305-6427) in 2010. Although the results need careful interpretation because of the low response rate, most of the surveyed long-term care facilities had implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis. However, the cost of preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures varied among the facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION 7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DRY ACTIVE WASTE, AND MISCELLANEOUS DEBRIS, SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  2. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods.  We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results.  Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions.  Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research.

  3. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  4. Mitigation Voltage Sag in Power System by Static Synchronous Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The disturbance in power system is unavoidable situation. It cause in voltage sag in power system. Approach: This study applied the STATCOM to mitigate voltage of the system. The mathematical model of power system equipped with a STATCOM is systematically derived. The presented mathematical model is shown how it effects on voltage sag improvement. The simulation results are tested on a Single Machine Infinite bus. The proposed method is equipped in sample system with severe disturbance. The variation voltage of the system without and with a STATCOM is plotted and compared. Results: It was found that the system without a STATCOM has high voltage variation especially voltage sags whereas with a STATCOM the system voltage has small voltage sages. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the STATCOM can mitigate voltage of power system.

  5. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  6. Suppressing capacity fading and voltage decay of Li-rich layered cathode material by a surface nano-protective layer of CoF2 for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shaokun; Chen, Yuanzhen; Yan, Wuwei; Guo, Shengwu; Tan, Qiang; Wu, Yifang; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Yongning

    2016-11-01

    Li-rich layered oxides have been regarded as valuable cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, high initial irreversible capacity, bad rate capability, as well as serious capacity fading and voltage decay hinder their commercial application. In this paper, a nano CoF2 protective layer is coated on the surface of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 via a facial wet chemistry method. A high initial discharge capacity of 264.4 mAh g-1 is obtained for 0.5% CoF2-coated sample and 259.1 mAh g-1 for 1% CoF2-coated sample owing to the suppression of irreversible release of O2 and the contribution of electrochemical conversion of CoF2/LiF. Furthermore, 1% CoF2-coated sample exhibits the excellent rate capability of 167.5 mAh g-1 at 5 C rate, the superior cycling stability with the capacity retention of 241.0 mAh g-1 and the ameliorative voltage drop of 0.312 V at 0.1C after 100 cycles. The enhanced rate performance as well as stability of capacity and voltage can be attributed to the nano coatings which inhibit the electrolyte-electrode side reaction, enhance the electrochemical kinetics and mitigate structure transition from layered to spinel phase.

  7. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792.61...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  8. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably located...

  9. Voltage sag source location based on instantaneous energy detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Xinzhou, Dong; Wei, Kong

    2007-01-01

    Voltage sag is the major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of sensitive equipment. This paper presents the applications of instantaneous energy direction for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the analysis for system with distributed ge...... generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of the voltage sag source....

  10. Stationary fuel cell applications: electrical equipment requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Schmutz, C.; Buchsbaum, L.; Lacarnoy, A. [Schneider Electric, Research Center, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kuzkin, G. [US Research Center, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Schneider Electric is a global company providing market leadership in two core businesses: Electrical Distribution, and Industrial Control and Automation. Schneider operates within four main markets: private residences, commercial buildings, industrial control, and electrical infrastructure. Schneider teams, on both sides of the Atlantic, have used their technical knowledge and global market vision to optimize fuel cell system performance and cost, and to present a power system solution that contains the best global architecture. This work includes high efficiency power conversion modules designed for low voltage / high current fuel cells, grid connection devices that integrate new functionality such as energy optimization and secure power, protection apparatus, advanced control-command strategies, and system optimization hardware. All of this equipment will provide beneficial cost and efficiency impacts to the end user. (authors)

  11. Protection testing of a modernised medium-voltage switching station in accordance with IEC 61850. An experience report; Schutzpruefung einer erneuerten Mittelspannungsschaltanlage mit IEC 61850. Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Karlheinz [MVV Energie AG, Netzschutz- und Stationsleittechnik, Mannheim (Germany); Schossig, Thomas [Omicron electronics GmbH, Product Management, Klaus (Austria)

    2009-08-15

    At MW Energie AG the protection of an installation was entirely renewed. Protection messages to the control system are transmitted in accordance with IEC 61850. Since not all testing signals are available in conventional wiring, the configuration has been extended to permit fast real-time communication with Goose.

  12. Status analysis of technology of mining medium-low-voltage frequency control equipment%矿用中低压变频调速设备技术的现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 申生太; 董淑棠; 顾潮青

    2016-01-01

    阐述了矿用设备运行中存在的问题,研究了当前各种矿用变频调速设备的工作原理、系统组成、功能及使用情况,探讨了矿用变频设备使用中应该关注的问题及采取的措施,针对不同矿用设备应该根据使用对象和工况特点进行选型配套,为用户全面了解矿用变频技术现状和选型配套提供了良好的技术支持。%The problems of mining equipment in the operation were elaborated,the operating principle,system composition,functions and service conditions of various kinds of mining fre-quency control equipment at present were studied,the issues of concern and the adopted meas-ures of mining frequency control equipment in use were discussed��Type selection and matching of different mining equipment should carry out according to using obj ects and operating condi-tions,which provided good technical supports for customers to overall understand the mining fre-quency control technical status and type selection and matching.

  13. Analysis on the Simulation of Interphase Power Controller Over-voltage and Its Protection%相间功率控制器过电压及其保护的仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 郑明; 张乐斌; 陈继军

    2011-01-01

    针对相间功率控制器(interphase power controller,IPC)在潮流控制过程中过电压及其保护的问题,基于相间功率控制器的基本结构原理,建立了电压与元件参数之间关系的数学模型,探讨了IPC过电压出现的原因及其保护系统的组成,并以两电网带IPC 240联络线为例采用Matlab中的Simulink搭建了仿真模型,进行了各种运行状态下的过电压及其保护的仿真分析.结果表明:正常运行时调节IPC的参数超过一定的范围会引起过电压;IPC端口开路时产生的谐振过电压是各种运行状态下最严重的;由于受断路器动作的影响,单相接地短路故障引起暂态过电压是各种短路故障中最严重的.在各种运行状态的过电压保护仿真中,IPC端口并联氧化物限压器(metal oxide varistors,MOV)及IPC电容、电感元件两端并联带触发间隙和旁路开关的MOV与断路器配合均能起到有效的过电压保护作用,严重情况下MOV并联的间隙电路被触发后能保护MOV.%The problem of over-voltage and its protection of interphase power controller (IPC) during controlling power flow were analyzed. A mathematical model of relationship between voltage and component parameters was established based on the basic theory of IPC construction, then the reasons of over-voltage and protection component were discussed. The simulation model of two networks with IPC 240 tie-line was established to analyze the problem using the Simulink model of MATLAB. The results show that over-voltage may be caused if adjusting the parameters of IPC beyond the certain scope , the resonance over-voltage values are maximal with IPC port opening, and the most severe transient over-voltage occurs on single phase to ground for action of breakers. Consequently, metal oxide varistors (MOV) are installed at the IPC port, and IPC capacitive and inductive branch are combined with circuit breakers parallel MOV with a triggered gap and bypass circuit

  14. 浅谈防雷装置对环境安全的影响%Discussion about Influence of Environment Safety Caused by Lightning Protection Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕许君; 钟国明; 王涪德

    2011-01-01

    The causes of waking wohage & touch voltage and their harms to people and livestock were analyzed to arouse the attention for the details of the grounding system construction. The measures to prevent the accident caused by waking voltage & touch voltage were summarized, to reduce the lightning strike injury as far as possible.%通过分析跨步电压和接触电压的成因及它们对人畜的危害。以此引起人们对接地装置施工细节的重视。最后总结出防止跨步电压和接触电压事故的措施。希望尽可能减少由此造成的雷击伤人事故。

  15. 低压船用电动机绝缘与绕组热保护%Insulation of the Low Voltage Marine Motor and Thermal Protection of Its Winding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 陈金刚

    2013-01-01

      讲述低压船用三相异步电动机绝缘与绕组热保护。介绍了电机用防潮加热带、PTC热敏电阻、热电阻PT100和热电偶在低压船用三相异步电动机上的安装、测量及使用方法。明确电动机在潮湿环境下,绝缘电阻低时防潮加热带的作用,并阐述电机绕组热保护的控制原理以及电机线圈及轴承温度测量的方法和意义。%Insulation of the low voltage marine motor and thermal protection of its winding was described. Instal-lation, measurement and operation of the moisture-proof heating tape, PTC thermistor, thermal resistance PT100 and thermocouple in the low voltage marine three-phase asyn-chronous motor were introduced. The effect of the moisture-proof heating tape in condition that the motor operating under the moist environment was determined. The motor winding overheat protection control principle as well as the motor coil and bearing temperature measurement methods and significance were also discussed.

  16. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt % of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0-4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li(+) ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li(+) ion conductivity through such materials.

  17. 基于RTDS的中压母线弧光保护试验研究%Experimental Study on Arc-flash Protection of Medium Voltage Busbar Based on RTDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁北平; 吴英俊; 陈琳灿; 林钧; 姚一军

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize the fast protection of MV(medium voltage) busbar, RTDS simulation test system is connected to the developed arc-flash protection device of MV busbar in accordance with operating parame-ters of field substation to establish the real-time closed-loop system for arc-flash protection of MV busbar. By setting different types of fault locations, various faults of MV busbar are simulated. The waves are recorded and action behavior of the protection is analyzed. The feasibility of arc-flash protection as fast protection of MV busbar is investigated, and the original intention of the design to meet the protection selectivity and sen-sitivity is verified.%为实现中压母线的快速保护,根据现场变电站运行参数,用RTDS仿真试验系统连接开发的中压母线快速弧光保护装置,构建了中压母线电弧光保护实时闭环系统模型。通过设置不同类型的故障点模拟中压母线的各类故障,录波并分析保护的动作行为,研究弧光保护作为中压母线快速保护的可行性,并验证了其满足保护选择性与灵敏性的设计初衷。

  18. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  19. Chemical detection protection and decontamination equipments:status and development%化学毒剂侦检、防护与洗消装备的现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文娟; 张文昌; 牛福; 任旭东; 崔向东; 孙景工

    2011-01-01

    本文从侦检、防护、洗消3个方面对美国、德国等国防化装备的研究现状进行了详细介绍,并指出轻巧、耐用、检测快速精准、远距离探测、无人化探测是侦检装备的重要发展方向;采用新材料,发展后勤负担小、轻型舒适的防护装备是各国追求的目标;研制高效能、广谱、低腐蚀、环保无污染的洗消剂始终是一个重要趋势,重点发展高温、高压、射流、免水等洗消技术和大、中、小型系列洗消装备,满足多功能、智能化、快速机动的要求,以适应多样化、多层次、多目标的洗消需要.%This paper mainly introduces the research status of chemical defence equipments, including chemical detection , protection and decontamination equipments, of America, Germany and other European countries. Furthermore, the paper points out that the important development direction of chemical detection equipments are remote detection and unmanned detection, and also the light, durable and fast detection equipments. In terms of protection equipments, many countries aim at utilizing new material, and developing small logistic burden, light and comfortable protection equipments. The development of decontamination agents have been given attention to the high efficiency, low corrosion, environmental friendly agents. The important decontamination technologies including high temperature, high pressure, water jet and water-free technologies. To meet the demands of multifunction, intelligentization and fastmoving, the advanced countries dedicate to developing large, medium and small serial decontamination equipments.

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  1. Surges in low voltage distribution networks: some of conducted studies; Surtos em redes de baixa tensao: alguns estudos realizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This article presents an experience conducted by the Brazilian CELESC - Centrais Electricas de Santa Catarina, by installing two low voltage Si C lightning rods, one near of a batch of distribution transformers, and the other in the protection and measurement cabinet. That installation considered the high number of damages in transformers and meters in a region where 118 days of storm are detected. For the study, two regions presented similar climate characteristics and high number of damaged equipment. The low voltage lightning rods were installed only in one of the regions.

  2. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB6 film on the MgO protective layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A spin coated LaB6 discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB6 powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB6/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB6. Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  3. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB{sub 6} film on the MgO protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jiang, E-mail: dj78291@163.com [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zeng, Baoqing [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zhongshan Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 528402 zhongshan (China); Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-15

    A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  4. Evaluation of the protection of rural lines transformers against lightning discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Darcy Ramalho de; Oliveira, Ana Angelica da Silva; Medeiros, Carmem Polycarpo; Rodrigues, Jose Antonio P. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Nova Iguacu, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: darcy@cepel.br, aaso@cepel.br, carmem@cepel.br, japr@cepel.br

    2007-07-01

    This article describe the tests made in order to evaluate the efficacy and the limitations of several methods used to protect 15 kV and 34.5 kV rural lines transformers against lightning discharges. The results obtained showed that the equipment used in the H V side of the transformers offer a good protection against lightning but, high values of the reflected voltage at the secondary side of the transformers were measured and the use of low voltage arresters, from several manufacturers, do not present a good result for the consumer. Due to the results obtained with the protections, an evaluation of the response frequency curve of the transformer was made. The results showed that is necessary to develop a new project for the transformers or a new protection for the low voltage side of the actual transformers to protect the consumer. (author)

  5. A Distance Protection Scheme Not Affected by Transient Characteristic of Capacitor Voltage Transformer for HV Long Transmission Line%不受电容式电压互感器暂态特性影响的距离保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦在滨; 齐倩; 杨黎明; 王优胤; 宁荣

    2014-01-01

    受电容式电压互感器(capacitive voltage transformer, CVT)暂态特性的影响,高压输电线路距离保护易发生暂态超越而误动,影响电力系统的安全稳定运行。提出了一种不受 CVT 暂态特性影响的距离保护新原理。该原理以 CVT能够正确传变工频量为基础,通过基于矩阵束的准确工频量提取方法计算保护安装处电压电流的工频量,利用贝瑞龙模型计算长距离输电线路整定点处的电压和电流,最终以整定点为观测点,通过传统的距离保护算法与方向元件配合确定故障点的位置,该原理不受CVT暂态特性的影响,同时考虑了长距离输电线路分布参数效应对距离保护的影响,具有较好的性能,仿真结果验证了所提算法的有效性。%Affected by transient characteristic of capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), the distance protection for HV transmission line is easily to mal-operate due to transient overreach, thus the secure and stable operation of power grid is affected. A new distance protection scheme that is not affected by the transient characteristics of CVT is proposed and its principle is as following:firstly, on the basis that the CVT can transmit and transform power frequency phasor, by means of the matrix pencil based accurate power frequency phasor extraction method the power frequency phasors of voltage and current at the position where the protection is installed are calculated;secondly, the voltage and current at the position of the long distance transmission line, where the protection is set, are calculated by Bergeron model; finally, coordinating with directional element and taking the setting point as the observation point, the fault point is located by traditional distance protection algorithm. The proposed principle is not affected by transient characteristic of CVT and the impacts of distributed parameters of the long distance transmission line are taken into account, thus the

  6. Voltage Sag Source Location Based on Instantaneous Energy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Kong, Wei; Dong, Xinzhou

    2008-01-01

    Voltage sag is a major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of voltage-sensitive equipment. This paper presents the method based on variation components-based instantaneous energy for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the thorough analysi...... for system with distributed generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of voltage sag source....

  7. A SURVEY: PID OPTIMIZATION FOR AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Dixit*, Miss.Pragati Joshi, Mr.Mahesh Lokhande

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents on survey paper  of PSO and automatic voltage regulator for synchronous generator. It is used to obtain for regulation and stability of any electrical equipment. There are many technology/methods were used in automatic voltage regulator as well as different controller used for improving robustness, overshoot, rise time and voltage control but problem is about to survey on Automatic Voltage Regulator. Comparisons studies which are based on PID Controller are performed to sh...

  8. Protection Principle for HVDC Transmission Lines Based on Fault Component of Voltage and Current%基于电压和电流突变量的高压直流输电线路保护原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鲁华; 陈青; 付兆远; 高湛军; 于春光

    2012-01-01

    A new main protection principle is presented for high voltage direct current(HVDC) transmission lines.The principle is based on the variation characteristics of fault component of voltage and current,together with an indepth research on the transients caused by internal faults,external faults and lightning disturbances.By a set threshold for the ratio of amplitudes of the fault components of voltage at the same side relay location on bipolar lines,faults outside HVDC lines can be excluded,and the fault line can be distinguished.The polarities of the fault component of currents at the ends of the fault line are different for internal faults,while are the same for external faults.Accordingly,internal faults and external faults can be distinguished.Simulation results based on PSCAD/EMTDC for a practical HVDC transmission system demonstrate that the fault line can be rapidly selected and internal faults and external faults can be distinguished by the protection under bipolar neutral grounding at both ends mode.Lightning disturbances can be excluded by the proposed criterion.The protection criterion can move accurately for faults with high transition resistance and lightning induced faults,and can be also applied under one pole with 70% voltage and one pole with total voltage operation mode,anti-way power delivery operation mode,monopolar metallic return operation mode and one pole with maintenance outage.The calculation requirement of the protection criterion can be satisfied with sampling frequency in the range of 10~100 kHz.%在对高压直流输电线路区内、外故障和雷击等暂态过程研究的基础上,提出了一种基于电压、电流突变量变化特征的高压直流输电线路主保护原理。该原理对两极线路同侧保护安装处测得的电压突变量幅值的比值设定阈值,选出故障极;利用故障线路两端电流突变量的极性在线路保护区内故障时相异、在区外故障时相同,区分线路上保护区

  9. 粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品现场使用情况评价方法构建%Construction of Evaluation in Dust Exposed Workers With Respiratory Protective Equipment Use of Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓兵

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dust exposed workers with respiratory protective equipment use of the site and construction of evaluation.Methods Investigation of respiratory protective equipment for 246 dust exposed workers in an enterprise in three workshop use case,the site and the form of questionnaire survey,on-site construction workers through the analysis of dust comprehensive evaluation of respiratory protective equipment using the method product. Results The respiratory protection plans of the enterprise fails to make the choice,three types of dust workshop operators of respiratory protective equipment,the average monthly payment number change and the success rate of the rate of wear rates were significantly different (P < 0.05),the whole enterprise breath basic protection of the qualified rate was 19.65%,the unqualified rate was 80.35%,the difference was statistical y significant(P<0.05). High KV chest radiograph revealed pneumoconiosis respiratory protective or observation object group qualified rate was significantly lower than control group(P<0.05). Conclusion By constructing a comprehensive evaluation of dust exposed workers respiratory protection products and use method develop respiratory protection plan,effectively regulate the use of respiratory protective equipment,to prevent the occurrence of pneumoconiosis.%目的:探讨粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品现场使用情况且构建评价方法。方法对于某企业3个车间的246名粉尘作业者的呼吸防护用品使用情况进行调查,采用现场及问卷调查的形式,通过构建粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品使用的综合评价方法品进行现场分析。结果显示该企业未制定的呼吸保护计划,3个车间的粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品的选择类型、月均发放数更换达标率及佩戴率的达标率均具有差异(P<0.05);全企业呼吸防护基本合格率为19.65%,不合格率为80.35%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);高

  10. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  11. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  12. Innovation and Improvement of the Personal Safety Protective Equipment of the Coalmine Worker%煤矿工人个体安全防护装备的创新与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勇; 赵洁阳; 康静

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the characteristics of the mine environment, the paper discuss how to improve from the mine personal safety equipment based on existing equipment, to improve safety factor at work, to protect the health of the underground staff, as well to play a better ambulance role when the accident happened.%本文从井下工作人员所需穿戴的安全防护装备入手,结合矿井环境特点.探讨如何在现有装备的基础上进行改进,以提高工作时的安全系数,更好保护井下工作人员的身体健康.以及在事故发生时起到更好的救护作用。

  13. 厂外排水管道交流稳态干扰防护设计%Protection Design against AC Steady-state Interference for Water Pipeline near High-voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程明; 牟华; 黄春蓉; 张平

    2013-01-01

    AC steady-state interference may affect the water pipeline near high-voltage transmission lines. Referring to some related standards, the mitigation objective and protection effect of the AC interference were analyzed, and the Right of Way (ROW) package was used to build modeling and calculation around the mitigation. The calculation results can guide the engineering design.%高压输电线路附近的厂外排水管道可能面临交流稳态干扰影响.结合相关标准要求,对交流干扰缓解目标和防护效果进行探讨分析,并利用自动计算软件包(ROW)分别对缓解前后进行建模计算分析.计算分析结果可以指导工程设计.

  14. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  15. Management Standardization for SF6 Gas in High-Voltage Electric Devices to Improve Equipment Operation Performance%规范高压电器中SF6气体的管理,提高设备运行效能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小红

    2014-01-01

    由于SF6气体具有良好绝缘、灭弧的特性,广泛应用于电力行业的高压电气设备中,因此SF6气体各个方面的管理能否达到使用要求、SF6高压电器能否达到应有的使用性能至关重要。做好SF6气体各个方面的管理可减少对环境的污染和破坏,避免给人们的身体健康带来不利影响。%With high insulation and arc extinguishing properties, SF6 gas has been widely applied in high voltage electric equipment, thus it is extremely important whether the comprehensive management of SF6 gas can meet requirement and SF6 high voltage devices can reach required operation performance. Good management of SF6 gas in every aspect can reduce pollution and impact to the environment and prevent harms to human health.

  16. 低压智能馈电开关漏电保护的故障分析与改造%Fault analysis of leakage protection of smart low-voltage feed switch and its reformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管振翔; 王光生; 姜涛; 刘士刚; 翟东; 范新留

    2013-01-01

    针对南屯煤矿井下低压智能馈电开关漏电保护出现的故障,分析了漏电保护原理及故障原因,并提出了改造方案:在总开关处通过附加电容来增大零序电流,以便综合保护装置能够进行采集、判断,使漏电支路分开关可靠动作;在分开关漏电检测回路中串接一个断路器常闭辅助接点,使分开关合闸后能够将附加直流电源式原理检测回路完全切除,消除对总开关漏电检测的干扰.现场应用结果表明,改造后的低压供电系统漏电保护运行正常,总开关漏电动作时间由原来的2 s缩短到250 ms以内,分开关漏电保护动作灵敏、可靠.%For faults in leakage protection of smart low-voltage feed switch of Nantun Coal Mine, the paper analyzed leakage protection principle and causes of the faults, and proposed reformation schemes: increase zero sequence current by additional capacitance at the master switch, so that integrated protector can be used for acquisition and judgment, and sub switch of the leakage branch can operate reliably; connect a circuit breaker auxiliary contact normally closed in series in leakage detection circuit of sub switch, so that detection circuit based on additional DC power principle can be cut off completely after closing of the sub switch to eliminate interference to leakage detection of master switch. Field application results show that the improved leakage protection of the low-voltage power supply system operates normally, leakage action time is shortened from 2 s to less than 250 ms, and the leakage protection of sub switch acts sensitively and reliably.

  17. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) promote mitophagy to protect neuron from death in an early brain injury following a subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lu, Jianfei; Mi, Yongjie; Shi, Zhao; Chen, Chunhua; Riley, John; Zhou, Changman

    2014-07-21

    The term mitophagy is coined to describe the selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy but the process itself is still contentious, especially in the early period following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the present study, we investigated the role of mitophagy following 48h after SAH injury in rats. Specifically evaluating whether mitophagy, through voltage dependant anion channels (VDACs) interacting with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, could orchestrate the induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons, a VDAC1siRNA and an activitor Rapamycian (RAPA), were engaged. One hundred and twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham, SAH, SAH+VDAC1siRNA, and SAH+RAPA. Outcomes measured included mortality rate, brain edema, BBB disruption, and neurobehavioral testing. We also used western blotting techniques to analyze the expressions of key mitophagic/autophagic proteins and pro-apoptotic protein such as ROS, VDAC1, LC-3II and Caspase-3. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the mortality rate, cerebral edema, and neurobehavioral deficits; apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons were reduced by Rapamycin following SAH injury. However, VDAC1siRNA worsened the brain injury following SAH. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis demonstrated a decreased expression of VDAC1, LC3II, and an increase of ROS and Caspase-3 followed by VDAC1siRNA administration. In conclusion, mitophagy induced by VDAC1 following SAH injury may in fact play a significant role in neuroprotection, the mechanism which may be through the attenuation of the apoptosic and necrosic molecular pathways. This translates a preservation of functional integrity and an improvement in mortality.

  18. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. “环保设备原理与设计”实践环节的构建与实践%Construction and practice of practical links of Principle & Design for Environmental Protection Equipment course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠红; 陈家庆; 常俊英

    2012-01-01

    “环保设备原理与设计”是我校的核心课程,为进一步突出环保设备与工程实践特色的人才培养理念,新开设“环保设备原理与设计课程设计”与“环保设备拆装与测绘”2个实践环节.通过实验室建设、教师培训、指导书的编写等创造了课程开设条件.实施过程中注重与相关教学环节的融合,精心选择题目,重视计算机辅助设计(AutoCAD、UG NX)与多媒体的使用,增强了学生的工程实践能力与动手能力.将在优化学生分组与注重过程考核等方面继续努力,以达到提高实践教学水平的目的.%The Principle and Design for Environmental Protection Equipment is a major course in our institute. In order to improve the cultivation ideas of environmental protection equipment and engineering practice, two practical education courses named "Principle &. Design for Environmental Protection Equipment" and "Disassembly and Mapping of Environmental Protection Equipment" are set up. By laboratory construction, teacher training, preparation of guide books, etc. , their setting up conditions are created. When two courses are opening, this article focuses on the integration of other course, carefully selected topics of disassembly and design, strengthened computer aided design (including AutoCAD, UG NX) and multimedia use application. Now there are some achievements of improving students' practice ability. It will optimize topic group and pay more attention to process-oriented assessment to improve practical educational system effectiveness.

  20. Lean Management of Constant Value Coordination of the Protective Equipment of Distribution Network%配网保护设备定值配合精益化管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁明友; 唐思华; 张剑

    2015-01-01

    The lean management of constant value coordination of the protective equipment of distribution network takes 243 sets of electrical distribution protection equipment of the distribution network lines in a main urban zone as the research groups. This paper takes the improvement of the precision of constant value coordination of the protective equipment of distribution network as the main goal. It uses the research concepts of "making perfection more perfect, win-win situation of velocity and efficiency, cutting waste" of Lean Six Sigma, through the five stages of project definition, data measurement, optimized analysis, improvement measures and control results to custom measures of improving the precision of constant value coordination of the protective equipment of distribution network, and it collects the historical data to compare and validate and form the inter-departmental coordination mechanism to ensure the strong execution of the improvement project.%城市配网保护设备定值配合精益化管理以某主城区配网线路所属的243套配电保护设备为研究群体,以提高配网保护设备定值配合准确率为主要目标,采用精益六西格玛的“精益求精、速效双赢、削减浪费”的研究理念,通过精益化的项目定义、数据测量、优化分析、措施改进和成果控制五个阶段来制定提高配网保护设备定值配合准确率的措施,采集历史数据进行对比验证,形成跨部门协同联动机制,确保改进方案有力执行。

  1. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic equipment and the adjacent work area. Protection shall be afforded to the operator of hydraulic... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must...

  2. Personal Protective Equipment Selection and Management of Chemical Laboratory in Colleges and Universities%高校化学实验室个体防护装备的选择与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭旭; 陈秋平

    2014-01-01

    高校化学实验室在日常教学科研实验活动中会使用到各种易燃易爆及有毒有害危险化学品,也可能会接触到某些压力容器及机械等设备,在化学实验过程中存在着多种安全风险,化学实验室的安全性直接关系到师生员工的人身安全及学校实验教学和科研的开展。为实验室师生选择恰当的个体防护装备后,可直接对人体起到保护作用,免遭或减轻事故和职业危害因素的伤害。本文对高校化学实验室的事故风险进行分析后,介绍高校化学实验室个体防护装备的选择与管理,包含其选择要点、装备管理。%The chemistry lab will use all kinds of flammable or toxic chemicals in daily teaching and scientific research activities, may also be exposed to some pressure vessels and machinery and other equipment, in the course of chemical experiment there are a variety of security risk, chemical laboratory safety directly related to develop the personal safety of the staff and students and school the experimental teaching and research. Selection for laboratory and appropriate personal protective equipment, can play a protective effect on the body, prevent or mitigate accidents and occupation hazards damage. This paper analysis the accident risk of chemical laboratory in colleges and universities, the selection and management of personal protective equipment in chemical laboratory,including the choice points,equipment management.

  3. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Inhibits Voltage-Sensitive Potassium Currents in Isolated Hensen's Cells and Nifedipine Protects Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, YongAn; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Zhifei; Niu, Baolong; Li, Xingqi; Dai, Guanghai; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-06-13

    BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a well-known neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system, plays an important role as an extracellular chemical messenger in the cochlea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a whole-cell recording technique, we studied the effects of ATP on isolated Hensen's cells, which are supporting cells in the cochlea, to determine if they are involved in the transduction of ions with hair cells. RESULTS ATP (0.1-10 µM) reduced the potassium current (IK+) in the majority of the recorded Hensen's cells (21 out of 25 cells). An inward current was also induced by high concentrations of ATP (100 µM to 10 mM), which was reversibly blocked by 100 µM suramin (a purinergic antagonist) and blocked by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). After the cochleas were perfused with artificial perilymph solutions containing nifedipine and exposed to noise, the amplitude increase in the compound action potential (CAP) threshold and the reduction in cochlear microphonics was lower than when they were exposed to noise alone. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ATP can block IK+ channels at a low concentration and induce an inward Ca2+ current at high concentrations, which is reversed by purinergic receptors. Nifedipine may have a partially protective effect on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

  4. An Inexpensive Source of High Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As a physics teacher I like recycling old apparatus and using them for demonstrations in my classes. In physics laboratories in schools, sources of high voltage include induction coils or electronic systems that can be bought from companies that sell lab equipment. But these sources can be very expensive. In this article, I will explain how you…

  5. Transient Voltage Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A voltage transient recorder can detect lightning induced transient voltages. The recorder detects a lightning induced transient voltage and adjusts input amplifiers to accurately record transient voltage magnitudes. The recorder stores voltage data from numerous monitored channels, or devices. The data is time stamped and can be output in real time, or stored for later retrieval. The transient recorder, in one embodiment, includes an analog-to-digital converter and a voltage threshold detector. When an input voltage exceeds a pre-determined voltage threshold, the recorder stores the incoming voltage magnitude and time of arrival. The recorder also determines if its input amplifier circuits clip the incoming signal or if the incoming signal is too low. If the input data is clipped or too low, the recorder adjusts the gain of the amplifier circuits to accurately acquire subsequent components of the lightning induced transients.

  6. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Rocha, Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da, E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (PPGEB/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UNIR/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unidade de Imagem e Radioterapia; Almeida, Claudio Domingues de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods: Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipment. The data related to the equipment was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results: Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipment do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion: The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipment, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Miguel

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipments. The data related to the equipments was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipments do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipments, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation.

  8. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiologic Science School of Health and Environmental Science College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment.

  9. Overview of the HPM field-circuit integrated protection methods for electronic equipment and system RF-channels%电子设备和系统射频通道高功率微波电磁脉冲场-路综合防护方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑生全; 邓峰; 王冬冬; 侯冬云; 刘培国

    2015-01-01

    High power microwave electromagnetic pulse radiation may easily be coupled with sensitive electronic equipments and systems through different entrances, resulting in disturbance, break down, or even destruction. Worse still, when the pulse is coupled with antennas, sensitive devices could be de⁃stroyed while the pulse enters into RF channels. in this paper, several new protection methods for antennas agalnst space electromagnetic pulse radiation field as well as for sensitive devices in circuit agalnst high pulse voltage or current are investigated. Moreover, the field-circuit integrated with the above protection de⁃sign methods are proposed. Protection surfaces and modules which lie at the front and rearward of antennas are specially designed to restraln the space electromagnetic pulse field and voltage or current on the circuit, thus protecting sensitive modules from damage. Meanwhile, the attenuation for the operating signal within the circuit is controlled in an allowable range. For validation, samples tests are conducted, indicating that the proposed methods provide descent protection for both in-band and out-band high power microwave electromagnetic pulse.%高功率微波电磁脉冲辐射可以通过多种耦合途径进入敏感电子设备和系统,导致严重的干扰、扰乱甚至损坏,特别是通过天线耦合进入射频通道的电磁脉冲会破坏敏感器件。给出几种针对天线耦合的空间电磁脉冲场防护以及电路中敏感器件的电磁脉冲路防护新方法,探讨敏感系统的电磁脉冲场—路综合防护设计方法。利用专门设计的防护表面和防护模块,分别在天线前端对空间的电磁脉冲场和天线后端电路中的电磁脉冲电压或电流进行抑制,保护电路中的敏感模块免遭损坏,增加的场—路综合防护对工作信号的衰减控制在允许的范围之内。通过原理样件的测试表明,防护方法对带内和带外的高功率微波电磁脉

  10. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  11. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  12. New longitudinal differential protection scheme for four-circuit transmission line with different voltage grades%不同电压等级的四回线的纵联差动保护方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金熠; 范春菊; 刘玲

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem that the traditional longitudinal differential protection used in four-circuit transmission line on the same pole with different levels will be seriously affected by coupling inductance, a new longitudinal differential protection scheme based on inverse-sequence negative sequence difference current is proposed. Four-circuit transmission lines with different voltage grades generally consist of two double circuit transmission lines at the same tower. However, when line parameters are symmetry, the inverted sequence current is zero when the system operates normally or external faults occur. Once internal faults occur, there is inverted current in the transmission line, and the sum of inverted current at both sides is large, so the differential protection based on inverted current can operate correctly. For this method, the reliability and sensitivity under big fault resistance can be kept. And it will not be affected by capacitive current when it is applied to the main protection of four-circuit transmission line with different voltage grades. The theoretical analysis and EMTP simulation results show that the proposed principle is correct and reliable.%为克服传统纵联差动保护运用在不同电压等级的同杆四回线中容易受到耦合电感的影响,提出了基于反序负序差电流的纵联差动保护方案.不同电压等级的四回线由两个不同电压的等级的同杆双回线构成.对于同杆双回线路,当线路参数完全对称时,系统正常运行或是外部故障时,反向电流分量为零;而当双回线内部故障时,反向环流量存在于双回线的内部,双回线两侧反向电流之和比较大,可以构成基于反向环流量的纵联差动保护.该保护方案不仅可以避开电容电流对于差动保护的影响,而且有较强的抗过渡电阻能力.将该保护方案应用到不同电压等级的四回线的主保护中,保护性能优越,不仅可以可靠动作,还避免了电容

  13. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  14. Low Voltage Analog Circuit Design Based on the Flipped Voltage Follower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Yadav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The desire for portability of electronics equipment generated a need for low power system in battery products like hearing aids, implantable cardiac pacemakers, cell phones and hand held multimedia terminals. Low voltage analog circuit design differs considerably from those of high voltage analog circuit design. This paper present the basic cell knows as “flipped voltage follower” for low voltage/ low power operation. The detailed classification of basic topologies derived from the FVF cell is presented and there is a low voltage current mirror based on FVF cell has been presented. All the Circuit has been simulated using Hspice tool 0.18µm CMOS Technology. Different quality factors such as frequency response, power consumption are considered. A compression also made between previous current mirror and new designed current mirror. The layout of the current mirror has been also designed using Cadence tool.

  15. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  16. System for instrumenting and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    A system for energizing, operating and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage systems. The system uses a dielectric gas such as SF.sub.6 as a driving power supply for a pneumatic motor which ultimately charges a battery or other energy storage device. The stored energy can then be used for instrumentation equipment, or to power any electrical equipment, in the high voltage deck. The accompanying method provides for the use of the SF6 system for operating an electrical device in a high-voltage environment.

  17. Experimental Equipment and Basic Technological Methods of Obtaining Cavitation Protective Coatings on Working Surfaces of Steam Turbine Blades Made of Titanium Alloy VT6 in Order to Replace Imports of Similar Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, V.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental equipment and basic technological methods of obtaining сavitation protective coatings on the working surfaces of blades of steam turbines from titanium alloy VT6 have been created. The selection and the basis of the composition and conditions of synthesis of optimal coating for hardening blades have been justified. The parameters of deposition process of coatings on the blade model have been worked, the experimental technological deposition process of hardening coatings has been created. The tests of titanium alloy VT6 samples with the preferred coatings in simulation conditions close to operational have been conducted. The coatings on the blade model of length up to 130 cm and weight up to 30 kg have been deposited. The velocity of the TiN coating depositing was 10 mkm/h.

  18. 设施内智能精准喷雾植保设备研究开发%Research and Development of Intelligent & Accurate Spraying Equipment for Plant Protection within Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董微; 卓杰强; 王会学; 卜云龙; 程龙; 兰立波

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent & accurate spraying equipment for plant protection within facility takes electric way of walking, automatic targeting, low volume and electrostatic spraying practices. Through target detection system it detects the target plants needed to spray pesticides, and then directs the target to spray pesticides accurately, thus avoiding low utilization of pesticides and environment pollution caused by blind and excessive use of pesticides. This equipment is suitable for greenhouse cultivation. At the same time, it can reduce the cost of spraying pesticide and achieve ecological balance in greenhouse.%设施内智能精准喷雾植保设备采取程控行走,自动对靶、低量、静电的喷雾作业方式,通过自动对靶系统检测出需要喷洒农药的目标植物,并且针对确定的目标植物精确喷洒农药,从而避免盲目、大量喷洒造成的农药利用率低和过度使用农药对环境造成的污染,适合温室种植特点.同时可以降低农药喷施成本,实现温室中的生态平衡.

  19. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  20. 30 CFR 77.900 - Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving portable or mobile three-phase alternating current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.900 Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving portable or mobile three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit breakers. Low- and medium-voltage circuits...

  1. Impact of the plant protection practices on the operators' exposure: survey by the communes and ministry of equipment and transport (MET-RW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the health-related aspects of the surveys (environmental aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of bad practices and a growing awareness of the non-agricultural users with respect to health risks. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major health risks (which endanger the operator and the public). Information, awareness-raising and, especially, training of people therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  2. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  3. Counter-IED PPE Horizon 0, Phase 1 Human Factors Trial: Performance Evaluation of Soft Armour Personal Protective Equipment (Essai Ergonomique du Projet Horizon 0 d’EPI a l’Epreuve des IED, Phase 1: Evaluation du Rendement d’un Equipement de Protection Individual en Materiel Souple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    du rendement et d’évaluations produites par des observateurs en ergonomie . Les conditions d’essai ont eu recours au concept de protection que...du rendement et à des évaluations faites par des observateurs en ergonomie . Après avoir mise à l’épreuve toutes les conditions de protection souple...course and a temporary FIBUA training site. The assault course was designed to combine dynamic mobility aspects of the obstacle course with the

  4. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  5. The influence of personal protection equipment, occupant body size, and restraint system on the frontal impact responses of Hybrid III ATDs in tactical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Lauren Wood; Orton, Nichole Ritchie; Gruber, Rebekah; Rupp, Jonathan; Scherer, Risa; Reed, Matthew; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-08-18

    Although advanced restraint systems, such as seat belt pretensioners and load limiters, can provide improved occupant protection in crashes, such technologies are currently not utilized in military vehicles. The design and use of military vehicles presents unique challenges to occupant safety-including differences in compartment geometry and occupant clothing and gear-that make direct application of optimal civilian restraint systems to military vehicles inappropriate. For military vehicle environments, finite element (FE) modeling can be used to assess various configurations of restraint systems and determine the optimal configuration that minimizes injury risk to the occupant. The models must, however, be validated against physical tests before implementation. The objective of this study was therefore to provide the data necessary for FE model validation by conducting sled tests using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). A secondary objective of this test series was to examine the influence of occupant body size (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male), military gear (helmet/vest/tactical assault panels), seat belt type (3-point and 5-point), and advanced seat belt technologies (pretensioner and load limiter) on occupant kinematics and injury risk in frontal crashes. In total, 20 frontal sled tests were conducted using a custom sled buck that was reconfigurable to represent both the driver and passenger compartments of a light tactical military vehicle. Tests were performed at a delta-V of 30 mph and a peak acceleration of 25 g. The sled tests used the Hybrid III 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male ATDs outfitted with standard combat boots and advanced combat helmets. In some tests, the ATDs were outfitted with additional military gear, which included an improved outer tactical vest (IOTV), IOTV and squad automatic weapon (SAW) gunner with a tactical assault panel (TAP), or IOTV and rifleman with

  6. 30 CFR 77.515 - Bare signal or control wires; voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare signal or control wires; voltage. 77.515... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.515 Bare signal or control wires; voltage. The voltage on bare signal or control wires accessible to personal contact shall not exceed 40 volts. ...

  7. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage lines. 77.807-2 Section 77.807-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-2 Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. The booms and masts of equipment operated on the surface of...

  8. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  9. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  10. 继电保护装置误报分析及相关元件的软件测试%Analysis of misoperation of remote signaling in a relay protection equipment and the software test of relative element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国杰; 姬希娜; 匡海燕; 邓清闯

    2011-01-01

    针对某微机线路保护装置在某变电站运行一段时间后出现的遥信误报现象进行了分析,定位出现问题的保护元件——展宽元件.对问题展宽元件和修改后的展宽元件的程序逻辑进行了详细分析,找出问题发生的原因.介绍了windows平台下模拟保护模块功能测试的测试模型.在基于此模型开发的测试平台上,针对展宽元件进行软件测试.测试时用判定表法设计测试用例和运用对比测试法对问题进行验证.最后总结了保护模块测试方面的一些思路.%This paper analyses the misoperation of remote signaling in a certain microprocessor-based line protection equipment after running a period of time in one transformer substation, and locates the problematic element-extension element. This paper analyzes the program logic of the problematic element and the modified element in detail, and finds the cause of the problem. It also introduces the model of function test of protection module in windows. On the test platform which is developed according to the model above, we conduct software test on the extension element. In the testing phase, we use the decision table method to design the test case and use the contrast testing method to verify if the problem is solved. In the end, some ideas for protection modules testing is summarized.

  11. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar; Cecati, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbala...

  12. Study of Degradation Processes in Dielectric Materials Used in Electronic Control Equipment Operated in ``Kozloduy'' NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Nayden; Popov, Angel

    2007-04-01

    The electronic equipment for control of different systems of Units 5 and 6 is studied for presence of degradation processes occurring in result of continuous usage in conditions of controlled radiation background in compliance with ``Kozloduy'' NPP safety codes. Systems, operated in a continuous mode in the course of about 10 years were chosen - separate units containing different dielectric materials (varnish coating, circuit board bases, cable insulations, electro protective elements, etc.) were extrapolated. Series of test samples were prepared which were connected with flat or coaxial condensers and their characteristic parameters were measured: tgδ, ɛ, low voltage conductivity and leak currents at voltages that exceed the working ones several times. When comparing the obtained data with the reference ones, a conclusion is made about the effectiveness of electric ageing during operation in the course of time.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  14. Large Capacity SMES for Voltage Dip Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, Yu; Saito, Fusao; Ito, Toshinobu; Shimada, Mamoru; Ishida, Satoshi; Shimanuki, Yoshio

    Voltage dips of power grids due to thunderbolts, snow damage, and so on, cause serious damage to production lines of precision instruments, for example, semiconductors. In recent years, in order to solve this problem, uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS) are used. UPS, however, has small capacity, so a great number of UPS are needed in large factories. Therefore, we have manufactured the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for voltage dip compensation able to protect loads with large capacity collectively. SMES has advantages such as space conservation, long lifetime and others. In field tests, cooperating with CHUBU Electric Power Co., Inc. we proved that SMES is valuable for compensating voltage dips. Since 2007, 10MVA SMES improved from field test machines has been running in a domestic liquid crystal display plant, and in 2008, it protected plant loads from a number of voltage dips. In this paper, we report the action principle and components of the improved SMES for voltage dip compensation, and examples of waveforms when 10MVA SMES compensated voltage dips.

  15. 40 CFR 86.206-94 - Equipment required; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment required; overview. 86.206-94 Section 86.206-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.206-94 Equipment...

  16. 40 CFR 86.206-11 - Equipment required; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment required; overview. 86.206-11 Section 86.206-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.206-11 Equipment...

  17. Combined Digital Electronic Current and Voltage Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段雄英; 邹积岩; 等

    2002-01-01

    A high-performance current and voltage measurement system has been developed in power system.The system is composed of two parts:one current measurement element and one voltage measurement element.A Rogowski coil and a capacitive voltage divider are used respectively for the line current and voltage measurements.Active electronic components are used to modulate signal,and power supply for these components is drawn from power line via an auxiliary current transformer,Measurement signal is transmitted y optical fibers,which is resistant to electromagnetic induction and noise,With careful design and the use of digital signal processing technology,the whole system can meet 0.5% accuracy for metering and provides large dynamic range coupled with good accuracy for protective relaying use.

  18. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  19. Stray voltage zapping cows, pigs in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-18

    A power-supply malfunction is giving farm animals in Quebec a shock every time they eat or drink from metal troughs, making them nervous, lowering production, and stunting growth. In 2 years of negotiation with Hydro-Quebec, the utility has refused to correct the problem known as stray voltage. The shocks measure about 10 volts. It has been estimated the average Quebec dairy farmer with 40 cows is losing $15,000 to $20,000/y in reduced milk production. About 4,000 of the 23,000 Quebec pig and dairy farms are bothered by stray voltage. Hydro-Quebec has been asked to install filters that would reduce the problem; however, Hydro-Quebec attributes the stray voltage to the farmers' own equipment. A study conducted by the provincial Agriculture Department that measured stray voltage on 700 farms showed that 70% of the problem was Hydro-Quebec equipment. Farmers are prepared to solve the remaining 30% themselves.

  20. Research on Key Indexes and Testing Method of IEC61850 Test Equipment for Relay Protection%IEC61850继电保护试验装置关键指标及其检验方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 卜强生; 陆伟; 向前

    2013-01-01

    IEC61850 test equipment for relay protection is widely used in intelligent substation. Three key indexes of the tester are proposed, the numerical computation ability, the data outputs synchronization, and the precision of time for measurement and control. Technology indexes and testing method of the tester are set in this paper. The mainstream testers are tested and the results indicate that the rationality of key indexes and the applicability of testing method, that lays the theoretical and practical foundations for the technology standard of relay protection tester of intelligent substation.%IEC61850继电保护试验装置大量应用于智能变电站的继电保护测试,文章梳理了影响试验装置性能的三类关键指标:数值计算能力、输出同步性、时间测量和控制准确度,由此制定了试验装置的技术指标,对每个指标确定了典型的检验方法。组织了国内主流试验装置开展集中测试,结果证明了关键指标的合理性及检验方法的适用性,为智能变电站继电保护试验装置技术标准的制定打下了理论和实践基础。

  1. Noise Reduction and Personal Protection in Intensive Noise Equipment Area of Methanol Production Enterprises%生产甲醇的强噪声设备所在场所的降噪及个体防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云; 王龙义; 金蕾; 李宾; 唐天统

    2015-01-01

    对某甲醇生产企业装置区内生产装置进行噪声治理.采取以下工程措施降噪:对空压机泵设置隔声罩;对中高压管网排空口安装阻性消声器;对现场值班室进行吸声与隔声处理.并对以上措施进行声学设计理论计算.隔声房、消声器设置后,噪声值达到《工业企业设计卫生标准》中的要求.实测数据证实噪声治理措施的有效性.根据工人巡检设备噪声特性,选择合适的防护耳罩达到保护工人听力的效果.%The noise control of the equipment in a methanol production plant was carried out. The noise enclosure was set up for the air compressor and the dissipative silencer was installed in the exhaust exit of the medium-high pressure pipeline network. Sound absorption and insulation devices were set up for the duty room. It was found that after setting up the silencer room and the muffler at the exhaust exit of the pressure pipeline network, the noise emission values can satisfy the requirements in the GB standard of"Hygienic standards for the design of industrial enterprises". The measurement data further confirms the effectiveness of the noise control measures. According to the noise characteristics of the devices, the appropriate protective earmuff can be chosen to protect the personal audition.

  2. Air Breakdown Behavior of Two Series Gaps for Composite Switching Impulse/Alternating Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    More and more high voltage transmission lines make use of rubber housed ZnO arresters in series with another air gap (for example, the insulator gap) as lighting protection elements. Many test results of ZnO arresters protection performance show that this insulation arrangement is suitable for practical lines according to results based on only simple impulse voltage. This paper uses a composite voltage (switching impulse voltage/alternating voltage) to determine the air breakdown behavior of the conductor-rod gap in series with the sphere gap. In the test, the switching impulse voltage is applied to the conductor while the alternating voltage is applied to the rod and one sphere and the other sphere is grounded. The results show that in some cases, the value of the U50% sparkover voltage for the conductor-rod gap with the composite voltage is nearly only half of that for just the simple impulse voltage.

  3. Equipment. Out of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, C

    2000-08-17

    The NHS has underinvested in equipment for more than 20 years. Most hospitals have inadequate equipment inventories. More than half the anaesthetic machines in use are more than five years old and should be replaced. Almost a fifth of the equipment used in cancer treatment is obsolete. Current accounting systems act as a disincentive to replacing old equipment.

  4. Performance of Three-Arm Ac Automatic Voltage Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Papinaidu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and simulation of automatic voltage regulator (AVR is proposed. The AVR provides voltage buck and boost capability to eliminate power problems created by under voltage or over voltage fluctuations. It also protects against minor and severe spikes and surges that comprise over 80% of power problems. Over heating of components due to voltage swell is also avoided by using AVR. The switching losses are also reduced as only one arm among three arms is maintained at higher power frequencies depending on mode of operation. Moreover, there is no need to use large capacitor as a result the overall size of converter is also reduced. Hence, the output voltage of the AVR can be maintained at the specified voltage. Hence, the AVR is cost can be reduced, and the efficiency of the power convertor can be extended.

  5. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  6. Authorisation for work with electrical equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Balle, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of training needs must be conducted by the Group Leader for every employee who could potentially be exposed to an electrical hazard. An analysis must be performed taking into account: • the voltage range (TBT, BT, HTA, HTB) • the type of work to be done (for example, work on a low-voltage line) • the type and the characteristics of the structures, installations and equipment • the type of current (alternating or direct) • the person’s ability to perform the operation

  7. Development of expert system software to improve performance of high-voltage arresters in substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andre Nunes de; Oltremari, Anderson; Zago, Maria Goretti; Silva, Paulo Sergio da; Costa Junior, Pedro da; Ferraz, Kleber [Sao Paulo State Univ. (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Power Systems and Intelligent Techniques], E-mail: andrejau@feb.unesp.br; Gusmao, Euripedes Silva; Prado, Jose Martins [ELETRONORTE, MT (Brazil)], E-mail: euripedes.gusmao@eln.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    One of the main causes of interruption and power outage on the energy distribution system in Brazil is related to lightning, which is also the main responsible by the reduction of service life and destruction of consumers and Utilities' equipment. As a manner of improving the protection of the energy distribution system, the Utilities have given attention on establishing maintenance techniques, such preventive as predictive, of the high-voltage arresters in substation. Currently, one of the main manners to obtain the installed arresters' characteristics involves the utilization of high cost equipment, such as leakage current meters. In this way, this paper aims to fulfill the needs of obtaining reliable results with the utilization of lower cost equipment, proposing a Expert System Software for diagnosing and aiding to decision through the utilization of intelligent techniques, which makes possible the monitoring of service life and the identification of aged arresters, allowing the establishment of one reliable chronogram for the removal of equipment, such for maintenance as for substitution. (author)

  8. COTS Li-Ion Cells in High Voltage Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis; Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Cowles, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Testing at NASA JSC and COMDEV shows that Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Li Ion cells can not be used in high voltage batteries safely without considering the voltage stresses that may be put on the protective devices in them during failure modes.

  9. High Voltage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbeck, Edwin; Miller, Michael; Onel, Yasar

    2010-11-01

    For detector arrays that require 5 to 10 kV at a few microamps each for hundreds of detectors, using hundreds of HV power supplies is unreasonable. Bundles of hundreds of HV cables take up space that should be filled with detectors. A typical HV module can supply 1 ma, enough current for hundreds of detectors. It is better to use a single HV module and distribute the current as needed. We show a circuit that, for each detector, measures the current, cuts off the voltage if the current exceeds a set maximum, and allows the HV to be turned on or off from a control computer. The entire array requires a single HV cable and 2 or 3 control lines. This design provides the same voltage to all of the detectors, the voltage set by the single HV module. Some additional circuitry would allow a computer controlled voltage drop between the HV and each individual detector.

  10. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  11. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-03-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  12. 78 FR 25916 - Authorization of Radiofrequency Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ..., while at the same time protecting against interference among radio services and devices using the RF... multitude of RF devices used in the United States operate effectively without causing harmful interference... provision of RF equipment, while at the same time protecting against interference among radio services and...

  13. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  14. Voltage scheduling for low power/energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzak, Ali

    2001-07-01

    Power considerations have become an increasingly dominant factor in the design of both portable and desk-top systems. An effective way to reduce power consumption is to lower the supply voltage since voltage is quadratically related to power. This dissertation considers the problem of lowering the supply voltage at (i) the system level and at (ii) the behavioral level. At the system level, the voltage of the variable voltage processor is dynamically changed with the work load. Processors with limited sized buffers as well as those with very large buffers are considered. Given the task arrival times, deadline times, execution times, periods and switching activities, task scheduling algorithms that minimize energy or peak power are developed for the processors equipped with very large buffers. A relation between the operating voltages of the tasks for minimum energy/power is determined using the Lagrange multiplier method, and an iterative algorithm that utilizes this relation is developed. Experimental results show that the voltage assignment obtained by the proposed algorithm is very close (0.1% error) to that of the optimal energy assignment and the optimal peak power (1% error) assignment. Next, on-line and off-fine minimum energy task scheduling algorithms are developed for processors with limited sized buffers. These algorithms have polynomial time complexity and present optimal (off-line) and close-to-optimal (on-line) solutions. A procedure to calculate the minimum buffer size given information about the size of the task (maximum, minimum), execution time (best case, worst case) and deadlines is also presented. At the behavioral level, resources operating at multiple voltages are used to minimize power while maintaining the throughput. Such a scheme has the advantage of allowing modules on the critical paths to be assigned to the highest voltage levels (thus meeting the required timing constraints) while allowing modules on non-critical paths to be assigned

  15. 29 CFR 1926.602 - Material handling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not be provided for equipment which does not have roll-over protective structure (ROPS) or adequate... present no hazard to personnel from flying materials. (6) Rollover protective structures (ROPS). See...

  16. Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N S P Venkatesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Power Quality problems encompass a wide range of disturbances such as voltage sags, swells, flicker,harmonics distortion and interruptions. The strategic deployment of custom power devices has been proposed asone of the means to protect sensitive loads from power quality problems such as voltage sags and swells. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a power electronic device that is used to inject 3-phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the distribution feeder voltages in order to compensate voltage sag and similarly itreacts quickly to inject the appropriate voltage component (negative voltage magnitude in order to compensate voltage swell. The principal component of the DVR is a voltage source inverter that generates three phase voltages and provides the voltage support to a sensitive load during voltage sags and swells. Pulse Width Modulation Technique is very critical for proper control of DVR. Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM control techniques are used for controlling the DVR. Inthis work, the operation of DVR is presented and the control technique used for voltage source inverter is Space Vector PWM technique. Space vector PWM can utilize the better dc voltage and generates the fewer harmonic in inverter output voltage than Sinusoidal PWM technique. This work describes the DVR based on Space Vector PWM which provides voltage support to sensitive loads and is simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results show that the control approach is able to compensate for any type of voltage sags and swells.

  17. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  18. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  19. Uso dos equipamentos de proteção individual em unidade de terapia intensiva Uso de los equipamientos de protección individual en unidad de terapia intensiva Use of personal protective equipment in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Lucy Vale de Souza

    2011-07-01

    ón, respetando aspectos ético-legales. Participaron en el estudio 45 trabajadores del equipo de enfermería de la UTI, en las categorías de técnico y auxiliar. Los resultados revelan que los técnicos y auxiliares de enfermería son concientes de la importancia del uso de EPIs, aunque no los utilicen con la debida frecuencia en la práctica de su cotidiano laboral, debido a problemas de orden comportamental y de logística. Los resultados de este estudio ofrecen bases para una reflexión cuanto a la importancia de la identificación de facilidades y dificultades encontradas por el equipo en la utilización de los EPIs.In spite of great advances in the prevention of cross-infection, adherence to the use of personal protective equipment among healthcare workers is a major challenge. This study aimed to analyze the use of Individual Protection Equipment (IPE by nursing staff in the intensive care units of an emergency hospital in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. This is an exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out at four units of that institution. Data collection occurred during September and October 2008, through interviews and observation, respecting ethical-legal aspects. Forty-five nursing ICU staff members in the technical and auxiliary categories have participated. The results show that nursing technicians and auxiliaries are aware of the importance of using IPE, but do not use them as frequently as necessary in their daily working practice, due to behavioral and logistic problems. These study results provide a basis for reflection on the importance of identifying the strengths and difficulties staff encounter in using IPE.

  20. The Application of Three-level Voltage Type High Voltage Frequency Conversion Technology in Ocean Engineering Ships%三电平电压型高压变频技术在海洋工程船的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳琼

    2014-01-01

    节能减排、绿色环保,变频电力驱动技术是国内外船舶上应用的发展趋势.特别体现在海洋工程船的大型施工设备和施工设备的驱动系统上.阐述了变频电力驱动技术应用于海洋工程船的优点,介绍了三电平电压型高压变频技术的发展.对三电平电压型高压变频技术进行原理简述,给出了三电平空间电压矢量控制调速系统的主电路拓扑结构,分析了三电平空间电压矢量控制算法的实现,利用MATLAB 7.0/SIMULINK 6.0进行了三电平电压型高压变频调速系统的建模和仿真.%For the purpose of energy saving and emission reduction and green environmental protection , frequency conversion electric drive technology in the world is a development trend applied in ships .Especially this is embodied in large-scale construction equipment of ocean engineering ships and the drive system to construction equipment .This paper elaborates the advantages of variable frequency electric drive technology application in ocean engineering ships , and introduces the development of three-level voltage type high voltage frequency conversion technology.Also, the author illustrates the theories of three-level voltage type high voltage frequency conversion technology , and gives the main circuit topology structure of the three-level space voltage vector control speed regulation system , and analyzes the three-level space voltage vector control algorithm implementation , and finally builds a modeling and simulation of the three-level voltage type high voltage variable frequency speed regulation system by using MATLAB 7.0/SIMULINK 6.0 modules.

  1. Common NICU Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn intensive care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  2. Analysis of fault using microcomputer protection by symmetrical component method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Choubey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To enhance power supply reliability for the user terminals in the case of the distribution system to avoid interference by the fault again, rapidly complete the automatic identification, positioning, automatic fault isolation, network reconfiguration until the resumption of supply of non-fault section, a microprocessor-based relay protection device has developed. As the fault component theory is widely used in microcomputer protection, and fault component exists in the network of fault component, it is necessary to build up the fault component network when short circuit fault emerging and to draw the current and voltage component phasor diagram at fault point. In order to understand microcomputer protection based on the symmetrical component principle, we obtained the sequence current and sequence voltage according to the concept of symmetrical component. Distribution line directly to user-oriented power supply, the reliability of its operation determines the quality and level of electricity supply. In recent decades, because of the general power of the tireless efforts of scientists and technicians, relay protection technology and equipment application level has been greatly improved, but the current domestic production of computer hardware, protection devices are still outdated systems. Software development has maintenance difficulties and short survival time. With the factory automation system interface functions weak points, the network communication cannot meet the actual requirements. Protection principle configuration and device manufacturing process to be improved and so on.

  3. Mitigation of Voltage Swells by Static Series Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Hilmy; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    is lower than a predetermined voltage level, the active power is employed to charge the ESC to this voltage level; 2) otherwise, the overvoltage protection of the SSC must operate. This paper also applies an overvoltage protection scheme based on a combination of a dc resistor with a chopper and the valves...... of the SSC. The design of the dc resistor is discussed. A 10 kV SSC experimental setup is exploited to carry out experiments in the case of balanced and unbalanced voltage swells at the grid side....

  4. Evaluation of lightning-induced voltages on low-voltage distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Fernando H.; Visacro, Silverio [Federal University of Minas Gerais (LRC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lightning Research Center], Emails: silveira@cpdee.ufmg.br, visacro@cpdee.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a set of evaluations concerning lightning-induced voltages on low-voltage networks. Such evaluations were performed by means of the Hybrid Electromagnetic Model, a frequency-domain code based on electromagnetic field equations. Sensitivity analyses were developed in order to investigate the role played by the most relevant line parameters on the voltages induced along the electrical system and at the consumer service entrance. The performance of two different low voltage line configurations (conventional versus multiplexed) usually adopted in Brazil was also investigated. The obtained results constitute a contribution to this theme and also provide elements to the development of protection practices to the electrical system and to the consumer against such phenomenon. (author)

  5. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  6. High Voltage Test Power’s Fast Cutting-off Device Based on Infrared%基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双双; 周刚; 胡海平; 邱东晓; 金海; 潘克菲

    2015-01-01

    High voltage power system during the test will generate tens of kilovolts or more high-pressure. Therefore,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment is a basic requirement.However,approaches of the traditional use of ropes or fence to seclude the high voltage test area can not protect the safety of personnel and equipment at the root when testing personnel or foreign body mistakenly go in the charged region.This paper presented a program of fast high voltage test power cut-off device based on infrared.It can make audible voice alarm,at the same time quickly cut off high voltage power supply,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment from the source,when testing personnel or foreign objects mistakenly go in the charged region.%提出了一种基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断的方案,并设计了装置的硬件电路和系统软件。经现场试验,当有人员或异物误入带电区域时,发出声光语音报警的同时快速切断高压电源,从源头上保证人身和设备安全。

  7. Studying Voltage Transformer Ferroresonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Radmanesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study studies the effect of Circuit Breaker Shunt Resistance (CBSR, Metal Oxide Vaistor (MOV and Neutral earth Resistance (NR on the control of ferroresonance in the voltage transformer. It is expected that NR can controlled ferroresonance better than MOV and CBSR. Study has been done on a one phase voltage transformer rated 100 VA, 275 kV. The simulation results reveal that considering the CBSR and MOV exhibits a great mitigating effect on ferroresonance overvoltages, but these resistances cannot control these phenomena for all range of parameters. By applying NR to the system structure, ferroresonance has been controlled and its amplitude has been damped for all parameters values.

  8. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) System under Uncertainty from Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Flynn, Damian

    2016-01-01

    An automatic voltage control (AVC) system maintains the voltage profile of a power system in an acceptable range and minimizes the operational cost by coordinating the regulation of controllable components. Typically, all of the parameters in the optimization problem are assumed to be certain...... and constant in the decision making process. However, for high shares of wind power, uncertainty in the decision process due to wind power variability may result in an infeasible AVC solution. This paper proposes a voltage control approach which considers the voltage uncertainty from wind power productions....... The proposed method improves the performance and the robustness of a scenario based approach by estimating the potential voltage variations due to fluctuating wind power production, and introduces a voltage margin to protect the decision against uncertainty for each scenario. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  9. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  10. Basic Characteristics of New Developed Higher-Voltage Direct-Current Power-Feeding Prototype System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babasaki, Tadatoshi; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Toru; Nozaki, Yousuke; Aoki, Tadahito; Kurokawa, Fujio

    High efficiency power feeding systems are effective solutions for reducing the ICT power consumption with reducing power consumption of the ICT equipment and cooling systems. A higher voltage direct current (HVDC) power feeding system prototype was produced. This system is composed of a rectifier equipment, power distribution unit, batteries, and the ICT equipment. The configuration is similar to a -48V DC power supply system. The output of the rectifier equipment is 100kW, and the output voltage is 401.4V. This paper present the configuration of the HVDC power feeding system and discuss its basic characteristics in the prototype system.

  11. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Wolfgang; Lemke, Eberhard

    2014-04-01

    Reflects the unit of both HV testing and measuring technique. Intended as an ''application guide'' for the relevant IEC standards. Refers also to future trends in HV testing and measuring technique. With numerous illustrations. It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  12. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  13. VOLTAGE REGULATORS ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A promising is currently the use of asynchronous generators with capacitive excitation as a source of electricity in stand-alone power systems. Drive asynchronous generators may exercise as a thermal engine and wind wheel wind power plant or turbines of small hydropower plants. The article discusses the structural and schematics of voltage stabilizers and frequency of asynchronous generators with improved operational and technical specifications. Technical novelty of design solutions of the magnetic system and stabilizers asynchronous generator of electricity parameters confirmed by the patents for the invention of the Russian Federation. The proposed technical solution voltage stabilizer asynchronous generators, can reduce the weight of the block capacitors excitation and reactive power compensation, as well as to simplify the control system power circuit which has less power electronic devices. For wind power plants it is an important issue not only to stabilize the voltage of the generator, but also the frequency of the current. Recommend functionality stabilizer schemes parameters of electric power made for direct frequency converters with artificial and natural switching power electronic devices. It is also proposed as part of stabilization systems use single-phase voltage, three-phase transformers with rotating magnetic field, reduce the level of electromagnetic interference generated by power electronic devices for switching, enhance the efficiency and reliability of the stabilizer.

  14. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  15. 浅谈高压输电线路的运行维护与防雷措施%On the Running Maintenance and Lightning Protection Measures of High-voltage Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵登

    2014-01-01

    高压输电线路是电力系统的重要组成部分。由于地形复杂、距离长,高压输电线路在运行过程中难免出现故障,本文针对高压输电线路常见的故障,提出了有效的故障诊断和处理方法,为线路故障的诊断和维护提供了依据,具有重要的理论和实用价值。%The high-voltage transmission line is an important part of the power system. Because of the complex terrain and long distance, high-voltage transmission line will inevitably fail during operation. Aiming at the common faults of high-voltage transmission line, this paper proposes effective fault diagnosis and treatment methods, which provide basis, for fault diagnosis and maintenance and has important theoretical and practical value.

  16. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  17. Approximate Calculation of Voltage in Three-Phase Primary Distribution Feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iioka, Daisuke; Iwata, Kubou; Kondo, Hisashi; Sakaguchi, Takuma; Shigetou, Takaya; Matsumura, Toshiro

    An approximate method to calculate voltage in three-phase primary distribution feeder has been proposed. Generally, nonlinear simultaneous equations have been solved to calculate the voltage in power system since the dependence of electrical equipment on voltage is represented by exponential model such as constant power load, constant current load and constant impedance load. The nonlinear simultaneous equations were transformed to linear simultaneous equations by the proposed method. As a result, the proposed method can calculate the voltage without convergence calculations. It was found that the approximate value of voltage in the three-phase primary distribution feeder is in good agreement with the exact value.

  18. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area of any coal mine shall be protected by suitable circuit breakers of adequate interrupting...

  19. Novel Low Loss Active Voltage Clamp Circuit for Series Connection of RCGCT thyristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Iwata, Akihiko

    This paper describes novel low loss active voltage clamp circuits for the series connection of RCGCT thyristors. For high voltage converters the series connection of power semiconductor devices is an essential technique for direct switching of high voltages. Several protection circuits have been applied to the series connection of RCGCT thyristors such as CRD snubber circuits which suppress over-voltages across RCGCT thyristors, and voltage balancing resistors to equalize voltage sharing in steady states. However, significant losses in these protection circuits lower the converter’s efficiency. We propose novel low-loss protection circuits, which have active voltage clamp snubber circuits and static voltage balancing circuits. The clamp capacitor voltage of the active voltage clamp snubber circuits are designed to be higher than the equally divided DC-Link voltage. This method can reduce the loss of the clamp circuit to no more than 1/10 of that of the conventional CRD snubber. Also the static voltage balancing circuits compensate for the voltage imbalance generated by the difference in the leakage current between the series connection RCGCT thyristors.

  20. Switchgear installations for extremely high voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.; Stepinski, B.

    1964-01-01

    The methods by which 750-kV installations can be economically constructed are described. Besides the choice of phase distances and conductors, the possible layouts and circuitry are dealt with and illustrated by results obtained from the basic studies of 750-kV equipment. In conclusion, a comparison of costs is made, both for the individual components and for the overall financial outlay for the arrangements considered; the total and itemized costs of compounds for voltages of 245 to 750 kV according to the present state of the art are also discussed.

  1. 电器电磁辐射对人的影响及保护措施的研究%Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation from Home Electrical Equipments and Protective Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔本亮

    2011-01-01

    任何带电体周围都存在着电场,周期变化的电场就会产生周期变化的磁场,就存在电磁波,产生电磁辐射,过量的电磁辐射造成电磁污染.一些发射设备、微波设备、家用电器、现代办公设备、高压输配电系统等,都有可能造成电磁污染.一般而言,长波对人体的影响较弱,波长越短频率越高,对人体影响越大,微波的影响最为突出.彩电、家用电脑所发出的电磁波属于超短波,微波炉、通讯类手机等在使用时所发射的电磁波属于微波范畴.微机的大量使用为社会创造了巨大的财富,但是,它同时也对用户的身体健康造成了损害.一般用户对这个问题知道得不多,没有引起足够的重视.在此分析了电器如何产生电磁辐射及其对人类的危害,并时它的防护做了简单介绍.%Any electric equipment has electric field around it. The periodic change electric field produces the periodic change magnetic field, and has electromagnetic wave and electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic pollution is caused by excessive electromagnetic radiation. Generally speaking, The generate electromagnetic radiation is harmful to human beings, es-petially microwaves, short waves and ultrashort waves. The wave type and classification of the domestic appliance are analyzed. The protective measures are introduced.

  2. Exercise and sports equipment: some ergonomics aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Lees, A

    1984-12-01

    Sports equipment encompasses a gamut of devices used in laboratory, training and competitive contexts and these form the content of this paper. Ergometers range in sophistication from friction braked stationary bicycles to computer controlled simulators which incorporate exercise modes specific to the athletic user. These are now used in training, as experimental devices and in some instances for competition purposes. Training equipment exhibits a similar emphasis on exercise specificity, safety being an important aspect of its use. Design of projectiles for sporting activities has mainly reflected their traditional modes of use, the introduction of synthetic materials having some ergonomics implications. Similarly, materials science and design technology have contributed innovations in equipment for racquet sports and hitting implements. The changes have tended to be associated with availability of new materials for product construction and have implications for safety and skill in the transition to using the new products. Ski equipment design illustrates ergonomics factors in interfacing the performer with the sporting environment and how equipment has progressed by regenerative design processes. Enhancement of performance in some sports must be accompanied by an awareness of safety requirements: where appropriate, risks to participants should be reduced by use of protective clothing and equipment. Enforced validation of protective equipment is recommended to raise safety levels in certain sports and the safety of spectators must not be neglected. Human factors criteria can then be applied in monitoring, officiating and spectating at sporting events.

  3. DC Voltage Control Strategy for CHB-STATCOM during Capacitive-Inductive Load Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuation of DC capacitor voltage of CHC-STATCOM(Cascaded H-Bridge Converter Based STATCOM during capacitive-inductive load transition affects the dynamic response of the equipment and, with combination of other factors like of the switching devices, can degrade the stability of the equipment. This paper illustrates the cause ofthe voltage fluctuation and proposes a novel and practical control strategy to suppress it. A simulation was conducted to testify its effectiveness.

  4. High-voltage live cleaning robot design based on security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-peng; XIA Hong-wei; YANG Ru-qing

    2005-01-01

    High-Voltage Live Cleaning Robot works in a hot-line environment (220 kV/330 kV), and so the safety of its application and equipment is most important. In terms of safety, the designs of robot mechanism and control system have been discussed, and the test data are given regarding the control system of a model machine. The model machine of a high-voltage live cleaning robot can satisfy the needs of basic cleaning in common conditions. From manual operation to automation, the cleaning efficiency is improved. The robot can decrease the amount of work, and guarantee security. Among high-voltage live cleaning equipment in China, the cleaning robot is advanced in automation and intelligence.

  5. Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    CONTROL NO* /ZOMOS A0-6n9 164 NAVAL AIR ENGINEERING CENTER PHILADELPHIA PA AERONAUTICAL MATERIALS LAB METHODS OF SANITIZING AND DEODORIZING ...SANITIZING, DEODORIZING , AND ANTISTATIC AGENTS IS DESCRIBED* RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE FOR THE USE OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM 1OMPOUNDS FOR SANITIZING AND...EQUIPMENT. HONEYCOMB CORES. SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION, METAL PLATES. ALUMINUM . TESTS. LAND MINES (U) SEVERAL OF THE BLAST PROTECTIVE COMBAT BOOT CONCEPTS

  6. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLED CATHODIC PROTECTION CIRCUIT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAYOL, M. Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study, output voltage of automatic transformer-rectifier (TR) unit of impressed current cathodic protection has been controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. To prevent corrosion, voltage between the protection metal and the auxiliary anode has to be controlled on a desired level. Because soil resistance in the environment changes with humidity and soil characteristics, TRs must control the output voltage between protection metal and auxiliary anode automatically. In this study, a ...

  7. Voltage Controller Saves Energy, Prolongs Life of Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, Power Efficiency Corporation of Las Vegas licensed NASA voltage controller technology from Marshall Space Flight Center. In the following years, Power Efficiency made patented improvements to the technology and marketed the resulting products throughout the world as the Performance Controller and the Power Efficiency energy-saving soft start. Soft start gradually introduces power to an electric motor, thus eliminating the harsh, violent mechanical stresses of having the device go from a dormant state to one of full activity; prevents it from running too hot; and increases the motor's lifetime. The product can pay for itself through the reduction in electricity consumed (according to Power Efficiency, within 3 years), depending on the duty cycle of the motor and the prevailing power rates. In many instances, the purchaser is eligible for special utility rebates for the environmental protection it provides. Common applications of Power Efficiency's soft start include mixers, grinders, granulators, conveyors, crushers, stamping presses, injection molders, elevators with MG sets, and escalators. The device has been retrofitted onto equipment at major department store chains, hotels, airports, universities, and for various manufacturers

  8. Photovoltaic-powered regulated cathodic-protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Alfons, Hany A.

    The objective of a cathodic protection system is to protect metallic structures against corrosion. To achieve this, a sacrificial anode is connected to the protected structure (which acts as a cathode) through a d.c. power supply. To stop the corrosion, the protected structure requires a constant current. The current is determined by the metal and area of the structure, as well as the surrounding medium. The major difficulty in achieving a constant current is the variation in the resistivity of the surrounding medium that is caused by changes in the climatic conditions. Conventional cathodic-protection systems resolve this problem by manual adjustment of the d.c. voltage periodically to obtain a constant current. Such adjustment depends on the experience of the technician and the accuracy of the measuring equipment. Moreover if the interval between successive adjustments is relative long, the corrosion could become excessive. To overcome such difficulties, an automatically regulated system has been developed. The proposed system senses variations is the resistivity of the surrounding medium and adjusts the d.c. voltage accordingly so that the current is kept constant at the required level. The design of a solar photovoltaic system to supply the required d.c. power is discussed in this communication.

  9. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  10. Deployment of low-voltage regulator considering existing voltage control in medium-voltage distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kikusato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many photovoltaic (PV systems have been installed in distribution systems. This installation complicates the maintenance of all voltages within the appropriate range in all low-voltage distribution systems (LVDSs because the trends in voltage fluctuation differ in each LVDS. The installation of a low-voltage regulator (LVR that can accordingly control the voltage in each LVDS has been studied as a solution to this problem. Voltage control in a medium-voltage distribution system must be considered to study the deployment of LVRs. In this study, we installed LVRs in the LVDSs in which the existing voltage-control scheme cannot prevent voltage deviation and performed a numerical simulation by using a distribution system model with PV to evaluate the deployment of the LVRs.

  11. 2007 special equipment safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R.China (AQSIQ) issued a notice on May 28, 2007,requiring various locations to rectify their procedures for checking special equipment and hoisting machines for hidden problems. To further clarify and implement responsibility in the safety management of special equipment in enterprises, inspection responsibilities and test organizations related to technical assurance are to be established. Further, quality inspection departments will be supervised by law in order to improve special equipment safety.

  12. New drain current model for nano-meter MOS transistors on-chip threshold voltage test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Jinbo; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional reliability tests use complicated equipment, like probe stations and semiconductor parameter analyzers, to measure changes in transistors' threshold voltages, which are both expensive and time consuming. This paper provides an idea to test the threshold voltage with existing low-to-moder

  13. Electronics drivers for high voltage dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    ), but the voltage balancing across the series - connected high voltage IGBTs is a critical issue and accordi ngly a novel gate driver circuitry is proposed and equipped; due to the requirements of the audio products, such as low distortion and noise, the multi - level Buck converter based Class - D amplifier...

  14. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  15. First Magdas Equipment In Ecuador

    CERN Document Server

    López, Ericson; Vicente, Klever; Yumoto, K; Vasquez, N; Matsushita, H; Shishime, A; Vásconez, C

    2013-01-01

    The Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) was installed in the protected Jerusalem Park in Malchingui-Ecuador in October of 2012, under the joint collaboration between Kyushu University of Japan and the Quito Astronomical Observatory of the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador. In this paper, we describe the installation process and present the preliminary data obtained with the MAGDAS equipment. The behavior of the four components, D, H, Z and F allow us to see the importance of having the Ecuador station where the magnetic field has not been systematically measured before, in valuable contribution to study of the equatorial atmosphere.

  16. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  17. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G.; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt% of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0 to 4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li+ ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li+ ion conductivity through such materials.

  18. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  19. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  20. Hardware and software system for monitoring oil pump operation in power high-voltage transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Дмитрович Дяченко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic prerequisites for the creation of an automated monitoring system for oil pumps of high-voltage transformers. This is due to the fact that the long operation of oil pumps results in deterioration and destruction of bearings, rubbing of the rotor, breakage and damage to the impeller, leakage, etc., which inevitably causes a significant decrease in the insulating properties of the transformer oil and leads to expenditures for its further recovery. False triggerings of gas protection sometimes occur. Continuous operation of the electric motor also requires additional equipment to protect the motor itself from various emergency situations, such as a short in the stator winding, a housing breakdown, an incomplete phase mode, etc. The use of stationary systems provides: diagnosing defects at an early stage of their development, increasing the reliability and longevity of the equipment components, increasing the overhaul period, decreasing the number of emergency stops, and adjusting the schedule of preventative maintenance. The basic principles of identification of the damaged part of the oil pump are given, the hardware and algorithmic solutions are considered in the work. The full-scale tests of the model sample on the power transformer of the high-voltage substation confirmed the assumption of the possibility of detecting the damaged unit separating it from the rest connected in one mechanical structure. A detailed analysis of the operation of each of the units is carried out by means of the general substation switchboard and displayed as graphs, diagrams and text messages. When the limit values of vibration are reached, faults in the operation of the unit are detected, the overlimit current values, a warning alarm is activated, and the command to disconnect the damaged unit is issued. The optimal solution for the organization of the information collection system using the principle of sensor networks, but combined

  1. Characteristics of specifications of transportable inverter-type X-ray equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Asano, H

    2003-01-01

    Our X-ray systems study group measured and examined the characteristics of four transportable inverter-type X-ray equipments. X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current were measured with the X-ray tube voltage and the X-ray tube current measurement terminals provided with the equipment. X-ray tube voltage, irradiation time, and dose were measured with a non-invasive X-ray tube voltage-measuring device, and X-ray output was measured by fluorescence meter. The items investigated were the reproducibility and linearity of X-ray output, error of pre-set X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current, and X-ray tube voltage ripple percentage. The waveforms of X-ray tube voltage, the X-ray tube current, and fluorescence intensity draw were analyzed using the oscilloscope gram and a personal computer. All of the equipment had a preset error of X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current that met Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) standards. The X-ray tube voltage ripple percentage of each equipment conformed to the tendenc...

  2. Development of oxygen supply protective equipment for future fighter pilot and the tendency of physiological study%未来战斗机飞行员供氧呼吸防护装备发展及其生理研究趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华军

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the development of oxygen supply protective equipment for future fighter pilot in the world and foresee the tendency of related physiological study.Literature resource and selection References selected from publications and reports that emphatically introducing the technology development of aviation oxygen supply equipment and personal protective equipment for future fighter pilot.Literature quotation Nineteen papers, 3 monographs and 2 standard that were published in China and abroad were cited.Literature synthesis The developments of aviation oxygen supply and personal protective equipment as well as the related studies in future were foreseen by reviewing the progress of on board oxygen resource, respiratory regulator, oxygen mask, personal protective suit.Conclusion The on board oxygen generation system would be the certain choice for long-distance flight.The concerned studies of aviation physiology will mainly focus on electronic pressure regulating for carefree respiratory, pilot's protective equipment with the shield against nuclear, biological and chemical harm, and anti-suffocation for the escaped pilot in water.%目的 简要概述国内外未来战斗机飞行员供氧呼吸防护装备及其生理研究的发展趋势.资料来源与选择该领域相关的论著、综述、专著及国军标.突出介绍了未来战斗机航空供氧与防护装备技术的发展动向.资料引用国内外公开发表的文章19篇,专著3部,标准文献2篇.资料综述根据国内外未来飞机供氧氧源、呼吸调节设备、供氧面罩、个体代偿防护服装的发展,提出了飞行员航空供氧装备、个体防护装备及其生理学问题的研究设想.结论 机载制氧是远航飞行必然的选择;电子变压调节无忧虑呼吸、飞行员个体装备核生化防护、离机落水应急呼吸防窒息生理要求是航空生理学研究的重点.

  3. Survey of Induced Voltage and Current Phenomena in GIS Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Induced capacitive voltage and current in high voltage GIS substation is one of the most significant phenomena that may have made some problems in this substation operation. At this study the various equipment of 420 KV Karoon4 substations such as powerhouses, input and output lines, bus-bar and bus-duct have simulated by applying EMTP-RV software. Then with the different condition of single-phase and three-phase faults on the lines in critical conditions, capacitive induction voltage and current by parallel capacitor with circuit breaker is surveyed. The results show the value of this induced current and voltage and that this critical conditions the breakers and dis-connector switches must be able to interrupt this value of current.

  4. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar;

    2013-01-01

    problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0....

  5. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    . An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  6. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  7. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  8. Lightning-induced overvoltages in medium voltage distribution systems and customer experienced voltage spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabiha, N. A.

    2010-07-01

    In Finland, distribution transformers are frequently subjected to lightning strokes for which they are continuously protected by spark-gaps. So, the breakdown probability of medium voltage (MV) spark-gaps is modeled using the Gaussian distribution function under an impulse voltage test in accordance with the IEC 60060-1 standard. The model is presented in the form of the well-known Gaussian tail probability. Accordingly, a modified probabilistic model is proposed to study the effect of impulse voltage superimposed on the ac voltage on the breakdown probability of MV spark-gaps. The modified model is verified using experimental data, where the experimental setup is arranged to generate a range of impulse voltages superimposed on the ac voltages. The experimental verification shows evidence of the efficacy of the proposed probabilistic model. Furthermore, the proposed model is used to evaluate single-phase, two-phase and three-phase spark-gap breakdown probabilities in the case of lightning induced overvoltages. These breakdown probabilities are used along with the simplified Rusck expression to evaluate the performance of MV overhead lines above a perfectly conducting ground under lightning-induced overvoltages using a statistical approach. In order to study the overvoltages propagating through the transformer to its low voltage side, the high frequency model of the transformer is investigated. First, the investigation is carried out using model introduced by Piantini at no-load condition. This model is modified to take more than one resonance frequency into consideration. Therefore, the frequency response of the simulated transient voltage is improved. A verification of the modified model is carried out through the comparison between the experimental and simulation results, in which the time domain simulation is carried out using ATP/EMTP while MATLAB is used to identify the model parameters. As this model is found suitable only for unloaded transformer, an

  9. Improved Phasor Estimation Method for Dynamic Voltage Restorer Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Farhangi, Shahrokh; Iman-Eini, Hossein;

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a series compensator for distribution system applications, which protects sensitive loads against voltage sags by fast voltage injection. The DVR must estimate the magnitude and phase of the measured voltages to achieve the desired performance. This paper...... proposes a phasor parameter estimation algorithm based on a recursive variable and fixed data window least error squares (LES) method for the DVR control system. The proposed algorithm, in addition to decreasing the computational burden, improves the frequency response of the control scheme based...... on the fixed data window LES method. The DVR control system based on the proposed algorithm provides a better compromise between the estimation speed and accuracy of the voltage and current signals and can be implemented using a simple and low-cost processor. The results of the studies indicate...

  10. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: VFPetrunin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  11. No-Voltage Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    VW- IKft, 1/4 H4 -Wv- IK!1, I/4W INTERNAL VOLTAGE NOTE ALL TRANSISTORS ARE 2N43A OR EQUIVALENT GERMANIUM ALLOY PNP AA ALKALINE BATTERY...D-,, regardless of polarity. This signal is then full-wave rectified by the diode-connected Germanium transistor bridge, T,, T-,, T3, and T4... Transistor T5 acts as a second current limiter. Resistor R2 was selected to give 90 f# of full-scale meter deflection with an input signal of 115 volts

  12. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...... to guide these grid-connected distributed power generation systems. In order to verify the response of such systems for voltage disturbance, mainly for evaluation of voltage sags/dips, a Voltage Sag Generator (VSG) is needed. This paper evaluates such sag test devices according to IEC 61000 in order...... to provide cheaper solutions to test against voltage sags. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the shunt impedance based VSG solution is the easiest and cheapest one for laboratory test applications. The back-to-back fully controlled converter based VSG is the most flexible solution...

  13. 40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of, or decontaminated unless specified otherwise...

  14. 40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or decontaminated unless otherwise specified...

  15. Operation Analysis on T&D Equipment in Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the Yangtze Three Gorges water conservancy complex. It describes the power transmission and distribution equipment in the Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station, especially large high-voltage distribution devices. It elaborates the measures for suppressing GIS over-voltage and the tests on VFTO, besides technical measures to ensure safety and stability of power system in the station. It also makes some analyses and summaries about the problems encountered in operation of the equipment.

  16. Evaluation methodology for seismic base isolation of nuclear equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, K. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Uga, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    An evaluation methodology for seismic base isolated nuclear equipments is proposed. The evaluation can be classified into two steps. In the first step, the seismic functional failure probability during the lifetime of equipment without base isolation devices is quantified in order to decide the applicability of the base isolated structure. The second step is comparative and calculates the ratio of the seismic failure frequency of the equipment without base isolation devices to that with them in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the base isolated structure. The sample evaluation considers the case of high voltage type emergency transformer with ceramic tubes. (orig.)

  17. 40 CFR 63.1331 - Equipment leak provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment leak provisions. 63.1331 Section 63.1331 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... polymer fluid used to provide lubrication and/or cooling of the pump or agitator shaft exits the...

  18. 40 CFR 86.226-94 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calibration of other equipment. 86.226-94 Section 86.226-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.226-94 Calibration of...

  19. Coordinated Voltage Control of Distributed PV Inverters for Voltage Regulation in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the existing voltage control methods of distributed solar PV inverters to improve the voltage regulation and thereby the hosting capacity of a low-voltage distribution network. A novel coordinated voltage control method is proposed based on voltage sensitivity...... analysis, which is simple for computation and requires moderate automation and communication infrastructure. The proposed method is suitable for a hierarchical control structure where a supervisory controller has the provision to adapt the settings of local PV inverter controllers for overall system...

  20. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  1. Study on Measures for Protecting Signal Equipment for High-speed Railway from Ice and Snow%高速铁路信号设备应对冰雪天气措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余卫巍; 吴鹏

    2015-01-01

    Through statistics and analysis of damage quantities of such outdoor trackside signaling equipment as turnout conversion devices, transponders and track circuits on Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed railway in central China over the years and in combination with field investigation of actual damage conditions of outdoor signal equipment under the snow and ice conditions in the station, section and tunnel, main causes leading to damage of outdoor equipment on high-speed railway have been found. According to the causes and consequences of damage, this paper points out the main hazards to traffic safety due to signaling equipment damage of high-speed railway and put forward the following measures for ensu-ring the normal use of signaling equipment on high-speed railway under ice and snow conditions, that is to comprehen-sively know real-time weather condition and analyze equipment status in advance, timely apply for the speed limit ac-cording to the snow conditions, inspect equipment state and repair equipment by night skylight, clean snows and icing a-round the turnout, check the whole high-speed railway after snow stops and eliminate safety hidden trouble of equipment due to snow and ice to effectively reduce the influence of ice and snow on train operation safety on high-speed railway.%通过对京广高速铁路华中地区的道岔转换装置、应答器、轨道电路等室外轨旁信号设备历年来的损伤数量进行统计和分析,并结合站内、区间以及隧道内等不同地段在冰雪条件下的信号室外设备实际受损情况进行实地调查,查找分析出了造成高速铁路室外设备受损的各种主要原因。针对受损的原因和损伤的后果,指出了高速铁路信号设备受损后对行车安全产生的主要危害,提出了针对冰雪天气下保证高速铁路信号设备正常使用的具体措施建议:(1)全面掌握实时天气状态,提前做好设备状态分析;(2)根据降雪情况

  2. Isomerically Pure Tetramethylrhodamine Voltage Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Parker E; Kulkarni, Rishikesh U; Al-Abdullatif, Sarah H; Miller, Evan W

    2016-07-27

    We present the design, synthesis, and application of a new family of fluorescent voltage indicators based on isomerically pure tetramethylrhodamines. These new Rhodamine Voltage Reporters, or RhoVRs, use photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) as a trigger for voltage sensing, display excitation and emission profiles in the green to orange region of the visible spectrum, demonstrate high sensitivity to membrane potential changes (up to 47% ΔF/F per 100 mV), and employ a tertiary amide derived from sarcosine, which aids in membrane localization and simultaneously simplifies the synthetic route to the voltage sensors. The most sensitive of the RhoVR dyes, RhoVR 1, features a methoxy-substituted diethylaniline donor and phenylenevinylene molecular wire at the 5'-position of the rhodamine aryl ring, exhibits the highest voltage sensitivity to date for red-shifted PeT-based voltage sensors, and is compatible with simultaneous imaging alongside green fluorescent protein-based indicators. The discoveries that sarcosine-based tertiary amides in the context of molecular-wire voltage indicators prevent dye internalization and 5'-substituted voltage indicators exhibit improved voltage sensitivity should be broadly applicable to other types of PeT-based voltage-sensitive fluorophores.

  3. Electric power distribution, automation, protection, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2007-01-01

    * Each Chapter Provides an Introduction, Illustrative Examples, and a SummaryIntroduction to Distribution Automation Systems Historical Background Distribution System Topology and Structure Distribution Automation (DA) and Control Computational Techniques for Distribution Systems Complex Power Concepts Balanced Voltage to Neutral-Connected System Power Relationship for f Y-?-Connected System Per-Unit System Calculation of Power Losses Voltage Regulation Techniques Voltage-Sag Analysis and Calculation Equipment Modeling Components Modeling Distribution System Line Model Distribution Power Flo

  4. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  5. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nayak

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  6. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  7. Quarry Equipment Yearbook 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to an annual review of developments in the equipment used for minerals extraction and recycling. For each of 12 types of equipment, an editorial review is presented of developments and a tabular presentation of suppliers' ranges and contact information, including e-mail addresses and websites. The sections are: asphalt plants, conveyors, crushers and screens, drill rigs, dump trucks, excavators, hammers, pumps, tyres, weighbridges, wheel loaders and wheel washers.

  8. Voltage stability analysis in the new deregulated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong

    Nowadays, a significant portion of the power industry is under deregulation. Under this new circumstance, network security analysis is more critical and more difficult. One of the most important issues in network security analysis is voltage stability analysis. Due to the expected higher utilization of equipment induced by competition in a power market that covers bigger power systems, this issue is increasingly acute after deregulation. In this dissertation, some selected topics of voltage stability analysis are covered. In the first part, after a brief review of general concepts of continuation power flow (CPF), investigations on various matrix analysis techniques to improve the speed of CPF calculation for large systems are reported. Based on these improvements, a new CPF algorithm is proposed. This new method is then tested by an inter-area transaction in a large inter-connected power system. In the second part, the Arnoldi algorithm, the best method to find a few minimum singular values for a large sparse matrix, is introduced into the modal analysis for the first time. This new modal analysis is applied to the estimation of the point of voltage collapse and contingency evaluation in voltage security assessment. Simulations show that the new method is very efficient. In the third part, after transient voltage stability component models are investigated systematically, a novel system model for transient voltage stability analysis, which is a logical-algebraic-differential-difference equation (LADDE), is offered. As an example, TCSC (Thyristor controlled series capacitors) is addressed as a transient voltage stabilizing controller. After a TCSC transient voltage stability model is outlined, a new TCSC controller is proposed to enhance both fault related and load increasing related transient voltage stability. Its ability is proven by the simulation.

  9. Analysis of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Low Voltage Ride Through Based on Crowbar Protection%基于Crowbar保护的双馈感应发电机组的低电压研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靠社; 王媛; 胡德海

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the crowbar resistors on the electrical behavior of the Doubly -Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) during the grid voltage dips is analyzed in this paper. According to the mathematical modal of DFIG, the current expressions of stator and rotator are deduced under the condition of symmetrical fault of generator, also the appropriate crowbar by-pass resistor is given by the maximum rotor current. In PSCAD/EMTDC, the different crowbar by-pass resistors and their impacts on the system are simulated, then the correctness of the formula is verified, and the reasonable time for removal of crowbar is confirmed by the simulations.%分析了双馈感应发电机组在电网电压跌落时Crowbar阻值变化对电网的影响.根据双馈感应发电机( Doubly-Fed Induction Generator,DFIG)的数学模型,推导出在发电机机端发生对称故障时,定子、转子电流的表达式,通过故障期间的最大转子电流,给出Crowbar阻值估算值.在PSCAD/EMTDC软件中仿真分析不同的Crowbar阻值对系统的影响,验证公式推导的正确性,并通过仿真试验确定合理的Crowbar切除出时间.

  10. Cooperation of relay protection for grid-connected wind power with low-voltage ride-through capability%具有低电压穿越能力的风电接入电力系统继电保护的配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保会; 王进; 李光辉; 郝治国; 刘志远; 薄志谦

    2012-01-01

    具备低电压穿越能力的风电机组要求在一定的故障条件下不脱网,需要相关继电保护与之配合.详细分析了风电场送出线以外输电系统元件故障、风电场送出线故障、风电场内部电网故障以及风电机组本体故障情况下,输电系统保护以及风电场内部保护应有的配合关系.进一步分析了当前集中式接入风电场的继电保护配置,指出风电机组保护及变流器保护选择性不强,在风电场内部保护或系统保护动作切除故障之前,风电机组已经脱网,而且将风电网等同于单侧电源的配电网,没有考虑风电机组对短路的贡献.最后分析了单风电机组本体保护、风电场主变保护、风电场送出线保护需要进行的改进,以保证低电压穿越能力的发挥,并指出各保护需要注意的问题.%The wind turbine with low-voltage ride-through capability is required not to disconnect from grid under certain fault conditions, for which the relevant relay protections should cooperate with it. The cooperation between the relay protection of transmission system beyond the wind farm outgoing line and the relay protection of wind farm is analyzed for different faults of transmission system components, wind farm outgoing line,wind farm internal grid and wind turbine. The current configuration of relay protection for the wind farm centrally connected to power grid is analyzed and it is pointed out that,the selectivity of wind turbine protection and converter protection is not enough,which leads to the disconnection of wind farm from grid before the fault is removed by wind farm internal relay protection or system relay protection, and the current configuration regards the wind power as a distribution network with single source,which neglects the contribution of wind turbine to short-circuit fault. Improvements are proposed for the relay protections of wind turbine,main transformer and outgoing line to ensure the successful

  11. Settings Calculation and Comparison of Unbalanced Current Protection of High Voltage Filter Capacitor Banks Connected as H and∏Circuits%H和Π接线高压滤波电容器组不平衡电流保护的定值计算及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖遥; 夏谷林; 张楠

    2014-01-01

    提出了高压滤波电容器组不平衡电流保护的整定原则,从两方面通过数学逻辑分析了H型和∏型接线高压电容器组及其不平衡电流保护的优缺点:其一是部分电容器单元失效后滤波器所允许的失谐度,其二是余下完好电容器单元所承受的端电压。文中给出了不同电容器单元短路方式下的不平衡保护定值计算公式和整定值,得出了∏型接线优于H型接线的结论。为改进∏型接线电容器组的差电流检测精度,给出了差值电流检测电路的改进方案。%The paper proposed principles for calculating the settings of unbalanced current protection of high voltage filter capacitor banks, and analyzed the merits and demerits of“H-type” and “∏-type” connections of capacitor banks from perspective of mathematic logic in two ways. Of which one involved the permitted detuning of the filters after failure of some units, the other involved the withstand voltages on remaining perfect capacitor units. The formulations were deducted to calculate the settings of unbalanced current protection in cases when short circuit of some capacitor units occurred. It is concluded that ∏-type connection is better than the H-type connection. To improve the accuracy for detecting differential currents of ∏-type connection, a new unbalanced current transformer and its application are suggested.

  12. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device; Principais acoes de protecao radiologica para equipe medica como primeiros respondedores frente a um evento com dispositivo de dispersao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-07-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions

  13. 10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radioactive Contamination Control... section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas, and airborne radioactivity areas shall not be released to a controlled area if: (1) Removable surface contamination levels on...

  14. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  15. 变电站电容器组不平衡电压值的探讨%Discussion on Magnitude of Unbalanced Voltage of Capacitor Bank in Substations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志华; 唐明; 沈竹; 刘莹

    2013-01-01

    针对一次电容器组差压保护带负荷试验的异常情况,从电容器不平衡电压保护的基本原理入手,通过对比分析整定计算工程应用公式和一次系统设备参数的对应关系,对可能造成电容器差压保护误动、误整定的异常情况进行了详细分析,结合工作实际提出了加强电容器组不平衡电压保护运维管理工作的建议。%Aiming at the abnormal circumstance of load test on differential protection of capacitor bank, the paper starts from the basic principle of unbalance voltage protection and conducts a detailed analysis on ab-normalities that potentially cause maloperation and missetting of differential pressure protection of the capaci-tor by comparing and analyzing the coincidence relation between setting and calculation of technical applica-tion formula and parameters of primary system equipment. The paper finally suggests strengthening the opera-tion and maintenance of unbalanced voltage protection of capacitor bank combining the work practice.

  16. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the continuous... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? 141.561 Section 141.561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 267.32 - What equipment am I required to have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What equipment am I required to have? 267.32 Section 267.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... STANDARDIZED PERMIT Preparedness and Prevention § 267.32 What equipment am I required to have? Your...

  18. Equipment selection heuristics for microwave fixed links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, I. D.; Allen, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave fixed links use highly standardized radio equipment and, in the radio equipment standard referenced in this paper, there is a choice between exactly two radio systems when the assigner wishes to resolve a specific data rate exactly: one using a relatively lower-order modulation scheme and one a relatively higher-order scheme. Although the higher-order equipment requires less bandwidth for an isolated link, these systems radiate at higher powers and require larger protection ratios in the radio interference environment which lead to well-established trade-offs between modulation, bandwidth, equivalent isotropic radiated power, and frequency assignment criteria. Our earlier research showed that by extending the Frequency Assignment Problem to include equipment selection and using lower-order modulation equipment on selected links, we can actually reduce the overall span of frequencies required for a network frequency assignment. This work focused on the development of integer programming formulations and analyzed the exact solutions obtained. Exact solutions are impractical for real world problems; hence, here we focus on the development of heuristics for equipment selection. We can model the fixed link network as a complete graph where the vertices represent fixed link frequency assignment requests and the edges represent interference between pairs of vertices. Using a graph theoretic analysis of the interference problem, we propose heuristic techniques and discuss the relative success of our approach in this article.

  19. High voltage magnetic pulse generation using capacitor discharge technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high voltage magnetic pulse is designed by applying an electrical pulse to the coil. Capacitor banks are developed to generate the pulse current. Switching circuit consisting of Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT switches, thyristor, and triggering circuit is developed and tested. The coil current is measured using a Hall-effect current sensor. The magnetic pulse generated is measured and tabulated in a graph. Simulation using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM is done to compare the results obtained between experiment and simulation. Results show that increasing the capacitance of the capacitor bank will increase the output voltage. This technology can be applied to areas such as medical equipment, measurement instrument, and military equipment.

  20. Proposal for education. Education in radiation protection and equipment handling for personnel in X-ray applications that require permits; Foerslag till kursplan. Tillstaandsbunden utbildning i straalskydd och utrustningens handhavande foer personal i roentgenverksamheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Some stipulations are connected to the permits to use X-ray equipment for medical purposes, one of which is education of the personnel. At inspections SSI has found serious deficiencies in these educations. The quality of the education has large variations over the country, and at some hospitals it does not exist at all. In order to help the permit holders to increase the quality of the education, a proposal to a course has been worked out. The proposal contains advice on content and scope and disposition of the education for different categories of personnel.

  1. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  2. Research on Capacitive Current Automatic Compensation on Low Voltage Power Grid Leakage Protection of Coal Mine%煤矿低压电网漏电容性电流自动补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国萍

    2014-01-01

    In neutral insulation low voltage power supply lines of coal mine,due to distributed capacitance exists, the leakage currents or personal electric shock currents exceed the limited safety value, and the changes of distributed capacitance easily cause the original system overcompensation or under compensation. The automatic compensation scheme of combining inductance the coarse adjustment with the fine adjustment is proposed on base of the minimum leakage currents closed loop control theory. Using single chip microcomputer control relay automatic switching magnetic amplifier is to achieve multi tap AC winding inductance step adjustment. The currents of magnetic amplifier DC winding are changed by single chip microcomputer control step motor to adjust potentiometer. The system attains stepless regulation of the inductance, so that the currents of distributed capacitance are completely compensated by the inductor currents of the magnetic amplifier. It has many advantages of fast compensation speed, high precision, short cycle, safety and easy operation during compensation process.%针对煤矿井下中性点绝缘低压供电线路中,由于电网对地分布电容的存在,使漏电电流或人身触电电流超过极限安全值,并且电网分布电容的多变容易引起原系统过补偿或欠补偿的情况,提出基于最小漏电电流闭环控制理论的电感量粗调和细调相融合的自动补偿方案,采用单片机控制继电器自动切换磁放大器多抽头交流绕组实现电感量有级调节,通过步进电机调节电位器改变磁放大器直流绕组的电流,实现电感量无级调节,从而使流过磁放大器的电感电流完全补偿电网分布电容的电流。该系统补偿速度快、精度高、调整周期短,补偿过程操作方便、安全。

  3. System and method for quench protection of a superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianrui; Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba Haran; Bray, James William; Ryan, David Thomas

    2008-03-11

    A system and method for protecting a superconductor from a quench condition. A quench protection system is provided to protect the superconductor from damage due to a quench condition. The quench protection system comprises a voltage detector operable to detect voltage across the superconductor. The system also comprises a frequency filter coupled to the voltage detector. The frequency filter is operable to couple voltage signals to a control circuit that are representative of a rise in superconductor voltage caused by a quench condition and to block voltage signals that are not. The system is operable to detect whether a quench condition exists in the superconductor based on the voltage signal received via the frequency filter and to initiate a protective action in response.

  4. CFD Simulation of Transonic Flow in High-Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Ye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage circuit breaker is an indispensable piece of equipment in the electric transmission and distribution systems. Transonic flow typically occurs inside breaking chamber during the current interruption, which determines the insulating characteristics of gas. Therefore, accurate compressible flow simulations are required to improve the prediction of the breakdown voltages in various test duties of high-voltage circuit breakers. In this work, investigation of the impact of the solvers on the prediction capability of the breakdown voltages in capacitive switching is presented. For this purpose, a number of compressible nozzle flow validation cases have been presented. The investigation is then further extended for a real high-voltage circuit breaker geometry. The correlation between the flow prediction accuracy and the breakdown voltage prediction capability is identified.

  5. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  6. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  7. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    bed, and a digital clock and a transponder helped to locate the camera. Equipment for the analysis of the nodules such as x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrophotometers were installed aboard MV Skandi Surveyor and MV Fernella and MV G A...

  8. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  9. Requirement of ultra-high voltage GIS arrester to voltage gradient of metal-oxide varistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JinLiang; HU Jun; MENG BoWen; ZHANG Bo; ZHU Bin; CHEN ShuiMing; ZENG Rong

    2009-01-01

    The surge arrestor with excellent protection characteristics would decrease the overvoltage level ap-plied on the power apparatus to reduce their insulation levels and manufacturing bottleneck. The ar-restor for the 1000-kV ultra-high voltage ac power transmission system is designed as tank-type structure. The field-circuit combination numerical method combining the three-dimensional finite ele-ment method with circuit is proposed to analyze the potential distribution of GIS arrester. By comparing several design schemes, the most effective method to improve the potential distribution along the varistor column is to increase the voltage gradient of the ZnO varistor. Synthesizing several influential factors, the suitable voltage gradient of ZnO varistor should be controlled to 435 V/mm, and the re-sulted nonuniform degree of the potential distribution along the varistor column inside the GIS arrestor would be controlled smaller than 10%. The result in this paper provides the fundamental technical in-dex for the study of the high voltage gradient ZnO varistors.

  10. Requirement of ultra-high voltage GIS arrester to voltage gradient of metal-oxide varistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The surge arrester with excellent protection characteristics would decrease the overvoltage level ap- plied on the power apparatus to reduce their insulation levels and manufacturing bottleneck. The arrester for the 1000-kV ultra-high voltage ac power transmission system is designed as tank-type structure. The field-circuit combination numerical method combining the three-dimensional finite element method with circuit is proposed to analyze the potential distribution of GIS arrester. By comparing several design schemes, the most effective method to improve the potential distribution along the varistor column is to increase the voltage gradient of the ZnO varistor. Synthesizing several influential factors, the suitable voltage gradient of ZnO varistor should be controlled to 435 V/mm, and the resulted nonuniform degree of the potential distribution along the varistor column inside the GIS arrester would be controlled smaller than 10%. The result in this paper provides the fundamental technical index for the study of the high voltage gradient ZnO varistors.

  11. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Temperature. (3) Humidity. (4) Protection of equipment and instruments from fluctuations and interruptions in electrical current that adversely affect patient test results and test reports. (c) Reagents, solutions...

  13. TT系统接地和防电击简析%Analysis of TT System Grounding and Electric Shock Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚余

    2013-01-01

    阐述IEC 60364-4-41:2005《Low-voltage electrical installations-Part 4-41: Protection for safety-Protection against electric shock》标准规定TT系统内由同一保护电器所保护的所有电气设备必须采用共用接地防电击的原由,举例说明户外农电装置、施工场地、路灯等TT系统应用中的接地和防电击实施方案。着重叙述路灯TT系统共用接地并采用过电流防护电器兼防电击在我国的特殊现实意义。%To elaborate the reason why all electrical equipments protected by the same protective device must adopt common grounding to prevent electric shock as set up in Low-voltage Electrical Installations-Part 4-41:Protection for Safety-Protection against Electric Shock ( IEC 60364 - 4 - 41: 2005) , and to illustrate the implementation plan of grounding and electric shock prevention for outdoor rural power devices, construction sites and street lamps etc. with examples, in particular the special practical significance of TT system of street lamps with common grounding, adopting overcurrent protective devices to prevent against electric shock in China.

  14. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANAKA,TINA J.; BAYNES JR.,EDWARD E.; NOWLEN,STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN,JOHN E.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.; SHADDIX,CHRISTOPHER R.

    2000-03-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke.

  15. Analysis on a Mal-operation of Differential Protection for Ultra-high Voltage Transformer and Its Countermeasure%一起特高压变压器的差动保护误动分析及防范措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 张婕; 高旭

    2011-01-01

    通过建立MATLAB仿真模型,分析了在特高压交流试验示范工程投运调试过程中出现的一起由于中压侧空投主变压器产生励磁涌流而导致调压变压器差动保护误动作的案例。针对特高压变压器结构上的特殊性,分析了合闸角、剩磁等因素对励磁涌流的影响,仿真复现了现场故障录波波形。针对调压变压器差动电流中二次谐波含量较低可能引起的误动,从2个方面提出了相应的解决方案:指出二次谐波涌流闭锁判据宜采用三取二闭锁方式,但在某些特殊情况下,依然可能失效,进而提出了利用二次谐波变化趋势来识别励磁涌流和故障电流的辅助判据,并对综合判据进行了仿真验证;分析了调压变压器容量对励磁涌流的影响,提出在条件允许的情况下,适当增加调压变压器容量来避免励磁涌流可能引起的误动,为提高调压变压器差动保护可靠性提供了新思路。%A simulation model based on MATLAB is developed to analyze the mal-operation of differential protection in voltage regulating transformer(VRT) in an experiment project of ultra-high voltage system,which is caused by inrush current during energizing of the transformer from medium-voltage side.According to particular structure of ultra-high voltage transformers,the influence of closure angle and residual magnetism,etc.on inrush current is analyzed and the waveform of field failure is resembled with simulation.In order to solve mal-operation caused by less second harmonic in differential current of VRT,lock criteria for second harmonic of inrush current should adopt two-out-of-three principle,but it may not valid in some situation.Furthermore,auxiliary criteria with second harmonic tendency is proposed for identifying inrush current or faulty current.Besides,it analyzes the influence of VRT capacity on inrush current and also suggests that suitably increasing the capacity of VRT should be considered in

  16. A Versatile Control Scheme For Dynamic Voltage Restorer To Limit Downstream Fault Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Nagendra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a custom power device utilized to counteract voltage sags. It injects controlled three-phase ac voltages in series with the supply voltage, subsequent to voltage sag, to enhance voltage quality by adjusting the voltage magnitude, wave shape, and phase angle. The DVR is conventionally bypassed during a downstream fault to prevent potential adverse impacts on the fault and to protect the DVR components against the fault current. This paper proposes an augmented control strategy for the DVR that provides:1 voltage-sag compensation under balanced and unbalanced conditions and 2 a fault current interruption (FCI function. This paper introduces and evaluates an auxiliary control strategy for downstream fault current interruption in a radial distribution line by means of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR. The proposed controller supplements the voltage-sag compensation control of the DVR. It does not require phaselocked loop and independently controls the magnitude and phase angle of the injected voltage for each phase. Fast least error squares digital filters are used to estimate the magnitude and phase of the measured voltages and effectively reduce the impacts of noise, harmonics, and disturbances on the estimated phasor parameters, and this enables effective fault current interrupting even under arcing fault conditions. The performance of the DVR for fault current interruption is analyzed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  17. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  18. 基于PIC18F的医疗超声诊断仪备用逆变电源研制%Research and Development of Reserve Inverter of Medical Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment Based on PIC18F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 杨亚琴

    2012-01-01

    Reserve inverter which used the PIC18F1330 processor as the core controller adopts the inversion mode of AC - DC - AC and produces SPWM running signals for the inversion currency. In the meanwhile the in- verter runs such protective functions its voltage stabilization, over - voltage, and under - voltage and temperature protection. The designed reserve inve:rter is characterized as stable voltage and few aberratiorLs and has been proved to be very practical since it has confirmed the medical ultrasonic diagnostic equipment emergency generator require- ments.%逆变电源采用AC-DC-AC可控整流加单相逆变的变换模式,以PIC18F1330处理器作为核心控制器件,产生逆变电路所需的SPWM驱动信号,同时完成稳压、过压保护、欠压保护、过载保护及温度保护等功能。所设计的备用逆变电源具有电压稳定、畸变小等特点,经实际使用符合医疗超声诊断仪等医疗设备应急供电的要求,具有很高的实用价值。

  19. Dielectric strength test to protection elements for live lines works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinto-Salamanca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and assembly of a system of tests of sustained voltage to elements and equipment used in live line maneuvers through tests on gloves and dielectric rods, as these are the first points of contact to ensure safe operations. It means an advance for the creation of a laboratory certified in this type of tests at Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC Faculty of Duitama, considering that currently there are not laboratories that provide this service in Boyacá and Casanare. Dielectric strength tests were performed on personal protection elements and equipment under the parameters of ASTM D120, ASTM F496, ISO 60903, ASTM-F711 and IEEE 978, developing an assembly for testing gloves and dielectric rods with voltage levels up to 15 kV. The results validate the proposed system to outlook of circuit design and implementation, where tests were performed to establish dielectric capacities, in operating under open circuit conditions, with resistive load or short circuit. The compliance with the regulations established under the test sequences of safety parameters for the system and the follow-up to the tests was verified through the use of a management system for the generation of concepts of approval or rejection of the tested elements.

  20. Control of ion energy and angular distributions using voltage waveform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, S.

    1999-07-01

    A number of plasma-aided microelectronics manufacturing processes sensitively depend on the ion characteristics at the substrate, in particular the ion energy (IEDF) and angular (IADF) distribution functions. The outcome of these processes can be much more precisely controlled if one has direct control over the IEDFs and IADFs. Past studies have explored the influence of rb bias voltage amplitude and frequency, inductive power deposition and gas pressure on the ion characteristics at the substrate. The factor that influences the ion dynamics most is however the time-dependent sheath voltage and, as demonstrated in this paper, sheath voltage can be accurately controlled using the rf bias voltage waveform. In this paper, the authors computationally examine the influence of the rf bias voltage waveform on the IEDFs and IADFs at the substrate in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor. This study has been conducted using a coupled set of the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM) and a circuit model, and the Plasma Chemistry Monte Carlo Simulation (PCMCS).